Science topic

Human Rights - Science topic

international human rights, humanitarian law
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Dear friends!
I hope you are doing well. I recently wrote an article dealing with democracy in Russia. What do you think? Will there be democracy in Russia, what factors are in play? Article can be found here below:
Best wishes Henrik
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In the United States, another culture war is flaring up around encyclopedias.
Under pressure from liberal activists, the popular Merriam-Webster dictionary changed the definition of a woman. This is now an individual who has the opposite gender identity of a male.
By itself, characterization through negation is already original. It cannot be determined otherwise in the era of the deconstruction of the cultural foundations of society. No wonder even Biden's candidate for the Supreme Court at the hearing stated that she was not a biologist - and therefore did not know who women were.
Another war has unfolded around the term “recession”. Wikipedia began to feverishly make changes, until they completely removed the presence of two consecutive quarters with a fall in the economy from the definition of a recession. Just to help Biden deny the fact that the US economy has already fallen into recession for a longer time.
This kind of Orwellianism - with the twisting of the most basic concepts - will become more and more as we continue to be dragged into the abyss of the cultural revolution.
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Do the human rights rules in the constitutional have the same force and obligation to compare it with other rules. Can you divide the constitutional rule?
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Dear all , from the perspective of a ‘ real’ democracy , the distinction between fundamental rights,and the organisation of the State makes no sense and if it is made it likely points out that the organisation of the State may at the end of the day not be that democratic. As the ECHR ruled at several occasions the HR are at the core of democracy , they are its fundamental principles determining the living conditions ( security, health, education, freedom ) of all , protected by a democratic State . The purpose of HR is moreover to improve the living conditions of all , the State and its ( constitutional) organisation being the most appropiate instrument thereto . Its organisation has to make it possible to turn theoretical HR in effective ones allowing comparable living conditions thanks to ‘reasonable’ laws as defined a.o. by the ECHR
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What are the obligations of states with regard to human rights in the face of increasing climate change?
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The main sources of States’ obligations related to climate change are the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol, as well as those that may be derived from general international law. International law regulates States’ conduct in relation to their own population only in limited instances.
obligations of state in climatic change - Search (bing.com)
The health sector can play a leadership role in mitigating climatic change- that is reducing its magnitude and consequences. By doing so the health sector will create a series of health, economic and social co-benefits that improve the health of the entire ecosystem in addition to the traditional role of the health sector in the delivery of quality health care. Hospital settings are energy and resource-intensive enterprises that, as they operate today, contribute substantially to climate change.
Procurement, resource use, transportation, biomedical waste management, and other policies and practices contribute to the health sector’s significant climatic footprint.
By effectively managing this footprint and moving towards carbon neutrality, the health sector can demonstrate the way forward in response to climatic change, thereby playing the leadership role in advocating for a healthy and sustainable future as visioned by sustainable development goals. Use of alternative fuels, encouraging walking and cycling, and promoting the use of public transport are some of the simple but effective measures. Conservation of water, and electricity, adopting reduce, reuse, and recycle strategy are some of the other preventive measures
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in light of the digital opportunities capabilities and challenges, how do we guarantee the human right to his private life and the right to respect digital activity
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I have another opinion!
The history of computing and related telecommunications' technologies has witnessed many revolutions. Unfortunately, these revolutions are originally launched for the destruction and making crimes against humanity.
By examining the history of computing, we will find that computers and the related underlying technologies are originally invented to support military purposes. For instance, look at the following revolutions:
  • The jumping to transistors as an alternative for the earlier Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs).
  • The manufacturing of the microprocessors that are originally for military weapons.
  • The Internet is invented for the military communication network
  • Cloud computing (CC)
  • Internet-of-Things (IoT)
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Can anyone help me to formulate my research question for a thesis paper? I would like to do a research regarding the influence of sustainable development agenda 2030 on migration flows and human rights. Yet I also want to include in my research the fact, that not only safe and regular migration can help to achieve sustainable development, but the agenda 2030 can also have a positive impact on regular migration and human rights security (may be with a reference to gender issues or climate refugees).
I will be grateful of you could help me out!
Thank you!
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How migration contributes to local economic growth?
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Human rights and torture in regards to ontology and epistemology
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The right not to be subjected to torture is associated with human dignity. The idea of dignity plays some role in this right’s interpretation, although the content of the idea in this context, as in others, is unclear. Making sense of the dignity idea involves several challenges. For a start, what is the satisfactory definition of dignity? Torture is part of the deliberate infliction of extreme suffering, and that torture is morally wrong by this defining feature. Note that even actions or practices that are inherently morally wrong might be morally justified in extreme circumstances. Human rights law needs the terminology provided by theorizations of dignity, but theorizations should be within traditional human rights laws.
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This article talks about the human rights abuses by MNOCs in Nigeria Niger delta. It carefully and critically analyse the Mechanisms used by the MNOC during litigations and their level of engagement with their human rights obligations. Also there are suggested recommendations to address these Mechanism.
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Law is a set of legal rules that regulate the life of society
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  • Does normative legal philosophy also have a potential critical function vis-à-vis existing, empirically provable injustice where the injustice is not so much promoted or brought about by discriminatory laws, incorrect court rulings or actions contrary to human rights in the sense of an ideology, but rather by legislative and political laissez-faire or even omission (cf. e.g. mediterranean migrant crisis, anthropogenic climate change or pandemics)? From my point of view, this should be the case (but where is it explicitly stated and conceptually discussed?).
  • Which concepts from the field of normative legal philosophy/ legal ethics could be used to transparently and rationally criticise such state and supranational omissions from a normative perspective? Should new concepts of legal ethics be developed, can existing concepts be adapted? Who are the primary addressees? From my point of view, the minimum connection between law, serving as the basis of state action, and justice, which can be assessed against Radbruch's formula, enables a normative evaluation of state and supranational omissions, but also provides the contours for corresponding (political) duties to act.
What is your opinion regarding these issues?
Some legal philosophical approaches to these questions can be found in my paper "Extreme Wrong Committed by National and Supranational Inactivity: Analyzing the Mediterranean Migrant Crisis and Climate Change from a Legal Philosophical Perspective", Göttingen 2021.
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I believe legal theory is a tremendous force in the identification of those gaps in legislation. I see legislators all over the planet engaged in the erosion of democratic processes because they are trapped into their own epistemological limitations. Fundamental rights are more than ever under siege, and to move forward into producing a legal theory that identifies the limitations of what has been done so far is badly needed. The functional disconnect between the mandates of international law and national realities is blastering.
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I want to start a research about cultural rights and the environment. It is related to my last work "Preventing and pursuing the destruction of Shiite holy sites according to the case of Bamiyan's Buddhas". I consider the aspects of the relation between cultural rights, eg. cultural sites, and the environment. How can we promote our protection of cultural sites against damage? What are the damages that threat cultural sites? Is there any action that the states should fulfil? What about native people? ...
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An important discussion that is useful in raising cultural awareness on the topic of the environment
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it is said that the more we go toward maintaining security in our society, the less human rights can be realized. In the times of emergency, governments often suspend some of their Human Rights obligations in order to better respond to the crisis. Even there are derogation clauses in every Human Rights instrument. But how are we to treat this conflict? Should we give priority to one side or should we try the balancing approach? if the balancing approach is to be chosen, then how exactly are we going to balance two incommensurable values, Security and Human Rights?
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Security is supporting and protecting the individual’s Human Rights from the crimes of others and from the crimes of government. I see no “conflict”.
Education in reason and ethics could help address security issues in the evolution of a civil society. The foundation to ethics via the science of rights:
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[Courtesy: Medscape]
This is a systemic failure on many levels- who all are culpable?
Is this practice continuing, on a more subtle basis?
Who supervises the supervisors?
Should non-medical people oversee the administration of Ethics Boards?
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Unfortunately, we know that there are abuses of human rights. I always remember the movie The Constant Gardener (2005), by the Brazilian director Fernando Meirelles, based on a novel by John Le Carré, about the abuses of the pharmaceutical industry, with drug tests on human beings in Kenya, carried out under the pretext of preventing the spread of AIDS.
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Refugee crisis was a reality worldwide just a while before the COVID-19 pandemic. What are the current and upcoming effects of the pandemic in refugee crisis and human rights?
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Refugee populations are facing numerous challenges including lack of access to health services, loss of livelihoods, evictions and stigmatization are major. "Apart together survey" illustrates the everyday struggle and experience of refugees during the pandemic. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240017924
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In recent past there is growing recognition of the links between human rights and the environment. A human rights based approach to environmental protection includes the interpretation of environmental protection in the context of human rights. Using existing human rights mechanisms to tackle environmental harms will be helpful as human rights mechanism is well established in comparison to mechanism for environmental protection. Such approach also seeks to reinforce the capacities of duty bearers to respect, protect and guarantee of environmental human rights.
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I tend to agree that this human rights based approach is the most ideal way of ensuring environmental protection.
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In looking at trauma can one define trauma as a human right issue? Is it okay to ascribe trauma as a situation which is been experienced by only the poor/low-income earners?
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It could, however, Human rights violations and traumatic events often comingle in victims’ experiences; however, the human rights framework and trauma theory are rarely deployed together to illuminate such experiences.
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Responding to the Corona virus has the potential to affect human rights of millions of people. Censorship, discrimination, arbitrary detention and human rights violations must have no place in the fight against epidemics, Corona virus is no exception. Human rights violations instead of facilitating the fight against undermine the effectiveness of public health measures .
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Yes, Corona virus has affected the human right to enjoy the rights to travel, transportation, entertainment, correct education, and demonstrations, and delayed many of its obligations and commitments for an unknown time.
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Nursing is a profession which deals with many aspects of people's lives. Nurses are often faced with ethical problems and experience many conflicts between their professional oath. The influence of conscience on nurses has frequently been described but its impact on their practice has received less attention. During their daily practice, they need to quickly decide on one of the several competing options. Conscience i directs individuals towards non-maleficence and veracity and helps people understand their duties for coping with life as a valuable component of nursing practice which demands sensitivity, respect for human rights, and attentive and dignified care delivery. How to increase work conscience in nursing?
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With an excellent training in Bioethics and always following the Principle of Beneficence; never forgetting the UNIQUE AND UNREPEATABLE character of each human being and his BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL CONDITION; always exercising a VOCATIONAL AND PATIENT-CENTERED praxis, following the decalogue and advice of Florence Nightingale and that of Saint John of God-Patron of Nursing for Christians and Founder of the Hospitaller Order of Saint John of God or "Juaninos" - when he said: "Take care of each sick person as if they were your mother."
CONGRATULATIONS TO ALL NURSING PROFESSIONALS ON NURSING DAY (precisely in honor of F. Nightingale)
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In Brazil at a seminar sponsored by the special committee of the Chamber of Deputies, the consensus was that the hardening of punishments applied to juvenile offenders would not be the solution to reduce the practice of criminal acts of the same.
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Exactly, the only thing that is gained from calling a 14-year-old child a criminal is a further decline in the overall structure of the social environment. The system is terrible and beyond repair...worldwide.
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Would like show me university that will conduct research about
Language, linguistic, ethnic of culture, women emancipation, human-right,& education research ? I need information about that , thanks
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As language is central to human nature and culture, and is an expression of identity, issues surrounding language are particularly important to linguistic minority communities seeking to maintain their distinct group and cultural identity, sometimes under conditions of marginalization, exclusion and discrimination.
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Often times there is a disconnect between theory and practice in the lives of peoples, including this paradox through which it can be understood that there are inherent human rights and have been approved by international charters and treaties, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states in one of its articles the right to education, in exchange for the lived reality The use of this inherent right is far from being used, especially in light of brutal capitalism, whose main motive is profit.
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To address the “cost of education”, the man-made rights listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights should have the ability to evolve relative to the physical constructal law. Presentation on “The Science of Rights” at the Thermodynamics 2.0 conference:
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After the abolition of the death penalty in some countries, did crime rate increase or decrease in those countries? Which better serves justice: the deterrent effect -if any- of the death penalty or the risk of executing a wrongfully convicted human being?
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Dear RG friends, this question 'how effective is the death penalty as a deterrent?' should actually not be asked. After all, carrying out the death penalty is a question of ethics. As long as we as humans are not the creator of life, we are not allowed to end life through capital punishment. The death penalty is the ultimate act that fits into the philosophical movement 'The Enlightenment' where 'man' places himself above God. All the best, stay safe and healthy, Carl
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The concept of human rights, which has been developing for a very long time, and experienced its boom after the Second World War, has brought a lot of good to the world. However, we must ask ourselves whether human rights are increasingly becoming an instrument for achieving political goals, even when it means a violation of international law, and even the human rights themselves, especially due to the alleged protection of such rights of others. In particular, we can observe that calls for human rights are increasingly a means of imposing minority attitudes to the detriment of the majority, that the need to protect human rights is used to justify armed interventions in other countries; unlawful arrest, detention and, torture of terrorism suspects, etc. Where does all this lead?
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It is a difficult question. I think that human rights exist, but I think too that sometimes the concept of human rights is abused in order to create political difficulties to specific governments.
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The Tigris - Euphrates water conflict is frozen conflict between three riparians (Iraq, Syria and Turkey). The conflict came up because of upstream water projects by Turkey and therefore the restriction of water access to individuals of downstream failed states (Iraq and Syria). There are two principles are conflicting: Territorial sovereignty of Turkey and human right to water of individuals (This is issue of global justice and not international justice due to failed states). My question is: whom belongs water and how property (connected with territory) theory of Locke  can be connected to the sovereignty principle of Turkey?
Thank you beforehand
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My consideration of the question is why would an esoteric philosophical perspective from Locke alter the literally thousands of years of praxis basically based on Roman Water Law ( http://www.fao.org/3/y5692e/y5692e00.htm#Contents ), probably the oldest codification of multi-faceted tensions between common pool resources and private uses. Any 'sovereignty' claim which disregards these well established perspectives might have some temporary benefit but essentially establishes a ticking time bomb for all future transnational relationships, if not laying the track into direct military confrontation.
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, human rights violations including censorship, discrimination, arbitrary detention and xenophobia were reported from different parts of the world.
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Dear Sanjeev Kumar,
I fully agree with Prof. Hermann.
Along with these , I want to add my words.
My realisation is that all protection and prevention steps from Govt. is for those people who have their food and shelter.
While the farmers and industry daily labours are kept in a drastically bad situation.
Who carried COVID-19 virus to a country ? A farmer, a labour ?
No.
During the Lockdown, who died without getting food ?
Farmers and industry laboors.
Who enjoyed the payment and all possible protection during the protection ? Farmers and labours ?
No.
So, I may be wrong, but, I feel everything is for those who have money .
Nothing for those who cultivate food and others.
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]n the case of software or virtual networks that are provided internationally and are almost exclusive and are usually supported by major world powers, it is necessary to accept a number of commitments before using them. These commitments are often intellectually and logically unconscionable, and although they do not appear to be fundamentally contrary to fundamental rights and in the context of international human rights declarations, charters and conventions, they are clearly contrary to the basic principles of human rights and human rights. The information contained in these networks is often misused based on the user's initial license. This is while we know that the public interest always takes precedence over the personal interest and this issue has been raised in different ways in different legal provisions?
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Estimado colega, es frecuente que las grandes empresas diseñen leyes a su medida. El que algo pueda ser legal no significa que llegue a ser también justo. Muchas personas pensamos que las declaraciones de Donald Trump en las redes fueron una amenaza a la democracia. Pero también es una amenaza a la democracia que el dueño de una empresa de comunicaciones decida qué puede decirse y qué no puede decirse públicamente. ¿Y si ese empresario decide que no podemos usar las redes sociales para discutirlas?
Me parece que el movimiento de software libre es un buen antecedente para hacer frente a los abusos de las grandes empresas.
Por supuesto que cualquiera de nosotros puede hacer un programa libre y compartirlo, sin ninguna inversión en equipamiento. En cambio, una red libre requiere de un conjunto de Universidades y ONG´s que hagan las inversiones necesarias. No es imposible, y probablemente alguna vez sea necesario hacerlo en la medida que los abusos de estas empresas se vuelvan intolerables.
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Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries. The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society, In Africa we cannot be that much positive while we still fighting for human rights and gender equality, thus the governors and society actors interact with these phenomena by launching a series of solutions to accompany women in the process of being an economic actor in societies.
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Thank you for the question. My view relating this matter, it should become from the Amartya Sen theory which it states the women empowerment. In africa for evaluate the effectivity of women's empowering must have done from this way, by envolving women in the decision-making process in all the society, economic, political, cultural affairs. This view it is a better way to evaluate the effectivity of women's empowering measures in Africa.
Best regards
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Decolonial theory tends to avoid the language of human rights due to a concern about who is included in "the human" of human rights. But many struggles today start from the language of human rights, meaning that not engaging that language could be a missed opportunity for practice. I have started to theorize decolonial and human rights movements together, and I would be interested in learning from other perspectives on this question.
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I would think so. As long as your clarify who you mean by “humans”, and that you mean it in a way that is inclusive of oppressed peoples. For example, children can be overlooked when considering human rights - I believe this was an impetus for the eventual creation of the UN Declaration of the Rights of a Child.
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In a country where the regime is very repressive, journalists will be afraid to write news. What is your opinion?
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Really the journalist's duty requires reference to human rights violations
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Targeted chaos and misinformation are at the heart of extreme democratic outcomes as they are the active ingredients needed for them to come to exist, to persist, and to propagate. One example of extreme democratic outcome is USEXIT or Trumpism.
Targeted chaos and misinformation are mostly based on fake facts or an alternative facts, which raises the question “Are extreme democratic outcomes when in conflict and the rule of law in liberal democracies incompatible?
I think yes, what do you think? Why do you think so?
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In addition to previous comment, certain form of neoliberalism mainly in economic and social, as well as cultural matters, can be extreme. As , for example, the ideology and practise of Free Market institutes in Eastern Europe. But this neoliberal approach has other things to do if compare to trumpism. Anyway, the analysis of connection between trumpism and neoliberal/state/national aspects is very interesting for research. But it is another case than Yours, dear Lucio.
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It promotes tolerance and understanding above and beyond our political, cultural and religious differences, putting special emphasis on the defence of human rights, the protection of ethnic minorities and the most vulnerable groups, and the conservation of the environment.
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Dear M.M. Fazil .. we have done similar project in Bahrain after the Arab Spring. I believe it is very important that you bring the different parties into one field or community project that would address a common value. Both you and they (the students) would learn a lot from the experience.
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Under normal liberal democracy there is war between several views on how to advance the common good either at the expense of the minority(e.g. traditional liberal democratic parties) or at the least cost possible to the minority(e.g. traditional liberal conservative parties). ...War here simply means " a usually heated conflict between competing ideas....".
In normal liberal democracies, science plays a central role, and if science is not followed or it is partially followed or it is ignored completely and things go bad, the opposition party will use that rational in the next election and the incumbent party may spin the reality, but the buck stops there…and the people decide at election day….
Hence, liberal normal democracies of all sorts are incompatible with authoritarianism.
When we have an extreme liberal democracy such as USEXIT or Trumpism, the whole thing changes….extreme liberal democratic outcomes should be expected to align better with authoritarianism than with normal democratic thinkers,,,
I can see several reasons why that is the case, which leads to the question, Which are the central links between extreme liberal democracy and authoritarianism/dictatorships?. Can you see them? Or What do you think?
Please express your views on the question.
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No worries Michael, I appreciate your comments, and I am here to share ideas and learn too.
Have a nice day
Lucio
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Over the last several decades, the increasing global attention to issues of human rights for
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people and other sexual minorities has focused on the intrinsic value of those rights from a social, cultural, and ethical perspective. Recognizing those rights represents a commitment to equality for a stigmatized group of people and to guaranteeing universal freedoms for those individuals. Enacting those rights to achieve equality means working to end discrimination and violence against LGBT people. The need for attention is clear: human rights agencies and scholars from around the world have documented violations of human rights, finding discrimination, family rejection, violence, imprisonment, and other forms of exclusion faced by LGBT people in every country studied.
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Interesting
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This question is asked in the context of International Migration and Human Rights of Migrants
The Human Rights of Regular(Legal) and Irregular(illegal) Migrants
Thank you in advance
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Mary Ann DeVlieg Michael T Takac Joginder Singh Khatra @Thank you for your answers and suggestions
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Whereas the spread of coronavirus outbreak [Sars-CoV-2, December 2019-2020][1], developing into a global pandemic situation, the governments everywhere have declared a 'state of emergency' to stop the spread of the pandemic as much as possible. What are the human/legal rights that you have faced as being violated under this pretext by State? I mentioned also the 'legal' rights as if there are local constitutional lawful rights that are also violated by police enforcement or so.
How can this interference of the Public authorities with your right be regarded, justified, or on the contrary, denied and fought against?
[1] Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus strain that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness. Gorbalenya, A.E., Baker, S.C., Baric, R.S. et al. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol 5, 536–544 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z
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Good question...👍.
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The coronavirus is increasingly having an impact in public and private law. Fundamental freedoms are restricted. Fulfillment of contracts becomes impossible; many obligors and debtors refer to force majeure (vis maior).
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Follow & up.
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I am looking for practice of international monitoring mechanisms as well as international organisations (e.g. OECD) and States' practice
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Nice Contribution Mushtaq Ahmad
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Time witness several foul, hatred and inhuman cases between the different creeds and communities and also recorded many domestic violence inside the family during this pandemic lockdown.
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Since the beginning of the pandemic, the world economy has slowed down. People live in isolation and practicing social distancing as never before, and the death rate from an unprecedented killer is rising rapidly.
We see and hear in the news every day that thousands of people around the world have lost their job or being laid off, leaving many people around the world facing the coming days with a lot of uncertainty regarding the future. Although it might be challenging to predict the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has imposed at the moment. Still, it will have a lot of hardship on many people around the globe .a A harsh reality of grief, stress, and unemployment.
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I'm writing a book that raises questions about the traditional meanings of justice and injustice.
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No, I wouldn’t say ignorance is the root of prejudice. Prejudice can be a learned outcome, but also throughout history some groups had tension with other groups, hence developing prejudice.
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This afternoon I was (almost) impeded from paying cash at a supermarket in Belgium with the argument that the use of cash might cause transmission of coronavirus !? Incidentally they used no-touch cash machines and cashiers did not wear any face masks!
I checked literature but I found no shred of evidence to support their claim. There are clear indications of bacterial contamination on currency, but I could not find any evidence for transmissible viral pathogens present on banknotes and coins. Anybody can help?
THANKS !
Please stay healthy !
Koen Van Waerebeek
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How do we even remove the notion that animals are lesser beings than humans?
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It was Thomas Jefferson who coined the term “unalienable Rights”—“Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”. We may say those innate rights are bio-primitives or a bio-DNA program/objective for survival. This sequence is actually an axiom, transcending a proof: where the flow of “Life” (from single-cells to humans), must have freedom (“Liberty”) within their domain, in “the pursuit of” survival; otherwise there is no life. Underlying the time and energy expended, or the work involved, in the pursuit of survival or any other objective, supports the notion that most accomplishments result in some form of chemical/electrical positive feedback or “Happiness” for humans.
In 1996 Adrian Bejan discovered a new law in thermodynamics known as the "constructal law":
"For a flow system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve freely such that it provides greater access to its currents."
Today we explore the science of rights with the following mapping: For a flow system to persist in time (to live) ["Life"], it must evolve freely ["Liberty"], such that it provides greater access ["the pursuit of"] to its currents [Happiness (positive feedback)].
Generally, philosophy guides science where scientific discovery reforms philosophy. This one-to-one mapping of the physical constructal law to Jefferson’s philosophy of “unalienable Rights” introduces a link between the philosophy of natural law to the physical laws of nature of which we are a product of.
Once a discovery of a related law in nature becomes known, we may see new and different things when looking back at those established philosophies of past ages, in particular, the ones that seem to contradict each other. In addition, it is common knowledge that no man-made law or philosophy can change a physical law of nature.
Historically, discovery of a physical law in nature and the ethical application thereof, usually advances the human condition. Therefore, for any “nation state”, the ethical application of “unalienable Rights” (the physical constructal law) historically improves the human condition.
Some background on the constructal law:
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Human Rights are a critically important concept and set of principles for social justice, however, as hegemonic device, they act as barrier to the pursuit of Decoloniality
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I don't agree with Stephanie's answer at all. Properly derived human rights are like theorems in mathematics. Do such theorems need a nation state to be valid? Did the truth revealed in those theorems not exist before they were enunciated by some mathematician? True human rights are the same. The truth of them always existed. It was only recently that they were discovered. True fundamental rights are not a socially constructed idea. They are a revelation.
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Democracy plays pivotal role to ensure the welfare and development of people. It protects basic human rights and liberties. However, democracy needs to be improve as time travels. Therefore, how democracy shall improve or what are the steps to improve democracy? Following are some of the steps we shall adopt to improve democracy. What are the other measures to enhance democracy?
1. By Increasing the role of political parties
2. By increasing Role of Opposition Party
3. By increasing political awareness of people
4. By increasing people centric policies of the govt.
5. By increasing role of civil society
6. By increasing decentralisation of power
7. By improving political participation of people
8. By increasing role of media
9. By increasing literacy
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Thank you Michael T Takac for your valuable insights.
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Child participants in research have a measure of vulnerability that requires strict ethical measures to handle it. In the wake of human rights and awareness of various laws, will research on minors become more complex?
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Its complex due to stringent conditions and measures a researcher must undergo to conduct such study with minors. Research that has to do with minors relating to health issues, psychological issues, emotional abuses and mental health issues etc are very difficult to ascertain with minors as your subjects. One need to undergo a thorough ethical guidelines and assessment procedures.
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On the one hand, when there is a US spreading propaganda that brings so-called democracy, human rights and peace to the world, on the other hand, the same state has a policy of using democracy as an excuse to intervene and occupy countries, disregarding human rights, and devoting enough budget to overarming the hungry people in the world many times. In addition, this so-called angel of goodness can be very good friends with anti-democratic regimes in the world. While he is supposed to value the right to life, he can convince people in his own country to die with an electric chair or poisonous needle. Furthermore, in this state, close to fifty million people are fed from soup houses and are homeless. What do you think of this hypocritical state, which was introduced in the Academy books as the apostle of democracy and goodness?
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There is good intentions of the people of the USA, but the country is unfortunately "ruled" at the moment by a politician-in-training who is a complete failure. Due to the relative wealth in the country education has been pushed aside in favour of "creating wealth" as the main objective. Very few people are aware that they live on planet Earth and that there are other countries besides themselves. In view of this don't expect to get any democracy lessons from there.
Another unfortunate phenomenon is that the military actually run the country in complete secrecy doing whatever they want all around the globe financing gangs to fight against other less desirable gangs with the politicians kept in complete ignorance (in the dark). Therefore, don't expect anything good coming out of this mess.
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How it will help and ensure the poor has access to justice as the equal gender with equal rights and respect in the society or he/she has been heard? In each society the availability of the people rights is conditional to their hearing and counting for their lawful rights thus the more we provide the poor the access to justice the more we ensure the deprived has been assured to have his/her rights.But it is least heard and the commons are almost denied to be heard and counted because of lack of communications with the policy makers and the implementer.Thus the nations and the societies need some easy mechanism to establish such a culture to ensure the majority the happiness and the sustainability and prosperity.
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The internalization of democracy in a society and the common interests and values ​​of that society reveals its true value. Whatever you place in the focus of the society will act accordingly in the society. If you make a ruthless capitalist order the focus of society, you get a society where only the rich have the best rights. If you focus on a particular race, origin, religion, sect, you can only have a society in which they have full rights. Military, security etc. if you focus, or if you focus on the idea that there is for the citizens state, you get a society where only the state should exist and in which case the citizens become insignificant. I think the focus should be on the order in which all people can live humane under minimum conditions and are fully guaranteed by the states. A common focus should be established where all differences are tolerated and deficiencies are completed to the minimum acceptance standard, ie a system of minimum human needs is provided. This may be a starting point for the ideal system that humanity will try to reach.
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I would like to understand how can I find the connection in my subject area which focus on education policy and human-right
1) what is the most elements affect in education policy and human-right
2) what are the links between education policy and human-right
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I would like to point out that the subject you want to work with is very interesting. What kind of assessments are made to ensure equality of opportunity in education whether people are rich or poor? What is the level of access to education in the countries where people live, depending on the power of democracy? What is the relationship between the achievement of education and the respect for human rights in developed states and others? What are the assessments of access to education for people whose human rights have been violated in their country by race, language or religion? Is there a connection to the human rights of asylum seekers, refugees and migrants, their access to education and their success in education? What can be done about the evaluation of the link between the full, partial or absent human rights and the right to education according to the level of analysis? What is the origin of the link between the right to education and human rights? I hope that such issues can help you. I wish you success.
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When they support one that matching to their mind set-up or ideology, they might overlook the right of other one.... E.g. violent protester vrs. police.
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As long as any rights movement is apolitical and devoid of any ideology with a specific cause and outcome in mind objectively, then they are not biased. But all of us are aware of that this ideal context is impossible and bias is bound to emerge and it becomes dangerous when it turns selective.
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UN decides to proclaim 4 January as World Braille Day, to be observed each year beginning in 2019, in order to raise awareness of the importance of Braille as a means of communication in the full realization of the human rights for blind and partially sighted people.
Braille is a tactile representation of alphabetic and numerical symbols using six dots to represent each letter and number, and even musical, mathematical and scientific symbols. Braille (named after its inventor in 19th century France, Louis Braille) is used by blind and partially sighted people to read the same books and periodicals as those printed in a visual font. Braille is essential in the context of education, freedom of expression and opinion, as well as social inclusion.
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Thank you dear prof Anton Vrdoljak, for your sharing
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How do we best classify ethical issues in AI and robotics? Which disciplines provide possible classification frameworks i.e. philosophy of ethics, psychology of moral reasoning, the law and human rights, the study of etiquette, sociology of norms, control systems theory, neuroscience of impulse regulation, science fiction, etc. etc.
Many possibilities - can you point me in the direction of any possible frameworks?
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As strange as it may seem, automaton has innate rights according to the physical constructal law.
“Ethical issues” will surface during the evolution of automaton replacing humans in the work place. Society may develop a concept of redistributing automaton's generated wealth, by the state, as a guaranteed minimum income. This satisfies most of UN’s Article 25 human rights objectives at a “minimum” standard of living. If one desires a higher standard of living, get a job.
On the subject of evolution, perhaps, one day educational institutions may include the following discovery in their curriculum, enhancing reason and ethics in the evolution of the sciences, technology, economics, governance, philosophy, automaton, etc. embracing a civil society relative to the physical constructal law:
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Dear Sirs
Currently, working on book chapters for PRME, I was on site-visits at about 700 building areas. What I recognized that neither any security nor human right rules are followed. None of this building companies is following the trade union contracts. How is this possible in Switzerland, you might ask? They are hiring their staff by temporary companies, which are not bound by these contracts. Each staff member is working by 40 degrees without any protection, water, etc. And if he just ask a question regarding these conditions, the next day, he is fired and replaced by a new (may be more decent worker). This is slavery in its newest form and I would be delighted someone of you or a interested scientist would like to work on that - perhaps discovering same aspects in his country so that a comparative study could bring light in this disruptive development.
Thank you for a short reply.
Dr. Stéphanie Looser
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Dear Syed
It would be a honour to set up a common research regarding this topic. Thus, you seem to be more experienced, do you like to make a short outline. Therefore, I could start with to gather data. I am looking forward to hearing from you!
Best regards
Stéphanie
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We found that many of our children without family works dawn to dusk for a little payment.In spite of having many labor laws child labor makes our national  identity questionable with unsecured human rights.
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I believe that the best solution to the suffering of street children in the case of hard work without any safety is to enact strict laws against those who exploit these children in the labor market.
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The debate between the two notions is clearly undermined. Is there really a solution to this debate?
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I think you can split the solution in three.
First, there are some cultural relativity arguments that are simply bogus and should be ignored - these are the kinds of self-serving arguments advanced by governments that use it as an excuse to suppress democratic participation or to target minorities for political gain.
Second, there are some relativity issues that can be reconciled with the essence of human rights but might need rearticulating. These relate to the kinds of complaints that human rights are destructive of or ignore the interrelated web of mutual obligations/privileges that make communities work. Human rights were designed more to protect individuals from abuse by the state and to make demands on the state to provide individuals with services. And this works as a vehicle to promote and protect human dignity where you live in a large scale society where power is concentrated in some far off government. But this model doesn't fit so well if you live in a society where power is shared out more at community level, where members of the community depend on each other. In that kind of society everyone has to perform their duties to make things work properly, and if you introduce rights in that setting there's a danger that one person can demand their rights without performing their duties and the thing falls apart. So for these kinds of communitarian objections to human rights, it's more about the 'vehicle' through which dignity is being protected - the individual with rights, rather than the mutually dependent community member. And then I think it's possible to reconcile this position through dialogue - in those kinds of settings how can we express the values behind human rights in a way that fits within a communitarian setting? Maybe there is the beginning of an answer to this in the African Charter which talks about duties as well as rights.
Third, there are the tough nut issues. What happens when you get down to the irreconcileable differences over what's right and wrong and what should be protected and what not? There's no way to oblige people to agree to implement human rights standards. Even if governments enact human rights standards, there are examples of where the population ignores them because they just don't agree. So in these settings, I think that the answer is persuasion through dialogue.
There's plenty of evidence in psychology research that all human societies share the same range of values, but different societies put different emphasis on different types of values at different times (check out research by Shalom Schwartz on values).
These are subconsciously held values that are responsible for our attitudes about social and political issues. Basically, for evolutionary reasons, there are people in society who are more conservative - they want tradition to remain the same, keep society stable and secure and maintain existing social and economic hierarchies. These guys put a lot of emphasis on the importance of the community at the expense of the individual. And then there are people in society who are more progressive in that they want to change the way we live, give individuals more freedom and control over their lives and government, create more equality for everyone and care for people outside their immediate community/nation. And then there are people in the middle who have a bit of both (check out research by Jonathan Haidt on moral foundations theory and George Lakoff on framing).
Cognitive linguists have shown that it's possible to stimulate support for certain values through the language we use and the way we frame our arguments. Simply put, if people interested in promoting human rights could learn how to talk about rights using 'values based framing' then they would probably be able to create more support for and understanding of how human rights work. And over time that could shift sceptical societies to embracing the idea. And if the society starts to agree with human rights standards, then the relativity problem goes away a bit.
The reason that values based framing is important is the way the brain works. People tend to reject facts presented in isolation if these conflict with the opinion or attitude or 'frame' that someone has on a topic. So you have to frame facts within values. For example, telling someone that ethnic profiling doesn't work by presenting them with statistics on how it doesn't lead to a higher 'hit rate' won't persuade someone who thinks that criminality is higher among minorities. But framing these facts by explaining that in society we all deserve to be treated fairly and presumed innocent unless there is evidence we've done something wrong, and that ethnic profiling flouts these basic values that we share, might be more effective.
Anyway, that would be my answer!
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Just think about it from the sustainability point of view, who should be expected to benefit locally and internationally and why when a dominant extreme democratic outcome like 2016 USEXIT takes place?. The local minority or majority? International normal liberal democracies or dictatorial systems/democracies/regimes?. What do you think?
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Dear friends, those interested in ideas about Trumpconomics may find some good food for thoughts in the following unpublished article and I am sharing it here:
The 2016 shift from normal liberal democracy to extreme liberal democracy in the USA: Pointing out the structure of Trumpconomics, its meaning, and its expected local and global implications, both analytically and graphically
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The UN Human Rights charter is a celebrated document. UN as an institution has done so much to help diffuse near war situations and post war reconciliation and healing. However, there is a feeling among the world community that the UN with some of the key allies have maintained a double standards and have significantly dented the primacy of rights over who and which powerful nation leads the motivation and its auxiliary infrastructure.
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Thanks Mike for your further reflection on the subject. My issue is not the theoretical and the philosophical moorings, this is most plausible. But with these profound basis, yet the global powers centres manipulate 'right' for their own convenience, this is what I intended to investigate, IS THE CAMPAIGN FOR HUMAN RIGHTS politicised? I am aware, that there is no YES and NO answer to it. Hence the discussion so far has been productive. Appreciate your contribution.
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Neomodernism refers to a philosophical position based on modernism but addressing the critique of modernism by postmodernism. Postmodernism refers to a variety of artistic, cultural and philosophical movements that arose as a reaction against purists modernism. Postmodernism is marked by a recognition and acceptance of ethnic, sexual and cultural diversity, (or diverse artistic expressions) whereas modernism could only describe the alternate as the “other”. Various socio-cultural or political praxis and beliefs can ascribe to one of these philosophies. Neomodernism addressed the criticisms leveled at postmodern philosophy, namely that universalism and critical thinking are the two essential elements of human rights and that human rights create a superiority of some cultures over others. That is, that equality and relativism are "mutually contradictory". Neomodern architecture is a reaction to the complexity of postmodern architecture and eclecticism, seeking greater simplicity. Case in point, this project in video retains the basic plan form of vernacular Assam-type houses and elements, such as verandas, local materials, clerestory and windows for winter solar heat gain and summer ventilation, albeit in a simple neomodernist expression.
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Equity, universalism and or v/s human rights, relativism are somewhat an oxymoron school of thoughts. In design, an extended philosophy, various school of design thoughts have came up as contemporary architecture or design. It evolves and changes with time and peoples fads tend to change, sometimes eccentric modernism is also one of those. Some of these new ideas are sustainable, while others are not. The only thing that seems sustainable in the long-term is change and evolution itself. And, yes these school of thoughts
“equality and relativism” are indeed somewhat contradictory, and even controversial in some political and socio-cultural contexts. Design is by and large a resultant of socio-cultural, politics and economic praxis of the era manifested into tangible heritage forms. As such, many forms of contemporary design ideas will evolve as a reaction to the so called modern and post modern ideologies. Even design styles, forms, and philosophies that have little or nothing to do with the established school of thoughts will continue to emerge, and so it must!
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I need to find articles about study on human rights education in mid school or study on empowering teaching strategies for mid school.
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https://ethos.bl.uk This will provide you with access to the British Library where you can search for any thesis submitted to various universities across Britain
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In light of today's arrest in Italy of a German sea captain who had rescued migrant refugees in the Mediterranean does the law of the sea need to be clarified?
The 1979 International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue establishes a legal framework for signatories to co-ordinate rescue efforts. According to the International Maritime Organization, which helped put together the principles behind rescue at sea, its member states also have an obligation "to co-ordinate so that persons rescued at sea are disembarked in a place of safety as soon as possible".
However, there are a number of issues. One problem is over defining distress, according to Yves Pascouau, editor of the European Migration Law website. which offers advice on asylum and immigration law across the EU. "This is a question of interpretation," he says.The vessel was not in obvious mechanical difficulty as it approached Maltese and Italian waters and he adds: "They (Italy and Malta) did not consider the definition of distress had been met."
There are also issues over what constitutes a place of safety, and whether that means disembarking those rescued at sea on land. "There is no obligation on a state responsible for a specific search and rescue area, or responsible for co-ordinating a rescue effort, to receive the survivors on land," says Ainhoa Campas Velasco of the Institute of Maritime Law at University of Southampton. However, she points out that humanitarian considerations are meant to form part of search and rescue operations.
It is also worth remembering that under maritime regulations, states have the authority to allow or refuse permission for vessels to enter their territorial waters.
Do we need greater clarity and agreed legal obligations to save life at sea?
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This is not a legal matter, if so it would be rather harder on the migrants than it already is.
The issue is political and one of the main reasons for the rise of the alt-right all over the developed world. It is rather clear that the 'safe' countries of the world cannot accommodate the populations of all those deemed unsafe for a number of reasons.
The most obvious one is resources but equally problematic is that of culture. It simply is not possible for the rich countries to absorb millions of migrants.
Therefore the onus should be on making the countries they come from safer so people can stay and make their own home countries more prosperous.
China is doing this with the Belt & Road Initiative. Building infrastructure allows poor countries to become self sufficient and better places for their people to live.
This is of course a form of neo-colonialism but if it feeds the people, gives them homes and schools, where their own governments have failed then it is worth it.
Mass immigration is not the answer to the problem it is the cause of more problems. Fascism thrives on scapegoats and migrants make excellent scapegoats.
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Is there any constraint toward the implementation of birth control? For example, due to the opinion that such policy may contradict the human right issues?
Look forward to hearing your opinion.
Thanks.
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sure there are policies in that countries
and sure there is implementation of such policies
But the problem is in the culture of the people there
For example , here in Egypt , although we have these polices and implementation through a very big sector in the ministry of health regarding the family planning, the population growth rate is still high, and we have a population exceeding 100 million now
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Guatemalan migration to the North and internal population displacements within this country have generated substantial scholarship. However, other dynamics have been less studied. The goal of this discussion is to share ideas and references about South-South migration to Guatemala. Resources about the trans-migration expérience of Hondurans, Salvadorans and Nicaraguayans would be most welcome, especially about experiences that turn into more permanent situations as migrants get turned back at the Mexican border and settle in Guatemala. Other topics could include the dynamics of caravan migration in Central America, as well as Colombian, Cuban, and African migration through (or eventually in) Guatemala.
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Dear Martin Hebert;
There are many other important references to be found in this document. They provide valuable information about the Guatemala migration.
Sincere regards
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One problem is that the SSE remains vaguely delineated. Can we sharpen the definition?  The SSE is credited by analysts for poverty reduction, provision of essential services at low costs, building of solidarity among participants, and reducing the strains of a competitive capitalist economy. Can SSE fulfill any or all of these important goals.?
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SSE refers to enterprises and organizations (cooperatives, mutual benefit societies, associations, foundations and social enterprises) which produce goods, services and knowledge that meet the needs of the community they serve, through the pursuit of specific social and environmental objectives and the fostering of solidarity.
I propose to analyze the Latin American case. In Costa Rica, for example, the solidarity economy works together with the State; in other countries it may come into conflict with government policies (Argentina, Chile). I am currently directing a book on solidarity economy.
Proposals are still accepted!
best regards
Pablo
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In the book «Science in a Free Society», Paul Feyerabend is concerned with the power challenges between specialists and the people the problems actually concern. He askes the above given question: How can a society that gives all traditions equal rights be realized? Do you think this challenge is smaller then when first asked by Feyerabend in 1978 in this book?
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I do think the challenge is greater now because of the vast increase in media, information sources, and heterogeneity of sources. All people, including academics and scientists, are migrating to ever-more self-selected (and comfortable) information sources, while avoiding dissonant voices and alternative information. We are, thanks to this unanticipated consequence , becoming even more tribal within what should be a time of growing pluralism.
This does not forecast a near future of harmony, tolerance, acceptance of “the other”, or peaceful coexistence. The Information Age may become an opportunity lost.
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We all know that illegal practices are fought by state or mainstream authority. However, many illegal organizations enjoy vigor and influence that rival those of the recognized/legal/mainstream authority though they work in the dark and are denied public support, resources and recognition. These illegal entities or practices sometimes show an impact that threatens the stability of society, that society which is supported by the recognized authority with its laws, regulations, and resources.
Of course what is legal or legitimate is relative. But how comes that such bodies/entities/practices flourish in spite of the regulations put by mainstream authorities?
My question is cannot the methods and techniques used by the "dark" forces be implemented by the second in order to establish human rights that guarantee equality and nation-welfare? Examples abound: gun market, drugs, prostitution, human trafficking, research black market...etc.
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Hi Muthana,
I recommend you have a look at Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of Political Economy,
98 (5), 893 - 921. This is pretty much regarded as a key text in respect of illegal entrepreneurship.
I've written a bit on this too, generally in relation to organised crime. You will find my work on my home page if it is of interest.
I think a really interesting 'case study' to look at that relates to your question is 20th century alcohol prohibition in the United States. A good article on this is at:
Hope this is helpful.
Kind Regards,
Martin
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The right not to be evicted for either a building or a piece of land may be rooted in human rights (each human has the right to live at least somewhere - especially if there is no reasonable alternative), customary rights (one may live in a certain area but the rights are not formally registered; yet there may be a legitimate claim for historical and/or traditional reasons) , the right to compensation (if one is expelled from a house or an area forcefully, then there should be at least some form of in-kind or in-cash compensation) and the right to the city and inclusion in planning (living is cities is getting increasingly expensive and exclusive for very rich minorities).
However, in practice, most of such anti-eviction rights are not very strong in the end. Very often eviction still takes place. I am therefore looking for examples of Acts and jurisprudence where anti-eviciton rights have been firmly established and practiced. I would also like to hear your opinion about whether such anti-eviction rights or Acts should exist in the first place.
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Any specific details? - e.g. which regulation will change by when? How will 'good reason' be specified?
Another type of eviction can take place after the land or property is expropriated for a public purpose. In this case, the 'good reason'. The German constitution protects private property, yet also states that private property comes with a public responsibility. Expropriation is permitted if it serves a public benefit. In some cases, expropriation combined with evicted may lead to such societal costs that one has to view whether other solutons are possible.
A recent case of a request by a community in Berlin was to expropriate the owner of a public playground, who wanted to sell his land to investors and convert the playground to expensive housing. In such cases one could imagine that eviction / destruction of the playgorund sohld also be prevented.
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When, where, and by whom were they implemented? Why do you think they were successful?
Centuries of linguistic imposition associated with colonial expansion, followed by the monolingual policies of governments seeking to create national identities, and more recently the global expansion of corporate power and communications networks, have taken their toll on many languages, to the point where some have become extinct and others are faced with the challenge of revitalizing themselves to avoid extinction. Some language communities have had more success than others in meeting this challenge and fortifying their mother tongues. I am interested in reading more about these efforts, and I think that the diverse, multicultural composition of ResearchGate makes it an ideal forum for discussing this topic.
I am attaching the English version of the Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (Barcelona, 1996) as an initial contribution to the discussion.
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Psycholinguistics/Hemispheric Lateralization of Language
ontents
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The History of Discoveries
    • 2.1 Jean Baptiste Bouillaud and Simon Alexandre Ernest Aubertin
    • 2.2 Paul Broca
    • 2.3 Carl Wernicke
  • 3 Methods of Assessing Lateralization
    • 3.1 Lesion Studies
    • 3.2 Split Brain Studies
    • 3.3 Wada test
    • 3.4 Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography
    • 3.5 Electrical stimulation, TMS and Imaging
  • 4 Cerebral Dominance: Language Functions of The Left and Right Hemispheres
  • 5 Anatomical Asymmetries
  • 6 Proposed Correlations
    • 6.1 Handedness
    • 6.2 Sex Differences
    • 6.3 Sign Language and Bilingualism
    • 6.4 Culture and Language Lateralization
  • 7 Reorganization following brain injury
  • 8 Learning Exercise: 8 Questions on Hemispheric Language Lateralization
  • 9 References
Introduction
Hemispheric lateralization refers to the distinction between functions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain. If one hemisphere is more heavily involved in a specific function, it is often referred to as being dominant (Bear et al., 2007). Lateralization is of interest with regards to language, as it is believed that language is a heavily lateralized function: certain aspects of language are found to be localized in the left hemisphere, while others are found in the right, with the left hemisphere most often dominant. This was initially proposed by early lesion-deficit models and studies with split-brain patients, and has been shown in more recent years through tests like the Wada test and imaging studies. There have been studies which show that there are anatomic asymmetries located near and around the regions associated with language, and each hemisphere has shown to play its own but separate role in the production and comprehension of speech. The hemispheric lateralization of language functions has been suggested to be associated with both handedness, sex, bilingualism, sign-language, and a variance amongst cultures. It has also been proposed that a reorganization occurs following brain injury that involves a shifting of lateralized function, as long as the injury occurs early in life.
The History of Discoveries
Jean Baptiste Bouillaud and Simon Alexandre Ernest Aubertin
French physician Jean Baptiste Bouillaud (1796-1881) was one of the earliest proponents of hemispheric language lateralization. On February 21, 1825, Bouillaud presented a paper to the Royal Academy of Medicine in France which suggested that, because so many human tasks are performed using the right hand (such as writing), the left hemisphere might be the in control of that hand. This observation implies that language, at the core of writing, would be localized in the left hemisphere. It was already known at this time that motor function was primarily controlled by the hemisphere ipsilateral to the side of the body through lesion studies. Bouillaud also proposed that speech is localized in the frontal lobes, a theory that was carried on by Bouillaud’s son-in-law Simon Alexandre Ernest Aubertin (1825-1893), who went on to work with famed French neurologist Paul Broca in 1861. Together, Aubertin and Broca examined a patient with a left frontal lobe lesion who had lost nearly all ability to speak; this case and several others similar to it became the basis behind the earliest theories of language lateralization.
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Paul Broca, image obtained from Clower, W. T., Finger, S. (2001)
Paul Broca
French neurologist Paul Broca (1824-1880) is often credited as being the first to expound upon this theory of language lateralization. In 1861, a 51-year-old patient named Leborgne came to Broca; Leborgne was almost completely unable to speak and suffered from cellulitis of the right leg. Leborgne was able to comprehend language but was mostly unable to produce it. He responded to almost everything with the word “tan” and thus came to be known as Tan. Broca theorized that Tan must have a lesion of the left frontal lobe, and this theory was confirmed in autopsy when Tan died later that year (Bear et al., 2007). In 1863, Broca published a paper in which he described eight cases of patients with damage to the left frontal lobe, all of whom had lost their ability to produce language, and included evidence of right frontal lesions having little effect on articulate speech (Bear et al., 2007). These findings led Broca to propose, in 1864, that the expression of language is controlled by a specific hemisphere, most often the left (Bear et al., 2007). “On parle avec l’hemisphere gauche,” Broca concluded (Purves et al., 2008)- we speak with the left hemisphere.
Carl Wernicke
German anatomist Carl Wernicke (1848-1904) is also known as an early supporter of the theory of language lateralization. In 1874, Wernicke found an area in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere, distinct from that which Broca had described, which disrupted language capabilities (Bear et al., 2007). He then went on to provide the earliest map of left hemisphere language organization and processing.
Methods of Assessing Lateralization
Lesion Studies
A good deal of what we know about language lateralization comes from studying the loss of language abilities following brain injury (Bear et al., 2007). Aphasia, the partial or complete loss of language abilities occurring after brain damage, is the source of much of the information on this subject (Bear et al., 2007). As shown in the studies of Bouillaud, Aubertin, Broca and Wernicke described above, lesion studies combined with autopsy reports can tell us a a lot about the localization of language, which ultimately has supplied information on lateralization. Lesion studies have shown that, not only is the left cerebral hemisphere most often dominant for language, but also that the right hemisphere generally is not, as lesions in the right hemisphere rarely disturb speech and language function (Bear et al., 2007).
The dangers of using lesion studies are, of course, that they may overemphasize the relevance of particular localized areas and their associated functions. The connection between brain regions and behaviours is not always simple, and is often based on a larger network of connections. This is shown in the fact that the severity of an individual’s aphasia is often related to the amount of tissue damaged around the lesion itself (Bear et al., 2007). It is also known that there is a difference in the severity of the deficit depending on whether the area was removed surgically, or was caused by stroke. This is the case because strokes affect both the cortex and the subcortical structures; this is due to the location of the middle cerebral artery, which supplies blood to the areas associated with language, as well as involvement of the basal ganglia, and is often the cause of stroke. As such, surgically produced lesions tend to have milder effects than those resulting from stroke (Bear et al., 2007).
File:Splitbrain.jpg
An example of a study involving language in a split-brain patient. The individual says he does not see anything, because the dominant left hemisphere cannot "speak". Image obtained from Experiment Module: What Split Brains Tell Us About Language
Split Brain Studies
Studies of patients who have had commissurotomies (split-brain patients) have provided significant information about language lateralization. Commissurotomy is a surgical procedure in which the hemispheres are disconnected by cutting the corpus callosum, the massive bundle of 200 million axons connecting the right and left hemisphere (Bear et al., 2007). Following this procedure, almost all communication between the hemispheres is lost, and each hemisphere then acts independently of the other. What is striking about split-brain patients with regards to the study of language lateralization is that a word may be presented to the right hemisphere of a patient whose left hemisphere is dominant, and when the patient is asked to name the word they will say that nothing is there. This is because, although the right hemisphere “saw” the word, it is the left hemisphere which “speaks.” If that same word is presented to the left hemisphere, the patient is able to verbalize the response (Bear et al., 2007). As such, split-brain patients have presented substantial evidence that language function is generally lateralized in the left hemisphere.
Wada test
The Wada test was created by Juhn Wada at the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1949, and was designed specifically to study lateralization. A fast-acting barbiturate such as sodium amytal is injected into the carotid artery on one side (although current procedures prefer to use a catheter which is inserted into the femoral artery), and is then transported to the cerebral hemisphere on the opposite side. It then serves to anaesthetize that side of the brain for approximately 10 minutes, after which it begins to wear off and the functions which were disrupted by the anaesthetic gradually return, often displaying aphasic errors (Bear et al., 2007; Wada and Rasmussen, 1960). During the time in which the patient is anaesthetized, he or she is assessed on their ability to use language. If the left hemisphere is anaesthetized and is the dominant hemisphere, the patient loses all ability to speak, whereas if the left hemisphere is anaesthetized but the right hemisphere is dominant, the patient will continue to speak throughout the procedure (Bear et al., 2007).
In a study published in 1977, Brenda Milner used the Wada test to demonstrate that 98% of right-handed people and 70% of left-handed people have a dominant left hemisphere with regards to language and speech function. Her results also showed that 2% of right-handed people have a dominant right hemisphere, which is the same percentage of patients that display aphasia following a lesion to the right hemisphere (Branch et al., 1964).
This procedure is also used prior to brain surgery in order to determine the dominant hemisphere, so as to avoid removal of an area associated with speech and language.
Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography
Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD) is a non-invasive method for examining event-related changes in cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries(Knecht et al., 1998). This technique can reliably assess which hemisphere is dominant and to what extent, which regards to language lateralization. Studies using fTCD have shown a linear relationship between handedness and language (Knecht et al., 2000).
Electrical stimulation, TMS and Imaging
Electrical stimulation was pioneered by Wilder Penfield and his colleagues at the Montreal Neurological Institute in the 1930s, and helped to identify certain lateralized areas associated with speech and language. Electrical stimulation is the application of an electrical current directly to the cortical tissue of a patient who is conscious. Penfield found that stimulating the left frontal or temporal regions of the left hemisphere with an electrical current accelerated the production of speech. He also found that stimulation can cause inhibition in complex functions like language, as applying a current to the areas associated with speech production in the left hemisphere while the patient is engaged in speech serves to disrupt this behaviour (Penfield, 1963). This procedure is performed during surgery while the skull is removed, and as such it is not a commonly used method of assessment.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure, often combined in studies with MRI, which has helped to map the regions associated with speech, showing lateralization to be dominant in the left hemisphere. TMS has also shown that, following brain injury, it is more likely that it is the tissue surrounding the lesion that acts in a compensatory way rather than the opposite hemisphere providing compensation. The major drawback of TMS is, of course, the fact that the magnetic stimulation must pass through the scalp, skull, and meninges before stimulating the brain region of choice.
Imaging studies have proven to be incredibly useful in determining lateralization of language abilities. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been able to show the complex circuitry associated with speech and language; they have also proven to be consistent with the findings from previous lesion studies, as well as Penfield’s electric stimulation (Bear et al., 2007). There has been some controversy regarding bilateral activation shown in fMRI studies, the reasons unknown, however it has been suggested that perhaps the right hemisphere is involved in aspects of speech that are not measured by such tests as the Wada procedure (Bear et al., 2007). A significant finding is that fMRI results during developmental years show activation during speech and the use of language mainly in the left hemisphere, providing further evidence in support of left hemisphere dominance (Bear et al., 2007).
Cerebral Dominance: Language Functions of The Left and Right Hemispheres
The perisylvian cortex of the left hemisphere is involved in language production and comprehension, which is why it is often referred to as dominant, or said to "speak" (Ojemann, G. A., 1991; Purves et al., 2008). Roger Sperry and his colleagues’ split-brain studies have shown that the left hemisphere is also responsible for lexical and syntactic language (grammatical rules, sentence structure), writing and speech (Purves at al., 2008). Other aspects of language which are thought to be governed in most people by the left hemisphere include audition of language-related sounds, recognition of letters and words, phonetics and semantics.
The right hemisphere, though generally not dominant in terms of linguistic ability, has its role in the use of language. Split-brain studies present evidence that, despite the right hemisphere having no “speech,” it is still able to understand language through the auditory system. It also has a small amount of reading ability and word recognition. Lesion studies of patients who have right hemisphere lesions show a reduction in verbal fluency and deficits in the understanding and use of prosody. Patients who have had their right hemisphere surgically removed (hemispherectomy) show no aphasia, but do show less obvious deficiencies in areas such as verbal selection and understanding of metaphor. It has thus been concluded that the right hemisphere is most often responsible for the prosodic and emotional elements of speech and language (Purves et al., 2008).
Anatomical Asymmetries
The structural differences between the right and left hemisphere may play a role in the lateralization of language. In the nineteenth century, anatomists observed that the left hemisphere’s Sylvian fissure (lateral sulcus) is longer and less steep than that of the right (Bear et al., 2007). In 1980, Graham Ratcliffe and his colleagues used evidence of this asymmetry of the Sylvian fissure, shown in carotid angiogram, combined with results of Wada testing, and found that individuals with speech regions located in the left hemisphere had a mean difference of 27 degrees in the angle of the blood vessels leaving the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure, while those with language located in the right hemisphere had a mean angle of zero degrees.
File:Planum temporale.jpg
Asymmetry of the planum temporale. Image obtained from Labspace:Understanding Dyslexia
In the 1960s, Norman Geschwind and his colleagues at Harvard Medical School found that the planum temporale, the superior portion of the temporal lobe, is larger in the left hemisphere in almost two thirds of humans (Geschwind & Levitsky, 1968), an observation which was later confirmed with MRI (Bear et al., 2007; Purves et al., 2008). This asymmetry exists even in the brain of the human fetus (Bear et al., 2007). The correlation of this asymmetry with the left hemisphere’s language dominance is refuted by many due to the fact that 67% of people show this structural asymmetry, while 97% show left hemispheric dominance. Another problem which exists in examining asymmetry of the planum temporale is how the anterior and posterior borders of this region are defined, and the fact that investigators differ in this definition. This is especially a problem when the transverse gyrus of Heschl, used to mark the anterior of the planum temporale, appear in double (which is not unusual). There are differing opinions as to whether or not the second transverse gyrus should be defined as being within the planum temporale, or outside of it (Beardon, A. A., 1997).
Proposed Correlations
Handedness
The correlation between handedness and hemispheric lateralization is described in the results of the Wada test, described above. The majority of the population is right handed (approximately 90%), and the Wada test results propose that 93% of people’s left hemisphere is dominant for language (Bear et al., 2007). A linear relationship between handedness and langage has been shown using fTCD in a study done by Knecht et al. (2008); their findings show an 27% incidence for right hemisphere dominance in their group of left-handers, a finding consistent with the notion of there being a linear relationship between handedness and incidence of right hemisphere dominance in left-handers (Knecht et al., 2000). This study used a word generation task, and admits that perhaps a measurement of prosody or other such suspected right hemisphere functions may have a different relationship with handedness (Knecht et al., 2000). It is also true that correlation does not necessarily imply causation, and it is also suggested that there is no direct relationship between handedness and language at all, as the majority of left-handers also have their language lateralized in the left hemisphere (Purves et al., 2008). It is, however, a physical example of functional asymmetry, and it is certainly possible that a more substantial connection between handedness and language will be found.
Sex Differences
The tendency for women to score higher than men on language-related tasks is perhaps the result of the fact that women also tend to have a larger corpus callosum than men, indicating more neural connections between the right and left hemispheres. fMRI studies show that women have more bilateral activation than men when performing rhyming tasks, and PET studies show that women have more bilateral activation than men during reading tasks. Perhaps the bilateral activation implies the use of what are thought to be right hemisphere language abilities, such as prosody and intonation. Research has also shown that women have a greater ability to recover from left hemisphere brain damage; the evidence provided by the imaging studies in combination with the results of recovery following injury have led to the controversial suggestion that language is more unilateral in men than in women.
Sign Language and Bilingualism
Sign language has shown to be lateralized in the left hemisphere of the brain, in the left frontal and temporal lobes. This is known through the use of lesion studies, in which the patients had left hemisphere lesions in the areas associated with language which impaired their ability to sign, while right hemisphere lesions in the same areas show no linguistic deficit (Hickock et al., 1998). Lesions in the right hemisphere of signers did, however, show a limited use of spatial information encoded iconically (which is when the sign is similar-looking to its referent). This is in keeping with the belief that visuo-spatial ability is a right hemisphere function and suggests that the role of the right hemisphere in sign language is in the non-linguistic features of sign language.
Bilingualism is thought to be an overlapping of populations of neurons corresponding to each language, all of which are located in the frontal and temporal regions of the left hemisphere associated with speech comprehension and speech production.
Culture and Language Lateralization
When thinking of language there is a tendency to focus on that language in which you think, however it has been proposed that lateralization of language functions can vary from culture to culture. Asian languages show more bilateral activation during speech than European languages, likely because Asian languages employ a far greater use of right hemisphere abilities, for example prosody, and the use of spatial processing for the more “pictorial” Chinese characters; Native American languages also show a good deal of bilateral activity.
Reorganization following brain injury
Studies have been done following brain injury to determine the level of recovery of language and speech ability, and whether or not recovery is based on lateralized function. Bryan Woods and Hans-Leukas Teuber looked at patients with prenatal and early postnatal brain injury located in either the right or left hemisphere and drew several conclusions. First, if the injury occurs very early, language ability may survive even after left hemisphere brain damage. Second, they found that an appropriation of language regions by the right hemisphere is responsible for the survival of these abilities, but because of this there is a tendency for visuo-spatial ability to be diminished. Third, right hemisphere lesions have the same effect in prenatal and early postnatal patients as they do in adults. Brenda Milner and Ted Rasmussen used the Wada test to determine that early brain injury can cause either left, right or bilateral speech dominance, and that those who retained left hemisphere dominance had damage that was not in either the anterior (Broca’s) or posterior (Wernicke’s) speech zone. Those whose dominance shifted to the right hemisphere most often had damage to these areas. Milner and Rasmussen also found that brain damage which occurs after the age of 5 does not cause a shift in lateralization but rather reorganizes within the hemisphere, potentially employing surrounding areas to take responsibility for some aspects of speech.
In patients who have had hemispherectomy of the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere can often gain considerable language ability. When performed in adulthood, speech comprehension is usually retained (though speech production suffers severe deficits); reading capability is small, and there is usually no writing capability at all.
Learning Exercise: 8 Questions on Hemispheric Language Lateralization
1. In terms of hemispheric lateralization and split-brain patients (individuals which have had commissurotomies), if the word “pencil” was presented to the right field of vision of a split-brain patient and he/she was asked to report what they had seen, the patient would respond:
a) by selecting a pencil with the contralateral hand
b) by saying the word “pencil”
c) by saying “nothing is there”
d) by selecting a pencil with the ipsilateral hand
2. The left hemisphere is responsible for all aspects of syntax, except parsing. True or false?
3. What is the structural evidence given to explain the fact that women tend to score higher than men on language-related tasks? What implications might this have on gender differences in patients with aphasia?
4. What 3 conclusions did Bryan Woods and Hans-Leukas Teuber draw regarding the reorganization of language ability following brain injury? Would there be differences in such reorganization in people who are hearing impaired?
5. Through what anatomical system is the right hemisphere able to understand language? What happens to language ability following a removal of the right hemisphere? In what ways do individuals who have had their right hemisphere removed differ from split-brain patients?
6. What were the symptoms of the patient “Tan” which, when presented to neurologist Paul Broca in 1861, propelled Broca to his theory regarding hemispheric language lateralization? Based on current methods of assessment, would Broca's theory still be considered valid today? Why or why not?
7. Which type of study would be best used in order to assess anatomical asymmetry and why?
8. Which type of study is most useful in assessing the connection between hemispheric language lateralization and handedness, and why?
References
Beaton, A. A. (1997). The Relation of Planum Temporale Asymmetry and Morphology of the Corpus Callosum to Handedness, Gender, and Dyslexia: A Review of the Evidence. Brain and Language 60, 255–322
Bear, M. F., Connors, B. W., Paradiso, M. A. (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: USA.
Branch, C., Milner, B., Rasmussen, T. (1964). Intracarotid Sodium Amytal for the Lateralization of Cerebral Speech Dominance. Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp 399-405.
Clower, W. T., Finger, S. (2001). Discovering Trepanation: The Contribution of Paul Broca. Neurosurgery, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp 1417-1426.
Geschwind, N., Levitsky, W. (1968). Human Brain: Left-Right Asymmetries in Temporal Speech Region. Science, New Series, Vol. 161, No. 3837, pp. 186-187.
Hickok, G., Bellugi, U., Klima, E. S. (1998). The neural organization of language: evidence from sign language aphasia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp 129-136.
Jay, T. B. (2003). The Psychology of Language. Prentice Hall: New Jersey, USA.
Knecht, S., Deppe, M., Ebner, A., Henningsen, H., Huber, T., Jokeit, H, Ringelstein, E.-B. (1998). Noninvasive Determination of Language Lateralization by Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography : A Comparison With the Wada Test. Stroke, Vol. 29, pp 82-86.
Knecht, S., Deppe, M., Drager, B., Bobe, L., Lohmann, H., Ringelstein, E.-B., Henningsen, H. (2000). Language lateralization in healthy right-handers. Brain, Vol. 123, pp 74-81.
Kolb, B., Whishaw, I. Q. (2009). Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, 6th edition. Worth Publishers: USA.
Ojemann, G. A. (1991). Cortical Organization of Language. The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 7, pp 2281-2287.
Penfield, W. (1963). The Brain's Record of Auditory and Visual Experience. Brain, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 595-696.
Purves, D., Augustine, G. J., Fitzpatrick, D., Hall, W. C., LaMantia, A., McNamara, J. O., White, L. E. (2008). Neuroscience, 4th edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc.: Massachusetts, USA.
Wada, J., Rasmussen, T. (1960). Intracarotid Injection of Sodium Amytal for the Lateralization of Cerebral Speech Dominance Experimental and Clinical Observations. Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 17, No. 2.
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Dear colleagues
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thanks for comments.
regards
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Could you be more specific? Nationality provides a legal protection in States of law to national people and access to some public services while human rights are supposed to insure a minimum universal and global protection to all human beings no matter what their nationality is. If national law targets foreigners with specific discremination measures, it would be probably against human rights but on the other hand if national law doesn't authorize foreigners to get access to all the same public services than nationals, there isn't a violation if basic rights of foreigners - as describes in human rights - are respected by public authorities. Do you have some case/example in mind about your question?
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discuss in detail
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Dear Christopher Nock,
Dear Florian Glodeanu,
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