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# Human Biology - Science topic

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Publications related to Human Biology (3,966)
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Purpose Human microbiome has been considered as the second genome of our body. The intratissue/intratumor microbiome analysis is a relatively new field and deserves more attention. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of microbiome signatures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). Methods The intratumor microbiome profili...
Preprint
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As the twenty-first century unfolds, the human-driven decline of life on Earth is of greater concern and, despite tremendous growth in the volume of conservation science and many local successes, shows no clear signs of improvement. As a matter of fact, the reversal of nature’s ongoing decline is only possible with urgent “transformative change”How...
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Nucleic acids play a central role in human biology, making them suitable and attractive tools for therapeutic applications. While conventional drugs generally target proteins and induce transient therapeutic effects, nucleic acid medicines can achieve long-lasting or curative effects by targeting the genetic bases of diseases. However, native oligo...
Preprint
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The spread of digital disinformation (aka "fake news") is arguably one of the most significant threats on the Internet which can cause individual and societal harm of large scales. The susceptibility to fake news attacks hinges on whether Internet users perceive a fake news article/snippet to be legitimate after reading it. In this paper, we attemp...
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Meiotic drive occurs when one allele at a heterozygous site cheats its way into a disproportionate share of functional gametes, violating Mendel’s law of equal segregation. This genetic conflict typically imposes a fitness cost to individuals, often by disrupting the process of gametogenesis. The evolutionary impact of meiotic drive is substantial,...
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Liver regeneration is a well-orchestrated process that is typically studied in animal models. Although previous animal studies have offered many insights into liver regeneration, human biology is less well understood. To this end, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) platform called structurally vascularized hepatic ensembles for analyzing regener...
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Defining language is a scientific problem. There is no one definition of language that convinces all scientists. Various linguistic theories have tried to define and describe language over the past two centuries. However, although these theories provide some important progress, they are not sufficient to fully define language and describe its featu...
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The promising outcomes of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in hematologic malignancies potentiates its capability in the fight against many cancers. Nevertheless, this immunotherapy modality needs significant improvements for the treatment of solid tumors. Researchers have incrementally identified limitations and constantly pursued be...
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Theoretical models of retinal hemodynamics showed the modulation of retinal pulsatile patterns (RPPs) by heart rate (HR), yet in-vivo validation and scientific merit of this biological process is lacking. Such evidence is critical for result interpretation, study design, and (patho-)physiological modeling of human biology spanning applications in v...
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Significance The blood–brain barrier represents a major therapeutic challenge for the treatment of glioblastoma, and there is an unmet need for in vitro models that recapitulate human biology and are predictive of in vivo response. Here, we present a microfluidic model of vascularized glioblastoma featuring a tumor spheroid in direct contact with s...
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Background: Obesity, including among children and adolescents, is a major problem both nationally and internationally and is strongly linked to nutrition. Eating habits are formed at an early age and can influence the development of disease. Schools as places of learning and living can promote balanced and sustainable eating habits. The aim of thi...
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Evolutionary medicine has been a fast-growing field of biological research in the past decade. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is to use non-traditional model organisms which often exhibit unusual characteristics shaped by natural selection. Studying these unusual traits could provide valuable insight to understand biomedical question...
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The mechanisms by which the fetal-type β-globin-like genes HBG1 and HBG2 are silenced in adult erythroid precursor cells remain a fundamental question in human biology and have therapeutic relevance to sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. Here, we identify via a CRISPR–Cas9 genetic screen two members of the NFI transcription factor family—NFIA an...
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Genomes of diverse origins are continuously shed into human body fluids in the form of fragmented cell-free DNA (cfDNA). These molecules maintain the genetic and epigenetic codes of their originating source, and often carry additional layers of unique information in newly discovered physico-chemical features. Characterization of cfDNA thus presents...
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For decades, budding yeast, a single-cellular eukaryote, has provided remarkable insights into human biology. Yeast and humans share several thousand genes despite morphological and cellular differences and over a billion years of separate evolution. These genes encode critical cellular processes, the failure of which in humans results in disease....
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Epidermal growth factor-like domains (EGFDs) have important functions in cell-cell signaling. Both secreted and cell surface human EGFDs are subject to extensive modifications, including aspartate- and asparagine-residue C3-hydroxylations catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase aspartate/asparagine-β-hydroxylase (AspH). Although genetic studies s...
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Mammalian cells show the ability to commit suicide through the activation of death receptors at the cell surface. Death receptors, among which Fas/CD95 is one of their most representative members, lack enzymatic activity, and depend on protein–protein interactions to signal apoptosis. Fas/CD95 death receptor-mediated apoptosis requires the formatio...
Preprint
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Translating the relevance of preclinical models ($\textit{in vitro}$, animal models, or organoids) to their relevance in humans presents an important challenge during drug development. The rising abundance of single-cell genomic data from human tumors and tissue offers a new opportunity to optimize model systems by their similarity to targeted huma...
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Skin sensitization testing is a regulatory requirement for safety evaluations of pesticides in multiple countries. Globally harmonized test guidelines that include in chemico and in vitro methods reduce animal use, but no single assay is recommended as a complete replacement for animal tests. Defined approaches (DAs) that integrate data from multip...
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Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases risk of adverse human health effects. As more attention is brought to bear on the problem of PM, traditional mammalian in vivo models struggle to keep up with the risk assessment challenges posed by the countless number of unique PM samples across air sheds with limited or no toxicity info...
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are valuable in disease modeling because of their potential to expand and differentiate into virtually any cell type and recapitulate key aspects of human biology. Functional genomics are genome-wide studies that aim to discover genotype-phenotype relationships, thereby revealing the impact of human genetic di...
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Actin histidine N τ-methylation by histidine methyltransferase SETD3 plays an important role in human biology and diseases. Here, we report integrated synthetic , biocatalytic, biostructural, and computational analyses on human SETD3-catalyzed methylation of actin peptides possessing histidine and its structurally and chemically diverse mimics. Our...
Preprint
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Our war on cancer has failed because our basic approach to biology is wrong. Biologic thinking has traditionally relied on reductionism, the theory that the behavior of the whole is equal to the sum of the behavior of the parts. Based on this theory, sophisticated systems are presumed to be combinations of simpler systems that can be reduced to sim...
Book
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Endosymbiotic archaeal mediated cerebellar cognitive affective disorder results in adult onset autistic phenotypes living in a virtual world of the internet without any social contacts. This creates a civilization of adult onset autistic hermits. There are only virtual communities and virtual friends in the civilization of adult onset autistic herm...
Book
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Endosymbiotic archaeal mediated cerebellar cognitive affective disorder results in adult onset autistic phenotypes living in a virtual world of the internet without any social contacts. This creates a civilization of adult onset autistic hermits. There are only virtual communities and virtual friends in the civilization of adult onset autistic herm...
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Gene variants that influence human biology today reflect thousands of years of evolution. Genetic effects on infant health are a major point of selective pressure, given that childhood survival is essential to evolutionary success. Knowledge of this evolutionary history can have implications for pediatric research. Conclusion: An episode of human a...
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Over the years, stress, anxiety, and modern-day fast-paced lifestyles have had immense psychological effects on people’s minds worldwide. The global technological development in healthcare digitizes the scopious data, enabling the map of the various forms of human biology more accurately than traditional measuring techniques. Machine learning (ML)...
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Sex/gender is an interesting phenomenon in biological and social sciences. It is characterised by constant redefinitions and conflicts as knowledge increases and social norms change. To understand the change in sex/gender representations in biology education, we analysed Finnish secondary school human biology textbooks from the 1990s until the most...
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Introduction: coronary arterial dominance is an important variant in coronary circulation which can affect the cardiac supply, influence development of collateral arteries and increase incidence of coronary arterial diseases. Individuals with co-dominance of the right coronary or left coronary arteries have been widely reported based on the branchi...
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The conservation of pathways and genes across species has allowed scientists to use non-human model organisms to gain a deeper understanding of human biology. However, the use of traditional model systems such as mice, rats, and zebrafish is costly, time-consuming and increasingly raises ethical concerns, which highlights the need to search for les...
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Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, linear polysaccharides that are ubiquitously expressed on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix of all animal cells. These complex carbohydrates play important roles in many cellular processes and have been implicated in many disease states, including cancer, inflammation, and genetic disorders. GAGs a...
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Transgenerational inheritance can occur at telomeres in distinct contexts. Deficiency for telomerase or telomere-binding proteins in germ cells can result in shortened or lengthened chromosome termini that are transmitted to progeny. In human families, altered telomere lengths can result in stem cell dysfunction or tumor development. Genetic inheri...
Preprint
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Organ- and body-scale cell atlases have the potential to transform our understanding of human biology. To capture the variability present in the population, these atlases must include diverse demographics such as age and ethnicity from both healthy and diseased individuals. The growth in both size and number of single-cell datasets, combined with r...
Preprint
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Organ- and body-scale cell atlases have the potential to transform our understanding of human biology. To capture the variability present in the population, these atlases must include diverse demographics such as age and ethnicity from both healthy and diseased individuals. The growth in both size and number of single-cell datasets, combined with r...
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COVID-19 shares the feature of autoantibody production with systemic autoimmune diseases. In order to understand the role of these immune globulins in the pathogenesis of the disease, it is important to explore the autoantibody spectra. Here we show, by a cross-sectional study of 246 individuals, that autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled rece...
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Redox homeostasis and redox-mediated signaling mechanisms are fundamental elements of human biology. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) modulate a range of functional processes at the cellular, tissue, and systemic levels in healthy humans. Conversely, excess ROS or RNS activity can disrupt fun...
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Introduction: Birth weight is a reliable indicator of intrauterine growth and is one of the major factors that determine child survival and its physical and mental development. There is no indicator in human biology which tells us so much about the past events and the future life, as the weight of an infant at birth. Low Birth Weight (LBW) is still...
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Non-clinical models to study metabolism including animal models and cell assays are often limited in terms of species translatability and predictability of human biology. This field urgently requires a push towards more physiologically accurate recapitulations of drug interactions and disease pro- gression in the body. Organ-on-chip systems, specif...
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Non-clinical models to study metabolism including animal models and cell assays are often limited in terms of species translatability and predictability of human biology. This field urgently requires a push towards more physiologically accurate recapitulations of drug interactions and disease progression in the body. Organ-on-chip systems, specific...
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Mice have emerged as one of the most popular and valuable model organisms in the research of human biology. This is due to their genetic and physiological similarity to humans, short generation times, availability of genetically homologous inbred strains, and relatively easy laboratory maintenance. Therefore, following the release of the initial hu...
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Drawing on Brazilian educational inclusion policy from the past two decades, the aim of this study is to provide a theoretical and methodological discussion of two conceptual frameworks on disabled students´s learning: Vygotsky´s sociohistorical approach, and Maturana and Varela´s autopoiesis approach, which is based on an analysis of human biology...
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Six years ago, DMM launched a subject collection called ‘Drosophila as a Disease Model’. This collection features Review-type articles and original research that highlight the power of Drosophila research in many aspects of human disease modeling. In the ensuing years, Drosophila research has further expanded to capitalize on genome editing, develo...
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Long-term exposure to microgravity and space radiation leads to physiological and pathological changes in human biology. Pathological neuro-ocular changes are collected under the name spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome. This review examines studies on the effects of microgravity and space radiation on the ocular structures and their resul...
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Growing evidence shows that sex differences impact many facets of human biology. Here we review and discuss the impact of sex on human circadian and sleep physiology, and we uncover a data gap in the field investigating the non-visual effects of light in humans. A virtual workshop on the biomedical implications of sex differences in sleep and circa...
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We summarize and elaborate on the challenges of researching in the field of human health in Antarctica based on the conceptual and methodological specificities of a line of investigation that aims to study the human presence in Antarctica in all of its dimensions (biological, psychological, and socio-anthropological). Herein, we discuss the princip...
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Background Most of the known genes required for developmental processes have been identified by genetic screens in a few well-studied model organisms, which have been considered representative of related species, and informative—to some degree—for human biology. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a prime model for insect genetics, and while c...
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Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by a dysregulation within the metabolic coupling of the retina, particularly between the glycolytic photoreceptors and the oxidative retina pigment epithelium. This phenomenon of metabolic uncoupling is seen in both aging and retinal degenerative diseases, as well as across a variety of cell types in human biol...
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As humans age multiple forms of biological decay ensue, and many aspects of human biology can be measured to determine how far biological machinery has drifted from homeostasis. Research has led to aging clocks being developed that claim to predict biological age as opposed to chronological age. Aging could be regarded as a measured loss of homeost...
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Recombination is a major force that shapes genetic diversity. Determination of recombination rate is important and can theoretically be improved by increasing the sample size. However, it is nearly impossible to estimate recombination rates using traditional population genetics methods when the sample size is large because these methods are highly...
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A Lego Serious Play (LSP) ‐ based exercise was developed to support student engagement with learning consolidation at the end of a first‐year undergraduate cell biology course. The exercise was offered in addition to a regular revision session in preparation for the summative exam. Students were studying four‐year BSc (Hons) degrees in: Animal Biol...
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Biocultural diversity has made notable contributions that have furthered our understanding of the human culture-nature interrelationship. However, the usage of the term ‘biocultural’ is not unique to biocultural diversity. It was first used in biocultural studies within anthropology decades ahead of biocultural diversity. The existing literature on...
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The future development of personalized medicine depends on a vast exchange of data from different sources, as well as harmonized integrative analysis of large-scale clinical health and sample data. Computational-modelling approaches play a key role in the analysis of the underlying molecular processes and pathways that characterize human biology, b...
Chapter
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Introdução Neste texto apresentamos algumas notas e reflexões sobre o envelhecimento humano e as práticas sociais e políticas públicas que têm sido construídas diante dos impactos que este fenômeno produz. Os estudos realizados no campo da história da saúde permitem o reconhecimento da importância da emergência da medicina científica, a partir do s...
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Functional genomics in a mammalian model such as mice is fundamental for understanding human biology. The CRISPR/Cas9 system dramatically changed the tempo of obtaining genetic mouse models due to high efficiency. However, experimental evidence for the establishment of sgRNA knock-in animals and analyses of their value in functional genomics are st...
Chapter
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Através dos anos a história de partos aparece nos registros e relatos antigos. O que de início era uma ocupação totalmente feminina foi aos poucos mudando, excluindo essas mulheres e tornando o acontecimento em algo institucionalizado dominado pelos homens. Com a implantação de técnicas, como a cesariana, o fórceps, entre outras, os cursos de medic...
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Poor nutritional status of individuals leads to stunting, wasting, underweight, various diseases, and poor performance in everyday life. A developing country like India is still lagging behind in achieving a healthy population. Adolescence is a very crucial phase and the growth of the reproductive stage among human being occurs during the adolescen...
Chapter
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The Nagahama Prospective Cohort for Comprehensive Human Bioscience is the first large-scale multipurpose genome cohort in Japan. The project started in 2007 with a new concept of “pre-primary prevention” aiming to realize personalized early disease prevention based on the genetic background of each individual, detailed measurement of biomolecules i...
Preprint
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Histidine methyltransferase SETD3 plays an important role in human biology and diseases. Previously, we showed that SETD3 catalyzes N ³ -methylation of histidine 73 in β-actin (Kwiatkowski et al., 2018). Here we report integrated synthetic, biocatalytic, biostructural and computational analyses on human SETD3-catalyzed methylation of β-actin peptid...
Article
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Vitamin deficiency is well known to contribute to disease development in both humans and other animals. Nonetheless, truly understanding the role of vitamins in human biology requires more than identifying their deficiencies. Discerning the mechanisms by which vitamins participate in health is necessary to assess risk factors, diagnostics, and trea...
Chapter
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Resumen La importancia de la construcción de la identidad y la autoimagen corporal durante la pubertad y adoles-cencia, junto con los riesgos de los conflictos afectivos vinculados a estas vivencias (entre los que destacan los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario), justifica la incorporación dentro de las programaciones de los niveles de enseñ...
Chapter
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The chapter discusses the practices involved in the creation of two artworks, Kynic and In Potēntia, shown in the exhibition Semipermeable(+) in 2013. Both artworks were developed at SymbioticA Centre for Excellence in Biological Arts, a permanent artistic research centre based within the School of Anatomy and Human Biology at the University of Wes...
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In 2007, for the first time worldwide, more people lived in urban conurbations than in rural settlement structures. This advancing urbanization has dramatically altered the living situation, the use of space, as well as human behavior along with the health situation and disease burden. This process began in Europe as early as the 19th century, whil...
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Preclinical studies using rodents have been the choice for many neuroscience researchers due totheir close reflection of human biology. In particular, research involving rodents has utilized MRI to accurately identify brain regions and characteristics by acquiring high resolution cavity images with different contrasts non-invasively,and this has re...
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Copper is an essential trace element for human biology where its metal dyshomeostasis accounts for an increased level of serum copper, which accelerates protein aggregation. Protein aggregation is a notable feature for many neurodegenerative disorders. Herein, we report an experimental study using two model proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and...
Poster
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La biología humana es complicada y misteriosa, incluso aquí en la Tierra. Al regresar de una misión espacial los telómeros del astronauta tienden a ser más cortos de lo que lo eran antes, lo que podría aumentar el riesgo de un envejecimiento más rápido. Es por ello que se destaca que el espacio es la frontera final para comprender la respuesta de l...
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to provide fundamental understanding of eukaryotic genetics, gene product function, and cellular biological processes. Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has been supporting the yeast research community since 1993, serving as its de facto hub. Over the years, SGD has maintained the genetic nomenclature, chromosome...