Questions related to Human Ecology and Ecodynamics
The headline just appeared :
"ScienceDaily: Space & Time News
A break from the buzz: Bees go silent during total solar eclipse
Posted: 10 Oct 2018 07:55 AM PDT
In an unprecedented study of a solar eclipse's influence on bee behavior, researchers organized citizen scientists and elementary school classrooms to set up acoustic monitoring stations to listen in on bees' buzzing -- or lack thereof -- as the August 2017 total solar eclipse passed over North America. The results were clear and consistent at locations across the United States: Bees stopped flying during the period of total solar eclipse. "
This observation would seem to suggest that as global warming has progressed, and still does, then increasing days of cloud cover will reduce bee activity. Also that other pollinating insects may be involved and negatively impact on the human food chain. Not to mention arthropod food species predated by nesting birds. Intra-arthropod food chains may also likely be affected negatively.
These effects, if they occur, would seem most likely to be experienced during early growth seasons when cold and warm humid air masses will most frequently collide over areas of food production, and will have increased in the past 150 years and will continue to do so. Their effects upon human food supply will become immense as our global capacity to produce food drops below the global demand for it, and will proceed exponentially to a cube function due to the volumetric characteristic of increasing humidity.
Qu: Are there any bee studies which support the above proposition in relation to annual cloud cover variation bees, pollination, their population and related food yields?
The observation referred to in the headline was perhaps simplistic, in that it might lead some to imagine that it is the loss of radiation visible to the human eye which translates into suppressed appian activity, or that of other insects too. It is well established that the sense of sight, and capacity to navigate and find food, of different insects species involves a wider range of ranges of frequencies than humans rely upon. Since many parts of the emf spectrum may be selectively absorbed by atmospheric pollutant gases, vapours and aerosols the distribution of which are also likely to experience, though to us invisibly so, local variations just as does cloud cover then the true complexity and perhaps previously unsuspected breadth and depth of the negative potential of the real problem can be fully appreciated.
The consequence of this fact leads one to a generalisation of the proposal above to include all key species, species by species, and a generalisation of the question to include studies of all important pollinators.. flies, wasps and so on in relation to all possible human, and natural, atmospheric pollutants, constituents and chemically interacting derivative products.
Instead of living within the annual interest that biophysical wealth of Nature gives us, we are using up our natural capital. We are taking more resources than Nature/Earth can provide and throwing more wastes and pollutants than that Nature can metabolize and assimilate. What are the impacts? What future is waiting for us? What should we do for restoring our ecological balance sheet?
There is likely to be high level of disturbance towards lowlands as a result of proximity to populated areas and even across the elevational gradient there can be disturbance associated with grazing, roads, firewood collections, shifting cultivation etc. So, how to take all these anthropogenic factors into considerations while looking at spatial patterns of richness?
Protected areas are used for a wide range of tourism and leisure activities, some of which focus on nature, while for others they provide a setting for recreational and sporting activities. Adventure racing events, e.g. trail running and orienteering, are increasing in popularity, and occurring with great frequency.
The literature on adventure racing has focused on the sociology of sport, health and nutrition of participants. There is limited information about the nature and extent of its biophysical and socio-cultural impacts.
I am doing doing a research on the composting of organic municipal waste (agricultural waste, roadside grass, wood chips etc) and I'm aiming to find out how to optimize the composting process, increase the nutrient value of compost by using nutrient rich waste streams (poultry/animal manure ashes from incineration process) or any other method to either produce a higher value compost or make the composting process more efficient.