Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

  • Mariusz Szymanowski added an answer:
    How can I compute atmospheric function in single channel algorithm?

    I am applying single channel algorithm for land surface temperature retrieval from landsat thermal infrared data.In SC algorithm,I have to compute atm function.
    Here,AF is obtained from second order polynomial fits versus atm water vapor content.Could you please explain to me how I can obtain this coefficient.  

    + 1 more attachment

    Mariusz Szymanowski

    Hi Tanni,

    please take a look at this:


    p.10-11 (eq. 5a-c)


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify typical and specific features of land surface temperature (LST) distribution in the city of Krakow and its surroundings with the use of Landsat/ETM+ data. The paper contains a detailed description of the study area and technical properties of the Landsat program and data, as well as a complete methodology of LST retrieval. Retrieved LST records have been standardized in order to ensure comparability between satellite images acquired during different seasons. The method also enables identification of characteristic thermal regions, i.e. areas always colder and always warmer than a zonal mean LST value for Krakow. The research includes spatial analysis of the standardized LST with regard to different land cover types. Basic zonal statistics such as mean standardized LST and percentage share of hot and cold regions within 10 land cover types were calculated. GIS was used for automated data processing and mapping. The results confirmed the most obvious dependence of the LST on different land cover types. Some more factors influencing the LST were recognized on the basis of detailed investigation of the LST pattern in the urban agglomeration of Krakow. The factors are: emission of anthropogenic heat, insolation of the surfaces depending first of all on land relief and shape of buildings, seasonal changes of vegetation and weather conditions at the time of satellite image acquisition.
      Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Pure and Applied Geophysics
  • Hans Lohninger added an answer:
    Does anyone have a hyperspectral data set?

    We would like to prepare some examples of spectral signature of trees. It's for my geomatic course. Thanks in advance.


    Hans Lohninger

    Hi Marcelo,

    here's a small collection of various hyperspectral data:


    The datasets are in ImageLab format but can be converted to other formats by using the free evaluation copy of ImageLab.

    Kind regards,


  • Ramesh Adep added an answer:
    What does Negative values in Remote sensing reflectance mean??

    After the geometric correction, i am obtaining negative values in remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Can someone explain the reason for it? Is there any scientific significance for negative values in Rrs? 

    Ramesh Adep

    Srinivas, you just check with elevation parameter in the atmospheric correction model. Try by the average height of the features in the whole image. 

  • Eric Ariel L. Salas added an answer:
    How can I use LANDSAt surface reflectance products efficiently? Can any body please explain ?

    Landsat products from TM or ETM+ i have been using for LULC change detection . but now a new surface reflectance product is available . Can any body suggest is best use ..???

    Eric Ariel L. Salas

    I agree with James and Sanjoy.  I addition, you may want to check this Q&A about surface reflectance products.

  • Felix Seidel added an answer:
    Is it possible to have a combination of a hyperspectral system and lidar on the same aircraft?

    This study is related to atmospheric changes in aerial imagery.

  • Harilal Menon added an answer:
    Does anyone know any open/commercial software available for atmospheric correction for HICO data using Tafkaa_6s?

    The data i am using is HICO sensor hyperspectral data with scenes mostly covering the coastal area. For these kind of scenes, instead of using FLAASH(based on MODTRAN4 transfer code) in ENVI, the suitable atmospheric correction is Tafkaa_6s as mentioned in HICO website. I would like to use the Tafkaa_6s but couldnt find right software platform. should i code the algorithm or are there any softwares available for the atmospheric correction? i would like to have suggestions on this.

    Harilal Menon

    To carry out atmospheric correction, you need to estimate raylegih radiance and aerosol radiance. Estimation of rayleigh radiance is straight forwrad. However, aerosol radiance is not. Hence depending on the area of study (if your area of study is highly turbid water column, then you can't use NIR bands for aerosol correction as a part of atm correction. Becs even you can expect water leaving radinace in these bands. Under such circumstance, you need to derive AOD using sunphotometer and estimate aerosol radiance with many assumption like aerosol is spherical ....etc.  you can decide whether to use NIR received values for aerosol correction as a part of atm correction or go ahead with generating AOD and subseuest computation of aerosol radiance.


  • Xiuliang Jin added an answer:
    What are the recent research trends in utilization of spectroradiometer and hyperspectral data to determine soil nutrients in black soil/vertisols?

    *Am also looking for the methodology to predict spatial variability of soil nutrients (specially for pigeon pea fields in India )

    * Even want to know ,predicting spatial variability of micro nutrients( other than N,P,K) may help in knowing the soil fertility index in robust manner.

    Xiuliang Jin

    You can see this weblink:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016819231530023X. Remote estimation of soil organic matter content in the Sanjiang Plain, Northest China: The optimal band algorithm versus the GRA-ANN model. This is my study.

  • Selvaraj Ayyakkanu added an answer:
    Can anyone provide hyperspectral data with ground truth information ?

    My study is to develop a new algorithm for hyperspectral data classification. Currently i am using freely available AVIRIS cuprite data set and Virtual Verification method for classification accuracy assessment. Can anyone provide other standard hyperspectral data with ground truth information to test my algorithm.  

    Selvaraj Ayyakkanu

    Dear Ra mesh,

    you can make use of E0-1 Hyperion data which available at free of cost. you can downloaded from earth explorer website.and better you incorporate envi5.1 or envi 4.8 or envi 4.7, using that software first preprocessing the data based on objective classify the data after following operation principle to  hyper spectral data using ENVI software.

  • Reza Hassanzadeh added an answer:
    How to use morphological filter (opening and closing) (3*3 to 125*125) to extract the individual buildings from Quickbird images in ENVI?
    I am going to use morphological filter (opening and closing) (3*3 to 125*125) to extract the individual buildings from Quickbird images in ENVI? Can anybody tell me" How to do this analysis in ENVI"?
    Reza Hassanzadeh

    Thank you Mohsen.

  • Mohsen Ghanea added an answer:
    How can I generate the Ground truth classes for the Pavia University scene in matlab ?

    I have Pavia dataset which is available as .mat file (Available @ web http://www.ehu.eus/ccwintco/index.php?title=Hyperspectral_Remote_Sensing_Scenes).

    Here i want to know how to generate the classes such as tree, soil etc.

    Mohsen Ghanea

    The best way is manual generation with prior knowledge about your case study. For example, I generated building layer in one of my recent studies. This is valuable for evaluation your final results. To give more information about this, you can refer to my article: " Automatic building extraction in dense urban areas through GeoEye multispectral imagery".

  • Mohand Bersi added an answer:
    Can anyone post index development method by using Hyperspectral remote sensing data?

    how can i select spectral band from hyperspectral data. refer me good methodology for index development.

    Mohand Bersi


    when working with hyperspectral data, and you fix the object of interest you can use different methods:

    -use the spectral library to extract objects for example (clay minerals...)

    -investigate on the pics in the spectrum, and one defining the max pics and the min pics u can use the band math to develop ur index by dividing and multiplying bands (take care of brakets it is very important). 

  • Hafsat saleh Dutsenwai added an answer:
    How can I get free hyperspectral data apart from Usgs EO-1 Hyperion?

    I could not get the data scenes for my study area when i searched usgs glovis EO-1 hyperion, please help with another free data source. Thanks

    Hafsat saleh Dutsenwai

    Thanks James and khan your suggestions were quite helpful. 

  • A. Barberopoulou added an answer:
    Any experience in focusing ALOS Level 1.0 data using Sarscape 5.1 ?

    I am currently trying to focus ALOS Level 1.0 data using Sarscape 5.1 in order to do SBAS-InSAR work.
    I have no experience in doing so. I am not happy with the result I obtain, please see an example of result here (over urban area)

    The settings I use:
    Data type: ALOS PALSAR Single Pol
    Global and Other Parameters are set to default

    Can you confirm the result I obtain are not what I am suppose to obtain ?
    How can I improve the focusing ?


    A. Barberopoulou

    I will look it up briefly when i go home. I did do this process before. Can you please confirm that you are using orbits? I have previously used orbital data for older satellite data like ERS and ENVISAT

  • Manish kumar Patel added an answer:
    What is hyperspectral CASI imager and what is its specification ?

     Concerning hyperspectral remote sensing. What is hyperspectral CASI imager and what is its specification ?

    Manish kumar Patel

    Thanks a lot @Marcos J. Montes and @ Murali Krishna Gurram for your very helpful sharing of knowledge. 

  • Theresa Mannschatz added an answer:
    Has somebody tried to detect pesticides with hyper spectral remote sensing in the field?

    I would like to test if we can detect and map pesticides using the "new" hyper spectral remote sensing satellites that will become available soon. 

    I know that spectroscopic methods can be used to analysis pesticides, but does this also work in the field? It would be a great success if it would be working to detect at least levels of pesticides e.g. applied in agriculture for risk analysis.



    Theresa Mannschatz

    Olá Emanuel, 

    obrigada! Thanks! I didn't know that article. I found it on our platform (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271557244_A_Review_of_sensor_technology_for_in-field_phosphate_monitoring). It is summarizing sensors for phosphate detection on the ground using sensors. 

    The conclusion for spectral sensors was that you would need a field/site specific calibration, what I agree. If you do not do a field specific calibration than uncertainties become large. The question however remains how we could bring the field measurement (which is already prone to uncertainties) to the satellite or airplane level. For many applications it would probably enough to get the general level of pollution without having extensive expensive and time-consuming field measurements. Once there is the indication for pollution then of course measures on the field scale should be implemented.  

    até mais Theresa

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: With the increasing awareness of fertilizer effects on environmental and soil quality, soil tests are being conducted. In-field phosphate sensors have been a topic of heavy research since the early 1980s. It provides sustainable alternatives to more time consuming and costly laboratory analyses. Phosphate sensors can be used in agricultural and site-specific crop management to optimize application of fertilizers and minimize contamination of rainfall runoff. The main limitation in the development of phosphate sensors is selectivity. Another drawback in the development of phosphate sensors is lifetime. Further research is needed to address these problems and make in-field phosphate sensors more widely available.
      Full-text · Conference Paper · Dec 2013
  • Kamaruzaman Jusoff added an answer:
    Mangrove Mapping?
    Can mangrove cover (extent) and main species composition be mapped with multispectral scanners or must one use hyperspectral techniques? What spatial resolution would be required for global mangrove mapping using satellites?
    Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    Try reading some of my papers involving mangrove species identification & mapping in Malaysia using airborne hyperspectral imaging

  • Athiraja Atheeswaran added an answer:
    How can I select the best bands from the Pavia dataset for the extraction of the different features?

     Here I am using Matlab 2013A as a tool  Link is given below from where dataset has been downloaded (http://www.ehu.eus/ccwintco/index.php?title=Hyperspectral_Remote_Sensing_Scenes). I have .mat file which i open in Matlab 2013A.

    1. Here i want to know that which neural technique is use for the extraction of the features in the dataset.

    Athiraja Atheeswaran

    Dear friend'

       Please refer the following link

  • Julian Rosser added an answer:
    How can I validate my research outcomes with any other classifier?

    Doing research in HSI classification on SVM based classifier. I'm using standard data sets for classification. I want to validate the outcomes with other classifier. It's enough to compare with the existing works or need any specific? I'm confused in it. Advanced thanks for valuable comments.

    Julian Rosser

    Could you compare the different classifiers using an ROC curve for each? For a binary (two class) problem the ROC curve tests how effective the classifier is at discriminating between different labels.

    This would require that the SVM implementation employed is configured to output membership probabilities (rather than just the label). Other classifiers like random forest or naive bayes will generate membership probabilities.

  • André Große-Stoltenberg added an answer:
    Does anyone have knowledge on full waveform lidar and hyperspectral imagery?

    Can anyone suggest to me on technical aspect of how to extract forest biomass from full waveform lidar and hyperspectral imagery (in fusion). Should I run modelling? or software processing by validating with ground data? software? algorithm? I need a general idea

    André Große-Stoltenberg

    Hi, there are videos and tutorials on the Lastools homepage (http://rapidlasso.com/category/videos/) that will give you a general idea of LiDAR processing and retrieving forest metrics. Lastools is also able to process full waveform data.

    There also videos and tutorials on the NEON website (http://www.neoninc.org/learn-experience/work-with-data). 

    If you search for "lidar hyperspectral forest" you will find a decent amount of recent scientific publications.

    Hope that helps!

  • Christian Rogaß added an answer:
    Can you give few alternative sources for downloading hyperspectral remote sensing data in addition to hyperion sensor?

    Can you give few alternative sources for downloading Hyperspectral remote sensing data in addition to Hyperion sensor ?

    Christian Rogaß

    You can also use simulated EnMAP data that is available from www.enmap.org and originated from hyperspectral airborne campaigns.

    Cheers Chris

  • Dr. Asutosh Kar added an answer:
    Any advice on hyperspectral target detection ?


    i am working on anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery, but i dont have HYDICE data that most of the experiments have been done on it .the HYDICE data is used in many article as an example " A Comparative Study of Linear and Nonlinear Anomaly Detectors for Hyperspectral Imagery" M.Nasrabadi

     if anyone have that data please send me the link of that,?


    Dr. Asutosh Kar


         I have attached few papers for you. I think you will get a detailed answer of your concern once you go through it. Please feel free to ask more if you come across any doubts while reading these papers.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Mahboobeh Parsapoor added an answer:
    Any advice on feature extraction through the neural network form a pavia centre dataset ?

    I had downloaded a Pavia centre data file (.mat format) from Here i want to know how to extract features (water, tree) from the given dataset through neural network..

  • Behrouz Ebrahimi added an answer:
    Can we draw the spectral curve for a single pixel from a satellite image (for each band)?

    Considering that satellites (for example LANDSAT) take a image in multi bands and every bands take a image in spectral range (for example for band 1 of ETM+ sensor it is equal to 0.52-0.45 micrometer) so we should be able to draw the spectral curve for each pixel.

    Behrouz Ebrahimi

    thank you so much for your answers

  • Fardin Mirzapour added an answer:
    Where can I find an HSI Database for research with more than 25 images?

    Dear Researchers,

    Does anyone know where can I find a HSI database for any object or material, but with more than 25 spectral images (i.e. 25 *x*y*lambda)?

    It would be nice, if somebody could propose a HSI database for agricultural, medical, food, and circuits. Thanks!

    Feel free to share your database with me, I have no problem to cite your database.

    Thanks in advance.

    Best, Vivek

    Fardin Mirzapour

    Dear Vivek

    You may find a few HS data set along with ground truth map here:


    These data sets have been saved in Matlab format (.mat file).



  • Sid James Nelson added an answer:
    Does anyone have information about the PROSPECT, SAIL and PROSAIL Models?

    I want to estimate Nitrogen and other fertilizers content on Cocoa tree by hyperspectral RS. How can these models help me and can you suggest a more suitable model?

    Thank you so much in advance.

    Sid James Nelson


    The above answers should have useful information in helping select the bands of you remote sensing  spectral data. 

  • Mohsen Ghanea added an answer:
    Anyone familiar with mapping chl-a in CDOM rich waters?

    Some river plumes have extremely high CDOM concentrations.

    Are there practical correction techniques for improving the chl-a S/N in CDOM rich waters so that the chl-a concentration could be estimated?

    Mohsen Ghanea

    You can refer to the following publication:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT) outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out rapidly in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loadings, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG) was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances. Ocean color satellite data involve many advantages to monitor and alarm red tide occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH), and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (kd490) have been generated by MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions. This study monitor variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in the above MODIS level 2 (L2) products were no synchronously investigated under different RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition to the mentioned parameters, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB) image was used to illustrate better the variations in water. ERGB image was built by means of different normalized leaving water radiances between 443 to 560 nm. All of the above data processes were applied by the SeaDAS 7 software package. The Strait of Hormuz was selected as the study area in the eastern part of the PG. The images including high cloud coverage (>50%) over the study area were filtered out. The classification maps of the above satellite derived parameters were shown during RT and normal time periods. Daily and monthly variations of mentioned products were calculated for the dates before, during, and after RT appearance. The variation results were demonstrated as time-series diagrams. All of the above calculations and presentations were performed in Matlab 7 software package. The results show that MODIS Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 increased during the 2008 RT. Based on the feedback of these parameters under RT conditions, hybrid ocean color index (HOCIs) is defined. HOCI is able to display better water variations during RT outbreak. High values of HOCI show RT affected areas or high nutrient loadings.
      Full-text · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
  • Lotfi Mustapha KAZI-TANI added an answer:
    Why do Vertisols show high values in redness index image?

    I applied redness index to Landsat ETM+ in my study region located in the North western part of Algeria. I’ve got quite good results concerning Mediterranean red soil but I couldn’t understand why the vertisols are as bright as or even brighter than red soil in the redness index image.

    Lotfi Mustapha KAZI-TANI

    @Sachin Patil

    The redness index is calculated as follow:

    RI=〖(B3)〗^2/((B1)*〖(B2)〗^3 )

    B1 : Reflectance of band 1 corresponding to the blue

    B2 : Reflectance band 2 corresponding to green

    B3 : Reflectance band 3 corresponding to red

    of Landsat ETM+

  • Francesco Bianconi added an answer:
    What are the main criteria to select frequency scales and orientations in 2-D gabor filtering for images?

    I want to extract texture features from images using 2-d gabor filtering. What are the way to choose frequency range and how many scale i should use. 


    Francesco Bianconi

    Hi Prem,

    Here's a paper you might find useful:

    Bianconi, F., Fernández, A. Evaluation of the effects of Gabor filter parameters on texture classification (2007) Pattern Recognition, 40 (12), pp. 3325-3335.

    Apologies for citing my own work ;-)



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