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Human Geography - Science topic

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Questions related to Human Geography
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I am interested in relationships between photovoice or auto-photography as research methods and social-spatial difference, either as captured in the photographs, or as embodied or lived by the participants. I would particularly appreciate suggestions of literature from the past 10 years.
Recommendations of reading on participant-photography and social-spatial difference would also be relevant in this case.
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I am also interested in the photovoice method. Is that the same as auto-photography?
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I am particularly interested in conceptual literature and pieces of research that aim at advancing the human geographic debate on (local) climate governance. Thank you very much!
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Dear all,
Do you know food, human geography or rural development journals that accept short papers (below 4,000 words)? Thank you, Best!
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I have been asked to compose a writeup of identity as it pertains in human geography, to identify the key theories, thinkers, and current directions. Suggestions of key literature would be very much welcome.
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The following text is from a research on Geography and Identity, in the conception of the school geography.
The place and the construction of identity (O Lugar e a construção da identidade).
The text is in Portuguese, but nothing that Google Translate can not help.
Regards,
Fábio.
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My impression is that the theory behind urban policy mobilities is very well grounded and when reading a paper contributing to this literature stream the theoretical part usually appears to be very strong and important for the paper. Then again, I sometimes I feel that for scholars working on urban policy mobilities the methodology and the empirical research are less important than the theory. Does this observation make sense?
The most popular research methods seem to be expert interviews and document analysis but what I couldn’t find yet was some sort of guidelines on how to empirically study urban policy mobilities. It would be even better if there was an assessment framework for the analysis analysis of (urban) policy mobilities? I would be most grateful if somebody could recommend some specific literature on that.
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Here in Brazil, Costa (2008) created a Sustainable Urban Mobility Index (IMUS), which is a survey based on some areas, such as: accessibility, environmental aspects, social aspects, political systems, transport infrastructure, -Motorized, integrated planning, traffic and urban circulation, urban transport system. The document is in Portuguese, but for this we have Google Translate.
Regards,
Fábio Matos.
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Do any researcher know or have tried any method to map intangible heritage?
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Hello Adil,
Great suggestion by Dr. Yadollahi!
Dr Kramer´s suggestion about symbols is absolutely correct, ... using the appropriate symbols for your mapping, and defining them in a clear, non ambiguous manner is absolutely necessary for the map to communicate the spatial relations that your research has identified. Nothing is more frustrating than studying a map with symbols not explained by the keys. Said in another way, map symbols should have clear, absolute meanings.... spatial relations of these symbols will more than likely be subject to dynamic, sometimes fuzzy, contextual and even unclear meanings pending further data. Intangible heritage may have this kind of mapping characteristic... my humble advice, is for you not to worry too much about "getting it right" at once , but do look at the relations and re-examine them constantly,... spatial relations have a habit of lying hidden sometimes, until we ask the "right" question.
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Christian Nold (2009) in his book of essay Emotional Cartography aims to 
explore the political, social and cultural implications of visualising intimate biometric data and emotional experiences using technology.
In my research (http://www.pocitovemapy.cz/index-en.html) I work with term emotional mapping, but I have been told by some other researchers, readers and reviewers, that emotional mapping is not the correct term, as emotions is not what is being mapped.
I usually ask people to identify places on the map, where they feel afraid (mapping of safety), where they "like it" (spatial preferences), but also places where they spend free time, or places where it is dirty (environment pollution, etc.).
Which term, would you suggest for this kind of subjective mapping - would it be emotional maps or maps of perceptions? And what do you think is the main difference?
Thank you!
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Kind Jiri,
may be "Sentimapping" a more suitable neologism for Your theoretical and practical purposes ? At least, just to respect the difference between "emotion" and "sentiment", given that in a map, usually, we try to represent something that is closer to a sentiment towards a place, an object, ecc., much more than to a unique emotion...
Just an idea.
Best Regards
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I am a PhD candidate in Human Geography at Durham University, UK. My research topic is urban child labour issues. To this end, I aim to be in Dhaka, Bangladesh to conduct a long-term ethnographic research. For the purposes of ethical considerations, I wonder if I need an ethical clearance from the Government of Bangaldesh.
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I wish you all the best.
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Future urbanization - urban growth - seems to always be presented from a positivist standpoint as a neutral fact. However, from a critical perspective, it seems obvious that urbanization as well as economic and material growth are tightly intertwined and mutually feeding phenomena. Urbanization is embedded in a system of policies, economic incentives, cultural norms, etc. Urbanization is rooted in a political economy. It is not neutral. It is at the same the condition of and the requirement for economic growth through the availability of workforce for industry and services, accumulation of capital, etc.
Do you know of any academic work that has articulated a proper critique of the premise that urbanization would be an inescapable future or necessity? In other words, a critique of the fact that urbanization projections may well be performative? I am particularly interested in a critique from a socio-ecological point of view.
It seems to me that the whole sustainability discussion is entirely accepting current business-as-usual urbanization projections not only as an inescapable phenomenon, but a desirable one. And because it is accepted as the only scenario and goes unchallenged it will inevitably be self-fulfilling. In other words this business-as-usual urbanization projection is performative.
But, I see a few points where this premise can be challenged and I would expect that scholars have already done it. Still I have hard time finding it. Any hints?
I would anticipate critique from neo-marxist theorists of urbanization like David Harvey or from academic communities as #degrowth, #postgrowth, #DiverseEconomies, #FeministEconomics, etc.
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Dear, growth of urbanization is certainly of an important topic, please check the following articles, might be helpful for you
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Hello everyone!
I am doing my PhD in Human Geography at the University of Reading and was previously involved with citizen science at the Open University.
I am now exploring the citizen science literature and projects in the global south.
Any papers or links to projects would be very welcome!
The languages I can read are English, French, Spanish or Portuguese. Thank you very much in advance!
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Thank you very much everyone!
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In my book "Public Participation as a Tool for Integration Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning" (Springer, 2017) I claim that Local Knowledge in urban and regional planning refers to the knowledge of people who could be affected by plans, and that it is "a large, complex epistemological system related to a broad conceptual scope that includes perceptions, desires, grievances, opinions, ideas, beliefs, thoughts, speculations, preferences, common sense, feelings and sensations; it also addresses needs, cultural codes, spatial conducts, social relations, societal norms, and everyday life scenarios and practices, all of which are rooted in the locals' everyday reality". 
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Local knowledge can be seen from different perspectives and embedded in different discourses. The word 'local' puts it in the immediate space for which plans are drafted. As such a local Urban Planner, who lives since long time in the respective city has such local knowledge, at least more of it than an urban planner who has been hired from far away. However, and some of the contributions argue in this direction, local can also mean people's knowledge in comparison to scientific knowledge.
Other expressions that at times appear in the discourses are 'traditional knowledge' and 'indigenous knowledge'. Of course there are slight, but very meaningful differences between all of these expressions, but what they might have in common is the assumption that beyond the scientific way of conceptualizing things there are also other qualities, which can add perspectives to the scientific view that are essential.
I just came back two week ago from doing research about 'traditional cyclone shelters in Vanuatu'. These shelters, which have survived the strongest cyclones ever are the result of 'local' knowledge. Aren't they? E.G. an important way o9f putting wooden logs together is by tying them together with wild vines instead of using nails. This flexibility provides stability as logs fixed by nails would disconnect soon when the power of heavy winds would slowly but surely loosen the connection.
Indeed I came across a similar principle many years ago in South India, where fishermen built boats by stitching the wooden planks together with coir. Also here the flexibility enhanced the stability when the boat went through the surf of the ocean.
‘Local knowledge’ here might be the knowledge which is built from experience, from being practically attached to something instead of reflecting and researching things.
Stein, D. S. (2002). Creating local knowledge through learning in community: A case study. New directions for adult and continuing education, 2002(95), 27-40.
Bishop, B. W. (2011). Location‐based questions and local knowledge. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 62(8), 1594-1603.
Aveling, E. L. (2011). Mediating between international knowledge and local knowledge: the critical role of local field officers in an HIV prevention intervention. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21(2), 95-110.
Mammo, T. (1999). The paradox of Africa's poverty: the role of indigenous knowledge, traditional practices and local institutions--the case of Ethiopia. The Red Sea Press.
Sekhar, N. U. (2004). Local versus expert knowledge in forest management in a semi‐arid part of India. Land Degradation & Development, 15(2), 133-142.
Thomas, D. S. G., & Twyman, C. (2004). Good or bad rangeland? Hybrid knowledge, science, and local understandings of vegetation dynamics in the Kalahari. Land Degradation & Development, 15(3), 215-231.
Gerhardinger, L. C., Godoy, E. A., & Jones, P. J. (2009). Local ecological knowledge and the management of marine protected areas in Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management, 52(3), 154-165.
Šūmane, S., Kunda, I., Knickel, K., Strauss, A., Tisenkopfs, T., des Ios Rios, I., ... & Ashkenazy, A. (2017). Local and farmers' knowledge matters! How integrating informal and formal knowledge enhances sustainable and resilient agriculture. Journal of Rural Studies.
Benham, C. F. (2017). Aligning public participation with local environmental knowledge in complex marine social-ecological systems. Marine Policy, 82, 16-24.
Shearmur, R., & Doloreux, D. (2008). Urban hierarchy or local buzz? High-order producer service and (or) knowledge-intensive business service location in Canada, 1991–2001. The Professional Geographer, 60(3), 333-355.
Yigitcanlar, T., O’connor, K., & Westerman, C. (2008). The making of knowledge cities: Melbourne’s knowledge-based urban development experience. Cities, 25(2), 63-72.
Yigitcanlar, T., & Velibeyoglu, K. (2008). Knowledge-based urban development: The local economic development path of Brisbane, Australia. Local Economy, 23(3), 195-207.
Skytt-Larsen, C. B., & Winther, L. (2015). Knowledge production, urban locations and the importance of local networks. European Planning Studies, 23(9), 1895-1917.
Pineda-Zumaran, J. (2016). Learning and knowledge generation in local decision making in the South: The case of urban infrastructure provision in Arequipa, Peru. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 36(1), 60-75.
Lau, U., & Seedat, M. (2015). The community story, relationality and process: Bridging tools for researching local knowledge in a peri‐urban township. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 25(5), 369-383.
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In my book "Public Participation as a Tool for Integrating Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning" (Springer, 2017) I compare between the respective capabilities of different participatory practices - top-down as well as bottom-up - to capture residents' local knowledge (e.g., needs, perceptions, perspectives, opinions) and incorporate it into planning and plans. The comparison is conducted according to dozens parameters such as 'the motivators for participatory processes', 'procedures and tools employed in the participatory processes', 'the interaction between stakeholders', 'exposure of local knowledge', 'characteristics of local knowledge exposed', etc.
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Though there are several methods, depending on the sample size you are assessing, in my perspective face to face interviews/questionnaires are generally feasible to get relevant data, using both focus groups or relevant parts oat the planning level.
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In my book, titled "Public Participation as a Tool for Integrating Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning" (Springer 2017) I claim that the initial practical goals of public participation in planning are "the exposure of residents' local knowledge and the incorporation of that knowledge into the planning and decision-making processes".
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As to the possibility of public participation, I think one important factor is whether or not people are organized.  Many have shown that individuals are less interested in or less likely to participate in planning activities such as public hearings than their organizations such as NGOs or homeowners associations (HOA).  When there are homeowners associations in the local area, they are more active in local planning activities.  Then, a question remains open: how will the renters' interests be represented in public particiaption in planning?  Should they be represented given their much higher mobility?  Should they rely more on "exit" than on "voice"?  Public participation is certainly a method for people to "voice" their preferences or knowledge on local affairs.
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I am studying these enterprises as an attempt to understand how theoretically, these enterprises, conceptualised as occuring in developing society, differ from those occuring in western/developed ones. First, I want to contribute to the growing immigrant entrepreneural literature, and also interrogate it. On the flip side of it, the study is also a contribution to south-south migration which is often difficult to find in the migration literature.
One key objective is to examine Nigerian migrants' propensity to self employment, but also I want to explore how their activities serve as continuity, or discontinuity/break to those pursued by thei forebearers in Accra. Of course issues about operational strategies and profiling will also be explored.
I will be interested in suggestions that point to appropriate methodological strategies including sampling, data collection instruments and analyses.
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 Your objectives; 1) to examine Nigerian migrants' propensity to self employment, 2) to explore how their activities serve as continuity, or discontinuity/break to those pursued by thei forebearers in Accra. 3) issues about operational strategies and profiling will also be explored. 
Objective 1 can be met through a phenomelogical approach-hear it from them. objective 2 may require a comparative approach which can also be addressed using a qualitative approach. The third objective i believe can also  be achieved using the same approaches.
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Human geography in particular acknowledges the relativist, constructed view of space in that ‘activities and objects... define spatial fields of influence’ (Harvey, 1969, p. 208). On the other hand, energy geographies (which itself draws heavily on multiple sub-disciplines within geography and outside), in so far its contemporary resurgence is concerned(Calvert, 2015), still views space as contextual, absolute; affected by and affecting changes within the energy domain. There is, as such, a need to introduce a constructed, relativist view of space, in the conduct of energy geography sub-discipline.
Do you think this insight makes sense?
Harvey, D. (1969) Explanation in geography. Edward Arnold, London.
Calvert (2015), From energy geography to energy geographies: Perspectives on a fertile academic borderland
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Thank you! This is exactly what I was looking for!
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Hello, 
I need a map and the relative precise datas about Tokyo ku-areas daytime/nighttime population, does anybody know where it's available? 
I've found some datas, but they are from 2000 and I'd rather find some that are updated. 
Thank you
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Thank you very much, See you
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Do suggest some references related to this topic. THANKS
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 Relation between Space and Geography:
1. Space
2. Space + Particular Event / Object = Location
3. Location + various attributes + visual and conceptual image = Place
4. Places with common attributes = Region
5. Regional Analysis = Geography
Theme questions of Geography: Where, What, When, How (Nature-centric approach)
Theme questions of Human Geography: Who, Where, What, When, How (Anthropocentric approach)
Geographical works relating distribution of attributes in positivist / quantitative manner = Spatial Analysis
Anthropocentric Human-Geographical items also can be analysed within quantitative spatial analysis.
But today Human Geography is inclining to critical and post modern approach. 
You can go through the concept of "Production of Space" after Lefebvre and Soja. 
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Hi everyone,
first of all I'm trying to figure out if dispositive analysis is a useful perspective for geographical research. Furthermore I think about doing further research on creative cities using this perspective. Why are there just a few geographers using the dispositive, introduced by Michel Foucault, although it allows for adressing material and immaterial aspects of ("creative") urbanism for instance? Are there disciplinary, theoretical reasons, path dependencies in geographical thinking with Foucault? I'm looking forward to your critical input!
Best,
Moritz
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Dear Felix,
thanks a lot! Peck and Evans are already part of my PhD project and I'm looking forward to reading the other two!
Best,
Moritz
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I have used satellite images from NOAA (DMSP-OLS) to monitor and compare the distribution of luminosity of areas over time, e.g. urbanisation, peri-urban zones, borders etc. For me it is still the experimantal phase. For that purpose I have found the software ImageJ quite useful, particularly image correlation and - for urban development - analysis with concentric circles where one can also import the pixel data of the different circles into stata for further statistical analysis, e.g. Moran-I analysis. I would just like to learn and exchange. To my knowledge analysis of night satellite images have been so far only used to proxy missing income or population data in developing countries. Thanks in advance!
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Dear Bin, it is highly impressive what can be done with such data. Admittedly my attempt to consider such satellite images has been so far a more practical one, as to test or confirm results from empirical social and economic research on rural and urban evolution, such as e.g. peri-urbanisation. I am also aware of the fractal dimension of space, such as the rank-size distribution of cities or developmental strengths and weaknesses. Implicitly this can be even found in policies, such as the cascade-like logic of the Europe2020 strategy, where the EU as such and every tiny sub-region is defined by the same developmental categories and challenges. The EU is just the aggregate of the variation at national down to local levels. Indeed, to my knowledge there is not much consideration of spatial heterogeneity in regional science. Some few remarks can be found in Brakman et al. 2009 (The new introduction to geographical economics, Cambridge: CUP). I do not have ArcGIS and no clear idea of its certainly powerful capacities. The original inspiration to use ImageJ came from my daughter who just works on her master thesis in biochemistry and the information on http://www.noao.edu/education/gsmt/lpmeasure. In the moment we are preparing a research application with other EU partners on rural & urban change. For this purpose I am preparing a technical paper on the image analysis approach. Your work will be duly considered with references. Once completed I'll let you know. Many thanks and best wishes, Rolf
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I want to calculate population density for Bolivia's municipalities. I have census data, but it doesn't have area (superficie) and I'm having trouble finding it. Help? I want to run some simple multivariate models to see what factors affect the 2015 municipal elections, but I want to control for population density. Thanks.
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To begin, I don’t think any of what I found is exactly what you were looking for, but I’ll bring your attention to it anyway.  I’ll start with links to resources:
1) As I mentioned, I don’t think this is what you were asking for (raw data on geographical area by municipality or population density), but it was the best thing that I could find: http://www.cedib.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Mapa-2-Datos-demograficos.pdf.  Whoever put it together must have had to input raw data.  The sources cited are Wikipedia and INE, but I’ve been to both and was not able to find raw data broken out by municipality.  I suppose you could contact the person who put it together to see what raw data was used and from which sources and where within those sources.
2) You’ve probably been here: http://datos.ine.gob.bo/binbol/RpWebEngine.exe/Portal?BASE=CPV2012COM&lang=ESP.  While it is one of the nicer databases, I don’t think it will yield what you’re looking for and from the sounds of it, you’ve already been here, but if not, you may find the link useful.
3) The link here: http://censosbolivia.ine.gob.bo/sites/default/files/imagenes/fotos_galeria/ecc.jpg  does not provide what you’re looking for either, but it is a map that actually labels all of the municipalities, which may be helpful.
I did a cursory search of the Latin American Electronic Data Archive (LAEDA), but a lot of what I found for Bolivia seemed centered on elections, and the data doesn't appear to be all that recent.  Nevertheless, it might provide you with some good leads.  You can link to that search here: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/16309/statistics-by-country?countryCode=BO&nbitems=20&collection=4::92&simplefilter=1 year&time_filter_start_date=05/11/2014&time_filter_end_date=05/11/2015.  If nothing else, you would think that those involved with activities of an electoral nature would be able to provide data on its jurisdictions/municipalities.
Somebody suggested "Atlas Estadístico de Municipios," which I thought sounded promising, so I tried looking for a copy myself, but links I found by that name merely led me to population data.
Something that may be more obvious than most is the "National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia."  It is actually an account on ResearchGate.  With 2 members and 8 publications, I don't know how much it could help you, but it's worth a try.  You can link to it here: https://www.researchgate.net/institution/National_Insititute_of_Statistics_of_Bolivia.
I've also put out a query to a reference librarian who specializes in Latin America.  She did a really good job for me once before but due to the high tempo of the grad school program I was in, I couldn't put it all to good use.  I am hoping that if she finds some good resources that you will be able to do so.  If she does, I will let you know. 
Do you have a deadline by which you need to have this information?
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Hi all, I am working on the topic which is focused on Protected Landscape Areas in the Czech Republic. I would like to aim to verify claims which were raised as arguments against PLA. I would like to ask you, is there any publication which follows up PLA and their impact on regional development? Is there some publication which is focused on factors of regional development in protected areas? Is PLA problem for regional development or is it an advantage? Do you know some examples? Because one of the claim (the mayors of the affected municipalities told) was that the declaration of new PLA will mean "only limitation", restriction of movement in PLA, restriction of regional development, restriction of state administration, slowing the development of municipalities etc. 
Thank you so much for your answers.
Have a nice day.
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We have conducted an ESPON project on liveable landscape as an asset in regional development, this might not exactly be what you are looking for, but might be worth to take a glance. 
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There is likely to be high level of disturbance towards lowlands as a result of proximity to populated areas and even across the elevational gradient there can be disturbance associated with grazing, roads, firewood collections, shifting cultivation etc. So, how to take all these anthropogenic factors into considerations while looking at spatial patterns of richness?
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What is the striking features  of the Anthropocene of North East India 
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I am planning to conduct a study in tropical logged-over forest catchment. What the best method can be used for the measurement?
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Dear Mr. Khalit,
I am not sure what your precise objectives are but obviously am entering a very ambitious project. First and foremost you have to make a careful site selection and try and find a test site to carry out this. I was involved in such a project. You have to be sure that the catchment is an almost-closed system where you can study colluvial, alluvial and fluvial sediment input prior and after have logged the area within the project. Is this what you are aiming at or am I on the wrong scent?
Best regards
Harald G. Dill
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My study area includes a number of residential areas (rural) with different population size that are distributed unequally from the grouse sites. Do you think that we can generate fuzzy map with population size (I feel population size variable is a discrete data) across region? if so, how?
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I think you would benefit from considering both the human population size and the spatial distribution of human development. For instance, a clumped pattern of development usually have a lower impact in the environment than a scattered pattern. There are several spatially explicit indicators that allow you quantifying these dimensions. Please, let me know if you need further information on these indicators and provide more details about your study and available data.
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I'm doing my MS on the evaluation of tourism-oriented villages based on the economy of space. I appreciate your comments.
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You can get the impact of tourism industry development on dimensions of the space economy by the followings.
1. Long time analysis of land use / land cover including built-up structures for commercials and other business
2. Obtaining the answers from the community through interviews using structured questioners (socio-economic variables), depends upon your aims and objectives of the research project. 
3. Land scape environmental transition (including transport networks, parks, electricity, buildings for commercial, settlements, professional industries-education, recreations, legal, medical, etc.,)
4. Floating population movements, money flow, business and trade
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I am searching for up to date information on the migration trajectories of Subsaharian Migrants and their living and working conditions in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunesia, Libya, Egypt) as well as human rights violations by state and non-state actors against them. I am grateful for your advice on recent articles, books and reports.
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You can have some responses from Mohamed Saib Musette
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It seems that there are few papers recently using this concept, I wonder why.
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The term "Socialbrache" has been introduced in the 1970s both by social and landscape geographers to explain the then happening change in rural areas: More and more agricultural land was abandonned or signficantly underused. It turned out that the main motives for these changes were changes in the occupation of the villagers: Were they formerly full-time or part-time farmers their attitude towards agriculture changed with increasing occupation outside agriculture (e.g. in manufacturing). As a result, more and more land was not used properly.
In most west European countries this process has ended for several reasons: Existing farmers seek land, environmental protection schemes incl. subsidies allow for underusing, and part-time farming is established.
However, I have no idea about the East European countries: I can imagine that migration to cities, search for occupation outside the primary sector, and the reduced necessity to produce food for subsistence introduced these processes.
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In terms of adaptation to climate change.
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Hi Choen, yes there is a wealth of information available around 'local and indigenous knowledge', some of which has been applied in the Climate Change Adaptation space. However, there is a big difference between knowledge, and other intangible (embodied) aspects of culture such local values, motivations, ideologies, cosmologies, religious worldview etc.
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An agronomist colleague and I are looking for known sites to test a field reconnaissance methodology for rapid verification, so we are looking for sites for which local "dark earths" have been verified as being anthropogenic in origin.
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Thank you once again, Wenceslau. I sent Dr. Neves a message last night, but these contacts in Rondonia may be better able to help me in the time that I have left here. I did not know about Zimpel before, but will try to contact him here. I had intended to talk to UNIR archaeologists, so this provides a more specific person to contact.
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We are discussing if the growing of urbanized areas can be recovered by natural areas and in what proportion?
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Indian institutions (e.g. the MoEF & IFS) are highly bureaucratic and the govt. has traditionally exercised an exclusionary approach to conservation. Historically, there has been disregard for human rights settlement in PAs. Additionally, there are numerous actors in the wildlife tourism scenario who are all competing for the same resource-the rights to exploit the limited natural resources of Indian PAs (protected areas). Is there a solution?
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Dear Denise, yes it made me smile to read the State of the Forests reports, where some stretches of New Delhi's highways were classed as 'forests', because they had a row of trees in between the lanes.
Christian is right in saying foreigners can't fool around as they wish. The MoEF has worked to protect India's biological resources for its people, such that permits must be applied for, for any genetic material, that might be used in research and potentially in industry. I am not sure whether any of these funds gathered from applicants have trickled down to the people or to conservation efforts though, or whether the money still sits in MoEF coffers?
However, I know the director of the MoEF worked closely with (and had a good relationship with) staff from the IUCN's New Delhi office when I was there. I think nothing's completely black and white.
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I have found literature from the UK and organizations advancing feminist geography in Europe.
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Dear Tiffany Bohm,
Feministic Geography has been explored by many researchers in USA. Here are a few examples. Follow the links:
2) http://phg.sagepub.com/content/34/1/56.short Melissa W. Wright : Gender and geography II: bridging the gap — feminist, queer, and the geographical imaginary, Progress in Human Geography February 2010 34: 56-66, first published on May 21, 2009.
4) Janice Monk. College of Social and Behavioral Science, School of Geography and Development, The University of Arizona, USA.
5) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09663699408721207?journalCode=cgpc20: Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, Volume 1, Issue 2, 1994
6) Richa Nagar in Department of Geography, Environment and Society, University of Minnesota, USA.
10) Mona Domosh-Department of Geography, Hanover, NH, USA: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~geog/facstaff/domosh.html
11) http://www.geog.psu.edu/people/wright-melissa-w: Melissa W. Wright- Department of Geography, Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA.
Hope this will satisfy your doubt.
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I just want to know that how the socioeconomic transition can effect the society in mountainous areas.
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These are very ambitious goals. I guess that your work also depends on your available legacy data and data that you can still conduct. Before starting you should also know the spatial scale or level you want to focus on. Do you want to study regional or nationwide transformation process, etc? I guess it will be helpful, too, to know the period of transformation process. Then you wil have to define or determine indicators in order to analyse the strength and direction of transformation process. You have already mentioned that you want to study income sources and many more. I also gess that population and development indicators such as population growth, proportion of rural/urban inhabitants, proportion of inhabitants in agriculture, natural resources, etc would be helpful. Kreutzmann (2001) reported on the human dimension of development processes in high mountain regions. He introduced developement indicators on different regional levels using case studies from South Asian mountain regions.
Kreutzmann, H., 2001. Development Indicators for Mountain Regions. Mountain Research and Development Vol 21 No 2 May 2001: 132–139
I hope I could help you. Best regards
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In social sciences many kinds of rates are estimated but they rarely permit a true international comparison due to the effect of time, space, etc. For example, for internal migration only instantaneous rates of changes of residence are comparable. It will be useful to see in other domains which are the rates that permit an international comparison.
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Yes, I agree with you that many derivates of vital statistics may be comparable internationally, like the TFR, and that the annual probability of changing residence, which can be drawn from population registers, is of the same kind. Unlikely, the single index k drawn from census data (see Courgeau, Muhidin, Bell, 2011 given in previous answer) does not have the same intrinsic or plain language meaning. As Bell and Muhidin (2011) said: k is not directly interpretable as a demographic indicator in the same form as the total fertility rate, the life expectancy or migration intensity.
However, such cross-sectional indices, which compare two countries substituting their true structures by a standard one, introduce an arbitrary in this standard which may lead to incorrect conclusions (see, Henry, 1972). Only a preliminary longitudinal analysis may permit a more precise answer.
References:
Bell, M., Muhidin, S. 2011. Comparing internal migration between countries using Courgeau’s k. In Stillwell and Clarke eds., Population dynamics and projection methods, Springer.
Henry, L. 1972. Démographie. Analyse et modèles. Larousse.
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How can it be explained? What are the factors that could have this kind of impact??
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If you are on a continent like Asia or even Europe and in an area with prevalent wind direction the conditions become more "continental" with wind direction.
In Germany with prevailing West winds this means that the further East you go the more arid it will be. This should be a selective force.
Also the range of temperature (difference between hotest and coldest temperature) is wider the further East you go in a West wind area.
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I'm actually working on landscape representation and I am in a dead end definition with the term "institution".
I'm trying to shed ligth on a geographical approach of the relation between insitutional actors' representation of lanscape and other type of actors' representation of landscape. But what's fit in "institution" groups and what is outside this classification?
I think "Institution" is not appropriate but to be shure I have to define this term deeply.
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Have you read K. Olwig's papers on landscape? I think they may prove helpful regarding "the relation bet. institutional and other actors" In particular:
'Representation and alienation in the political land-scape' in Cultural Geographies
2005, 12:19-40