Questions related to Human Physiology
Write a short summary of 250 words on why mimicking physiological conditions or clinical situation important for translational research. (Free ChatGPT (July 13 2023 around 1100am JST)
Answer from ChatGPT.
Mimicking physiological conditions or clinical situations is of paramount importance in translational research due to its ability to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and real-world applications. Translational research aims to translate scientific discoveries and knowledge into practical solutions that benefit human health. By replicating the complex and dynamic environments found within the human body, researchers can gain valuable insights into the efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of potential interventions.
One key reason for mimicking physiological conditions is to enhance the relevance and reliability of preclinical studies. Human physiology is intricate, and diseases often manifest within a specific physiological context. By recreating these conditions in experimental models, researchers can better understand how interventions may interact with the body and predict their potential effects on human patients. This approach helps to minimize the risk of false positives or false negatives, which can occur when experimental conditions do not accurately represent the clinical reality.
Furthermore, mimicking physiological conditions enables researchers to investigate the intricate interplay between different biological systems. The human body operates as a complex network of organs, tissues, and cells, all interconnected and influencing one another. By recreating this complexity, researchers can study the holistic effects of interventions, uncover unexpected side effects, and identify potential mechanisms underlying observed outcomes.
Additionally, mimicking clinical situations allows for the evaluation of interventions under realistic scenarios. For example, testing drugs or therapies in animal models that mimic the disease pathology, progression, and response to treatment observed in patients can provide valuable data for predicting their efficacy and safety in humans. This approach aids in the selection and optimization of promising candidates for further clinical trials, ultimately expediting the development of new treatments and therapies.
In conclusion, mimicking physiological conditions or clinical situations is crucial in translational research as it enhances the relevance, reliability, and predictive power of preclinical studies. By closely mirroring the complexities of human physiology and disease, researchers can make more accurate predictions about the potential benefits and risks of interventions, ultimately accelerating the translation of scientific discoveries into clinical applications that improve human health.
Filicori, Marco. "Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone: clinical applications of a physiologic paradigm." F&S Reports 4.2 (2023): 20-26.
Cahill, Catherine M. "Opioid dose regimen shapes mesolimbic adaptations." Neuropsychopharmacology 45.11 (2020): 1777-1778.
Lefevre, Emilia M., et al. "Interruption of continuous opioid exposure exacerbates drug-evoked adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system." Neuropsychopharmacology 45.11 (2020): 1781-1792. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-020-0643-x
Are there distinct or unique physiological responses to humorous stimuli? Of special interest is political humor such as in editorial/political cartoons. Such political humor also has been posited as generating anger responses so a second question would be if there are differences in humor and anger responses that can clearly identify the source of the humor/anger response.
I would be very interested to know what you think may be the biggest gaps or problems that has to be solved in human physiology so that stress as phenomenon would be less vague and better measurable. Any ideas welcome! Julie
This is a season of Love. Love is deeply biological. It pervades every aspect of our lives and has inspired countless works of art. Love also has a profound effect on our mental and physical state. A “broken heart” or a failed relationship can have disastrous effects; bereavement disrupts human physiology and may even precipitate death. Without loving relationships, humans fail to flourish, even if all of their other basic needs are met. As such, love is clearly not “just” an emotion; it is a biological process that is both dynamic and bidirectional in several dimensions. What role does oxytocin play here?
I am trying to simulate the intradical pressure using an intervertebral disc finite element model, to compare experimental results in the literature. I am wondering if the intradisc pressure is defined as the average hydrostatic pressure in the disc nucleus pulposus?
Additionally, the intradiscal pressures were reported in positive values (especially in the loading scenarios where a pure moment was applied). Does the positive value represent tension or compression?
Thanks a lot,
I am interested in studying all the physiological, neural, endocrine mechanisms associated with different breathing exercises suggested by traditional pranayama - such as ujjayi, bhramari, nadi suddhi, kapala bhaati, breath holding - and also other newer techniques. As part of this, I want to study how the endothelial functions change due to some of these practices. Hence, the question. I did not formally study biology or human physiology at any time. So, I have a lot of gaps in my knowledge w.r.t. human anatomy and physiology. I shall be grateful, if anyone can point me to good sources of information about the above, and also distinguished researchers who have contributed original knowledge in this field.
I'm doing drug release in 4.3 acidic pH and 7.4 human physiological pH. I'm quantifying the releasing medium by U.V but i'm not getting any peaks of the drug. Any suggestions?
There are many research articles exploring alpha glucosidase, salivary and pancreatic alpha amylase inhibition as a therapeutic target for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) in type 2 diabetes. Out of these three, which one is more important/superior and why?
Many of the machine learning algorithms use k-means clustering to improve the clasification performance based on human physiological signals.
However, while some studies uses a subject specific clustering (where subjects are divided into subgroups such that each subject is finally assigned to a specific subgroup), some other studies used epoch based clustering (where multiple epochs from the same subject's data are assigned to multiple subgroups. This is also extended to multiple subjects).
Why are these two approaches required and what could be the advantages/disadvantafges of one over another?
Resistence training methods and endurance training methods are together considered the best way to become healthy and fit. Do you consider a model based on method and its reaction on human physiology or are you investigate different models of training in the same men/women to show the different possibility of reactions of the same method? Showing that the trainer have to know in the best mode his athlete physiology?
Your lungs, liver and brain are arranged in lobes- why? Conceivably, lobes could render the body more mobile (e.g. lobes could ‘glide’ over each other, similar to scales on which slide past each other as a fish twist his body), but this argument only make sense for lungs and possibly liver. What is the functional value of growing organs in ‘lobes’?
Most mathematical models used in human physiological investigations have been created for solving special tasks. However, my experience shows that often the expectations of the physiologist and modeler's understanding of the physiological problem differing. I think, the gap between two views of a collaboration could be minimized if experimenters can formulate their view of a "dream model".
I think this question will give rise to an effective discussion on RG.
There are several molecular forms of Cholecystokinin (CCK), of which CCK-8 and CCK-33 are the two frequently used molecular forms in pharmaceutical infusion studies to induce fullness and reduce hunger in human/animals.
However, in dietary studies, which involve participants to consume a test meal, which molecular form of postprandial plasma CCK should we assess? What are the methods available? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
Many dietary studies have not been explicitly stating the molecular form of CCK analysed, although some did mentioned CCK-8, CCK-33 or total CCK being measured.
So how should be make decision around which form of postprandial plasma CCK should be analysed in appetite studies?
Does stroke volume and diastolic BP have a positive linear correlation?
Given greater pre-load and thus end-diastolic volume is it expected that diastolic BP would be reduced?
We will start culturing HASMCs and HAECs soon in our lab and I am trying to get ready. However, I am confused regarding what type of medium to use. I have done a literature scan and it seems a variety of different media are in use by different researchers. Do you have any experience? What do you use to keep these cells happy?
What I have learned from what I read:
1. HASMCs--> DMEM low glucose (or DMEM/F12 3:1 ratio) + 10% FBS + ascorbic acid + nonessential aminoacids + pen/strep
-DMEM or DMEM/F12?
-What quality of FBS do you use? US origin?
2. HAECs--> Medium 199 (life technologies) + 10% FBS (life technologies) + pen/strep
-What difference would it make to have HEPES in Medium 199?
3. Trypsin (which concentration? and with or without EDTA?)
4. Use DPBS (instead of PBS which has Ca in it)
And also in some papers it is suggested to use collagen or gelatin coated plates to seed these cells on. What is your experience?
Sorry, I asked quite a bit of questions! Thanks very much for your time!
Breath Holding (BH) is a voluntary act but normal subjects are unable to breath till the point of unconsciousness. . The most likely cause of break-point and the consequent involuntary breathing is the stimulation of chemoreceptors by a fall in PaO2 below and a rise in PaCO2 above their respective critical partial pressures. BH at the end of exercise interval had shown significant reductions in pHa, arterial PO2 and O2 saturation and elevations in arterial PCO2 and arterial HCO3- . I want to know whether ABG changes are responsible for the rise in blood pressure following breath holding ?
As distance runners have a lower muscle mass but they involve bigger muscle mass than some other disciplines. What is the impact on that issue over respiratory parameters like ventilation and breathing frequency?
Thanks in advance,
I am designing a stimulator for both muscle and cortical neurons stimulation to be used in physiology laboratory and after reading some papers I am still a bit puzzled about the best range of some of the parameters related to the outputs such as:
1.range and resolution of the amplitude of the output current ( I am using a 16-bit DAC)
2. maximum compliant voltage required to be adequate for the stimulation with most of the electrodes (in most cases it is mentioned that 12 volts is enough , although 80 or 100 volts has been mentioned in some other cases due to high impedance electrodes).
I know that the amplitude of the output current depends on the distance of the electrode tip from the nerve and also the fact that the pulse duration also influences the proper amplitude.But I still need to know the best range for different applications.
No details are needed. I jusr don't know any other way than to use your question service to contact you. There are so many Liebermenchen that are in the sciences. The name is rather uncommon. I do not write about human physiology. The vassopressin article is not mine. Please remove it from your list of my publications and consign it to its rightful owner.
Thank you, Milton Lieberman
Seeking to investigate whether it is better to train with the 'lights on' in the early morning (05:30 ish) as opposed to a low light environment. Does training with light increase neural firing, strength, alertness...etc
We recovered human hair from some graves during the excavation of a cemetery. I would now like to know what ambient conditions are best to for long term storage of these samples in order to ensure that bioarcheometric analyses will still be possible in future. Can anyone recommend specific storage containers? And at what temperature and degree of humidity should the samples be stored?
Does the strong magnet effect the brain as the brain function is depending on the electromagnetic principle.
And If the human body is projected to strong magnet like N52 rare earth magnet .
Dose this may change any flow of static electricity in the body ?
I have a research about determination of pepsin, alpha-amylase and lipase in gastric fluid. I need to know how many international unit of these enzym activity in gastric juice, approximately. Can you help me? Do you have any document about it?
If human beings are exposed to normobaric hypoxia with an inhaled oxygen of 10.5% for one hour, how long does the effect of hypoxia persist after cessation of hypoxia exposure?
Assuming the person has had it for six years, went from 190 pounds to 144 due to the inability to eat more than 1500 calories in a day comfortably. Tried western medicine route, eradicated H pylori and symptoms only got worse. Height is 6'2. He never has any energy. After every meal he feels weighed down for hours. Pain in legs, knees, and arms. Tongue is pale with a little white coating, not as much as to indicate thrush. Pulse is long and slow, about 70 or a few less beats per minute. Blood pressure is a little low, about 100/60. 28 years old. Symptoms are dull epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed inflammation but no ulcer.
I am testing an intervention for its effect on respiratory muscles strength/function and I wonder if breathing frequency (f), PIFR, PEFR & FVC are reliable indicators of breathlessness? I am aware that maximal inspiratory (mouth) pressure, maximal inspiratory (mouth) pressure and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure are better indicators of breathlessness with higher correlation.
Any advise or guidance would be greatly appreciated, thank you
Edit: I am testing on healthy participants and not COPD, asthma
Or do you know a drug (or a drug candidate in clinical trial) which impacts (directly or indirectly) phosphatase activity?
Hey we want to check the influence of Pfkm in our cellculture system. But I could not find a siRNA mentioned in publications. It would be nice whether you can help. Or may be there is a way to create few by myself, but I have never done it before.
Generation of Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) leads to cure of various tumors. This is the mechanism behind the working of various cancer treatments. Howeve, are there free ions generated during the formation of ROS? Could ROS generation be co-rrelated with the increase/decrease in electrical conductivity?
I am working with 1x phosphate buffer saline. I heard that there are different salt concentration of this buffer . What are they and how can I prepare them?
I want to study the physiological concentration of lactic acid in bone marrow or after exercise. Does anyone know the concentration in bone marrow in vertebrate such as human, mice.
My research relates to iron concentrations in developing infant brains, and I was wondering if there are any techniques (preferably feasible ones) that can track the movement of iron concentrations inside the body in real time? Thank you!
I started working with electrical field stimulation and I need to remove the endothelium of my mesenteric artery rings. But I need to be careful, because, during this process, I can damage the nerve-ending, and, this way, my experiments don't work. Can you guys give me suggetions about how can I do it? Thak you so much
As far as I know only the L enantiomer of adrenaline has been found in the blood. But collisions of this enantiomer in the blood could lead to a racemization producing a certain amount of the D enantiomer.
i have been training so hard for the past two weeks and today throughout the day I was having a running stomach. Last year I was training athletics team during their preparation for the cross-country competition, and most of them were complaining about their running stomach. I interviewed them about the type of diet and amount of fluid they are taking, but it was a good diet and approximately 5-8 litres of water they drank per day(before, during and after training). I'm trying to find out if you guys you have a solution for this encountered solution. i want to know the physiological changes that takes place in the body that resulted in this situation
I have studied two boys populations (tribal and non-tribal) aged 8-16 yrs. The data are collected from similar geographical region, during the year 2013-14. Both the population are showing adolescent growth spurt around 12-13 yrs. Non-tribals are the early maturers.
Results shows that, the height-for-age distance curve of tribal boys is below non-tribal boys for all ages (8-16 yrs.). The weight-for-age distance curve of tribal boys is below non-tribal boys upto the age of 12. But at adolescence (13 yrs) tribals touches the non-tribals weight-for-age distance curve and at 15 yrs age tribals crosses the curve and are above the non-tribal boys. (finds clearly in the attached image).
Can anybody answer the specific reasons of this type of growth pattern in weight-for-age curve, apart from the genetic factor?
Is there any similar publications?
Does anyone know where to buy a translated to english copy of Zur Interpretation von Laktatleistungskurven - experimentelle Ergebnisse mit computergestuetzten Nachberechnungen which translates to For the interpretation of lactate power curves - experimental results with computergestuetzten recalculations
I am writing a paper on Skeletal remains in a mass grave at Ridgeway Hill Burial and I need references for what actually happens to someone anatomically and physiologically when they are beheaded (aside from swift death). Can Anyone help?
Link is to a news article about the mass grave at Ridgeway Hill Burial
The calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR), are receptors senses levels of calcium ion in the human body, where are they located? blood vessels? parathyroid gland? or where?
Preferably one that makes both functional and structural distinctions and can at least split into 2 parts along the saggital plane.
A lot of debate exists around which frailty measurement is best. Maybe we need two separate measurements - one for population health screening, and one for clinical assessment? Let me know what you think.
Serotonin: A neurotransmitter that is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Serotonin can trigger the release of substances in the blood vessels of the brain that in turn cause the pain of a migraine. Serotonin is also key to mood regulation; pain perception; gastrointestinal function, including perception of hunger and satiety; and other physical functions.
I'm looking for experiments which purpose is to establish the influence of the human metabolic activity, the sweating eventually induced and air temperature on the mean skin temperature. Stolwijk, Gagge and Saltin have established a clear mathematical relation between these factors but results on mean skin temperature are considerably different from skin temperature values given by body infra-red thermographies done in the same situation than G-S-S experiments have been led. Did anybody else lead experiments which purpose is to correlate these elements?
Why cannot we use an algorithm of physical means - temperature, pH, salinity, pressure etc, and even time - which is survivable by every human cell type but unsurvivable by pathogens? The big question is not how to create these conditions within the body, but would it work, if we could create them?
So far I haven't found anything in the literature to tell me why this would not work.
I want to look at various methods of monitoring fatigue of the somatic nervous system and how it relates to athletic performance and injury risk.
-Methods of measuring state of somatic nervous system
Capillary refill time is one of the sign of dehydration and shock. Capillary refill time is widely used by health care workers as part of the rapid cardiopulmonary assessment of critically ill children because it is a marker of increased peripherally vascular resistance. I think that capillary refill time is a vital sign. What is your opinion about this topic?
Should it be totally random or a transition part bending from deep layer to superficial layer? Is it continuous from the deep layer? Thanks!
Can somebody share me the experiences of using the thermal camera for the human body temperature mapping? Currently, I am engaged in the research work related to human thermal comfort inside the automobile cabin with the FLIR SC 645 IR Camera of sensitivity 7.5-13 micrometer and spatial resolution 0.41 mrad. Will this be appropriate one for human body temperature mapping? If not, what could be the best one?
The O2 is 21% of the air the remainder is mainly N2, CO2, H2O vapour. The blood takes some of the O2 and gives CO2.
What is the percentage of this O2 is consumed? OR What remains?
Is the use of a direct method to measure digit ratio (2D:4D) (i.e. digital caliper, directly on the surface of the palms) reliable enough in children aged 2-5 years old? Or is it better to use copies or scans of the hands?
I want to detect heavy metal ions in the environment of human body. if I would like to add heavy metal ions into bovine serum albumin to simulate the environment of human body, is it right or accetable for Journal? Therefore, I thank for any answer about it, especially someone who did this work once and published high quality research. Thank you very much!
for example do the enzymes and proteins FAT/CD36, CPT1, ACC, citrate synthase among other potential regulators respond to CHO ingestion, or is the mechanism more driven by exercise and endogenous fuel availability itself
Could any one point me in the direction of research papers that examined the fiber type distributions in humans? I am putting together a paper on fiber type distribution and its potential application to weight training and more specifically, hypertrophy. I have been looking quite a bit and I can't find exactly what I am looking for. Every article that I do find is from the 70s and does not have the full article available. Any help is greatly appreciated!
I am looking for as accurately as possible method of counting the number of human breaths per minute (repiration rate) in the LabChart software.
Option which are proposed by LabChart software (cylic measurment → Preset → Respiration - Respiratory belt with SD = 0.9) fails to find all of the breaths (there are no marks for about 30% peaks of breaths).
It seems to me that much more precise are such option like:
- General - Spikey shape with SD = 2.5 SD
- Sine shape with SD = 2.0 SD
Are there any guidelines for the size of standard deviations which should I use? Can I use Spikey shape or Sine shape method?
I would be very grateful for any help!
I'm working on a research that aims to detect the interest of a student to learn new mathematical skills.. there are several theories and some confusion between the preference, interest and liking.
from your knowledge or experience, what do you think is the most suitable physiological measure to detect interest?
I am using a Polar bluetooth H7 with a link up to Polar beat, which works without problems in dry conditions. Once the sensor is immersed in water, a signal interuption occurs, and heart rate monitoring ceases to function. How does one then monitor heart rate underwater via bluetooth Polar sensor? Polar states that using the heart rate sensor in combination with the watch should work, however, in our lab, that has not seem to work either. Is it possible to go cableless while monitoring heart rate underwater, or is the solution good old EKG cables?