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Are there distinct or unique physiological responses to humorous stimuli? Of special interest is political humor such as in editorial/political cartoons. Such political humor also has been posited as generating anger responses so a second question would be if there are differences in humor and anger responses that can clearly identify the source of the humor/anger response.
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Lee: Check out this PowerPoint about Laughter and Smiling:
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I would be very interested to know what you think may be the biggest gaps or problems that has to be solved in human physiology so that stress as phenomenon would be less vague and better measurable. Any ideas welcome! Julie
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Stress is a vague metaphysical (mental) construct, not a concrete phenomena. The term is used to capture myriad socio-environmental contexts, and concomitant physiologic and psychological responses (e.g., cortisol, epinephrine, anxiety, HRV, etc.). Thus, for a number of reasons the term will always be vague and often conflated with worry and anxiety.
First, 'stress' does not exist outside its use as a construct; the wide variety of proxy markers assumed to be associated with it prevent it from being a concise, valid, and measurable scientific phenomena.
Second, (following Classical Measurement Theory) I argue that 'stress' per se cannot be measured because it is does not exhibit the requisite properties of a quantitative variable (i.e., it does not have both ordinal and additive structure).
Third, my work with HIV patients showed that there was no correlation between 'perceived stress' and any of the proxy markers we tested. Thus, the construct ( as we attempted to measure it) exhibited no predictive, no descriptive, nor explanatory value. In other words, (for us) it was meaningless.
Finally, for most of human history the 'stress' of surviving was orders of magnitude greater than the modern, industrialized world. For example, finding and consuming sufficient food and water were constant, dangerous struggles. Death was ever-present. Prehistoric plants were often poisonous and had too few calories to ensure survival, so early humans also killed and ate animals. But they were not always the predator; sometimes they were prey.
Thus, whenever our tree-dwelling ancestors climbed down to eat or drink, they could be eaten—or worse, partially consumed and left to die while waiting for the scavengers to finish the ‘leftovers’.
Therefore, humans (like most animals) evolved under the ubiquitous threats of death via starvation, dehydration, and predation. I doubt the most crime-ridden city in the world can compare with the environs in which our species evolved.
Given these truths and because 'stress' is not a measurable, scientific construct, its use will always be prone to bias, meaninglessness, and miscommunication.
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This is a season of Love. Love is deeply biological. It pervades every aspect of our lives and has inspired countless works of art. Love also has a profound effect on our mental and physical state. A “broken heart” or a failed relationship can have disastrous effects; bereavement disrupts human physiology and may even precipitate death. Without loving relationships, humans fail to flourish, even if all of their other basic needs are met. As such, love is clearly not “just” an emotion; it is a biological process that is both dynamic and bidirectional in several dimensions. What role does oxytocin play here?
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Dont think its caused by chemicals. I think it causes the release of chemicals!
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Hello, everyone,
I am trying to simulate the intradical pressure using an intervertebral disc finite element model, to compare experimental results in the literature. I am wondering if the intradisc pressure is defined as the average hydrostatic pressure in the disc nucleus pulposus?
Additionally, the intradiscal pressures were reported in positive values (especially in the loading scenarios where a pure moment was applied). Does the positive value represent tension or compression?
Thanks a lot,
Chaochao
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Amin Kassab-Bachi The hydrostatic pressure is an output in most commercial FEA software.
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I am interested in studying all the physiological, neural, endocrine mechanisms associated with different breathing exercises suggested by traditional pranayama - such as ujjayi, bhramari, nadi suddhi, kapala bhaati, breath holding - and also other newer techniques. As part of this, I want to study how the endothelial functions change due to some of these practices. Hence, the question. I did not formally study biology or human physiology at any time. So, I have a lot of gaps in my knowledge w.r.t. human anatomy and physiology. I shall be grateful, if anyone can point me to good sources of information about the above, and also distinguished researchers who have contributed original knowledge in this field.
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The method I know is named vascular reactivity, so, I'm sending you the DOI of one of my group paper witch we work with endotelial function and a study material describing it (I'm sorry that the last one is in portuguese).
I hope I'm helpful.
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I'm doing drug release in 4.3 acidic pH and 7.4 human physiological pH. I'm quantifying the releasing medium by U.V but i'm not getting any peaks of the drug. Any suggestions?
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Sorry to ask the obvious, but do you get drug peaks when you directly add it to the medium in the concentrations and temperatures you use for the release test?
In addition to the pH, is the temperature also physiological?
Do you have proper agitation?
Do you have dispersion? (If the particles all clump together, dissolution may be slowed dramatically.)
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There are many research articles exploring alpha glucosidase, salivary and pancreatic alpha amylase inhibition as a therapeutic target for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) in type 2 diabetes. Out of these three, which one is more important/superior and why?
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pancreatic alpha shares higher proportion as conmpared to salivary which makes it better. is this the main reason?
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The plasma concentration of secretin hormone in fasted and fed condition.
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Many of the machine learning algorithms use k-means clustering to improve the clasification performance based on human physiological signals.
However, while some studies uses a subject specific clustering (where subjects are divided into subgroups such that each subject is finally assigned to a specific subgroup), some other studies used epoch based clustering (where multiple epochs from the same subject's data are assigned to multiple subgroups. This is also extended to multiple subjects).
Why are these two approaches required and what could be the advantages/disadvantafges of one over another?
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From what I understand, for each subject in your data, you have a sequence of observations over epochs. Based on this assumption, my understanding is that the subject-specific approach clusters the subjects based on the average behavior of the subject, while the epoch-specific approach clusters the individual observations. The former would tell you about the average nature of the subjects while the latter can give you an idea of how the behavior of the subjects change over epochs.
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Resistence training methods and endurance training methods are together considered the best way to become healthy and fit. Do you consider a model based on method and its reaction on human physiology or are you investigate different models of training in the same men/women to show the different possibility of reactions of the same method? Showing that the trainer have to know in the best mode his athlete physiology?
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Dear Guglielmo
My suggestions are as follows:
There are many factors affecting an effectiveness of physical exercises. First of all, as your project takes into account the time of day (traning or testing ), it is worth at the beginning to establish chronotyp of each participant, is it morningness (named "early bird") or eveningness ("the nigth owl"). Find the appropriate questionnaire in PubMed. A heavier training session should be adjusted to one`s the preffered daytime to lowers exercise stress.
Do not mix resistance exercises with those of endurance at the same session.
Take into consider, that traditional resistance training may also develop a physical endurance in case of lower load with higher number of repetitions and shorter breaks between sets. So-called "lower load" is defined as no higher than 60% of maximal strength of muscles (f.i 60% of 1RM). These exercises, however, increase levels of both hormones, CORT and TESTO, hence, thay may decrease anabolic-carabolic index (T-to-C ratio). Typical, higher resistance training is lower repetitions, lower volume but higher load (80-90 % of 1RM and longer, always self-chosen intermissions. That mode induces rise of TESTO, lowers of CORT and strangth gain.
One may expect two gene-dependent types of post training adaptations, which are defined as "low or high responder" with reference to a strength or endurance.
If you want to discuss about the topic , feel free to ask me more questions.
Regards
Zbigniew
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Your lungs, liver and brain are arranged in lobes- why? Conceivably, lobes could render the body more mobile (e.g. lobes could ‘glide’ over each other, similar to scales on which slide past each other as a fish twist his body), but this argument only make sense for lungs and possibly liver. What is the functional value of growing organs in ‘lobes’?
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The lobes of the lung are bounded by impermeable fissures, which serve a 'containment' function in helping to keep a problem (for example, infection) localized to that region. This would seem likely to have been a strong survival advantage in the pre-antibiotic era. There might, therefore, be an evolutionary explanation of their development. By the way, why do we have two lungs?
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Most mathematical models used in human physiological investigations have been created for solving special tasks. However, my experience shows that often the expectations of the physiologist and modeler's understanding of the physiological problem differing. I think, the gap between two views of a collaboration could be minimized if experimenters can formulate their view of a "dream model".
I think this question will give rise to an effective discussion on RG.
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Follow this link ( types of computer)
regards
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There are several molecular forms of Cholecystokinin (CCK), of which CCK-8 and CCK-33 are the two frequently used molecular forms in pharmaceutical infusion studies to induce fullness and reduce hunger in human/animals.
However, in dietary studies, which involve participants to consume a test meal, which molecular form of postprandial plasma CCK should we assess? What are the methods available? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
Many dietary studies have not been explicitly stating the molecular form of CCK analysed, although some did mentioned CCK-8, CCK-33 or total CCK being measured.
So how should be make decision around which form of postprandial plasma CCK should be analysed in appetite studies?
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Cholecystokinin-8 regulates hepatic glucose production through a CNS-dependent CCKAR mechanism which may be defective in the setting of obesity.
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Does stroke volume and diastolic BP have a positive linear correlation?
Given greater pre-load and thus end-diastolic volume is it expected that diastolic BP would be reduced?
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Hi Terun Desai,
Increase or decrease in the stroke volume has some influence in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). But It is directly proportional the total peripheral resistance (TPR) offered by blood vessels, whereas systolic blood pressure (SBP) is directly proportional to the stroke volume.
If there is increase in the peripheral resistance there will be increase in the DBP as seen in atherosclerosis in which condition there is decrease in the diameter of the blood vessel, will offer more resistance to blood flow. In order to pump adequate amount of blood to the tissues in this condition, there will be increase in the heart rate and stroke volume, therefore increase in the SBP. Hence there will be increase both SBP and DPB (Increase in BP).
Exercise causes increase in the SBP and a slight increase in the DBP. During exercise there will be increased production of metabolic waste product which will dilate the blood vessels. Therefore there will be decreased TPR, which will not allow to increase in the DPB much. At the same time, increase in the sympathetic during activity during exercise will increase the heart rate and stroke volume increases the SBP. Though sympathetic activity has vaso-constriction effect on blood vessels, where increase in TPR is expected, overwhelming activity by metabolic waste product eventually increase the diameter of the blood vessels causes decrease in DBP.
Therefore SBP is directly proportional to stroke volume and DBP is directly proportional to the TPR.
To answer the question asked by Sergey Kozhukhov in the last para, you need to understand the regulatory mechanism of BP. Whenever there is decrease in the heart rate (mostly happens if there is decrease in the sympathetic activity or increase in parasympathetic (vagal) activity), cause decrease in stroke volume (amount of blood pumped out per ventricle per beat(stroke) ~ 70 ml/beat), and cardiac output (amount of blood pumped out in one minute ~ 5L/min), therefore decreases in the SBP. Since there is no vaso-constrictor effect by sympathetic fibers, will cause dilatation/ relaxation of blood vessels. Hence decrease in the DBP. An overall decrease in the BP (SBP & DBP), cause a decrease in the activity of the baro-receptor (a pressure receptor that sense changes in the blood pressure). This will decrease inhibitory effect baro-receptors on the on the vasomotor center (which regulates sympathetic activity) in the brain. This will increase the sympathetic activity eventually will increase the SBP by increasing the hear rate & stroke volume and increase in the DBP by vaso-constrictor effect.
Hope you doubt is cleared. If not, mail me for more explanation
Best
Ramesh
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Hello everyone,
We will start culturing HASMCs and HAECs soon in our lab and I am trying to get ready. However, I am confused regarding what type of medium to use. I have done a literature scan and it seems a variety of different media are in use by different researchers. Do you have any experience? What do you use to keep these cells happy?
What I have learned from what I read:
1. HASMCs--> DMEM low glucose (or DMEM/F12 3:1 ratio) + 10% FBS + ascorbic acid + nonessential aminoacids + pen/strep
-DMEM or DMEM/F12?
-What quality of FBS do you use? US origin?
2. HAECs--> Medium 199 (life technologies) + 10% FBS (life technologies) + pen/strep
-What difference would it make to have HEPES in Medium 199?
3. Trypsin (which concentration? and with or without EDTA?)
4. Use DPBS (instead of PBS which has Ca in it)
And also in some papers it is suggested to use collagen or gelatin coated plates to seed these cells on. What is your experience?
Sorry, I asked quite a bit of questions! Thanks very much for your time!
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Hi Derya, sorry only replying now -
I have never needed to coat my wells or flasks for HAECs or HASMCs which I get from Promocell!
Best wishes,
Sophie
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Breath Holding (BH) is a voluntary act but normal subjects are unable to breath till the point of unconsciousness. . The most likely cause of break-point and the consequent involuntary breathing is the stimulation of chemoreceptors by a fall in PaO2 below and a rise in PaCO2 above their respective critical partial pressures.  BH at the end of exercise interval had shown significant reductions in pHa, arterial PO2 and O2 saturation and elevations in arterial PCO2 and arterial HCO3- .  I want to know whether ABG changes are responsible for the rise in blood pressure following breath holding ?
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If by breath holding, you mean slower or less deep breathing that increases pCO2 by about 4 mmHg, it increases blood pressure by a small amount.  This phenomenon was published in an article by Bagrov AY, et al. in an article in Hypertension in 1995.  The exact mechanism remains to be clarified.
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How are the autonomic regulation of the heart rate and other functions of the human body-the tone of the vessels, respiration, intestines, endocrine glands, etc., related to each other?
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Hi, that's a big question. Each of these functions is related to the other in very specific ways, and then they are connected in an ascending hierarchy of systems engaged in a wide variety of functions. You may however find reading up on the central autonomic network helpful. This is the brain and nervous system structure that coordinates autonomic aspects of all these physiological functions.
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As distance runners have a lower muscle mass but they involve bigger muscle mass than some other disciplines. What is the impact on that issue over respiratory parameters like ventilation and breathing frequency?
Thanks in advance,
Santiago Sanz
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Hi Gino and Peter,
thanks a lot to both of you for all info given. Now I have some arguments to contrast the data I got for our upcoming paper.
Once again many thanks,
Santi
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Can we infer levels of one from the measures of the others?
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Dear Andrea, epigenetics certainly plays a role in regulating BDNF promoters activity. If you are interested in this topic, you may see these papers (among others). Kind regards, Enrico
Mallei A, Baj G, Ieraci A, Corna S, Musazzi L, Lee FS, Tongiorgi E, Popoli M. Expression and Dendritic Trafficking of BDNF-6 Splice Variant are Impaired in Knock-In Mice Carrying Human BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Jun 24;18(12)
Chen KW, Chen L. Epigenetic Regulation of BDNF Gene during Development and Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Mar 6;18(3).
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The official website is not replying to my e-mail. Any suggestions?
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I have this software and I have also Envi-met. please, see the attachments
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I am designing a stimulator for both muscle and cortical neurons stimulation to be used in physiology laboratory and after reading some papers I am still a bit puzzled about the best range of some of the parameters related to the outputs such as:
1.range and resolution of the amplitude of the output current ( I am using a 16-bit DAC)
2. maximum compliant voltage required to be adequate for the stimulation with most of the electrodes (in most cases it is mentioned that 12 volts is enough , although 80 or 100 volts has been mentioned in some other cases due to high impedance electrodes).
PS. 
I know that the amplitude of the output current depends on the distance of the electrode tip from the nerve and also the fact that the pulse duration also influences the proper amplitude.But I still need to know the best range for different applications.
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FYI, the stimulator I normally use for human muscle stimulation is the Digitimer DS7AH. We require the electrode-tissue impedance to be 10 kOhm or less when measured at 30 Hz. It typically is in the 5-10 kOhm range. Though in my previous post I said that some persons require up to 600 mA to optimally stimulate their quadriceps, most persons rarely require more than 400 mA. I also forgot to mention that we use a pulse duration of 0.2 ms.
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what are the composition of human oviductal fluid?
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oviductal fluid is rich in K+ and HCO3 – in comparison with plasma. The oncentrations of nutrients also differ from those in plasma The amino acids present in the highest  concentrations are arginine, alanine and glutamate in human. 
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Database of 0-2 year babies facial expressions.
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this just came out:
ABSTRACT:  
  
Behav Res Methods. 2017 Feb 15. doi: 10.3758/s13428-017-0859-9. [Epub ahead of print]
The City Infant Faces Database: A validated set of infant facial expressions.
Webb R1, Ayers S2, Endress A3.
Author information
 
Abstract
Adults need to be able to process infants' emotional expressions accurately to respond appropriately and care for infants. However, research on processing of the emotional expressions of infant faces is hampered by the lack of validated stimuli. Although many sets of photographs of adult faces are available to researchers, there are no corresponding sets of photographs of infant faces. We therefore developed and validated a database of infant faces, which is available via e-mail request. Parents were recruited via social media and asked to send photographs of their infant (0-12 months of age) showing positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions. A total of 195 infant faces were obtained and validated. To validate the images, student midwives and nurses (n = 53) and members of the general public (n = 18) rated each image with respect to its facial expression, intensity of expression, clarity of expression, genuineness of expression, and valence. On the basis of these ratings, a total of 154 images with rating agreements of at least 75% were included in the final database. These comprise 60 photographs of positive infant faces, 54 photographs of negative infant faces, and 40 photographs of neutral infant faces. The images have high criterion validity and good test-retest reliability. This database is therefore a useful and valid tool for researchers.
KEYWORDS:
Emotional expression; Face database; Infant faces; Stimuli
PMID:
 28205132
 DOI:
 10.3758/s13428-017-0859-9
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No details are needed.  I jusr don't know any other way than to use your question service to contact you.  There are so many Liebermenchen that are in the sciences.  The name is rather uncommon.  I do not write about human physiology.  The vassopressin article is not mine.  Please remove it from your list of my publications and consign it to its rightful owner.  
Thank you,  Milton Lieberman
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Best practice/ protocol and most effective water temperature.
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Not a simple answer. Recovery programmes require an individualised approach focussed on the goals of the athlete, their training/competition schedule and the
environment they are in.
CWI temperature and duration should follow such guidelines. However most research is conducted ~10-15 deg C for ~10-15 mins
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Seeking to investigate whether it is better to train with the 'lights on' in the early morning (05:30 ish) as opposed to a low light environment. Does training with light increase neural firing, strength, alertness...etc
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Hi,
It is an inter. topic. I think you will not be able to generalise it, because every person has its "own circadian rhythm" (inner day-night clock, early bird ...) which is entrainable very differently. Probably you should ask some specialists in the field of chronobiology.
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We recovered human hair from some graves during the excavation of a cemetery. I would now like to know what ambient conditions are best to for long term storage of these samples in order to ensure that bioarcheometric analyses will still be possible in future.  Can anyone recommend specific storage containers? And at what temperature and degree of humidity should the samples be stored?
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@ Sandra
... you likely will not find my advice /recommendations supported in any preservationist's or curator's manual, but if I were faced with your problem, I would store the hair specimens (carefully insured against humidity by inclusion of silica-gel desiccation packets) in air-tight glass containers (wide-mouthed Pyrex bottles or jars with clamp-on lids and Viton gaskets / seals), in which the air has been displaced (flushed-out) by argon before sealing. 100% pure argon gas is generally, ubiquitously and cheaply, available (every university will have cylinders of it ... if not readily available on loan from your physical sciences department, then just ask the maintenance department ... it is a common consumable for every modern arc-welder). 
This method has several advantages ... not the least of which is establishing/maintaining the best preservation environment at the least expense ... AND being able to withdraw specimens at intervals for tests in the future with ease and, without affecting (significantly or negatively the preservation of) the remaining bulk.
Additionally, clear/colorless glass containers will provide the most ease /facility /efficiency in storing /monitoring /inventorying the specimens over long periods of time.
The glass containers should be stored in a cool-and-dark place (any light-tight /drawer /cabinet or /closet-shelf in an air-conditioned building would be adequate), but freezing would not be /necessary /advised or /advantageous.
PS - my recommendations are based-upon (adapted from) the method of preservation chosen for what may be the most cherished parchment document in the world ... the Constitution of the United States of America.  It also is likely the best-protected, artifact in the world, having it's own bunker hundreds-of-feet underground into which the document will recede via an automatic elevator to survive any attack, even direct-hits by a nuclear warhead on the surface). Of course, this farthest step would not be necessary for your hair specimens ;) 
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Does the strong magnet effect the brain as the brain function is depending on the electromagnetic principle. 
And If the human body is projected to strong magnet like N52 rare earth magnet .
Dose  this may change any flow of static electricity in the body ?
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I have a research about determination of pepsin, alpha-amylase and lipase in gastric fluid. I need to know how many international unit of these enzym activity in gastric juice, approximately. Can you help me? Do you have any document about it?
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Hi ,you can see this link ...good luck.
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If human beings are exposed to normobaric hypoxia with an inhaled oxygen of 10.5% for one hour, how long does the effect of hypoxia persist after cessation of hypoxia exposure?
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As indicated above there are a number of hormones and inflammatory markers that will remain elevated for a few hours after exposure. Feelings of headache, lethargy, light-headedness and dizziness can occur after exposure. We now prevent our participants from driving home immediately after, due to reports of dizziness and 'faintness' after exposures. However, all physiological variables monitored (SpO2, HR, VE) will appear as normal almost immediately after exiting the chamber.
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Assuming the person has had it for six years, went from 190 pounds to 144 due to the inability to eat more than 1500 calories in a day comfortably. Tried western medicine route, eradicated H pylori and symptoms only got worse. Height is 6'2. He never has any energy. After every meal he feels weighed down for hours. Pain in legs, knees, and arms. Tongue is pale with a little white coating, not as much as to indicate thrush. Pulse is long and slow, about 70 or a few less beats per minute. Blood pressure is a little low, about 100/60. 28 years old. Symptoms are dull epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed inflammation but no ulcer.
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There may be a Chinese formulation - but you would need to have a competent Chinese specialist evaluate the patient's exact condition.  Failing that....
Has there been history of food poisoning?  In the case of many intestinal problems the micro biome is disturbed and the resulting disease causing biota may be releasing a by product that would result in the inflammation.  Inflammation should not be discounted as it may interfere with the nerve process for peristalsis.
It has been theorized that the appendix functions to retain the micro biome in the case of food poisoning ( re-seeding the intestine ).  This sounds correct to me, but begs the question - does this in fact  constantly re-seed the intestine with the disease causing mix in some conditions?  
My approach would attempt to re-seed with a acidophilus of active and of by-product.  When considering this approach you would be striving to dilute the entire digestive tract by utilizing enough volume on a regular dosage schedule to imitate the 'filtration of water'.  
First pass removes 97% of contaminates, then next filter removes 97% of the contaminates in that same sample....  This would require an estimation of the 'each' daily dosage volume to counteract the amount of disease causing quorum bacteria coating the digestive system.  Fecal transplants indicate a certain volume is required for greater chance at efficacy.  
As to duration it may require a week - or a month of daily application.
I would suggest considering the product ' American Health Probiotic Acidopholus '
Vitacost seems a best value supplier.
Best regards
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Hello researchers,
I am testing an intervention for its effect on respiratory muscles strength/function and I wonder if breathing frequency (f), PIFR, PEFR & FVC are reliable indicators of breathlessness? I am aware that maximal inspiratory (mouth) pressure, maximal inspiratory (mouth) pressure and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure are better indicators of breathlessness with higher correlation.
Any advise or guidance would be greatly appreciated, thank you
Edit: I am testing on healthy participants and not COPD, asthma
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Many thanks Jorge Luis Sarmiento and Saumy Johnson for your kind advices.   
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Or do you know a drug (or a drug candidate in clinical trial) which impacts (directly or indirectly) phosphatase activity?
Thank you!
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Alk PO4ases are regulated by PTH and vit D. I am sure that most likely intracellular PO4ases that participate in signaling (there should be many, many Po4ases in the cell) have regulation by most hormones.
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Does anyone know of a large population-based dataset that recorded body temperature in humans? 
Thanks!
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It depends very much on what you are looking for. distribution at rest/work/....
There are some data on people measured when they get out of bed showing a distribution, by Wenzel from IFADO in Germany (from 1980ies?). If you can me nore specific there may be some options. Nothing on a full population scale to my knowledge though.
George
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Hey we want to check the influence of Pfkm in our cellculture system. But I could not find a siRNA mentioned in publications. It would be nice whether you can help. Or may be there is a way to create few by myself, but I have never done it before.
Best
David
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Thank you all
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I would like to measure baseline and then change in NEAT activity rather than volitional exercise or purely steps.  My email is maryann_faucher@baylor.edu.
Thanks in advance for your advise.
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Indeed, use of indirect calorimetry via a metabolic cart (Parvomedics or similar) will allow you to measure oxygen consumption, which corresponds to energy expenditure,  and is typically provided in the report from the cart or can be calculated (each liter of absolute O2 consumed ~ 5 Kcal).
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Generation of Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) leads to cure of various tumors. This is the mechanism behind the working of various cancer treatments. Howeve, are there free ions generated during the formation of ROS? Could ROS generation be co-rrelated with the increase/decrease in electrical conductivity? 
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I think the article "A n Introduction to Reactive Oxygen Species" by Paul Held, Laboratory Manager, Applications Dept., BioTek Instruments, Inc., may help you to get the answer of your question.
The link of this article is as follows:
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I am working with 1x phosphate buffer saline. I heard that there are different salt concentration of this buffer . What are they and how can I prepare them?
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Hello Jessy Two
1. Dissolve the following in 800ml distilled H2O.
                    -  8g of NaCl
                    -  0.2g of KCl
                      - 1.44g of Na2HPO4
                       -  0.24g of KH2PO4 
2. Adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl.
3. Adjust volume to 1L with additional distilled H2O.
4. Sterilize by autoclaving.
People call this PBS 10mM, because the important component for buffer is Na2HPO4
  137 mM NaCl
    2.7  mM KCl
    10  mM Na2HPO4
     2   mM KH2PO4 
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I want to study the physiological concentration of lactic acid in bone marrow or after exercise. Does anyone know the concentration in bone marrow in vertebrate such as human, mice.
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Lactic acid concentration relation to the oxygen intake and intensity and volume of physical effort and age of player and her level ....It is known that lactic concentration in the blood of people trained to be less than that of untrained when doing the same [physical pregnancy due this to increase the players trained reliance on anaerobic processes in the production of energy and increase the efficiency of the disposal of increased lactic have, influenced by increasing lactic acid degree environment temperature where increases the level of lactic when physical performance less than the maximum load at a temperature of 36 with him at a temperature of 20 was recorded (Volkov 1980) (33: 57) reaching the concentration of lactic acid after the 200-meter dash 198 mg% and 400 meters 227 mg% and 800 meters 211 mg% after 1,500 meters 163 mg%. 81)
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I started working with electrical field stimulation and I need to remove the endothelium of my mesenteric artery rings. But I need to be careful, because, during this process, I can damage the nerve-ending, and, this way, my experiments don't work. Can you guys give me suggetions about how can I do it? Thak you so much
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Damaging nerve should not be a problem so your current method is too vigorous - are you rubbig the whole vessel together? , are you using wire or pressure myograph makes the method of removal very different.
I am presuming wire; we have always used a human hair, finer hair is better. we prefer hair to wire as hair has rough ridges that help to strip the endothelium. First we set up as normal test the endothelium. After this we partially remove the some  but not all tension and insert a hair into the lumen. We now apply some but not all the tension back to the tissue and make long slow smooth sweeps of the lumen taking care not to "concertina" the artery on the wires (all under dissecting microscope!). We often adjust tension during this process to make sure we brush all of the lumen, you can often see the cells being removed. We tend to do this for 5 min then return tension, wash, and test the enothelium if less than 10% relaxation we say the enothelium is funtionally removed. If there is still endothelium we repart process but maybe for 2 min, The key is to be gentle.
For pressure test endothelium then pass an air bubble through the lumen repeat until endothelium removed
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Reasons?
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diabetes alter  lipid metabolism and adverse effect of lipotropic factor  biochemical  efficiency  . plasma protein  and  lipoprotein  value  imbalance ,  increases  VLDL  very much   it also cause  obesity.
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Kistler, RSScan
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Thank you, but i suppose this is not standardized. Am I correct.
Maybe you know engineers, we express better in a scheme, could you please draw a schematic.
Thank you.
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As far as I know only the L enantiomer of adrenaline has been found in the blood. But   collisions of this enantiomer in the blood could lead to a racemization producing a certain amount of the D enantiomer.
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the D(+) - adrenaline has not been tested on human beings. Moreover, no
endogenous D (+) - adrenaline has been found in the human body yet.
However, it is known that the L (-) - adrenaline in solution is inactivated by
racemization, that is, half of it is transformed into D (+) - adrenaline
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i have been training so hard for the past two weeks and today throughout the day I was having a running stomach. Last year I was training athletics team during their preparation for the cross-country competition, and most of them were complaining about their running stomach. I interviewed them about the type of diet and amount of fluid they are taking, but it was a good diet and approximately 5-8 litres of water they drank per day(before, during and after training). I'm trying to find out if you guys you have a solution for this encountered solution. i want to know the physiological changes that takes place in the body that resulted in this situation 
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Thank you to Laurent and Mary for covering a wide range of literature to give you a sound footing in understanding the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract - particularly during exercise.  One thing that hasn't been picked up is the sheer volume of water the athletes were consuming throughout the day.  Additionally, it is not clear as to whether the training camp was conducted in a different country than the athletes were usually training in - two things to clarify before making comparisons to your own circumstances.
Finally, these are seemingly well trained athletes familiar with increased training loads - your personal circumstances suggest you are not familiar with training loads therefore making the link between the two events difficult.    
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Dear all,
          I have studied two boys populations (tribal and non-tribal) aged 8-16 yrs. The data are collected from similar geographical region, during the year 2013-14. Both the population are showing adolescent growth spurt around 12-13 yrs. Non-tribals are the early maturers.
Results shows that, the height-for-age distance curve of tribal boys is below non-tribal boys for all ages (8-16 yrs.). The weight-for-age distance curve of tribal boys is below non-tribal boys upto the age of 12. But at adolescence (13 yrs) tribals touches the non-tribals weight-for-age distance curve and at 15 yrs age tribals crosses the curve and are above the non-tribal boys. (finds clearly in the attached image).
Can anybody answer the specific reasons of this type of growth pattern in weight-for-age curve, apart from the genetic factor?
Is there any similar publications?
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I agree in general that dietary differences may be the cause.  Clear evidence of  reduced growth in height appeared in Japanese children during World War II, whereas there was continual secular growth in years before and after. 
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relation exists
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Dear Shilpakala,,
I think that there is definitely a relationship . In  hyperinsulinemic/diabetic patients  the epimerase enzyme activity increased . This implies an increase of the conversion of myo - inositol to D - chiro - inositol . This represents a defense mechanism to reduce insulin resistance . At the same time , however, the reduction of myo - inositol determines a reduction of myo - inositolphsphoglycan promoters of the signals for both FSH and TSH . This results in a resistance of the thyroid to TSH with consequent increase of the same . I hope to be liked . BR Vittorio
 
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I have an EMG data for several muscles and i need to calculate the force produced from these muscles. Can anyone help me?
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For the short answer, no, you cannot determine force production from EMG. At best, you might determine the relative force production within a muscle (or muscle group) but that assumes you had a trial in which the subject did a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and that the relationship between EMG amplitude and force production is linear, which may or may not be true. If the relationship is linear, you could normalize submaximal contraction EMG amplitude values to the MVC one and from that you would get relative force production values.
You also cannot compare different muscles (or muscle groups) on their absolute force production using EMG. At the same level of contraction force production, it is doubtful that two muscles would have the same EMG amplitude.
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Does anyone know where to buy a translated to english copy of Zur Interpretation von Laktatleistungskurven - experimentelle Ergebnisse mit computergestuetzten Nachberechnungen which translates to For the interpretation of lactate power curves - experimental results with computergestuetzten recalculations
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The articles in question are -
Bleicher A, Mader A, Mester J - title and I think journal - Zur Interpretation von Laktatleistungskurven-experimentelle Ergebnisse mit computergestützten Nachberechnungen. Spectrum der Sportwissenschaft - 1998;1:92–104
Also - Mader A, Heck H. Energiestoffwechselregulation, Erweiterungen des theoretischen Konzepts und seiner Begründungen. Nachweis der praktischen Nützlichkeit der Simulation des Energiestoffwechsels. In: Mader A, editor. Brennpunktthema Computersimulation: Möglichkeiten zur Theoriebildung und Ergebnisinterpretation. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag Richarz; 1996. p. 124–162.
Even in German they will be fine as like you say I could convert them - my wife speaks german so should be able to work. The most important one is the bleicher article.
thanks for anything you can do.
alan
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I am writing a paper on Skeletal remains in a mass grave at Ridgeway Hill Burial and I need references for what actually happens to someone anatomically and physiologically when they are beheaded (aside from swift death). Can Anyone help?
Link is to a news article about the mass grave at Ridgeway Hill Burial
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Hi Kristina,
I know that you asked this quite some time ago. You may have already looked at this, but one of the most quoted articles on biology of executions (including beheading) was published in New Scientist by Harold Hillman in Oct 27, 1983. I am only able to locate a link to the article via Google Books:
I know, this is only brief, but it is not likely that science will be able to do this kind of experiments and that's why historical accounts of executions are often quoted in the literature.
There were several accounts of beheadings during French Revolution and from criminal prosecutions, but verifying them might be challenging. There are a couple of blogs that quote these accounts, but you may need to contact the authors to verify the sources:
I hope it helps,
Michelle
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I wonder how is endocrine (hormone) control in conjoined twins (twins with same body and thorax - Different head)
Thanks
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Hello Husni,
 I am second semester master student ,so , i can't help you ..sorry :)
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The calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR), are receptors senses levels of calcium ion in the human body, where are they located? blood vessels? parathyroid gland? or where?
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Hi Taha,
Also this web resource is usually quite nice to check tissue expression of any of your favorite proteins.
Hope this helps. Norbert
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Preferably one that makes both functional and structural distinctions and can at least split into 2 parts along the saggital plane. 
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we use brain in different form to teach the students.
1. intact brain with meninges to teach meningeal coverings and different folds of it.
2. brain without meninges to teach the base of brain and different external features of it.
3. saggital section and coronal section to teach the internal structures of brain along with ventricular system.
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A lot of debate exists around which frailty measurement is best. Maybe we need two separate measurements - one for population health screening, and one for clinical assessment? Let me know what you think.
Cheers,
Elsa
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That's a good question. Can you please elaborate on the debate for those of us who are not doing health research? Why can't we use the same measurement  (such as grip-strengt) to assess both good health and frailty in clinical populations?
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Are there any recent studies on the effect of DTPA therapy on human health?
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Thank you, these references will be very useful for my work.
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Serotonin: A neurotransmitter that is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Serotonin can trigger the release of substances in the blood vessels of the brain that in turn cause the pain of a migraine. Serotonin is also key to mood regulation; pain perception; gastrointestinal function, including perception of hunger and satiety; and other physical functions.
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the triphasic pressure response to serotonin (5-HT): a short-lasting depressor phase with an intense bradycardia, a pressor phase and a prolonged hypotension, was investigated.
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I'm looking for experiments which purpose is to establish the influence of the human metabolic activity, the sweating eventually induced and air temperature on the mean skin temperature. Stolwijk, Gagge and Saltin have established a clear mathematical relation between these factors but results on mean skin temperature are considerably different from skin temperature values given by body infra-red thermographies done in the same situation than G-S-S experiments have been led. Did anybody else lead experiments which purpose is to correlate these elements? 
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Hi Giuseppe
The problem that these parameters/variables are part of a feedback system. This means that it is very difficult to come up with relations that hold true in different circumstances. At very high humidities skin temp will move more with ambient; at low it will not as long as sufficient sweatin is possible. And such differences in response are present for all these combinations of parameters.
There is some work from Denmark from Fanger's lab at the time that has an equation between skin temperature and heat loss from the skin (in the cold Tsk is reduced), but again that is only valid in low work levels with low sweat rates.
The closest to a relation you would get from running a physiological model, where the feedback element is present (e.g. Fiala). undrneath the bonnet there are relations similar to the classic Stolwijk, but due to the feedback loop the final outcome can be different.
Best
george Havenith
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Why cannot we use an algorithm of physical means - temperature, pH, salinity, pressure etc, and even time - which is survivable by every human cell type but unsurvivable by pathogens? The big question is not how to create these conditions within the body, but would it work, if we could create them?
So far I haven't found anything in the literature to tell me why this would not work.
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Please also specify the temperature, pH, salinity and pressure at which every human cell type survives but not pathogens.
Also please tell how different cancer cells are from normal cells structurally and biochemically so that only cancer cells lost their ability all of a sudden to tolerate the above mentioned conditions.
Classically people use autoclave conditions to kill pathogens or any other microorganisms. 
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I need to validate some already developed lifiting postures through simulation
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Take a look at OpenSim (http://opensim.stanford.edu).
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I want to look at various methods of monitoring fatigue of the somatic nervous system and how it relates to athletic performance and injury risk.
-Methods of measuring state of somatic nervous system
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The following references maybe help you.
Brasil-Neto, J. P., Pascual-Leone, A., Valls-Solé, J., Cammarota, A., Cohen, L. G., & Hallett, M. (1993). Postexercise depression of motor evoked potentials: a measure of central nervous system fatigue. Experimental Brain Research, 93(1), 181–184. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF00227794
Budiman, G. (2009). Somatic nervous system. Basic Neuroanatomical Pathway, 3–20. http://doi.org/10.4135/9781412972024.n2387
Chrousos, G. P., & Kino, T. (2009). Glucocorticoid signaling in the cell: Expanding clinical implications to complex human behavioral and somatic disorders. In Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Vol. 1179, pp. 153–166). http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04988.x
Davis, J. M., Alderson, N. L., & Welsh, R. S. (2000). Serotonin and central nervous system fatigue: Nutritional considerations. In American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. 72). http://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1301624
Davis, J. M., & Bailey, S. P. (1997). Possible mechanisms of central nervous system fatigue during exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(1), 45–57. http://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199701000-00008
Davis, J. M., Zhao, Z., Stock, H. S., Mehl, K. a, Buggy, J., & Hand, G. a. (2003). Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 284(2), 399–404. http://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00386.2002
Enoka, R. M., & Stuart, D. G. (1992). Neurobiology of muscle fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 72(5), 1631–1648. http://doi.org/0161-7567/92
Gandevia, S. C. (2001). Spinal and Supraspinal Factors in Human Muscle Fatigue. Physiol. Rev.,
Glass, J. M., Lyden, A. K., Petzke, F., Stein, P., Whalen, G., Ambrose, K., … Clauw, D. J. (2004). The effect of brief exercise cessation on pain, fatigue, and mood symptom development in healthy, fit individuals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(4), 391–398. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.04.002
Irwin, M. R. (2011). Inflammation at the intersection of behavior and somatic symptoms. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2011.05.005
Kop, W. J. (2012). Somatic Depressive Symptoms, Vital Exhaustion, and Fatigue. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(5), 442–445. http://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31825f30c7
Noakes, T. D. (2012). Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis. Frontiers in Physiology. http://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00082
Noakes, T. D., St Clair Gibson, A., & Lambert, E. V. (2005). From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans: summary and conclusions. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(2), 120–4. http://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2003.010330
Pagani, M., & Lucini, D. (1999). Chronic fatigue syndrome: a hypothesis focusing on the autonomic nervous system. Clinical Science (London, England : 1979), 96, 117–125. http://doi.org/10.1042/CS19980139
Qiang, L., Inoue, K., & Abeliovich, A. (2014). Instant neurons: Directed somatic cell reprogramming models of central nervous system disorders. Biological Psychiatry. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.10.027
Schon, E. A., DiMauro, S., & Hirano, M. (2012). Human mitochondrial DNA: roles of inherited and somatic mutations. Nat Rev Genet, 13(12), 878–890. http://doi.org/10.1038/nrg3275
Tanaka, M., Mizuno, K., Tajima, S., Sasabe, T., & Watanabe, Y. (2009). Central nervous system fatigue alters autonomic nerve activity. Life Sciences, 84(7-8), 235–239. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2008.12.004
Tanaka, M., Shigihara, Y., Ishii, A., Funakura, M., Kanai, E., & Watanabe, Y. (2012). Effect of mental fatigue on the central nervous system: an electroencephalography study. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 8(1), 48. http://doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-8-48
Zwarts, M. J., Bleijenberg, G., & van Engelen, B. G. M. (2008). Clinical neurophysiology of fatigue. Clinical Neurophysiology. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2007.09.126
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How much calorie is produced by burning a mole of fat (palmitate)? Results do not appear consistent in the internet? Any helps?
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Fat produces ~9kcal/gm through complete oxidation (CO2 + H2O).
Palmitic acid is a 16C fatty acid:
CH3-(CH2)14-COOH; Chemical Formula: C16H32O2
Mol. Wt. = 12x16 + 1x32 + 16x2 = 256
Calories/mole = 9x256 = 2,304 kcal  (approximately)
I imagine you were taught all this during your undergraduate studies.   ;) 
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what are forces in ankle joint of human being
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Hello Bhaskar,  
I fully agree with the answer given above by Hamdy Elsaid....
The first step should be get a full knowledge of anatomy muscles, attachments and sizes etc. Also, it would be worth reading previous work on other joints and muscular systems etc. Human upper limb system for example has been fairly well examined for years (from DR Wilkie...), see references in,
Article: Isometric tension development in a human skeletal muscle in relation to its working range of movement: The length tension relation of biceps brachii muscle
H.M. Ismail · K.W. Ranatunga
Full-text · Article · Jan 1979 · Experimental Neurology references in,
 Hope this is useful,
KW
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I need to make urine acellular to be able to store it and subsequently test it for ascorbic acid content. 
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thanks Mikholae
regards
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Capillary refill time is one of the sign of dehydration and shock. Capillary refill time is widely used by health care workers as part of the rapid cardiopulmonary assessment of critically ill children because it is a marker of increased peripherally vascular resistance. I think that capillary refill time is a vital sign. What is your opinion about this topic?
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I am thankful for your response. I think that if new devices are used to detect the capillary refill time to provide more accurate measurements, it is more valuable physical sign and it may be considered as a vital sign. I am sending two articles about this topic as attachment.
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Should it be totally random or a transition part bending from deep layer to superficial layer? Is it continuous from the deep layer?  Thanks!
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Hi Xuan,
Look these papers, inside them you should find your response. Indeed, the two possibilities are applied, but I think that  a transition part bending from deep layer to superficial layer is the technique most developed (or more adapted) in this case.  
Best regards.
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Hello,
Can somebody share me the experiences of using the thermal camera for the human body temperature mapping? Currently, I am engaged in the research work related to human thermal comfort inside the automobile cabin with the FLIR SC 645 IR Camera of sensitivity 7.5-13 micrometer and spatial resolution 0.41 mrad. Will this be appropriate one for human body temperature mapping? If not, what could be the best one? 
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Your camera is good enough. you can go ahead without any issues.
From experience, I can say selection of experimental conditions are more important. Even mid wavelength cameras are also good enough for human body monitoring. The spatial resolution is altogether a different issue. More than anything it depends on your lens angle and subject to camera distance. I am considering your lens is fixed. Then the only option would be to play with distance provided you have enough clearance.
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The O2 is 21% of the air the remainder is mainly N2, CO2, H2O vapour.  The blood takes some of the O2 and gives CO2.
What is the percentage of this O2 is consumed? OR What remains?
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Thank you Abdel Azziz and Ishag
Yes there are many engineering application, e.g. design of compartment, the environmental  optization. .. etc
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Hi Mr. Hosseini,
I found some papers that I believe can help you. The impact of prolonged exercices on cardiac function has been studied in the past, however It is a theme that is growing, but there are any problems during the process of analysis (e.g, the exercise stress level, fatigue or type of fatigue, training methodology, overload, and mainly, the profile of the population analyzed),
Best regards,
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Is the use of a direct method to measure digit ratio (2D:4D) (i.e. digital caliper, directly on the surface of the palms) reliable enough in children aged 2-5 years old? Or is it better to use copies or scans of the hands?
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Dag Cornelieke,
I believe that this measure is not appropriate for two reasons. 1. The claim that 2D:4D ratio has a linear relationship with prenatal testosterone exposure is not substanciated by proper direct evidence. It is an indirect measure which is used in an incredeble amount of correlational research, and one may suspect that negative results are hardly being published. 2. the reliability of the measure is poor for all methods execpt maybe for direct measures of bone length (using rontgen).
Reint Geuze
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I want to detect heavy metal ions in the environment of human body. if I would like to add heavy metal ions into bovine serum albumin to simulate the environment of human body, is it right or accetable for Journal? Therefore, I thank for any answer about it, especially someone who did this work once and published high quality research. Thank you very much!
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Some references on the topic you are addressing:
Chen et al (2015) The secondary and aggregation structural changes of BSA induced by trivalent chromium: A biophysical study. Journal of Luminescence 158:116-124
Yang et al. (2013) Interactions between U(VI) and bovine serum albumin. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 298:903-908.
Shen et al. (2013) .Asian Journal of Chemistry 25:5925-5929
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for example do the enzymes and proteins FAT/CD36, CPT1, ACC, citrate synthase among other potential regulators respond to CHO ingestion, or is the mechanism more driven by exercise and endogenous fuel availability itself
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Hi Andy, Just seen your question - a good starting point is to look at the paper by Horowitz et al 1997. They had participants ingest 0.8g/kg carbohydrate as glucose or fructose and observed blunting of lipolysis and subsequently lower fat oxidation. However, the picture is not so clear cut as some studies do not show such marked changes in fat oxidation with carbohydrate feeding which likely relfects that insulin response or potentially differences in use of IMTGs. Cheers, Stuart.
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Could any one point me in the direction of research papers that examined the fiber type distributions in humans? I am putting together a paper on fiber type distribution and its potential application to weight training and more specifically, hypertrophy. I have been looking quite a bit and I can't find exactly what I am looking for. Every article that I do find is from the 70s and does not have the full article available. Any help is greatly appreciated!
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Dear Tyler Thomas, 
Some addition to the comments, following papers may help:
Muscle fiber type
Muscle fibre type distribution, muscle cross-sectional areaand maximal voluntary strength in humans
The influence of variations in muscle fibre composition on muscle strength and cross-sectional area in untrained males.
Effects of exercise training on skeletal muscle fiber type distribution in chronic heart failure patients
Contractile Properties and Fiber Type Distribution of Quadriceps Muscles in Adults with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency
Fiber Type Transformation in Human Skeletal Muscle
THE RELATIONSHIP OF BODY COMPOSITION, MUSCLE FUNCTION, AND MUSCLE FIBER TYPE TO LOWER BODY PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE OLDER ADULTS
Relationship Between Muscle Fiber Type and Reactive Balance: A Preliminary Study
Aamir
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I am looking for as accurately as possible method of counting the number of human breaths per minute (repiration rate) in the LabChart software.
Option which are proposed by LabChart software (cylic measurment → Preset → Respiration - Respiratory belt with SD = 0.9) fails to find all of the breaths (there are no marks for about 30% peaks of breaths).
It seems to me that much more precise are such option like:
  • General - Spikey shape with SD = 2.5 SD
  • Sine shape with SD = 2.0 SD
Are there any guidelines for the size of standard deviations which should I use? Can I use Spikey shape or Sine shape method?
I would be very grateful for any help!
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Hi, if you are working off-line on pre-recorded data, a simple way is to activate the piece of data of interest and choose spectrum view. Breathing data is usually clean enough to show one clear maximum in the spectrum, corresponding to true breathing frequency. No hassle with SD's. Of course, when you need the rate online, cyclic measurement is better.
Cheers,
-Esa
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I'm working on a research that aims to detect the interest of a student to learn new mathematical skills.. there are several theories and some confusion between the preference, interest and liking.
from your knowledge or experience, what do you think is the most suitable physiological measure to detect interest?
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Agreed with Diverrez J-Marc. Interest isn't necessary an emotion, I would say it is more in line with a motivation to approach. One might try this "approach motivation" state measure that is popularly indexed by frontal asymmetry (I am doubtful it is a good predictor, but people suggest it could be a significant one - different things). That's usually done with EEG (or fNIRS).
If you want to do interest = not bored: lack of alpha activity. (EEG)
If you want to do interest = really excited! ECG (BPM).
If you want to do interest with this particular, super-well defined picture: P3 (EEG).
If you want to do interest = noticing the solid fun involved in such classics as "The E-Primer" (ahum), perhaps facial EMG, ZM measurements.
If you want to do interest = concentrating on the text while reading, perhaps facial EMG, CS measurements. Eye-tracking, in terms of detecting whether a person is actually reading, also sounds reasonable (more to the point, I'd say).
Do note that in all such cases, the fact that researchers found that "interest" (or motivation, or something else) reliably affects physiological correlate Y doesn't mean that the reverse is true. Since all known methods are extremely noisy and reliably confounded with other constructs, it is important to ask yourself what you exactly plan to gain. It is likely that just asking the student whether they're interested will be a much better predictor.
Best,
Michiel
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I am using a Polar bluetooth H7 with a link up to Polar beat, which works without problems in dry conditions. Once the sensor is immersed in water, a signal interuption occurs, and heart rate monitoring ceases to function. How does one then monitor heart rate underwater via bluetooth Polar sensor? Polar states that using the heart rate sensor in combination with the watch should work, however, in our lab, that has not seem to work either. Is it possible to go cableless while monitoring heart rate underwater, or is the solution good old EKG cables?
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Principally any Polar heart rate monitors using either one a T31 coded chest strap or a regular Wearlink chest strap will work and then the Suunto Memory belt and that is it. Those are the only ways I know of to get continual heart rate while swim training. The Swimovate Poolmate swim watch is a great solution for counting laps and strokes
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Hello,
I'm trying to compile a list of hair cortisol labs in the Us, as we just opened up a new lab at my university. Having contact with these other universities and professors would make the setup process go a lot smoother. 
Thanks,
Alex
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Which species are you looking at?
There is a publication on Journal of Dairy Science (paper from University of British Columbia) that developed a technique to analyze cortisol in hair samples of dairy cows.
Regards!
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My current project is looking at blood flow restriction, and we are weighing up the options of using official kaatsu bands or the use of a medical tourniquet.
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