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Human Capital - Science topic

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I want a study or research that looks at the sustainable development process as the process of preserving and renewing assets of all kinds, namely natural capital, productive capital, human capital and social capital.
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Chapter 12 ~ Resources and Sustainable Development – Environmental Science (pressbooks.pub)
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Esteemed Colleagues,
Please what is the most appropriate proxy for human capital? Several papers use different variables:
1) labour force participation rate (I am using this but not sure if that will be correct)
2) education enrolment rate
3) education attainment
4) education index (from UNDP)
5) human capital index (from World Bank)
Your constructive discourse are welcomed in addition to referenced articles too.
Thanks in advance,
Ngozi
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You can consider human capital information in the context of, for example:
• Cost of Living Index
• Global Innovation Index,
• Global Peace Index
• Natixis Global Retirement Index
• OECD Better Life Index
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"Sustainable development can be defined as progress that meets the needs of the present compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
Companies that fail to integrate social responsibility into the core of their business miss the opportunities to build organizations with high performance and resilient employees.
Human capital/culture is the fourth pillar of sustainable development since November 17, 2010 when a document is adopted calling on cities and local and regional governments around the world to (a) develop cultural policy and include the cultural dimension in all public policies b) the role of employees/human beings as creators and innovators.
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Sustainable development can be defined as progress that meets the needs of the present compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.".
Interesting topic....
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Is it correct to find the partial derivative between endogenous variables?
(For example, is it legitimate to take the partial derivative of the stock of human capital with respect to the stock of physical capital?)
If it is, are there any classic dynamic economics papers that deal with it in this way?
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Of course not. A partial derivative is defined as the change in the endogenous (dependent) variable with respect to the change in the exogenous (independent) variable.
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Esteemed colleagues,
I am working on a global sample and I need articles to support EDUCATION as the proxy for human capital. The best indicator would have been the HUMAN CAPITAL INDEX but I cannot find any global data from 1980 to 2019 the reason I am using SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT.
So, if you have any articles that I can use to justify using EDUCATION, I will appreciate it if you send them to me for citation.
In humble anticipation, thanks!
Ngozi
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Dear Ngozi,
You can find the human capital index data for most of the countries obtained from Penn World Tables. I hope that this data will contribute to your studies. Best wishes.
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If artificial intelligence is implemented for the online mobile banking, can this banking segment be deprived of employing human capital altogether?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dariusz Prokopowicz In my experience, bank employees are needed less and less banking applications, mobility, online services and even financial and credit analyzes are performed using artificial intelligence.
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More precisely: How much of the stock of physical capital in the USA is owned by Chinese households and vice versa?
Background: I want to calibrate a simple two country model of the USA and China with mobile capital. To do this, I need data on foreign ownership of physical capital (or bilateral foreign direct investment) between the two countries.
In the model I assume that output Y is produced using physical capital K and human capital H with a neoclassical production function, i.e. Y = F(K,H). I need to know how much of the U.S. capital stock K_usa is owned by Chinese households and how much of the capital stock in China K_china is owned by U.S. households.
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I dont quite understand how the physical capital of households participates in industry output because households meet their personal needs
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Many countries accept skilled workers to increase domestic human capital.
To complement this policy, some countries are enthusiastic about accepting study migrants. They provide international students with the education and induce students to remain in the host country after education. International students tend to build a large amount of human capital in order to get a skilled job in the host country or in other foreign countries after education.
Japan has been limiting the job that foreigners can take to the skilled one. However, we made a major change in the immigration policy in 2018. In particular, we redefined the 'skilled' job. Newly-defined skilled jobs include jobs that do not require high skill.
Given a situation where international students can be employed for the job that is not necessary high skill after education, do they still keep an incentive to build large human capital?
They do not have to study hard to get a skilled job. Even if they did not study well, they may be able to get a job formally in Japan if they are ok with the unskilled one!
Any ideas? I wonder if you have seen any analytical models to examine this issue (of course, this problem cannot be solved fully without an empirical investigation.)
Thank you.
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Interesting question Akira Shimada . Would be interested to know as well.
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respected scholars,
I'm doing my research on the impact of microcredit on the sustainable livelihood of clients. I tend to measure this livelihood through the five capital assets of sustainable livelihood, namely physical capital, human capital, social capital, financial capital, and natural capital.
can you all suggest to me how and what statistics would be apporopriate for me to use in this research?
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It is importnat study
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Hi everyone!
I´m writing my bachelors thesis and originally wanted to study the effect of tuition fees on socioeconomic/intergenerational mobility. I couldn´t find any suitable theory so I´ll have to figure out a new subject.
I´v now thought about the following themes and would be extremely thankful for recommendations on theory or another interesting subject/viewpoint.
  • The effect of an additional year of schooling on intergenerational mobility; the relations theory and actualization during years 19XX-20XX. (I`ve found a dataset for mobility and would like to use STATA or R for the empirical chapters)
  • The effect of compulsory secondary/upper secondary education on intergenerational mobility
  • Interrupted work careers and subsequent earnings; gender earnings gap
  • The obligations/binding nature of unemployment benefits and its effect on the employment rate( comparing Finland, Switzerland, Sweden, USA, Denmark. Obligations on a scale from 1-5)
I`ve studied each subject, but am most familiar with economics of education and social/socioeconomic/intergenerational -mobility.
Stay safe!
Br,
Koskelo Sara
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Thank you for your question. Not finding a "suitable theory" doesn't mean that you have to change your topic. Just start with the empirical part and then figure out the theory on the fly. For a Bachelor thesis this should suffice.
Good luck!
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I don't quite understand what exactly they did. How do you actually add a random error component to predicted household income?
The Impact of Remittances on Poverty and Human Capital: Evidence from Latin American Household Surveys. Acosta et al. (2007)
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Thank you very much.
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Many students and employees sometimes have a confusion of both mentioned above terms, HCD and HRM in terms of importance and functions that could help to develop the organizations and workforce in..
Dear Experts in this area, Could you please add your valuable comments and opinions regarding this matter?
Thank You in Advance
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I think both are important while HRM is a strategic approach in the firm to improve the performance of the employees, the HCD is a function of HRM.
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Human capital theory studies usually assume that experiences are translated into knowledge and skills. Vocational education is more experiential and experimental.
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Thank you !
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Education is often seen as an important instrument for civilization and for the building of human capital for development. But there is also criticism. Bryan Kaplan has written a book called ‘The case against Education’ (2018) in which he states that the function of education is to signal good qualities of students and certify one’s intelligence and that it is not to enhance one’s skills. Is that what education really does? Are there other claims against education or are the pro’s much greater?
Are there other sources or books where claims are made against education?
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I recently made a video attempting to answer precisely this question. Here is the link:
I hope you find it useful and that it sparks a few ideas! The video focuses on what I see as the four central problems of education:
- Hundreds of millions of children are going to school but not receiving even a basic education.
- Others get an education at the cost of the joy of childhood.
- Still others do not achieve their full potential for financial reasons.
- Education often fails to adapt to the needs of a changing world.
The video also cites a few resources which you may find helpful.
Overall, we have evolved as a species to the point where it is very difficult to imagine life without certain things. What would life be like without money, for example?
Education is like that. It is almost impossible to conceive of human society with *no* education. What would that even mean? Would children no longer learn the language of their parents, or how to boil an egg?! Education is so bound up with the socializing process, and the passing on of skills from one generation to another, that it is almost meaningless to think in terms of getting rid of it.
So we end up, not with "education" vs. "no education", but rather with "one kind of education" vs. "another kind of education". Even Caplan is writing, not against education as such, but against the current *system* of education.
I hope this helps!
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What makes a workforce development initiative successful? Should workforce development initiatives spur employment, or merely increase employability? Does a workforce development initiative have to remedy inequity to be viable?
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One of the main goals of the development of the workforce is improving skills, training in such a way as to increase the efficiency of human capital by adapting to changing conditions, work standards, emerging new professional specialties and professions.
Regards
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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1)in literature perceived employability has been variously defined. Fugate et al. (2004) model has latent dimensions Human and social Capital. Adaptability and Career identity.
2)Direnzo, et al (2015) define career capital comprising of Human, Social and Psychological Capital. (antecedents).
which one is formative and which one is reflective.
3) in article," The undergraduate self-perception of employability: human capital, careers advice, and career ownership .William E. Donald, Yehuda Baruch and Melanie Ashleigh "
perceived employability is impacted by human capital, which incorporates social capital, cultural capital, psychological capital, scholastic capital, market-value capital, and skills.
(making it a formative model)
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i am looking for employee employability
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I'm currently conducting a study about the characacteristics of the TMT in family firms and its impact on financial performance. I have access to BoardEx and Orbis, however, I don't know how to define who is part of TMT and who isn't.
Thank you for your contributions
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I would recommend reading the following article:
- Donald C. Hambrick (2015) Top Management Teams, Organizational Behavior, Volume 11. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118785317.weom110276
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In its draft, the report concludes that global value chains can continue to support growth, create better job opportunities and reduce poverty rates, provided that developing countries implement deeper reforms, and that industrialized countries pursue open, inclusive, and pre-defined policies. Most importantly, if countries fail to invest in human capital, they may end up in the middle income trap and then fall behind from the next stage of development. Evidence also suggests that technological changes will likely be a blessing more than a curse on trade and global value chains. The benefits of sharing global value chains can be widely and sustainable shared if all countries support social and environmental protection.
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I'm trying to find the relationship between innovation and economic growth among different countries in one year (Cross-section)
The dependent variable is GDP growth per capita
independent variables are no.of patents per capita- no. of trademarks per capita- R&D expenditure and HCI (human capital index as a control variable).
My question is should I keep the values of the independent variable for the year or should include them as the difference between current and previous year(%)?
- Also is it logical to take the percenatge of an Index (in the case of HCI)?
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Isabel Almudi many thanks, I'll make sure to check it out! Regards,
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I am analyzing the effect of human capital on portfolio investment with "institutions" as moderator using a GMM method (panel data of 50 countries). I find that individually, human capital and institutions are positively related to portfolio investment. However, interaction between institutions and human capital is negatively related to portfolio investment. In conclusion, this means that as human capital increases countries with lower institutional quality attract more portfolio investment. Am I right in saying? If right, can this conclusion hold?
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Thank you all for your answers. they are helpful.
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May investment in human capital or HR policies of organisations be helpful in predicting default or insolvency?
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Human Resource Management and Risk Management (risk of insolvency) - a combined study is still at nascent stage. HR practices can influence the culture that prevents or reduces the risks. Following literature review paper may provide inputs for the topic
Karen Becker, Michelle Smidt (2016) A risk perspective on human resource management: A review and directions for future research, Human Resource Management Review, Vol 26 Issue 2, pp 149-165
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Is workforce development the central mission of the modern community college?
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Paul: This is a good question and the answer is rather complex. The role of the community college in the United States has changed over the past 100+ years.
In the first half of the 20th century, the community college was used to train workers on manufacturing and trade skills. There was local pride in building a junior college in the city and there was also a push to make college available to every high school graduate. In the early part of the 1900's most junior colleges were associated with a religious denomination.
The Great Depression helped to increase enrollment in Junior Colleges greatly because young adults couldn't find employment. During this time, the concept of transfer to a four-year college was developed as well as the terminal track for a two year degree.
The 1980's saw a transition to a specialized track and more vocational training.
Today, there are over 1.000 community colleges in the United States. They enroll 50% fo all college freshmen.
This is a good article for you to read:
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I am trying to examine the effect of Inflation threshold on economic growth. Where Real GDP growth rate is use as proxy for economic growth. The vector of explanatory variables includes: net Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in GDP, active population growth rate, trade openness, Growth rate of government expenditure, Human capital index and Financial Development
(broad money represented by the M3 monetary aggregate to nominal GDP). In this regard despite it is not a necessary condition; but thought fit to test for unit roots. Thus, I discovered that dependent variable is I(0) and all the independent variables are I(1). My question is; should I go head with the ARDL approach?
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Yes, you can have a mixture of I(1) and I(0) variables in the ARDL model. Pesaran, Shin, and Smith (J. App. Econometrics, 2001), who originated the ARDL technique, state this to be an advantage of the approach. Let the variables be z, partitioned into y and some x’s. Then one of many possibilities is for y to be I(0) and all the x’s to be I(1), which is the case mentioned by the question poser, Mr. Koroma. In fact, in a detailed blog entry, Dave Giles presents a 2-variable example where y might be I(0) according to the ADF test. https://davegiles.blogspot.com/2013/06/ardl-models-part-ii-bounds-tests.html
But what kind of ARDL results might one get if y is truly I(0) and all x’s are truly I(1)? My take is that the results are not likely to be very useful.
I now construct two models to illustrate some possibilities (but with no necessary economic rationale!). Let “d” be the difference operator, let “*” be the multiplication symbol, and assume a 3-variable model for simplicity. I.i.d. mean 0 errors are u and v. Variables x1 and x2 are random walks and not cointegrated. There could be relationships among the three variables that maintain the stationarity of y. Possibility 1:
y(t) = a1*dx1(t) + a2*dx2(t) + v(t).
Here, the level of y (GDP growth rate for Mr. Koroma) is related to the changes in or growth rates of x1 and x2. Is there an economic model that suggests that, say, the GDP growth rate is related to CHANGES in the growth rates of population and govt. expenditure, as apparently suggested for Mr. Koroma’s variables? If so, why not just estimate that model, where all variables are stationary? But if ARDL is applied, the corresponding ARDL equation is
dy(t) = -y(t-1) + a1*dx1(t) + a2*dx2(t) + v(t).
The ARDL t and F tests will likely both be significant because of the error correction coefficient on y(t-1); this just measures the tendency of y to return to its mean (0 here, for simplicity). The equation correctly shows no long-run relationship of y to x1 or x2 (whose coefficients on their lagged values are implicitly 0 in the equation). That is, x1 and x2 wander around as random walks, but y stays near 0. (I am assuming the model is dynamically stable.)
Now suppose x1 and x2 are cointegrated, giving possibility 2:
x1 = b*x2 + u(t). (x1 and x2 are again random walks.)
And suppose (for some strange reason) y is related to the lagged cointegration errors, u(t-1):
y(t) = a*u(t-1) + v(t) = a*x1(t-1) – a*b*x2(t-1) + v(t).
In a 3-variable version of Mr. Koroma’s case, the model says that, say, the population and government spending growth rates tend to stick together in an equilibrium (cointegration) relationship (this seems plausible), but temporary deviations from the equilibrium cause temporary fluctuations in the GDP growth rate. Is there a theory that suggests this possibility?? Anyway, now the ARDL equation is:
dy(t) = -y(t) + a*x1(t-1) – a*b*x2(t-1) + v(t).
This shows that ARDL estimation will likely give significant nonzero coefficients for lagged x1 and x2, but the coefficients do not lead to what we would call cointegration vectors (when divided by the negative of the error correction coefficient, the coefficients become cointegration coefficients in the pure (1) case). In the present model they do not represent a long-run relationship between y and the x’s in the sense meant by cointegration. Instead, each coefficient shows the response of y to the stationary cointegration errors when decomposed into separate x1 and x2 movements: e.g., x1’s coefficient is the effect on dy of changing x1 holding x2 constant, which is identically the effect of a change in u, the cointegration error.
Thus, in both my examples, the ARDL results reflect relationships among stationary fluctuations, not involving the overall movements in the righthand I(1) variables themselves.
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Is the significance of human capital changing due to the ongoing fourth technological revolution known as Industry 4.0? Can the role of human capital decrease in the perspective of the next 20-30 years due to the development of Information Technology Industry 4.0? How will the labor market change? Will robotics change the labor market by reducing jobs for people? Will new kinds of professions and jobs for people be created?
The current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is determined by the development of the following technologies of advanced information processing: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies. How will the current technological revolution Industry 4.0 change the labor market in the next 20-30 years?
Some analyzes of the prospects for the development of labor markets suggest that due to the development of information technology Industry 4.0 in 2030, 70 percent. professions and workplaces will be new types of professions, specializations, etc. in the scope of work performed by people, whose names we do not know yet.
Will new types of professions and workplaces for people be created in connection with the development of Information Technology Industry 4.0, which will be a kind of buffer for the reduction of other jobs due to progressive robotization, implementation of artificial intelligence, Internet of Things to the processes of production of goods?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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In a fast-changing and increasingly interconnected world that demands more individual and collective contributions than ever before, we may have to bridge the hitherto somewhat artificial divide between human capital and social capital. Synergizing—perhaps even integrating—human capital and social capital summons practical and research insights into how individual-based knowledge, skills, and abilities can be developed both singly and in unison with network-based knowledge, skills, and abilities for the (higher) purpose of creating organizational value. From this perspective, it would therefore appear that significance does not lie so much in a new "definition" of human capital but, rather, in how it might be fructified more effectively in social capital applications.
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There is need know the impact of extension services like advisory, diagnostic, transfer of technology, etc. on the farmers' livelihood (physical capital, social capital, human capital, financial capital, and social capital). So please suggest any model to study the impact.
Thanks...
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when we need to study the impact of any service which is already existing , the results of impact may not be only due to the service as it was not controlled or manipulated , hence for service impact studies service should be a new intervention ( mode, type, approach etc. ) at least in the area of study so that Before and after/ pre and post intervention study of physical capital, social capital, human capital, financial capital, and social capital can be made and compared so that we can arrive at realistic impact. this type of studies require meticulous planning use of methodologies to manipulate the variables under experiment. most of the impact of services are felt and experienced by farmer that are subjective/ qualitative in nature and influence the said capitals.
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How do companies measure and understand the amount of investment to be made in human capital ? What could be the parameters that determine this ?
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Will new types of professions and workplaces for people be created in connection with the development of Information Technology Industry 4.0, which will be a kind of buffer for the reduction of other jobs due to progressive robotization, implementation of artificial intelligence, Internet of Things to the processes of production of goods?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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How far a country can change its ranking by changing its human capital scores? What would happen if a country made such drastic policy changes as to change its scores on human capital to be the best among all the economies covered by the WEF competitiveness report, all other things remaining constant?
And what would happen if the education and training system collapsed to the level of the worst country in the world? Which indicators we can use proxy to human capital ?
Is this way examine the role of human capital in enhancing GCI ?
thanks for cooperation
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Your question that countries if they can raise human capital scores can they improve their ranking letting other things remaining constant is very challenging to answer. Human capital is not only enhanced by 'education and training' but it is enhanced by the overall ecosystem that provides the necessary environment 'to perform labor and produce economic value'. There is not one factor (education and training) but all its inter-relationships that need to improved to deliver higher GCR ranking for a country.
We need to look at what is human capital. The definition of human capital is - Human capital is the stock of knowledge, habits, social and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value (Claudia Goldin, Department of Economics Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic Research. "Human Capital" (PDF)). If this human capital is to be related then it can relate to 3 indicators on the GCR - 5th pillar, 9th pillar and 12th pillar. But does it actually relate to only these three is subject of deliberation and investigation.
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  • What have the development outcomes of this investment been improvement in human capital contributed to economic growth, better income distribution, and less poverty?
  • How does street art communicate socially relevant, and often times strongly political, themes to the public?
  • How has the art forum proven to be a catalyst for both political and social change, and how is this reflected in various cultures?
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Better human capital will lead to higher per capita GDP.
I think the impact of street art to political or public involvement is not significant since not all city open to street art performers. Thus, political and social discussion mainly exist in discussion rooms, classrooms, mass media, or seminars.
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I'm at US National Science Foundation -- National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. We sponsored the National Survey of Recent College Graduates (https://nsf.gov/statistics/srvyrecentgrads/), conducted from 1973 through 2010, a cross-sectional biennial survey that provided demographic and career information about individuals holding a bachelor's or master's degree. I am compiling a list of publications using the Survey data. We plan on adding this list to our website. If you have used the Survey data, please post the citation to your research below, and/or send me a copy of your paper. Thanks!
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Hi Karen
1. Yes, I am utilizing national students 'surveys in my research but not the surveys of National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics.
2. Papers:
. Z. A. Al-Hemyari and A. M. Al-Sarmi (2017). HEIs Quality Improvement Through Students and Academic Staff’s Perception: Data Analysis and Robustness of the Results. International Journal for Quality Research, Vol.11, No.2, pp.261-278 .
. Z. A. Al-Hemyari and A. M. Al-Sarmi (2016). Validity and Reliability of Students and Academic Staff’s Surveys to Improve Higher Education. Educational Alternatives, Journal of International Scientific Publications, Vol.14, pp. 242-263.
. . A. Al-Hemyari and A. M. Al-Sarmi (2015). Standards, benchmarks and qualitative indicators to enhance the institution’s activities and performance: Surveys and data analysis. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Organizations (IJKBO), 5 (4), pp.38-62.
Regards,
Zuhair
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In order to test the hypothesis of my thesis I need to find or create a database of start-ups, microentreprises, SMEs.
I would need in this database to have the name of the founder and the email adress of the company.
The goal is to analyse the possible correlation between the founder's human captial and the performance of his company.
Thanks a lot for you answers
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There are a number of datsets available look at OECD, Unesco, Federation of Small Business. Gem as identified above.
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I'm at US National Science Foundation -- National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. We sponsor the Survey of Earned Doctorates (https://nsf.gov/statistics/srvydoctorates/), a census of all individuals receiving a research doctorate from a US university. I am compiling a list of publications using the Survey data. We plan on adding this list to our website. If you have used the Survey data, please post the citation to your research below, and/or send me a copy of your paper. Thanks!
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Thank you! I sended come of my publication on Reserch gate. Full list of publication on our Museum page:
http://museumkiev.org/upload/scientist/gritsenko_praci.pdf. If anybody will read ever, I can send it with pleasure.
Best wishes and respect from Ukraine,
Volodymyr
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This is to identify the contribution of various dimensions of Human Capital on Net Profit of the firm. There are 8 companies with 5 years of time series data for Net Profit. Please suggest process.
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Wish to express sincere gratitude for your responses.
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Productivity is fundamental to Economic Development.
Human capital is a key factor to productivity.
Schooling is the most important factor of human capital formation.
Is Human Capital creation more important in developing countries than others? Why, or why not?
Please, share your opinion.
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Would not overstress the value of human capital, the very educated labor force, so to speak .Economic productivity is based on energy resources; if you have access to energy, you can grow productivity. Capital, in its classical meaning as stock of infrastructure, is decisive. I prefer to follow Ludwig Lachmann: Capital and its Structure. The prerequisite of this is an educated labor force; all this is based on natural energy resources. The economic gains flow in a to high % to the rentier groups , who own the land (natural resources). To gain economic productivity means to tax economic rent and to make it public revenue.
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I'm at US National Science Foundation -- National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. We sponsor the National Survey of College Graduates (https://nsf.gov/statistics/srvygrads/), a longitudinal biennial survey conducted since the 1970s that provides data on the nation's college graduates. I am compiling a list of publications using the Survey data. We plan on adding this list to our website. If you have used the Survey data, please post the citation to your research below, and/or send me a copy of your paper. Thanks!
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I Follow question
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The problem topic is a shortage of talent in the insurance industry where leaders are trying to develop “human capital”protocol and a talent pipeline. A novel method being used for the first time is a new paid on the job learning program. Exploratory in nature and small in sample size I wish to utilize phenomenology to research the lived experience of the new apprentices. I have elected the approach because I want to understand their experience in depth and what it means to them - possibly providing implications for future employment development/recruitment/retention/engagemen. I started thinking Husserl underpinnings fit but now lean towards Heidegger due to interpretation but am having trouble reconciling the ontological ramifications on my actual interview questions. And, by askin questions pertaining to perceived motivation in situations am I leading participants too much?
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As long as you have experience of apprentices, it means your reliance on pre and post evaluation test, yes you can
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Greetings Mr. Abdellah,
What kind of data will you need?
Perhaps we can help with data from brazilian entrepreneurs.
Best regards,
Vinicius
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Dear Talal
From which area or location u want data for your work.
Can you elaborate it will help us to give related information.
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The identification of the occurrence of synergistic effects in the cooperative environment indicates that a synergistic effect may also be found in unsuccessful cooperative links. The cooperative connections are managed strategically but in a wrong way.
What are the main areas of failure?
  • Identification of the current state of the cooperative environment
  • Strategic planning of common goals
  • Updating strategic moves
  • Common setting of terms and cooperation rules
  • Cooperative interactions
  • Mutual communication
  • Appropriate combination of resources
  • Human capital
  • Evaluation of progress and results of cooperation
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hello,
I hope the following articles can be useful
Krumm, P. J., Dewulf, G., & De Jonge, H. (1998). Managing key resources and capabilities: pinpointing the added value of corporate real estate management. Facilities, 16(12/13), 372-379.‏
Gaggiotti, H. (2012). The rhetoric of synergy in a global corporation: Visual and oral narratives of mimesis and similarity. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(2), 265-282.‏
Chatterjee, S. (1986). Types of synergy and economic value: The impact of acquisitions on merging and rival firms. Strategic management journal, 7(2), 119-139.‏
Larsson, R., & Finkelstein, S. (1999). Integrating strategic, organizational, and human resource perspectives on mergers and acquisitions: A case survey of synergy realization. Organization science, 10(1), 1-26.‏
Li, S. X., & Greenwood, R. (2004). The effect of within‐industry diversification on firm performance: synergy creation, multi‐market contact and market structuration. Strategic Management Journal, 25(12), 1131-1153.‏
Good Luck
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Or are high-performance HRM practices related to performance but have detrimental effects on employees' well-being (conflicting perspectives)?
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According to Kroon (2012) high performance work practices are HRM practices that help to increase organizational performance and employee performance.
The view of Ferreira et al., (2010) is that HPWPs is a HR system, made up of new structure of work organization.  According to them the new structure of work organization includes flexible human resources practices based on employee involvement and empowerment.
Reference
Kroon, B., Van De Voorde, K. and Timmers, J., 2013. High performance work practices in small firms: a resource-poverty and strategic decision-making perspective. Small Business Economics, 41(1), pp.71-91.
Ferreira, P., Porto, N. and Portela, M., 2010. Women's participation in high performance work practices: a comparative analysis of Portugal and Spain.
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An era of automatization in work, due to advances in robotics and artificial intelligence is coming. What will be the most important skills to be successful in the future labor market?
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Interesting question.  And curiously interesting  range of responses.
Most of the responses (and not all, I have to point out) have to touched upon technical skills. I am wondering: in the eyes of those who point to technical skills, what is going to be the future of work for those who have no technical skills?  It is a fact that are going to be people who have no aptitude for technical, scientific subjects or disciplines. Should these people be left high and dry? Absolutely not.
Coming as I do from industry, where we did recruit people with  degrees in technical skills, I have to say that technical skills alone will not be much of help to remain in the jobs, to move up the career ladder, etc. Technical skills will become dated; a person with a programming skills will find that AI and robotics demand new skills, new ways of thinking and not everyone with IT skills will be able to make the transition to new areas, new challenges.
Given the aforesaid, I would say these are necessary:
1)      Not resting on laurels, but acquiring new skills, or put in another way, continuing to learn and acquiring new knowledge and skills – continuing education might be the way forward; if you are the product of a university where assessment is in the form of multiple-choice questions, and there no examinations that require analysis, evaluation and discussion and writing, I would say you are not fully prepared for the real world where problems do NOT come with a  list of options to choose from; the real world presents problems where the aspects are complicated and one will need to determine which aspects are salient, which can be ignore, which will need more thinking and working on;
2)      Thinking outside the box, moving away from familiar things and willing to try one’s hand and applying one’s mind to other areas than the familiar;
3)      Improving problem-solving skills; one cannot solve problems if one does not look around and see problems; everything can be improved upon, and even made cheaper, more efficient, more effective, more reliable, etc, etc.
4)      Anticipating problems and thinking about and trying to prepare oneself for solving them, even a non-technical problems, and believe you me, there are so many problems out there that need solutions that are not of a technical nature.
So, all you non-technical people, please do not despair and there is hope, but please do acquire some knowledge of IT or at least know what IT’s limitations are.
The views of Nancy Glover's  are worth paying attention to, as also the latter part of what M  Lafifi says in  relation to education.
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From your personal point of view, which is most important: your human capital (what you know) or your social capital (who you know) and why? 
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It's all in application
  1. What you know - will make you grow
  2. Who you know - will help you grow
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we are trying to understand the relationship between industrial clusters and innovation in the context of indian manufacturing sector during the post reform period.
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 are you talking about this paper which is published in research policy
Does the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship hold for the region.
this paper explores the relationships in the context of Germany.  we are exploring this kind of relationships in the case of india where uniiversity-industry linkages are comparatively weak. 
can you suggest any research work in the context of developing countries........
thanks and regards
baldev shergill
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I conducted a longitudinal cohort study wherein I recorded the activities (Showing the business plan, listening CDs, Reading books, attending functions etc.) and their performance (income) of 90 Amway distributors over a period of one year.The data is highly skewed and I am facing problems with the data analysis. Please help me regarding what statistical methods to use to carry out the analysis. 
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Income is often skewed. You can try to log the income. Some Amway distributors are primarily interested in getting a discount for themselves and are not interested in deriving income from sales. You may need to truncate the model, or use a piecewise function. One simple approach would be to drop all zero income observations. Also, there is variation country by country. Some countries prohibit multi-level marketing and would have to be analyzed separately or with a fixed effect. 
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I was searching for literature review papers.
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the following articles may be of help
1.Talent Management for the Twenty-First Century
2.people Management Practices and Profitability in Manufacturing
3.Management Practices in Manufacturing in Mozambique - daniela scur
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what are the effective talent identification indices in childhood which best predicts the adulthood sporting performance?
due to development and growth processes, It hardly to predict he capacity of children in adulthood, but Is it possible to consider some valid techniques ti do so? for example antropometry variables, physiological capacities are variable changeable  and can not be well predicted.
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In case you try to implement some of my proposals, please let me know about the outcome. All the best, Roland
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According to Wang and Poutziouris (2010) research on leadership in the SMEs domain remains immature despite the growing demand to understand what genuine benefits firms can attain through effective management.  The lack of literature makes many issues remain unclear specially in emerging economies. Therefore, I would appreciate if someone could advise on latest literature on the same?
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Hi Amor,
Kindly have a look at the attached articles.
Kind Regards,
Amir
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Hello All,
While exploring the relationship between the performance and diversity of grassroots conservation organizations, I found a nonlinear relationship between these two variables. The performance was lower in the organizations with the medium level of diversity than in the organizations that have low or high levels of diversity.
I am wresting with what could be the explanation for this relationship. I would greatly appreciate your help in directing me to the relevant resources.
Thank you in advance for your help.
Sincerely,
Nabin
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Hello Nabin, Those are interesting results you have. I'm curious what the correlation coefficient is? One reason for your findings could be that less diverse groups have more inter-group trust. I just read an article about some experiments that show people are more likely to trust people who are similar to them (in-groups) than they are to trust people who are different (out-groups). There is a lot of literature out there about this exact phenomena and the grouping of people ranges from race to common-experiences. Here is one source for you to start with: https://academic.oup.com/scan/article/12/3/372/2738791/Trusting-outgroup-but-not-ingroup-members-requires
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Dear all,
I am doing my thesis on the relationship between talent Management and organizational commitment. Do you know a questionnaire to measure the Talent Management in a company?
Thank you very much,
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Dear Khasawneh,
Have a look at this paper
By: Santhoshkumar, R.; Rajasekar, N. IUP, (2012), “Talent Measure Sculpt for Effective Talent Management: A Practical Revise”, Journal of Management Research. Vol. 11 Issue 1, p38-47.
Goodluck
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I find it very interesting as social networks affect people with disabilities and/or dependents.
In case of shortage of networks, how does?
Social networks healthy, how can it affect?
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Persons with disabilities are not only influenced positively by their social networks, but also negatively. You may want to read the literature on Expressed Emotion and see how criticism of persons with mental disorders exacerbates their illnesses. This has been examined in persons with schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer's disease. It is really important to look at negative exposures from social networks and not only positive. 
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We are studying the relationship between a firm's human capital decisions and its competitiveness in the marketplace. The firms offer services and hence human capital is critical. However, the firms are registered in three different countries and of different ages (ranging from 1 yr to over 20 years)
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For the moderation role, you may use hierarchical regression analysis or you can use Strtuctural Equation Modeling for this purpose.
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I want to construct a variable of Human capital for pakistan economy? How to measure this type of variable in case of pakistan economy?
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Dear Abdul,
Human Capital is loosely defined as level of education plus on-the-job experience. If you cannot get those data, then a proxy would be the Human Development Index (HDI) which you can download form http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/PAK#
The HDI file for Pakistan has the variables they use. You may want to look at expected level of education and or employment entries and try to make your own index for HC.
I attach an excel file for Pakistan for HDI in 2015 in case you have trouble downloading it.
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 or a bureaucracy Affect the training results?
Thanks
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On Knowledge Behaviors, available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266477251_On_Knowledge_Behaviors, may be of interest. With particular reference to knowledge sharing, the article argues that where large organizations make an effort to boost certain behaviors the solutions they fabricate can aggravate problems. Instead, designing jobs for knowledge behaviors and recruiting people who are positive about sharing to start with will boost knowledge stocks and flows at low cost. There must be implications for bureaucratic management to impact employee behavior elsewhere.
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There are countries attempting to provide education that helps build transferable human capital in order to increase people's overseas employment opportunities.
However, some countries put emphasis on providing "country specific" education so that people educated do not outflow to the foreign countries easily.
I am considering whether so-called global education of today will always end up with  brain drain or it is possible that brain gain occurs even under such education.    
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Based on previous research in developing countries, enhancing human capital leads more to brain drain than to brain  gain. For instance when a country embarks on preparing graduates who can easily fit into the labor market both locally and internationally but the local labor market is not ready, the graduates end up where the market is more developed.The problem is the supply side of human capital is always addressed without addressing the demand side.
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I am doing an MBA and are working on a Managing People assignment. My main questions is; "How to change in order to increase organizational effectiveness and prepare for future growth?". I found that the firm has a clan culture. Via the bath model I found that Encouragement should be the solution. How can you encourage in a clan culture? and can you deliberately affect the psychological contract positively and thereby change the culture?
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 Totally agree with the positive change approach.  On most organizations, there remains too heat an emphasis on the deficit paradigm and mindset. Look instead to strengths-based approaches within that context of positive change.  Building on strengths will take you much further than merely fixing what's wrong.
I suggest you focus on strengths-based design and build what should be.  Pay attention to behaviours.  A cultural audit that identifies behavioural strengths and development area would likely give you a much stronger basis for change and help select a new sales leader who can further develop the desired culture.
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Along with economic growth, SMEs play significant role in societal development. Kindly shed some light on the issue with some statistics.
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Hi,
Entrepreneurial learning takes place in a context. What are the relevant contextual factors that may affect this learning among entrepreneurs in SMEs?
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Hi, I agree with all above answers. However, I would like to stress on 3 very important and decisive factors:
1) The legislation of the country. When we read about entrepreneurship usually we think about western business and legislation. But in an emerging economy the legislation may be quite different. The legislation can stimulate or not developing SMEs.
2) Cultural value and the way people think about future and risk acceptance. There are cultures where education and religion do not encourage making decisions in conditions of uncertainty. Or, learning in SMEs means to have the capability of learning from both success and failure. If people are afraid of assuming risks in making decisions their learning style is missing an important component.
3) Learning usually is considered as a rational process. However, learning is a complex process which integrates rational, emotional and spiritual intelligences and the result of such a process should be found in rational, emotional and spiritual knowledge.
For a new approach to understand organizational learning and organizational knowledge dynamics I suggest the following book I published recently:
Constantin Bratianu (2015). Organizational Knowledge Dynamics: Managing Knowledge Creation, Acquisition, Sharing, and Transformation. IGI Global, Hershey, USA. (I attached a short presentation of the book).
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thank you!
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Thank you 
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Dear ResearchGate Members, 
As a PhD Scholar, i am researching on the issue of creativity indicators in advertising industry by mainly considering the developing nations. By doing Qualitative research for sometime, i have noticed that many of the theories and techniques best-fit for developed world do not rightly fit into the socio-eocnomic canvas of the developing nations. I would like to know if their has been any worthy work on this research problem. How should i take my study further ?
Regards, 
Imran 
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Dear Imran Bashir Dar, you should contact me for this
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The RBV argues that mostly firm specific resources contribute to sustained competitive advantage. At the same time, I have the impression that which resources matter depend on the context. I am analyzing startups in Nairobi and what firm specific resources successful startups have. I have the impression that for example having knowledge about bureaucratic structures (a human capital resource) is resource that has higher importance in Nairobi then for example in many developed countries. 
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you an go through the following  peer reviewed articles
The Critical Assessment of the Resource-
Based View of Strategic Management:
The Source of Heterogeneity of the Firm
THE RESOURCE BASED VIEW AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH
:REVIEW,EXTENSION,AND SUGGESTIONS FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH
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These factors in general may be divided into traditional (land, labor, capital) and modern (information, knowledge, human capital). Also other classifications are possible, and some new factors of localization could be proposed. 
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Here is a list of references that might be useful:
Baldwin, Richard E. and Toshihiro Okubo. 2006. Heterogeneous firms, agglomeration and economic geography: spatial selection and sorting. Journal of Economic Geography 6(3):323–346.
Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Gilles Duranton, Laurent Gobillon, Diego Puga, and Sébastien Roux. 2009. The productivity advantages of large cities: Distinguishing agglomeration from firm selection. Discussion Paper 7191, Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Gilles Duranton, Laurent Gobillon, and Sébastien Roux. 2010. Estimating agglomeration effects with history, geology, and worker fixed-effects. In Edward L. Glaeser (ed.) Agglomeration Economics. Chicago, il: Chicago University Press.
Dekle, Robert and Jonathan Eaton. 1999. Agglomeration and land rents: Evidence from the prefectures. Journal of Urban Economics 46(2):200–214.
Desmet, Klaus and Marcel Fafchamps. 2005. Changes in the spatial concentration of employment across US counties: A sectoral analysis 1972–2000. Journal of Economic Geography 5(3):261–284.
Duranton, Gilles and Diego Puga. 2004. Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies. In Vernon Henderson and Jacques-François Thisse (eds.) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, volume 4. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2063–2117.
Ellison, Glenn and Edward L. Glaeser. 1997. Geographic concentration in us manufacturing industries: A dartboard approach. Journal of Political Economy 105(5):889–927.
Ellison, Glenn and Edward L. Glaeser. 1999. The geographic concentration of industry: Does natural advantage explain agglomeration? American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 89(2):311–316.
Ellison, Glenn, Edward L. Glaeser, and William Kerr. 2010. What causes industry agglomeration? Evidence from co-agglomeration patterns. American Economic Review: forthcoming.
Helsley, Robert W. and William C. Strange. 1990. Matching and agglomeration economies in a system of cities. Regional Science and Urban Economics 20(2):189–212.
Henderson, J. Vernon. 1997. Externalities and industrial development. Journal of Urban Economics 42(3):449–470.
Henderson, J. Vernon. 2003. Marshall’s scale economies. Journal of Urban Economics 53(1):1–28.
Holmes, Thomas J. 1999. Localization of industry and vertical disintegration. Review of Economics and Statistics 81(2):314–325.
Krugman, Paul R. 1991. Geography and Trade. Cambridge, ma: mit Press.
Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P. and Jacques-François Thisse. 2004. Agglomeration and economic geography. In Vernon Henderson and Jacques-François Thisse (eds.) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, volume 4. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2563–2608.
Overman, Henry G. and Diego Puga. 2010. Labour pooling as a source of agglomeration: An empirical investigation. In Edward L. Glaeser (ed.) Agglomeration Economics. Chicago, IL: Chicago University.
Rosenthal, Stuart S. and William Strange. 2004. Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies. In Vernon Henderson and Jacques-François Thisse (eds.) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, volume 4. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2119– 2171.
Rosenthal, Stuart S. and William C. Strange. 2001. The determinants of agglomeration. Journal of Urban Economics 50(2):191–229.
Rosenthal, Stuart S. and William C. Strange. 2003. Geography, industrial organization, and agglomeration. Review of Economics and Statistics 85(2):377–393.
Scotchmer, Suzanne. 2002. Local public goods and clubs. In Alan J. Auerbach and Martin Feldstein (eds.) Handbook of Public Economics, volume 4. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1997–2042.
Stigler, George J. 1951. The division of labor is limited by the extent of the market. Journal of Political
Wheaton, William C. and Mark J. Lewis. 2002. Urban wages and labor market agglomeration. Journal of Urban Economics 51(3):542–562.
 You might find the Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics by Vernon Henderson and Jacques-François Thisse a particularly useful reference on the sources of agglomeration.
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Hi everybody
Ineed some help for my research work...Plz guide me about the dimensions of human capital, training, trust, and teamwork?
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Dear Huma Sarwar
Greetings,
Please find the attached file about the HC, Training  and trust in the work may be helpful for you.
Best Regards
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Is anyone studying the negative effects of Family Social Capital and Organizational Social Capital in Family firm performance? If yes I would love to hear your views.
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If it is family specific then it can't be social capital which by definition is infrastructural
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Should I focus on the recruitment and selection and public service?I dont understand the part of scarce skills
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In a climate of austerity, the public sector’s traditional strengths with respect to job security, benefits, and retirement is threatened. Public sector organizations know that defining, discovering, developing, and deploying talent is the greatest challenge to delivering public service in the 21st century. They must attract a larger percentage of people to public service—especially millennials—and retain those they attract by enhancing their experience on the job. To enhance the attractiveness of job attributes they must in particular develop targeted recruitment strategies; cut simplify and cut the length of the hiring process; raise the effectiveness of leadership, coaching, and mentoring; prioritize talent management; introduce innovative means of professional development and career advancement; ramp up the flexibility of work arrangements; and open up opportunities for challenging—not routine—work. Only by such means can they make a compelling case for public-sector employment. Our People Strategy, available at http://www.adb.org/publications/our-people-strategy-skills-and-passion-improve-lives-asia-and-pacific, may be of interest.
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What the operational measures of Dynamic Managerial Capabilities i.e. Managerial Cognition, Social Capital and Human Capital? Any references.
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Harshvardhan Singh, thank you for quick response and useful links. I am actually looking for the Managerial Dynamic Capabilities introduced by
(Adner & Helfat, 2003). The conceptual papers are available in this area but I haven't been able to find any Operational Measures so far. Cheers.
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I am interested in carrying out research into the effectiveness of recruiting outsiders to fill capability gaps that have to be filled in order to manage organisational change, and the circumstances in which such an approach is likely to be effective or ineffective.
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I would recommend that you explore the literature related to organizational change. In particular, I am thinking about the concept of grafting. Grafting occurs, much like with plants, when someone with particular traits is recruited into your organization so that it gains the knowledge and experiences. The organization learns by grafting on new sources of information. I guess you can think of it as being like mini corporate mergers.
One source:
The intersection of organizational identity, knowledge, and practice: Attempting strategic change via knowledge grafting
R Nag, KG Corley, DA Gioia - Academy of Management Journal, 2007 - amj.aom.org
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Then we need to look at how countries in the Scandinavian region and Japan fare as a foretaste of things to come. Improved welfare leading to longer life spans may, in turn create new opportunities for growth. Despite the loss in demographic divident.As for instance, how the wellness revolution and sustainable/green economy is carving out new growth trajectories for some economies.
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What the ways and the approaches to improve fisheries through social and human capital? 
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Human capital and social capital are two of the five assets that determine the farmers welfare. They influence the capacity of the farmers to develop sustainable practices. At a good level, these capitals help the farmers investing in sustainable farming systems, and then in sustainable fisheries; some fish farming systems that are efficient economically, socially, and environmentally. 
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When explaining the determinants of salary (or employment) of individuals, tradicional Mincer's models include "age", "number of years of formal education" and "experience in labor market" as the most relevant explanatory variables of income or success in the labour market.
But this leaves aside the health variables as part of human capital concept. In addition, they leave aside some mental health variables (or characters) without which the academic or "labor market" outcomes could never be achieved.
So, is mental health feasable to incorporate as an additional explanatory variable in an econometric model of salary (or employment level)?
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Whatever may be the professional preservation of mind & body without disturbance our working environment is the must .
Mental health a part of human capital concept in which the important factor is only in mental health .Capital to be considered only as a necessary evil .
Mental health runs in depression ,disturbing once rest & night sleep .It may turn out to be a Blood pressure & other elements connected therewith .
It totally amount to our performance ,our career ,our impression what we have establish are the negative factor for our development & as such it only to be review only as mental health part.
This is my personal opinion 
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Universities UK (UUK), the representative body of executive heads (vice-chancellors & principals) of UK universities, is currently seeking views on the methodology it uses for estimating the economic impact of UK universities, with an aim to expand the range of impact this covers, and explore how this can be made to reflect the latest methodological advancements.
UUK’s latest economic impact report (published in April 2014) is attached, or available here: http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/highereducation/Documents/2014/TheImpactOfUniversitiesOnTheUkEconomy.pdf   
We’ve recently issued a call for evidence (available at the link below) which is open for submissions by all interested parties. The deadline for contributing will be extended from 18 December 2015 to 15 January 2016. We look forward to hearing your views.
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Here are three articles that will definitely help you...
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Is there any consideration of the Human Capital when Higher Education Polices are being developed?
Reviewed journal articles  will be appreciated.
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Human capital theory takes the view that the quality and quantity of education available to citizens in the country will improve the production capacity.  This paper discusses the need for high quality education to produce highly skillful workers.  I hope that it is helpful.
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some policies to increase productivity
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A country needs to look inwards on how to increase the creation of wealth that will improve its competitive advantage over other countries. you may refer to competitive advantage and how countries can improve it.
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If somebody want to test the hypothesis like bonded labors are geographical neutral (suppose he has the objective to compare the incidence of bonded labour among various districts ) what is the best method to test this hypothesis..
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thanks
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How does human resources/human capital impact organizational design, beyond that of financial costs?
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Julia,
I like the way Jorge explain to examine your proposition. It is noteworthy to see the relationship between the values of individual, cultural (as organisational members who design the structure of organisation) towards the HR-related decision making. Or some papers explained the vise-versa. I have attached few papers for your reading which I reviewed in line of your research interest.
Aktar
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Please give me model specification of measuring human capital level in Nigeria. Please notify if there are any tricks  for oil exporting countries?
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To calculate the human capital of the country, first of all, identify the elements (components) that determine the HC of the country (eg. people with higher education, students, academics, research activity, the degree of utilization of potential labor resources, etc.) and then chose variables related to these HC components (for example: the number of university students for 10,000 people, employment in R&D per 1,000 economically active people, etc. – it is your choice which and how many variables you take to research). Then the nature of the HC components should be specified (positive or negative impact on HC), and the effect of each variable on the level of human capital should be determined (researchers usually assume that chosen variables have the same effect - it simplifies the subsequent calculations …).
Then you can take advantage of a very simple formula, which I exploited to determine and compare the level of human capital in voivodships in Poland in a few different years.
M(HC) = (Vc1/Vb1 + Vc2/Vb2 + … + Vcn/Vbn) / N
M(HC) - total measure of human capital
N- the number of variables describing the level of human capital (HC) of the country (you choose those variables that according to you are the most important and have the greatest impact on the level of human capital),
Vc - the value of the variable describing the component of HC for the country. To determine a value of a variable, you can use available statistics..
Vb – the base value of the variable. Adopt the base, to which you will compare the current value of any variable. The base may be: the previous period (you compare the current value of variable to the value that the variable had a year or two or … years ago) or another country, or a larger area, eg. Africa, etc. (you compare the current value of variable to the value that a variable has in the area chosen as a base). Of course a choice, what is the basis, influences the interpretation of the research results.
Presented formula let you determine a level of HC in comparison to … (your choise).
I hope that my answer will be useful. Best regards from Poland - Irena
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I want to analyze human resource data set to extract common features of human capital have left organization and to predict future turnover. I have a lot of literature texts on job leaving but I can't find any Public Human Resource Data Set for applying in Data Mining Algorithms.
Can anyone suggest me a solution?
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I'm not sure if US data will work for you, but there are very large datasets available from the US Office of Personnel Management website. See the link below.
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Using time series analysis (SPSS), I want to explore the effects of innovative capabilities and human capital on economic growth (DV) for different groups of countries? What is the best approach? the best model to used? Is ARIMA ok?
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Try to use Stata or Gtreyl in spite of SPSS - you have already a good suggestion by A. L.
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Many studies have investigated the relationship between human capital (intellectual capital and social capital in general) and the performance of firms. Few studies have examined the stock market reaction to announcements of the human capital of the Board of Directors (previous professional experience, age, educational level, relational network  etc.).
What do you think? 
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Hi Fabrizio,
   the Board track record and characteristics are of basic importance not only in determining results expectations (and therefore you should expect a reaction after any important announcement, evaluable on the stock market value of the Company shares) but also on the creditworthiness of the Company, if we talk of CEO,CFO roles!
In my experience, these considerations are facts, more then guesses and are strategic  factors of paramount importance also when considering  Companies.not quoted in the Stock Exchange.
Kind regards
Alberto