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Human Neuroanatomy - Science topic

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Publications related to Human Neuroanatomy (100)
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Article
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The angular gyrus (AG) has been described in numerous studies to be consistently activated in various functional tasks. The angular gyrus is a critical connector epicenter linking multiple functional networks due to its location in the posterior part of the inferior parietal cortex, namely at the junction between the parietal, temporal, and occipit...
Article
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Highlights Recent large-scale studies have reached different conclusions regarding the presence of sex differences in human neuroanatomy. We show that these contradictory findings are explained by different methodological choices. While multiple large direct analyses highlight small, highly reproducible sex differences, reviews do not account for m...
Conference Paper
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Studies of human neuroanatomy have advanced from the pseudoscience of phrenology, to the localization of functions with ablation research, and recently culminated in studies of brain wiring or the “connectome”. Future innovations in brain science depend on some departure from the typical laser focus on disease models, and the adoption of holistic a...
Book
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En este libro ofrecemos una descripción de la neuroanatomía humana, coherente con los contenidos propios de un curso en esta materia, dirigido a estudiantes de ciencias de la salud y medio de consulta a profesionales del área. Por ello contribuye como una herramienta útil, orientadora y didáctica para el aprendizaje del estudiante, y no pretende mo...
Preprint
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Diffusion MRI (dMRI) of whole, intact, fixed postmortem human brain at high spatial resolution serves as key bridging technology for 3D mapping of structural connectivity and tissue microstructure at the mesoscopic scale. Ex vivo dMRI offers superior spatial resolution compared to in vivo dMRI but comes with its own technical challenges due to the...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional atlases of the human brainstem are limited by the inflexible, sparsely-sampled, two-dimensional nature of histology, or the low spatial resolution of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Postmortem high-resolution MRI circumvents the challenges associated with both modalities. A single human brainstem specimen extending from...
Article
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Evolutionary psychology is the comprehensive study of cognition and behavior in the light of evolutionary theory, a unifying paradigm integrating a huge diversity of findings across different levels of analysis. Since natural selection shaped the brain into a functionally organized system of interconnected neural structures rather than an aggregate...
Article
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The extrastriate cortex in the human visual cortex is divided into two distinct clusters: the “what-information” processing area and the “where-information” processing area. It is widely accepted that the “what-information” cluster is processed through the ventral stream to the temporal cortex, and the “where-information” cluster through the dorsal...
Article
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The corticospinal tract (CST) is one of the most well studied tracts in human neuroanatomy. Its clinical significance can be demonstrated in many notable traumatic conditions and diseases such as stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the advent of diffusion MRI and tractography the computational representatio...
Article
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Across the animal kingdom, males tend to exhibit more behavioural and morphological variability than females, consistent with the 'greater male variability hypothesis'. This may reflect multiple mechanisms operating at different levels, including selective mechanisms that produce and maintain variation, extended male development, and X chromosome e...
Article
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A Anatomia Humana é uma das disciplinas ofertadas no primeiro ano de todos os cursos superiores da área de saúde, e apresenta-se como base para a formação destes profissionais. Assim o estudo teve como objetivo analisar o conhecimento adquirido pelos discentes, nas disciplinas de Anatomia e Neuroanatomia Humana, ao término do período acadêmico. Foi...
Article
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The identification and reconstruction of axonal pathways in the living brain or “ex-vivo” is promising a revolution in connectivity studies bridging the gap from animal to human neuroanatomy with extensions to brain structural–functional correlates. Unfortunately, the methods suffer from juvenile drawbacks. In this perspective paper we mention seve...
Article
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DUQUE, J. E.; QUIJANO, Y. ; BARCO, J. & PERALTA, E. Apparent origin of glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves: An aspect to consider in human neuroanatomy teaching. Int. J. Morphol., 36(4):1337-1340, 2018. SUMMARY: In various neuroanatomy texts and articles related to this area of knowledge, there is a conceptual vacuum associated with the pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The corticospinal tract (CST) is one of the most well-studied tracts in human neuroanatomy. Its clinical significance can be demonstrated in many notable traumatic conditions and diseases such as stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the advent of diffusion MRI and tractography the computational representatio...
Article
Full-text available
DUQUE, J. E.; QUIJANO, Y. ; BARCO, J. & PERALTA, E. Apparent origin of glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves: An aspect to consider in human neuroanatomy teaching. Int. J. Morphol., 36(4):1337-1340, 2018. SUMMARY: In various neuroanatomy texts and articles related to this area of knowledge, there is a conceptual vacuum associated with the pr...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we devise a strategy for discrete coding of anatomical form as described by a Bayesian prior model, quantifying the entropy of this representation as a function of code rate (number of bits), and its relationship geometric accuracy at clinically relevant scales. We study the shape of subcortical gray matter structures in the human brai...
Poster
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Commercial and computer anatomical models are readily available in university settings. Custom models are expensive and computer simulations may not be as effective for study. We attempted to create a custom-designed model of a human brainstem using freely available medical images, open source software, and the NSU Health Profession Division's 3D p...
Article
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Non-invasive imaging has the potential to play a crucial role in the characterization and translation of experimental animal models to investigate human brain development and disorders, especially when employed to study animal models that more accurately represent features of human neuroanatomy. The purpose of this study was to build and make avail...
Article
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The basal ganglia is part of a complex system of neuronal circuits that play a key role in the integration and execution of motor, cognitive and emotional function in the human brain. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder of the motor circuit characterized by tremor, rigidity, and slowness of movement. Deep brain stimulation (D...
Article
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In this still young XXIst century, neuroanatomy returns to center stage, after decades of being criticized as too “descriptive,” and consequent neglect at the end of the last century. This re-instatement is in part because “descriptive” has lost much of its pejorative connotation, and the recognition of the importance of functional, genetically- an...
Article
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The founder of chiropractic, Daniel David Palmer, constructed a model of causation of disease based on his seminal experience with a patient, Harvey Lillard, who lost his hearing at the instant of injuring his upper back, but had his hearing restored suddenly 17 years later after receiving spinal manipulation. Palmer's model of disease causation, t...
Conference Paper
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O conhecimento sobre a Neuroanatomia Humana vem sendo adquirido a partir de formas diversificadas como o estudo através de cadáveres, modelos anatômicos sintéticos, softwares específicos, exames de imagem e anatomia de superfície. A obtenção de peças neuroanatômicas cadavéricas para estudo, mostra-se difícil devido ao seu tamanho e ao difícil acess...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A neuroanatomia representa um ramo da Anatomia Humana que estuda a constituição anatômica do sistema nervoso humano (FATTINI; DANGELO, 2007). O estudo da neuroanatomia tem sido um grande desafio para estudantes de cursos de ciências da saúde devido a escassez de peças cadavéricas (MATTOS et al., 2008). A verdadeira integração entre diferentes forma...
Article
Full-text available
Aspects of human motor control can be inferred from the coordination of muscles during movement. For instance, by combining multimuscle electromyographic (EMG) recordings with human neuroanatomy, it is possible to estimate alpha-motoneuron (MN) pool activations along the spinal cord. It has previously been shown that the spinal motor output fluctua...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Pulmonary vein ganglia (PVG) are targets for atrial fibrillation ablation. However, the functional relevance of PVG to the normal heart rhythm remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether PVG can modulate sinoatrial node (SAN) function. Methods and results: Forty-nine C57BL and seven Connexin40+/EGFP mice were studied. We used tyros...
Article
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be delivered during fMRI scans to evoke BOLD responses in distributed brain networks. While concurrent TMS-fMRI offers a potentially powerful tool for non-invasively investigating functional human neuroanatomy, the technique is currently limited by the lack of methods to rapidly and precisely localize tar...
Article
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This article is a comparative study of white matter projections from ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) between human and macaque brains. We test whether the organizational rules that vPFC connections follow in macaques are preserved in humans. These rules concern the trajectories of some of the white matter projections from vPFC and how the position...
Article
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The combination of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and functional MRI (fMRI) is a powerful means of tracing brain circuitry and testing the modulatory effects of electrical stimulation on a neuronal network in vivo. The goal of this study was to trace DBS-induced global neuronal network activation in a large animal model by monitoring the blood oxygen...
Article
Full-text available
Two paradigms have guided emotion research over the past decades. The dual-system view embraces the long-held Western belief, espoused most prominently by decision-making and social cognition researchers, that emotion and reason are often at odds. The integrative view, which asserts that emotion and cognition work synergistically, has been less exp...
Article
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Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić (1921-2008) was a world-famous anatomist, internationally distinguished otolaryngologist, a member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences & Arts and appreciated professor at the School of Medicine University of Zagreb. The founding influence in her scientific career came from her mentor Drago Perovid who was a student of Ferdin...
Article
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In 1707, Valsalva reported a patient with unilateral cerebral hemorrhage associated with weakness on the contralateral side of the body, and Morgagni in De Sedibus subsequently referred to this crossed relationship of brain to body as the Valsalva doctrine. Since then, decussation of corticospinal tracts and many other neural pathways within the CN...
Article
Full-text available
Human neuroanatomy is extremely complex, and functional neuroanatomical pathways can not be dissected and easily visualized in an anatomy lab. Teaching students to see neuro-anatomical relationships over the extent of the neuraxis is challenging. The ability to internalize a 3D map of the neuraxis with the appropriate clinically relevant neuro-path...
Article
Full-text available
The way in which normal variations in human neuroanatomy relate to brain function remains largely uninvestigated. This study addresses the question by relating anatomical measurements of Heschl's gyrus (HG), the structure containing human primary auditory cortex, to how this region processes temporal and spectral acoustic information. In this study...
Book
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This book is intended for use by medical, dental, and allied health science students with minimal knowledge of the nervous system. This new book has been substantially changed and updated from its predecessor to better meet current demands and to reflect the many constructive comments and suggestions made by instructors and our students over the ye...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human neuroanatomy is extremely complex, and functional neuroanatomical pathways cannot be dissected and easily visualized in an anatomy lab. Teaching students to see neuro-anatomical relationships over the extent of the neuraxis is challenging. The ability to internalize a 3D map of the neuraxis with the appropriate clinically relevant neuro-pathw...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The high inter-subject variability of human neuroanatomy complicates the analysis of functional imaging data across subjects. We propose a method for the correct segmentation of cortical regions of in- terest based on the cortical surface. First results on the segmentation of Heschl's gyrus indicate the capability of our approach for correct compar...
Article
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Chronic headache after whiplash injury is common, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. On the basis of human neuroanatomy, we hypothesize that rear-end collision can cause leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the epidural space most frequently at the lumbosacral level, inducing chronic headache. We considered that th...
Article
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The Golgi silver-impregnation method established itself as an important technique for distinguishing morphology at the individual neuron level. This technique has been especially useful for studying human neuroanatomy because it works on postmortem tissue but it is also unreliable and capricious. In this report, we describe a simple technique that...
Book
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Anatomy Should be Explained and not just Described.
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a Bayesian framework for generating inverse-consistent inter-subject large deformation transformations between two multi-modal image sets of the brain. In this framework, the estimated transformations are generated using the maximal information about the underlying neuroanatomy present in each of the different modalities. This m...
Article
Full-text available
To present the laboratory portion of our first-semester Human Neuroanatomy course at Temple University Medical School more effectively and efficiently and to replace the glass slide/microscope-based laboratory component of the course, we developed a computer-based substitute. For this computer-based neuroanatomy laboratory program, we photographed...
Article
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This paper presents two different mathematical methods which can be used separately or in conjunction to accommodate shape variabilities between normal human neuroanatomies. Both methods use a digitized textbook to represent the complex structure of a typical normal neuroanatomy. Probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system are d...
Article
Full-text available
A World Wide Web Common Gateway Interface package is described for accessing existing online interactive atlases of anatomy. The Web interface accesses the same 2-D and 3-D images of human neuroanatomy, knee anatomy and thoracic viscera that are currently accessed by a custom interactive atlas in distance learning courses. Although the Web interfac...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated effects of age and sex on regional brain structure in humans, focusing on the frontal and temporal lobes. Hemispheric volumes were obtained from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 96 young (53 men, 43 women; aged 18-40 years) and 34 older (17 men, 17 women; aged 41-80) healthy volunteers. Images (5 mm axial spin-echo, repet...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents two different mathematical methods that can be used separately or in conjunction to accommodate shape variabilities between normal human neuroanatomies. Both methods use a digitized textbook to represent the complex structure of a typical normal neuroanatomy. Probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system are de...
Article
Full-text available
Methods of dipole localization were applied to human scalp-recorded electrical activity associated with a simple auditory cognitive discrimination task. Human neuroanatomy and neurophysiology were reviewed from a biophysical standpoint in order to describe the probable neurogenesis of electrical activity in the brain and on the surface of the head....
Article
Traditional medical education still focuses on masterclasses and the presentation of the rarest and hardest-to-diagnose diseases, hardly observed in a professional context. Technologies such as virtual reality can enrich educational environments to visualize intricate structures and provide assessment and timely feedback. This study's objective was...
Chapter
The human lateral geniculate body (LGB) with its six sickle shaped layers (lam) represents the principal thalamic relay nucleus for the visual system. Cytoarchitectonic analysis serves as the groundtruth for multimodal approaches and studies exploring its function. This technique, however, requires experienced knowledge about human neuroanatomy and...
Article
Stroke remains the leading source of long-term disability. As the only direct descending motor pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) is the primary pathway to innervate spinal motor neurons and one of the most well studied tracts in human neuroanatomy. Its clinical significance can be demonstrated in many distinguished traumatic situations and dis...
Article
The study of neuroanatomy imposes a significant cognitive load on students since it includes a huge factual information and therefore demands diverse learning strategies. In addition, significant amount of teaching is carried out through human brain demonstrations, due to limited opportunities for cadaveric dissection. However, reports suggest that...
Article
INTRODUCTION Traditional atlases of the human brainstem are limited by the inflexible, sparsely-sampled, two-dimensional nature of histology or the low spatial resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetic resonance histology (MRH) uses postmortem high-resolution MRI to circumvent the challenges associated with both modalities. METHODS...
Article
Background Modern high-spatial-resolution radiologic methods enable increasingly detailed volumetric postmortem investigations of human neuroanatomy for diagnostic, research, and educational purposes. Purpose To evaluate the viability of postmortem x-ray phase-contrast micro-CT to provide tissue-conserving, high-spatial-resolution, three-dimensiona...
Article
INTRODUCTION There exist 2 very different models of somatotopic organization of the spinothalamic tract (STT) in the literature: medial-to-lateral and anterior-to-posterior lamination. After correlating in Vivo macrostimulation-induced pain or temperature sensation during percutaneous cervical cordotomy with simultaneous computed tomography (CT) im...
Article
Our knowledge of human brain evolution primarily relies on the interpretation of palaeoneurological evidence. In this context, an endocast or replica of the inside of the bony braincase can be used to reconstruct a timeline of cerebral changes that occurred during human evolution, including changes in topographic extension and structural organisati...
Article
Neuroanatomy has been deemed crucial for clinical neurosciences. It has been one of the most challenging parts of the anatomical curriculum and is one of the causes of “neurophobia”, whose main implication is a negative influence on the choice of neurology in the near future. In the last decades, several educational strategies have been identified...
Chapter
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Neuroanatomy:
Article
This article shows that the academic and research careers of Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857–1938) were directed to provide basic information about the growth of the vertebrate nervous system and to provide standards and the means to make such research efficient. He earned the reputation of making the albino rat a standard laboratory animal. His acad...
Presentation
Background: Due to the complexity and intellectual subject matter of neuroanatomy, many students develop “Neurophobia”. Various methods have been employed to resolve this issue but it still persists. Therefore, College of Medicine at Alfaisal University, introduced clinical scenario as anatomy lab tool to overcome this fear by improving students’...
Article
Received: January 17, 2017 Accepted: July 14, 2017 Published online: September 07, 2017 Issue release date: November 2017
Article
The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the " semantic system". However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functi...
Chapter
This chapter describes the relationship between human neuroanatomy and selected motivations that underlie learning and performance. Although specific biopsychological correlates of motivation are debated, strong multi-disciplinary evidence reveals that incremental changes within the human nervous and endocrine systems are correlated with organized...
Article
The aim of this study was to implement and analyze the use of concept maps (MC) as a didactic tool in teaching/learning of Human Neuroanatomy. A total of 133 students participated in this research. The monitoring service to students, for the construction of the MC, was considered important for 48.1% of the students. In addition, 71.4% of students r...
Data
Introdução: a disciplina de neuroanatomia é taxada como uma das mais complexas e difíceis do ciclo básico de formação em cursos de saúde. Para diminuir as dificuldades no ensino-aprendizagem dos alunos, é necessária a utilização de peças cadavéricas que são obtidos através de doações de cadáveres de corpos não reclamados por suas famílias. Para min...
Chapter
The topic that I have chosen may seem unnecessary to most sociologist because it is generally assumed that humans are naturally social, cooperative, group oriented, and altruistic. This set of assumptions about pro-social behavior is rarely questioned, with the result that it is not considered a problem to discover how these behaviors evolved and b...
Chapter
Localization is the diagnostic exercise of determining from the presenting signs and symptoms what site of the nervous system has been affected by a disease process. Accurate localization depends on: (1) determining abnormal cognitive, motor, or sensory function in the individual patient; and (2) having a good understanding of human neuroanatomy an...
Article
Senescence of neural systems is associated with profound alterations in connective anatomy and tissue architecture. Classical neuroimaging has allowed the in vivo examination of these dynamic changes, and prior studies utilizing quantitative methods have revealed many basic principles of cerebral organization across the lifespan. Recent development...