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Human Behavior - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Human Behavior, and find Human Behavior experts.
Questions related to Human Behavior
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Hypothesis that social media has eroded the quality of healthy human interaction.
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Ricardo, thanks for the link. I think the discussion there makes my point in distinguishing traditional (mass) media and the new social media. At various points in that thread, the point was made about how the two media now influence each other. I thought Kent's question was about (the quality of) human interactions in social media, not the mass media's potential unidirectional dispensation/delivery of news/information.
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Does anyone know about the simulation of crowd in simulation. Its perspectives and technologies currently used and human behaviour in such conditions  
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Hi,
have a look at papers from Franziska Klugl, I have also seen the application of the holonic approach from people at UTBM: V. Hilaire, S. Galland, A. Koukam, N. Gaud
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This is what some researchers suggest, and also some of my previous studies came up with results consistent with this notion. I will be glad to have some specific reference to this phenomenon. Any clue? Thanks
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What follows is  copied and pasted with some modifications from an earlier answer of mine...........
When analyzing individual (not aggregated) data low values below 5% are not unusual - you have to decide is it practically useful and have the assumptions behind the analysis been met. Individuals are typically very heterogonous in their attitudes, actions and behaviours.
I am reminded of a famous clinical  trial of the effect of taking aspirin on heart attack - the odds ratio was so dramatic that the trial was stopped and placebo group advised to take aspirin. And yet the odds ratio of a heart attack for placebo compared to taking aspirin was, a rather a lowly 1.83 and the R2   was a puny 0.0011; yet this was sufficient for action.
Your arguments are strengthened if you are testing a relationship and have not gone on a fishing expedition and you have tried to take account of theoretically relevant confounders. Epidemiology has gone to some extent from 'what are the causes of this outcome?' to 'does this potential cause have an effect?.
I would also  add if you are modeling binary(0 and 1) outcomes it is exceedingly difficult to achieve high R2 values as the predicted probability values are not very likely to be exactly 1 and 0!
Finally we have to accept that there are outcomes where chance does genuinely part a large part so we now have evidence that luck plays a bigger part in some cancers than genes and lifestyle; see
So for me it is theory, focused question and the size of the slope term, care about confounding  and careful evaluation of the model rather than just R2.
see other postings at
R-squared values between 1 and 5% in linear regression social science? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/R-squared_values_between_1_and_5_in_linear_regression_social_science [accessed Sep 1, 2015].
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In my study, adult residents were asked to see the map of outdoor places and choose the places they usually act. I am looking for some sources in order to report it. would you please guide me in this regard?
Thank you
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Whether it is called behavior or behavioral mapping, this technique has been around since at least the 1970s. The earlier versions tended to use observations to count where people located themselves in a space, but self-reports are also common. Here is a link to a document that contains a number of references:
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Valued Plateaued Employees: The employees who do not see any growth of their positions in the organization but have in depth  knowledge of organization's processes. 
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In agreement with Abdul Saboor, as the hallmarks of the organization plateaued employees should be in position to train and develop newer employees as well as involved in the planning of operations in the organizational structure. Rapid change in technology brings change to organizational structure in today's competitive economy which means there is a constant need for learning. There is no room for complacency. Leaders need to always keep up with trending patterns. As the plateaued employee trains and develops new employees, he/she will also learn from them. Leaders can make better assessments of the newer employees when they learn how one learns, and where their strengths and weaknesses lie. This is guidance on both ends which leads to better decision making. Aside from monetary rewards, leaders will be rewarded in their new found knowledge as well as seeing the development of the newcomers. 
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The most recent World Bank report from 2015 is titled "Mind, Society and Behavior" . It is mainly inspired by endless experimental results from Western Universities and their departments of Psychology and Behavioral Economics. They are craving to donate their advanced knowledge on human behavior to the poor of the world.
And so they identified a surprising problem of the poor: they save too little cash.
Will more rational decision making help them to save the bucks for medicine and their childrens school? May they improve their "mental accounting" by the use of a special World-Bank-iron-box for cash savings?
The poor also borrow too much money. Can we help them to save money by printing a warning of high interest rates on their pay day envelope?
According to the report people have "two systems of thinking", an automatic and a deliberative system. Can we help them by enhancing the deliberative one? And to which one belong the experiments of Behavioral Economics? Hopefully not to the automatic. Sure?
Finally you have to decide yourself how biased this - nevertheless as inspiring as provocative report - is - if you're still in charge of your deliberative system because you're not yet brainwashed by US and UK universities
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I dislike intensely the phrase 'Western point of view'.  If you mean very many different ideas expressed without repression, under some form of democracy and carried out with full human rights then I can go along with Western and proud of it.  Is Greece now  non-Western?  Then I must also be in that camp since I entirely support efforts to create stimulus (as was done in Germany via the Marshall Plan, as well as East Germany).  Now joining the Euro for Greece was a mistake but country's should NOT be punished for peaceful mistakes as they were with the destruction of their industry and hih unemployment the past few years.  Anyway I'll leave that issue since the news is full of all that today.
On poverty, probably none of the people reading this article would starve in a drought in, say, Somalia.  Why not?  You have money or access to it. Hence people are poor simply because they dont have cash.  Dont make me laugh about the fact that they cant save..out of what?  Now how to channel cash to the poor?  Let's see the next World Bank Report on that, covering such issues as basic income, transfers, subsidies and yes, of course, how to pay for all that?  With historically low interest rates (except in developing countries - Kenya has rates of 15%..crazy!), enormous wealth exists in the world (the odd trillion dollars on pretty useless 'defense'), technology allowing most people NOT to work...clearly management and willingness must rank highly!  Recent reports of unhappiness with management at the World Bank by staff (not for the first time) might suggest that that organisation ought to be examined in more than one way!
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I want to know whether we have more responsibilities for our close others' fault than for someone's we only know. Thus I want to know if there is any method to measure subject' responsibility for others' misconduct. I'll greatly appreciate it if you can offer any help.
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Keep in mind that there are profound cultural differences- in fact when I teach psychological anthropology I use Japanese culture (dependence training) and American culture (independence training) for contrast and comparison.
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I teach behavioral genetics to undergraduate psychology students and I was struck by the genetic findings for SLI. They seem more specific and well-replicated than for many other phenotypes; for which we know that although there is considerable genetic variance the current state of our replicated findings is poor. I would love to hear other of results others find convincing and compelling for phenotypes of interest to psychology students.
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Dear Dr Zohar
Can you please share a review or key publication list on the genetics of SLI.
I do not know whether this relates to your question but there is an increasing number of mutations reported for intellectual disability in literature.
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The topic is related to predicting grasp targets in a human-robot interaction task. The sensor system used in this project will be a cross-modal combination of different sensors.
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I consider that different behaviors or lifestyles need different energy saving technologies. Is there a feasible description method for occupant behaviors of the indoor environment?
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Dear Vanessa,
Thank you so much, The articles were very useful.
Best Wishes,
Wang Xu 
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Did you find any young women (under 30) who did have pubic hair? Or were they all 'bare'?
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Hi! I'm Verónica Caridad Rabelo, a PhD Candidate in Women's Studies and Psychology at the University of Michigan.
Lesley-Ann: what a fascinating study, especially given your inclusion of heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in your study.
Speaking to Rebecca's question, you both may be interested in following the work of Breanne Fahs at Arizona State University (http://www.breannefahs.com/).
In particular, I'd flag the following:
Fahs, B. (2014). Perilous patches and pitstaches: Imagined versus lived experiences of women's body hair growth. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(2), 167-180.
Fahs, B. (2014). Genital panics: Constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image. Body Image, 11, 210-218.
Fahs, B. (2012). Breaking body hair boundaries: Classroom exercises for challenging social constructions of the body and sexuality. Feminism & Psychology, 22(4), 482-506. 
Fahs, B. (2013). Shaving it all off: Examining social norms of body hair among college men in a women's studies course. Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 42(5), 559-577.
Fahs, B. (2011). Dreaded "Otherness": Heteronormative patrolling in women's body hair rebellions. Gender & Society, 25(4), 451-472. 
Fahs, B., & Delgado, D. A. (2011). The specter of excess: Race, class, and gender in women's body hair narratives. In C. Bobel & S. Kwan (Eds.), Embodied resistance: Breaking the rules, challenging the norms (pp. 13-25). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
I hope these are helpful/interesting to your research!
Cheers,
Verónica
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Some people have a very regular life style, which forms a pattern in terms of spatial and temporal aspects. However, some other individuals like trying different things, which makes their life to be more uncertainty.
Can we model human mobility pattern? Does it make sense to predict human movements?
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If you are interested in spatial modelling of movement, once you have categorized your population into behavioural groups, you can try to express their patterns numerically and model their movements in GIS, under conditions of maximum-minimum time, effort, distance, preferred destinations, defined origins… If you are working within an open territory, I would suggest raster analysis. But if you are working within cities or transport networks (roads, railways…) I think network analysis could be your choice.
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A large portion of stock market volume derives from automatic trading on the basis of algorithms. I am interested to know if they introduce completely new trends in stock price evolutions or if they integrate human behavioral factors thus accentuating the current trends.
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Hello Sir,
my area of work is that, my latest work is on comparative predictive modelling on CNX Nifty with the help of Artificial Neural Network. I could establish in that paper that prediction could be possible with more than 98% accuracy if the neuron layers are chosen correctly. Since Indian capital markets are week form of efficiency and human decisions can be predicted well with ANN, so I have used it to good effect. However that paper is going out in October 2015. Also I am working on composite Index blending human emotions and stock market quantification. That is the core of my Thesis. Unfortunately that is also under process. May be in another six months I will be able to communicate with you with more value proposition.
Regards
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What do you think about the validity of these items on a 4-point scale? Where is the difference?
1. I do sport exercises on a regular basis. (totally agree --- totally disagree)
2. I regulariiy ask my students about their conceptions on the "topic". (totally agree --- totally disagree)
3. I panic very easily. (totally agree --- totally disagree)
4. I go out with my dog every day (totally agree --- totally disagree)
5. I have 7 or more cigarettes per day (totally agree --- totally disagree)
Please, do not refer to any item analyses procedures. I am interested in your opinion on the statements above. They do not correspond to a factor or likewise. And please, do not discuss about sample size, analyses, number of scale options or the like.
It is just face validity! Unusual for the most of you, I guess. But I want to know about expertise and not about your number amorousness :)
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I did a couple a long time ago, but have not been working in that area for a long time so not qualified to give more up-to-date info. I do have a couple of papers that I will attach, but they are old
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I need help finding a scale on attitude change, focusing on consumers or employees. Does anyone know of any? Please link me, thanks a many million trillionfold. =)
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Dear Reynan:
Attitude theorists have long distinguished between attitudes that are based predominantly on either affect versus cognition (e.g., Crites, Fabrigar, & Petty, 1994; Eagly, Mladnic, & Otto, 1994). You may find it useful not only to incorporate a measure of attitudes but also measures assessing the extent to which an attitude towards a particular target is based on affect (emotions) or cognition (beliefs).
Please see the following for well-validated scales assessing global attitudes as well as their basis; whether affective or cognitive:
Crites, S.L., Fabrigar, L.R., & Petty, R.E. (1994). Measuring the affective and cognitive properties of attitudes: Conceptual and methodological issues. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 619-634.
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I am trying to investigate why women are loathe to orient towards oncoming pedestrians and men are willing to do open pass. It has been suggested that, women tend to protect their breast with arms across when avoiding a collision. Is there any evolutionary theory to support this assertion?
I will appreciate any relevant articles and previous studies on pedestrian avoidance behavior.
Thanks
Daro
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Dear Khayrullin, 
Your point on the issue of left-right-handedness is quite interesting and a valid point especially; when some stats indicate a very high proportion of British citizens are left-handed. However, if it is a factor, it should also reflect on the passing behaviour of both sexes. It is worth exploring further though.
Thanks
Daro
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Of special interest is the impact of smart watches on the "traditional" watchmaking industry.
Additionally, I am looking for articles and papers that look into the crystal ball: How will smart watches affect our behaviour? | What will be the market size for such devices? | etc. 
Your help is highly appreciated!
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This is another direction we would like to go - for now, feel free to read about glasses first :-).
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Human Behavioral Changes and its impact on the project and the organization at large.
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Hi Lakhdar,
I'd done some research on how the impact of project manager's leadership roles, team building & participation, team shared mental models, team trust, team satisfaction & teach cohesion on project team effectiveness & project performance.  If you want, you can refer to the following links.  All the best.
Regards,
Fung
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I am studying the possible connections between attachment styles and individuals' tendencies toward coercing a sexual encounter and complying to a wanted request for a sexual encounter. Are there measures, with good validity and reliability, for sexual compliance and coercion? 
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If you are interested in the full range of coercive sexual behavior (not necessarily behavior that is illegal), you might check out this measure that my student and I created based on the work of Struckman-Johnson, Struckman-Johnson, and Anderson (2003). In several studies (some published and some under review), this measure seemed less likely than the SES to invoke socially desirable responding (if that is a particular concern). The downside to this measures is that, unlike the SES, the items on this measure do not necessarily correspond to legal definitions of rape/sexual assault.
Strang, E. T., Peterson, Z. D., Hill, Y. N., & Heiman, J. R. (2013). Discrepant responding across self-report measures of men's coercive and aggressive sexual strategies. Journal of Sex Research, 50, 458-469. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2011.646393
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I'm looking for a framework that can be adopt to investigate social segregation in gated communities. I'm interested to look in their social interaction between resident and resident, and between residents and non-residents
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Hi,
You may find these papers useful:
1. Agyei‐Mensah, S., & Owusu, G. (2010). Segregated by neighbourhoods? A portrait of ethnic diversity in the neighbourhoods of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Population, Space and Place, 16(6), 499-516.
2. Le Goix, R. (2005). Gated communities: sprawl and social segregation in southern California. Housing Studies, 20(2), 323-343.
3. Manzi, T., & Smith-Bowers, B. (2005). Gated communities as club goods: segregation or social cohesion?. Housing Studies, 20(2), 345-359.
4. Atkinson, R., & Flint, J. (2004). Fortress UK? Gated communities, the spatial revolt of the elites and time–space trajectories of segregation. Housing Studies, 19(6), 875-892.
5. Álvarez-Rivadulla, M. J. (2007). Golden ghettos: gated communities and class residential segregation in Montevideo, Uruguay. Environment and Planning A, 39(1), 47-63.
6. Vesselinov, E., Cazessus, M., & Falk, W. (2007). Gated communities and spatial inequality. Journal of Urban Affairs, 29(2), 109-127.
7. Roitman, S. (2005). Who segregates whom? The analysis of a gated community in Mendoza, Argentina. Housing Studies, 20(2), 303-321.
8. Vesselinov, E. (2008, September). Members Only: Gated Communities and Residential Segregation in the Metropolitan United States1. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 536-555). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
I hope you really find these useful in your research.
Thomas.
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I want to design a lesson plan to teach "short story writing for elementry students" using the CREDE standards, so which three of the five standards is recommended? 
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Dear Douglas and Luisa,
Thanks for your comments. I really agree with you and appreciate your efforts.
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my focus toward to evaluate that HR system create any impact on participative management. if yes then how? and please share a articles which endorse this relationship? 
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That's a very good question, Andreas, because participation can mean so many different things, from simply asking employee for input to a purposeful and active shared leadership approach (also known as distributed leadership).  It's also very true that senior leadership has the greatest impact. Muhammad - you ask about culture.  Yes, culture is the primary driver of many organizational aspects, from employee performance and engagement to customer service approaches, but senior leaders are the primary driver of organizational culture.  I have found using an assessment tool for organizational culture provides much greater foundation for deep change than engagement surveys and similar.  That is because the former focuses on actual behaviours in the organization whereas the latter is more a snapshot in time that provides some indicators that suggest needed behavioural change but rarely identify specifics.  Behavioural change at an organizational level has to start with the senior leaders, because if they don't change then then cannot expect others to do so. 
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What I am thinking is that maybe we learn our biases and that there would be a cut point when we become biased. 
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Best,
Eva
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Is there a way to determine if there is any relationship between spatial and emotional intelligence and how are they related to road accidents?
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Hi Heman,
I suggest you to start by a sistematic search for previous research in the topic. You can use, for example, the SafetyLit database (http://www.safetylit.org). It is easy to use and it cover topics related with safety promotion and injury prevention (including road safety issues). In a preliminary search using key- words such as emotional intelligence, several papers appear on the topic.
Hope it helps!!!
Best,
Ruben.
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 I want to investigate how to change human behaviour to use technology , and I thought about " integrative model of behaviour prediction" as starting point but it is not clear enough how it differ from the other  models?
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I never heard about it but it sounds like a great approach! I have been using something similar for my lithic technology research, check this https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281856576_Integral_lithic_analysis_applied_to_the_study_of_Middle_to_Upper_Paleolithic_Transition_in_Eastern_Cantabrian_region
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Any suggestion/resources are appreciated.
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This is a good question with many possible answers and points-of-view.   It seems that it is often the case that we learn about human behaviour indirectly by considering how humans interact with other humans, the environment and machines.   In short, mathematical views of human behaviour often focus on stimulus-response modelling.
Mathematical models of human behaviour have been recently been studied in the context of epidemics in
P. Poletti, Human behaviour in epidemic modelling, Ph.D. thesis, University of Trento, 2010:
Human behaviour is modelled by Poletti in terms of two mutually influencing phenomena: epidemic transitions and behavioural changes in the population of susceptible individuals (see Section 2.2, starting on page 16).
Modelling human-computer (device) interaction is the focus of
P. Eslambolchilar, Making sense of interaction using a model-based approach, Ph.D. thesis, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 2006:
See, for example, the probabilistic framework of a model-based behaviour system in Fig. 6.13, starting on page 182.
A bit less mathematical but still very interesting model of human behaviour in terms of human-made music is given in
A. Tidemann, A groovy virtual drummer: Learning by imitation using a self-organizing connectionist architecture, Ph.D. thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 209:
For an overview of the Tidemann's approach to model and imitate human musical expressiveness, see Fig. 1.1, p. 5.
This thesis introduces the SHEILA architecture in terms of human drum-playing patterns with an accompanying melody (see Section 3, Architectuure, page 106 in the pdf file but unnumbered in the thesis).
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I am preparing a paper and presentation on human behaviour change in relation to animal welfare, and wanted to look at any research that has been undertaken applying this theory to animal welfare
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Many thanks for the help, much appreciated
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What modulatory system in the brain is recruited besides dopamine when an animal pays attention. How does attention allow to embark on the mental time travel in humans?
A kind of reductionist approach to the problem of attention is done by focusing on how place cells in the hippocampus create an enduring map only when an organism is paying attention to its surroundings. After all to what we pay attention has also a moral dimension
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Dear Rita. Thank you for the wonderful theme that touches the topic of morality. You understand that dopamine can not explain the process of attention. Especially when it comes to respect for morality. The aspect of morality is especially important in the modern period of rampant media. After reading the headlines of newspapers and magazines begin to represent how immoral, those who wrote the article, and how truthful the information that is presented in the articles. So, I expect after you issue a stormy debate scientists (not the media).
Thank you one more time.
Vladimir
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The man I have been with for 11 yrs. shows narcissistic behavior with anger issues. He is also an extremist.
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I don't think anyone can offer much firm advice given how little we know about the situation. Let me assume that you're basically correct - that your partner is truly narcissistic (self-centered, grandiose, unempathic), excessively or inappropriately angry (yelling, criticizing - maybe shoving or striking?), and politically extremist (perhaps in a right-wing quasi-fascist way?). If all that holds true, the best advice a good friend would offer is probably to get out of that situation, but to be very careful about doing so. (The kind of man you describe is at high risk of violence if he perceives himself being abandoned, slighted, rejected.) Or, if you are determined to make a go of the relationship (and yes, 11 years is a lot to walk away from), then press him to enter into couples counseling with you - but first do your research and identify a practitioner who's up to the job. If that isn't going to happen, then you'll basically have to learn to keep stroking his ego, look good on his arm when you make an entrance, and expect little in return as far as emotional support and closeness go.
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Well-being in itself could be considered a form of spirituality. It is your "peace" that makes life meaningful to you. (or is it?)
Some people use this definition, finding satisfaction in life through travel, staying at home with loved ones, religion, connection with the universe, God, etc.
The importance of this is how important? To our identity? Stress levels? Relationships with people/animals/objects? Your health psychologically, physiologically, environmentally, spiritually?
Can it, or has it, been supported by the built environment? Do you make it, find it, or adapt (nesting in a pre-designed space).
Do you feel that "spirituality" is an ecosystem? Does the interconnected relationship between plants, animals, humans, inorganic, or lifeless objects/materials/elements use spirituality? Do we block it (like the built environment), knowingly or not and thus damage our spiritual health which effects our peace, stress, and health (thinking of PNI)?
I am looking for discussion, resources, comments, definitions, etc. This is to specify a pre-step to my thesis through thought and questions in understanding the ultimate goal, my research project in human element in architecture, it's (human and built environment) history, and our future.
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 Dear Chloe,
The external natural environment and our own bodies are a conglomeration of five gross elements which are Earth, Fire, Water, Air and Ether having the characteristics of smell, taste, sight, touch and sound respectively. It is called Prakriti which is meta physical concept in the Samkhya stream of  Indian philosophy. Hence we are in a state of well being when we recognise our internal elements and be in tune with the natural flow of the elements.
Our build elements i.e. what we built to reside, work and pray if built in line with natural principles contributes to the development of spirituality and well being. Indian thought had put this down as a science of  built environments which is termed as "Vastu Shastra". In brief, it lays down the method of selection of a site, the direction of doors, windows, rooms, the materials to be used and so many other matters all with the objective of maximising benefits from the elements of nature and to benefit the occupants. It will be nice if this could be looked up as a pre-step to the thesis.  
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Leaving the definition aside at this moment, let us focus on the factors which make one have a higher Humanity Quotient. Briefly,
(1) How do we look at the world? Do we identify with a certain belief, religion, nation, region, skin color, language, gender, community, organization, caste, village, street, physical ability, mental ability, etc etc; and at each of those levels do we feel superior than others in the same category? Do we hate others who are inferior according to us? Do we want to harm those others?
(2) How likely am I to hurt another human being for a certain reason or without any reason?
(3) How much do I love humanity? How much do I love people irrespective of their religion, nationality, skin color, language, gender, sexual orientation, etc. etc.?
(4) How much am I willing to suffer for the benefit of other human beings, irrespective of their religion, nationality, skin color, language, etc. etc.? Do I have compassion for those others?
(5) How do we feel about nature, animals and our common human heritage? Do we like to contribute to the preservation of these?
(6) How much are we open to listen to ideas which are different from ours? Are we likely to hate people who hold different opinions? Do we want to harm or punish people who have ideas which are different, opposite, contrasting, foolish, inappropriate, unimportant etc according to us?
Based on these criteria, try to rate on a scale of 1 to 10, people like Buddha, Jesus, Einstein, Gandhi, Mother Teresa, or any of your personal heroes, idols, religious figures etc.
Also, try to rate people like Hitler, or any of those cruel people we have seen in history, or our current politicians and business leaders.
And than compare where you stand on that scale.
What if our countries, companies, universities, offices, etc were run by people like Buddha, Jesus and Mother Teresa? Wouldn't our world be very different?
Narcissists, bigots, people with divisive ideologies, cruel people, will always have a very low score on a HQ scale, irrespective of their IQ or EQ or whatever. Historically, those are the people who create problems in this world. On the contrary, only people with a high HQ can bring people together, can make this world a better place.
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This is an interesting question.  I think where there may be difficulty is accounting for the collective unconscious in cultural value judgments.  For instance, many people would take as fact that employing people is a good thing.  How could employment be bad?  But if you ask a Communist he might say that employment within the capitalist structure - assumed to be a positive in America - is not helpful to humanity.  Corporations, regardless of whether or not they employee people, perpetuate a control structure that is antithetical to a Communist worldview.
Although this example may seem extreme I think it points to potential difficulties in defining the metric.  What you are looking for are universal values which, even if they are found are then furthermore not guaranteed to be "good" per se - if I can even say that.
I love the idea, and think that most of the work will come from defining the inputs to the metric.
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Is anyone aware of any formalised/published attempts to utilise Human Behavioural Ecology (HBE) models to assess wood selection using both taxa identification and quantification in conjunction with dendroanthracological results? Marston 2009 seems to be the only published attempt to explicitly use HBE and wood charcoal data anyway. Would love to know if people have seen more out there that my research to date has missed.
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In their article in Journal of Archaeological Science, Codding and Bird (2015, p. 14) state that: "HBE-informed archaeological investigations into the effects of anthropogenic fire are limited to date and this remains a promising avenue of study" and then they cite four articles. Below is a link to the article I am talking about.
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Of course with such systems comes the debate of public privacy.
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Hi - with my operational head on I'd say that this would be completely impossible - sorry...
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Has anyone experience doing content analysis of comments in Facebook, particularly focusing on how Facebook comments could influence people perception. Secondly, please suggest any theoretical model that best explain human behavioural change from the influence of social media.
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media uses and gratifications theory, social learning theory, social action theory.
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I am working on Parking demand modelling for local area plan. I am into research on fuzzy based parking demand model incorporating human behavior  for a realistic prediction. Need your views and comments.
Thank you
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I'm attaching a paper of mine about  a model of the parking choice behaviour, in which we've used the Possibility Theory.  Please send me your feedback
Is "reflective behaviour" measurable? If yes, how can we measure it?
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Hi, In my PhD project, I am seeking to define the properties of connected artefacts, able to stimulate reflection among people who use them. I would like to run an experiment to understand how much certain properties and features of a physical product can enhance/affect reflection. I appreciate any answer providing case studies, tools or any other methods that can be applied to this context. Thank you! Malì.
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Hello Malineh I wish you sucess in your research. Over the years I have observed that th HCI/Informatics community, at least in some places, can become a theoretical ghetto. I would encourage you to look at the work of other researchers in these topics outside HCI. Since I've just finished a book chapter on this subject, these folks are on my mind In particular,  I would highly recommend Ed Hutchins, Tim Ingold, Evan Thompson and Lambros Malafouris. Fantastic, insightful work.
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There are many things living in existence along with human. But, education is required only for human being. What is the purpose of education? To live with definite human conduct or indefinite human conduct. ? where are we going?  
why problems are increasing day by day ? 
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The main important end of any education system is mainly for behavior attitude so that any training personnel initially in any areas of education he can be know & understood from his behavior & institute also receive a respectable standing in the faculty of education .
With this very recently i have touched the topic of ''Behavior' in my publication which i take liberty to submit herewith for your perusal & for our valued readers 
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Donald E. Brown's book, "Human Universals", explores and describes physical and behavioral characteristics that can be considered universal among all cultures, all people. I have not been able to get my hands on a copy of that work. Can someone who has read the book tell me if Brown employed a systematic cross-cultural analysis? Or did he employed a different methodology? If so, what was the procedure he used to determine which traits are ubiquitous in human societies? Are his findings robust and reliable? Or are they based on a somewhat haphazard survey of regionally isolated studies?
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Methodology is not normally a term applied to writing a book (as opposed, say, to doing field or laboratory research), or at least not that sort of a book. 
In a sense the book 'Human Universals' is a "review" of the literature.  They are written all the time in many fields (n psychology, sociology, and of course anthropology). But there is no standard methodology for writing a book about cultural or biological universals. Brown did search the term 'universals' to go through various published journal indexes that listed references for further investigation.  
 In particular, aside from the anthropological evidence for cultural and biological universals, Brown paid attention to the evidence in psychology and evolutionary psychology.  
He also drew on his own field experiences in Brunei, Bali, Mexico, and of course the US--hence he relied on the comparative method.  That in turn was much supplemented by a long interest in world ethnography.  He had prepared for field work in Latin America.  He studied with Africanists (Leo Kuper, M.G. Smith, Victor Turner) to learn British Social Anthro, and thereby read a lot of African ethnography.  All this adds up to the comparative method.
 There is a section of my book where Brown discusses how he assessed the universality of problematic cases for universals and he dealt with the quantitative issue of absolute vs near universals. Much of this is not dignified with the term methodology but is standard method across many fields as part of what constitutes objective or scientific writing.
Brown followed in the footsteps of Murdock and others who had focused on the study of universals, but produced a more nuanced account of universals that had been neglected by the majority of anthropologists who tended to focus on cultural differences.  
Of course Brown does not deny tremendous cultural variation and differences throughout the world.   But the neglect of cultural and biological universals often led anthropologists to 'exoticize' humans in various regions of the world, reducing the ability to empathize with the so-called 'other.'   Anthropologists must emphasize both the similarities and differences of people and societies they investigate to produce a more comprehensive understanding of humanity.  
Is there any UML model of human behavior ?
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I've been searching for human behavior models in scientific litterature,but I couldn't come up with a UML model which contain numerous aspects as cognition, emotion, memory, attention ...). So that's why I'm asking if there's any model including these parameters. 
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UML describe static and dynamic behaviour of a specific domain. Lately, I approach study about User eXperience, and I find a model to describe users using six features: technological skills domain expertise physical abilities language skills motivation and interests environmental distractions By giving a value to each feature you can delineate a user profile. You can graph it on a hexagonal radar diagram. Looking the graph you can understand if user need help, explanations or if you have to capture his interest. You can also define the risks for each user on using the application: mistake, slip, abandon. I think you can read something here... T. Tullis, B. Albert, Measuring the User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann, 2013
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If you have some citations, please include it on your answers.
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According to Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), the major variables affecting behavior are the references that one has (such as goals, principles, homeostatic set points) and one's perceptions related to those references.  When a perception differs from a reference, an error signal is produced.  A neural error signal that is important, including those important to one's survival, results in behavior produced to reduce the error signal.  Such behavior, when it seems to produce desired perceptions (i.e., when error signals are reduced) results in the reorganization of the neural control systems that generated the behavior and tends to occur again in similarly perceived situations.
Variables external to the nervous system influence behavior when they either (a) result in perceptions that produce important error signals or (b) when they may result in important error signals.  An so, we jerk our hand away from a painfully hot object and we don't walk in front of a speeding car. 
Cross-culturally, behavior often differs because our references often differ.  For example, in the USA giving someone something with the left hand is usually OK, but in some other cultures would be considered impolite.  Similarly, in the USA, blowing one's nose in a handkerchief and putting that in your pocket is usually OK, but in some other cultures is disgusting.  Eating dogs is OK in some cultures whereas in others doing so is a revolting idea.  Such differences depend on our references and related perceptions!
For more information about Perceptual Control Theory, a classic but technical textbook is William T. Powers, Behavior: The Control of Perception (1973/2005).  Information online is available at iapct.org (website of the International Association for Perceptual Control Theory).
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When people discuss the possibilities of genetic editing, the seemingly obvious necessity of transforming ourselves into much more robustly compassionate and therefore sustainable species seems never to arise. But, I contend this topic must become a central part of the public debate concerning the ethical and practical use of rapidly emerging genetic editing technologies. Natural selection has designed our ruthlessly contingent and parochial morality. We must face that fact that this just will not do any longer. I propose that, as would be true for any advanced life form in the cosmos, to make it through our "technological adolescence" without destroying ourselves and the earth (thank you Carl Sagan, by way of Dr. Alloway, in the movie "Contact"), we will have to wrest the design of our pan-human / species-typical psyche from the amoral visionless hands of natural selection. We will have to move humanity into a meticulously designed ongoing program of Intentional Genetic Evolution. Thus, as a prerequisite, we obviously will need to identify the key multiple genes that modulate our moral deliberation processes, our capacities for more consistent and universal prosociality and biophilia, to have any hope of eventually performing an optimal combination of edits that would offer us a real chance of saving the human experiment and the planet. As we are, we are doomed, and fundamentally designed by natural selection to suffer, and to cause terrible suffering all along the way, for all the planet's sentient life.
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I would suggest the paper by Carter and Porges, which gives an answer to your question and puts it in context:
From: Pathways to Peace: The Transformative Power of Children and Families. Edited by J.F. Leckman C. Panter-Brick, and R. Salah MIT PRESS: Cambridge, MA (2014; pp. 43-64) Chapter 4 Peptide Pathways to Peace C. Sue Carter and Stephen W. Porges
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In my PhD thesis, I would like to tackle the issue of intolerance in a post-war society. Therefore, I would like to measure behaviours of individuals/groups who express intolerant behaviours towards other individuals/ groups of the society who differ in terms of religion, ethnic group and/or political opinion, etc... 
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At the structural, macro-scale of social order and organizaation, elaborating more on wicked problems, in connection to "normal accidents" (Charles Perrow), the level of intolerance between groups may be a consequence of "tight coupling" that leaves no space for errors. And contrary to popular belief, higher dependencies between the group can actually lead to more intolerance. Smaller margins of error (less give-and-take), results in "lower degrees of freedom" available in the social network/graph. This high-strung/high intolerance situation would lead to higher fragility in existing social relations.
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is there any comprehensive formal modeling or visual representation (using specific modeling tools like unified modeling language) of human behavior by age (baby, child, teenager, adult, old) and by gender (man, woman) ?
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Maybe Human Behavioural Ecology models is what you're looking for. See for example a paper by Winterhalder called "human behaviour ecology at twenty five". It's online
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I am working on a project related with indoor pedestrian route guidance systems and to this end, I am developing a model of human behavior related with panic. I developed a simple human behavior optimization model that includes characteristics such as herding and response to guidance influenced by former familiarity with the route but would like to enhance it with further characteristics of human behavior under panic.  Thank you in advance. 
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Hi Alice Claire,
thank you on your answer. I found a webpage with his publications and will go through it. Thanks again. 
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Person X often meets for a couple of minutes or hours in a lifetime person Y and judges person Y based on short-term impressions. This also happens when animals are studied in wildlife conditions, e.g. researchers meet an individual bird for a couple of minutes and make statements about that individual how it lives and functions.
What are the arguments that these impressions and short-term visits to wildlife are reliable?
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Dear @Marcel, I do not judge people that I do not truly know.
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 The concept of employability appears to be relatively new and has been variously characterised as comprising the three dimensions of career identity, personal adaptability, and social and human capital (Fugate 2004) as well as openness to changes at work, work and career resilience, work and career proactivity, career motivation and work identity (Hennekam, 2013). To the extent that it reflects “the individual’s ability to keep the job one has, or to get the job one desires” (Rothwell et al, 2007) does it provides an indicator of the efficiency and effectiveness of a labour market?
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 I thought this idea had outlived its natural life.
Bear in mind that it puts much of the responsibility on the worker, so it has an ideological component.
I have encountered it a lot with respect to older workers, who are supposed to improve their employability.  Perhaps more useful is the term "workability".  This puts more emphasis on the role of the employer, who has the responsibility to make adaptations to workplaces and to reduce the elements of work that are deleterious to health and /or to make sure that employees continue to provide training.
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I would like to have different opinions on how to create a human behavior model for an agent-based simulation, starting from a survey.
In particular, I would like to have more references on how to behavior matrices starting from questions that are asked during the surveying activity.
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For example you could simulate humans as points
in the plane. Objects that have x,y coordinates.
In order to accelerate computation, store
references to these objects in an array where
each cell can hold a list of several humans.
Behavior: normally they avoid approaching
each other too close. Under normal circumstances
humans walk with a certain speed toward diverse
goals, avoiding collisions. In panic, they
try to reach one of several exit doors.
They try to follow distinct individuals
which appear to be on the right track.
Panic can appear in different levels which
leads to wrong decisions, whatever that
may be.
Literature:
Regards,
Joachim
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Hello everyone,
I am conducting a study in which I pretend to relate work events with emotions and I'm doing so with neural nets. So, as far as I know, I can interpret each hidden node as a "category" (or a factor) where related events group together before generating outputs. It's similar to a classification system, but resorting to a non-linear method. Now, I searched and searched for previous studies that did something similar, regarding classification of events in organizational research and classified them with neural nets but apparently there are none. Does anyone know of enlighting researches that followed this same method?
TIA
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This is was one of the paper i referred when i was working on computational social science. hope this will help.
Topic: Emotions and Organizational Behaviour
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Yoga, or what passes off as Yoga in the western world, is a $30 billion industry in the United States.. People of all ages contort themselves into positions like 'downward dog' and believe that they are doing Yoga. Due to the limitations and failures of modern allopathic health systems, increasingly people are turning to alternative and complementary eastern health systems in the hope of a cure for their mental and physical ailments. Capitalist tendencies are quick to capitalize on this ignorance/demand and quick to offer a number of services and goods(gadgets) to fool the consumer even further.
All the Yoga texts state that Yoga is a mental process to achieve equanimity, mental poise, stillness of the mind, 'Chitta vriddhi nirodaha'. 'Asana' is mental balance and stability in whatever you do in life, not a physical pose to hold for a convenient time, or at a convenient place(studio). How come its so far away from the truth when it comes to western understanding & practice of Yoga? What has been "Lost in Translation"? If individuals continue to choose the 'juicier' parts of Yoga philosophy(for example the health benefits) and twist it to suit their own convenience in the name of 'freedom' (due to the munificence of the original seers who sought no exclusive rights and patents) and ignore the ethical, spiritual, human, environmental and disciplinary parts, is there a danger of Yoga losing its meaning? By only taking the parts we want, isn't the very purpose of Yoga lost? Why bother calling it Yoga at all and add to the deepening confusion everywhere? Should the charade of the emperor's new clothes continue or an attempt made to define the science for what it actually is?
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David:
1. Yoga is not ancient Indian philosophy. It does not belong to anyone, or to Hinduism. It is the heritage of all mankind who have arose from a single source. The geographical, cultural, political and demographical entity known as India now, received it & practiced it to preserve the science of Yoga faithfully. Other inheritors lost it, while India preserved it as a sacred science, recognizing its essentiality. But all mankind are the inheritors. You have the same right as anyone from India has over Yoga. This is probably difficult for Americans to comprehend in the times of cutthroat copyrights, intellectual property rights and patents. The ancient seers of Yoga never claimed patents(not even signing their names, preferring to remain anonymous)and gave the science to all the children of mankind, saying that they themselves received it, proclaiming 'Loka Samastha Sukhinoh Bhavanthu"! May All Worlds be Happy! This is long before any religion even came into the picture.
Yoga is 'open source', but please don't misinterpret and use it to misguide humanity to make your own living. Using wisely, responsibly, remaining true to its actual content is a way of showing respect to the 'original' giver.
2. It is not based on the Patanjali Yoga Sutras. Patanjali is a seer who organised & codified the science into sutras, terse aphorsims, in the recent past, recognising that in the age of Kali, man's limited intelligence is liable to lose the science altogether. It is not even known if he is a human being as he is usually depicted with the lower half of his body coiled like a snake(pic). The snake is a representation of Time in Yoga. He is also known as the Lord of Time. In the Bhagavad Gita(circa 3200 BC), Krishna states that the ancient science was lost many times in the hoary past and every time He descends to deliver the same science to Man to subjugate evil. The science of Yoga is the original 'Operations manual' of man. It is the 'Science of Man'. We descended from a source and the way back to the source is Yoga. The path and the goal is Yoga. 
Hatha Yoga Pradipika is a recent (15th century )abridged work that lays emphasis on the physical posture part so that the main goal of Yoga is achieved without bodily interference.
3. I would rather not comment on the level of absurdity Yoga has been misinterpreted by commercial interests in America. Cherry-picking is both harmful and counterproductive. What would happen if the government let people cherry pick the American constitution and interpret it according to their own comfort zone?
4. There's no mud slinging going on here, only concern that the 'adulterated ' version may become 'mainstream' and the truth lost forever. Blowback effect ?
5.On the contrary, this is an attempt to prevent people from getting hurt by clearing the air. Are you stating that the "Ignorance is Bliss" mode, status quo, is Ok? Am I throwing a spanner in the well oiled sham?
Regards
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Education & Economics in the globalization process do go hand in hand and starts with parenting.
The personal basic values are transmitted and formed at home. The education starts at home. It is a social obligation and responsibility while observing the basic human rights – the right to Life, health, education and personal safety and security.
Parenting? It's easy to have children but the responsibility to bring them up, to build the "infrastructure" off all we have and do on Earth, to "construct" the only mean of added value to our Life, the difference between developing ourselves as species as opposed to destroying humanity along with all the rest of Life on Earth, it is huge and perhaps the most important task.
The downing of the MH17 in Ukraine and the ongoing conflicts in Gaza, the never-ending shootings in USA University and school campuses, the acts of terrorism, the self-terror conducting the increasing obesity, missuses of technology and "UNsocial networks", just to mention a few and recent events and behavior, do all of these have anything to do with parenting or ....it is just an asteroid issue hitting our planet, an event beyond our control?
In what direction and at what speed does humanity is going to? Is anything that we need to do now? and how?
Any ideas, solution, opinion, personal examples, suggestions, questions, perhaps will help all of us towards a better world.
My regards to RG members, my consideration to parents and the future of humanity,
Dr. Adrian Toader-Williams
PS) Please do not forget to vote members contributions as to acknowledge abd encourage RG members activity.
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Dear Adrian,
These are the old known factors of today's state of affairs: wrath, avarice, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. These factors can be counterbalanced by chastity, temperance, charity,  diligence, patience,  kindness and  humility. However, if you are a perfect example of the latter factors your child may be more inclined to copy your behavior. Helas, no parent is perfect and parents also engage in frequent struggles in front of the child. However, also a child is no absolute angel, he is not free from conflicts between destructive and construtive behaviors. The child is an autonomous human being with choices -  although immature - of his own. He can later on choose to become what he had experienced or he can rebel. After he went through his own trials and errors and did his own mistakes he may eventually end up with the insight that the parents were not always wrong. Parenting matters.
Best regards
Béatrice
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Could you advise me about Mathematical Statistics (books, articles, web sites, etc.) on modeling the mental states (agitation, nervousness, fatigue, panic, fear, distraction, etc.)
characterizing a human driver (car driver)?
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A test to study perception of reality in humans?
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As a result of psychoses, a person cannot differentiate between internal beliefs and external reality. Do you know if there are tests in humans to try to assess this behavior?
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in cognitive psycholoy, we study reality monitoring, that is discriminating between internal and external sources. This paradigm has been used to study schizophrenia, for example in studies by Richard Keefe and myself.
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Physical spaces and ergonomics are common topics, however, I wish to go beyond that. Games? Learning? Sustainable behaviors? Persuasive Computing?
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HCI. Not that this narrows it down much considering the HCII 2013 conference proceedings consists of 29 volumes (http://www.hcii2013.org/proceedings). However, if you want to look at cutting edge topics in human behavior and design (and by design I mean everything from software to "Secure, Usable Biometric Authentication Systems" to "E-Inclusion as the Next Challenge for Sustainable Consumption" and a host of other topics, that would be the place to start. For one thing, part of the HCII joint conferences included the 2nd annual "Design, User Experience, and Usability" conference, the proceedings of which are volumes 9 through 12 of the HCII proceedings published by Springer. For another, the actual "Human-Computer Interaction" conference (rather than the joint conferences) gets pride of place in terms of volume ordering, and within the HCI-proper volumes the first one somewhat defines the entire event and the sets the tone for the thousands upon thousands of pages published subsequently; the 2013 first HCI volume was Human-Computer Interaction: Human-Centred Design Approaches, Methods, Tools and Environments. Topics in that volume alone range from models of experience engineering to "culture-aware robots". All volumes are available electronically via SpringerLink as well as in hardcopy.
What are the remedies for jealousy?
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Envy and jealousy are natural human emotions that can take over at the most inopportune times. Your best friend has just secured another promotion and envy burns within you because you have the same job title you did three years ago. Jealousy and envy create a strong stress reaction in the body that is instant. How to get rid of it? Is it negative emotion? Your kind comment please..
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Jealousy is a competitive emotion. "If he can me too". It's very necessary in self improvement, about simillar capability. But in different capability is negative because cannot win and only look for destroy the other, (the worst emotion: to wish break what I cannot win).
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Are we masters of humanity or slaves of commercialization/machines?
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Dear Kamal,
It is much easier to be a slave but to be a true man is a real challenge. The way is open for everybody!
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What are the dynamics of this process?
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Dear Ufuk,
This is an interesting question. However, it is important to clarify, that if we are asking a broad, generic question about animals (including humans), there is a gradation with fine variation ranging from hermaphrodites which do not need any mate selection, to species where the gender of the individual is decided based on the scarcity in the population (e.g. fishes) or temperature (e.g. turtles), to mammals (including humans).
Research has shown that pheromones have an important role to play in humans and other animals during mate selection. These chemicals unconsciously indicate to the male that the female is ready for reproduction, and also indicate to the female whether the male is from a distinct genetic pool or similar. They have found that human females are more attracted to the scent of unrelated strangers and repelled by the scent of relatives. These experiments are highlighting the deep biological roots of human behavior.
You can also read the book "The Selfish Gene" to get a deeper perspective.
Best regards,
Apurva Sanaria
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An observational study about wayfinding and orientation performances within a spatial setting:
The aim is to understand, observe, and analyze the impact that affect humans behavioral actions in relation to wayfinding and orientation.
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These may help.
Relation of physical form to spatial knowledge in largescale virtual environments
E Cubukcu, JL Nasar - Environment and Behavior, 2005
Influence of physical characteristics of routes on distance cognition in virtual environments
Ebru Cubukcu, Jack L Nasar
Environment and Planning B Planning and Design
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What are the ways to mediate between objectivism and relativism (archaeology in particular)?
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I have written a little on this question. See
1989 Introduction. In R. Layton (ed) Conflict in the archaeology of living traditions, pp. 1-21. London, Routledge (updated version in paperback edition, 1994).
2002 Intersubjectivity and understanding rock art. In P. Biehl and F. Bertemes with H. Meller (eds.) The archaeology of cult and religion, pp. 27-36. Budapest: Archaeolingua [cover page states ‘published in 2001’]
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Does any one know where I could find literature review conducted on human behavior in relation to walking? I am trying to identify why people tend to drive more often - even if the destination is only 5mins (walking distance).
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Walking behaviour depends on socio-demographics, personal attitudes as well as networks of social groups and local environments. The activity is associated with age and income. There is strong correlation between walking and low income groups as for many people from low income group, walking is a necessity rather than a choice. Walking for transportation has been studied for health risk, which puts low income population as higher risk of traffic injury. Moreover, environmental attributes such as convenience, safety and aesthetics affect walking behaviour.
Please check my paper: Socio-ecological perspectives on walking
and
ADDY, C.L., WILSON, D.K., KIRTLAND, K.A., AINSWORTH, B.E., SHARPE, P. and KIMSEY, D., 2004. Associations of perceived social and physical environmental supports with physical activity and walking behavior. American Journal of Public Health, 94(3), pp. 440-443.
BALL, K., TIMPERIO, A., SALMON, J., GILES-CORTI, B., ROBERTS, R. and CRAWFORD, D., 2007. Personal, social and environmental determinants of educational inequalities in walking: a multilevel study. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 61(2), pp. 108-114.
BLACKLOCK, R., RHODES, R. and BROWN, S., 2007. Relationship between regular walking, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 4(2), pp. 138-152.
GILES-CORTI, B., BROOMHALL, M., KNUIMAN, M., COLLINS, C., DOUGLAS, K., NG, K., LANGE, A. and DONOVAN, R., 2005. Increasing walking: how important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2 Suppl 2), pp. 169-176.
GILES-CORTI, B. and DONOVAN, R., 2002. The relative influence of individual, social and physical environment determinants of physical activity. Social Science and Medicine, 54(12), pp. 1793-1812.
GRANNER, M., SHARPE, P., HUTTO, B., WILCOX, S. and ADDY, C., 2007. Perceived individual, social, and environmental factors for physical activity and walking. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 4(3), pp. 278-293.
GREEN, J., 2009. 'Walk this way': Public health and the social organization of walking. Social Theory & Health, 7(1), pp. 20-38.
HOVELL, M., F, HOFSTETTER, C., R, SALLIS, J., F, RAUH, M., J and BARRINGTON, E., 1992. Correlates of change in walking for exercise: an exploratory analysis. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 63(4), pp. 425-434.
HUMPEL, N., OWEN, N., IVERSON, D., LESLIE, E. and BAUMAN, A., 2004. Perceived environment attributes, residential location, and walking for particular purposes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26(2), pp. 119-125
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The promotion of young athletes is identified and groomed. Can the same be done with the skilled trades?
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Identifying talent is the first crucial step involved in nurturing further  with conducive conditions in which it could naturally grow to be visible to everybody associated in a given field.Observation first by accident as something happens may be the very first crude sense-making or impression about talent to be existing .Subsequent and chance-based and test-condition-bound confirmatory continued observations would lead one to confidently certify to others about talent in visible and verifiable order which further needs to be sincerely recommended for specialised care and attention.Training talent as in pursuit of appropriate taste and aptitude for certain definite career in any field is then to follow with great caution at all steps being neatly and meticulously exercised lest it could be brittle.Monitoring growth of trained talent through a series of progressive satisfactory evidence that talent is continuing in good shape almost uninterrupted while congratulating on every success at all crucial hurdles crossed should be done with great responsibility and magnanimity to allow proper self-worth and self-image to be firmly endorsed and established in one.Once talent is spotted to allow it to be wasted needs to be acknowledged as sin or as crime against humanity and God.
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From the Spanish assemblages the differences in modalities inside mousterian methods look to be very slight. Social or economical reasons could be under this technological expressions. How much do you trust in the "stretch" French vision about concepts, methods and modalities?
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Several researchers are actually asking this question nowdays, and I think it is a sign towards the close reevaluation of the significance of the usage in the past on one Levallois modality or another. Have you seen this levallois unipolar/convergent core refitted on a preferential/recurrent one discovered close to Bergerac, by Laurence Bourguignon and her team? Best wishes,
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There is a saying that "the enemy of your enemy is your friend". Although this may hold some political truth, is it always the case in other areas?
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Doesn't have to be true.
Depends on the relationship that you have with that person.
Nothing in this world is for certain.
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personal EUI? Carbon footprint? Energy use at work, home, commute?
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Energy use is very much related to the growth of GNP. The OECD countries use more energy because their goods production is very high and this leads to high energy use per capita. On the other hand developing countries use less energy. The human behaviour should be measured on the percentage of energy used that is wasted. One can define wasted energy in many ways.
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In my opinion the impact on some people's behavior could be unexpected.
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The next step will be embedded computers and we become robots.
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Various factors, including climate, building envelope and energy services systems, operation and maintenance, indoor comfort conditions, and occupant behavior, affect energy use in buildings.
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If speaking about energy consumption in cold climate for space heating:
Despite the indor and outdoor climate conditions, most influencing factor is ocupant behavior. Building ocupants can adjust indoor temperature, air change rates and internal gains.
More efficient building comes - higher influence ocupant behavior impact gets.
Level of influence could be easily assesed by heat balance equation. When envelope transmision losses decreases and building thermal constant rises - weight of balance members influenced by human behavior starts to grow. (Heat balance equation presented in European standard EN 13790)
Weight of influencing factors must vary and depend on outdoor climate conditions
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I'd like to look into developing a scale to measure self-efficacy specifically when it comes to specific tasks
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In the NASA TLX one component (self estimation of achieved performance) looks similar. Maybe construction of that index give you some advice. But generally any human subjective measure depends on many various factors and the results between humans are difficult to compare. If you find any computable index (for example using error level during task realization) such index can be used for objective scale.
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Specifically a theory that could give insights into how management can get people to do what they have do do efficiently?
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Dear Dr.Kumbirai Mabwe,
I think that the "win-win-win papakonstantinidis model" should be useful to you in rour Research
P..
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What techniques can be useful to distinguish actions performed by a human being (surfing the web, file downloads, chat on FB etc.), and similar (or different) actions being performed by a bot trained to do so. Will machine learning be good here? Will game theory be useful?
Please cite/refer to relevant material.
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A features we are able of and which is normally not well integrated in machines/bot is our possibility of producing output independently of inputs (like in Searl's chinese room, the machine can answer any question, but cannot ask a single one). I would guess nobody ever looked at that, since it is unfortunately taken for granted that brains are input-output systems, and only few biologists look at the output-input strategy of nervous systems.
I would also guess that if you can monitor the action of the bot in absence of inputs (let him get no answer to its question), its "behavior" and the one of a human would be completely different. This may change in the future, though.
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In his article 'Building, dwelling, living' Tim Ingold backs up his dwelling perspective by claiming
'the forms of organisms are in no way prefigured in their genes but are the emergent outcomes of environmentally situated development processes.' (Ingold 2000, p. 186).
However, biologist Mike Hansell (among others), who specializes in animal architecture, shows that the form of animal 'buildings' is at least in part innate ( Animal Architecture (2005), pp. 123-124). From this point of view Ingold's earlier dichotomy between design and execution seems more sensible than his later view. If we would accept this dichotomy, what would be the consequence for dwelling perspectives?
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is the dichotomy you speak of epistemic or ontological? Honestly, the dichotomous partition of the emergence of dwellings into the "design----> execution" binary pair is a useful heuristic for artificially regimenting and methodically decomposing an otherwise intractable and hopelessly complex process. Whether or not both members of the binary pair--namely, design/execution--reliably track physiologic mechanisms that allow us to responsibly adjudicate one process from the other in fine grained and neatly compartmentalized ways is another matter. I see no a priori reason to reject the epistemic value specific to the design/execution binary pair as it relates to disambiguating complex ontogenetic processes. One of the more obvious consequences which might emerge from adhering to a stronger formulation of the dichotomy, in terms of a theory of etiologic functions in contrast to a systems functional account, would be to show up the temporal dimension inherent in the construction of non human animal dwellings: no matter the underline physiologic mechanisms, actuating a design template in the form of execution describes a process that expresses itself in time with design on one end of the the temporal continuum and completed execution on the other end.
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The selection of beauty seems to be built-in feature, not created by social interaction. It seems to reason that it is therefore objective. We add to this the gestalt laws of psychology as they pertain to perception -- which all design and art students learn, and guide designers of every kind every day in their profession, and it seems again that beauty is objective at its root. This draws me to the next question, does this imply that beauty is of divine origin?
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There is a new kind of beauty that exists in fine structure, and is objective in nature. This is the beauty that was defined and discovered by Christopher Alexander in his master work The Nature of Order.
Alexander C. (2002-2005), The Nature of Order: An essay on the art of building and the nature of the universe, Center for Environmental Structure: Berkeley, CA.
Jiang B. and Sui D. (2014), A new kind of beauty out of the underlying scaling of geographic space, The Professional Geographer, 66(4), 676–686, Preprint: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1303/1303.7303.pdf
Jiang B. (2015), Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, xx(x), xx-xx, Preprint: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1502/1502.03554.pdf
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How can we explain the demise of socialism as an economic system, as it was practiced in the Soviet Union, from a Behavioral Economics point of view? Are there aspects of the system that we can say to be contradictory to ''human nature'' (however it may be defined) that may have contributed to its downfall?
Given the age of this issue, this question may have been deliberated many times before in many forums, but I need help because I am not up to date on this. My mind is currently preoccupied with the question of whether similar behavioural factors ought to be accounted for in the current discussions about Islamic economics in several forums. If we know that contradicting certain human behavioural factors in a certain economic system design can deal a serious blow to it, then such initiative in the new direction may not be worth our time and efforts.
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It was the economic sustainability gap affecting Karl Marx's model as no system can live accumulating capitalism deficits for ever....you may find these articles interesting...outside the box thinking....
Adam Smith and Karl Marx Under the Sustainability Eye: Pointing Out and Comparing the Sustainability Gaps Behind these Two Great Simplification Failures
Paradigm Evolution and Sustainability Thinking: Using a Sustainability Inversegram to State Paradigm Death and Shift Expectations under Win-Win and No Win-Win Situations
Paradigm Dynamics and The Future of Capitalism: Who Will Win the Next Cold War?
Adam Smith Vrs Karl Marx: Stating the Structure and Implications of the Paradigm Clash that Led to the Death of Karl Marx’s World, to the Fall of the Soviet Bloc, and to the Rise of Socially Friendly Capitalism.
Nationalization as Privatization in Reverse: Understanding the Nature of the Commons to Identify a Possible Point of Optimal Nationalization.
Have a nice day
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My current research suggests that human females have access to pheromones that effect human behavior.
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females themselves are quiet vulnerable physiologically and emotionally. They may be affecting emotions and behaviour of a man with who they have relations, but I see no such bodily factor that can create such impact on man.
You must undertake cohort studies of men, may be that's challenging but may be that can help identify some common patterns like erectile dysfunction in hostel boys where they stay together, Casanova type boys or men usually surrounded by female for long day hours, or gays, lesbians, etc. You will surely find psychological differences in them. Psychology also plays a vital role in erectile dysfunction.
I just shared by views.
Are Passion and Reason mutually exclusive? Should we allow passion to overpower reason for better creativity and expression of freedom ?
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If one is passionate about something or somebody, he/she starts neglecting the surroundings and sort of behaves in unreasonable ways. If the person is too reasonable, he tend to lose passion! Another important question is whether we have control over our passions? Can we always control them and bring them under the umbrella of reason?
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Yes Marcel, that is true. So we should have the control. But the thing is that passion becomes addiction and addiction means no control.
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I have a hunch that there are bidirectional processes between mother and infant that are organized around the second year, related to maternal concerns of behaviour problems in their kids, that may mediate later outcome.
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I have worked with Achenbach scales (CBCL) on 2-5 and 6-14 years in children with chronic illness. Attention deficit and aggressive behavior were commonly observed. But have not worked for the effect of maternal concern upon the mental health of the child.
Are there any related theories to be used in measuring consumers' intentions and behavior other than TPB?
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Instead of using theory of planned behavior (TPB), is there any other latest theories or models that have been introduced, in order to measure intention among consumers?
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As TBP predominates in this type of study I think you have to go back to early studies and some basic principles then work forward. The Feldman and Lynch study from 1998 in Jnl. Applied Psychology can help with this: http://web.psych.utoronto.ca/psy320/Required%20readings_files/week10-1.pdf
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I am aware of my need to adjust in various ways to people coming towards me on the street.  There seem to be three moments of engagement though there may be more.  As someone approaches, my first moment is when that person is at a distance where I am safe, but realize that I will need to be watchful. This distance is maybe 30 or 40 feet away. Then as the person draws nearer, about 15 feet, I realize that I must deal in one way or another, drop my eyes, move over, etc. And finally, around 5 feet or so, I feel that I am definitely going to have to be careful depending on factors of gender, speed of approach, time of day, and so forth. If this person transgresses the five feet rule, it may provoke me to laugh or to strike out or whatever.
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Research results could be summerized as: We are aware before we are aware:
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004 Nov;87(5):684-97.
Interoceptive sensitivity and self-reports of emotional experience.
Barrett LF1, Quigley KS, Bliss-Moreau E, Aronson KR
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014 Jul 3. pii: nsu092. [Epub ahead of print]
A neural correlate of visceral emotional responses: evidence from fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord. Kornelsen J1, Smith SD2, McIver TA2.
Curr Opin Neurol. 2005 Aug;18(4):442-7.
Interoception in emotional experience.
Wiens S.
Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Sep 1;54(5):504-14.
Neurobiology of emotion perception I: The neural basis of normal emotion perception.
Phillips ML1, Drevets WC, Rauch SL, Lane R.
Psychophysiology. 1996 Nov;33(6):698-710.
Affective learning: awareness and aversion.
Hamm AO1, Vaitl D.
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In health psychology the role of proactivity in well-being, life satisfaction and successful aging is investigating (Aspinwall L., Kahana E.). How proactive coping determines the quality of life and longevity?
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I guess someone who is proactive is more likely to engage in problem focussed approaches to coping which can lead to better adjustment, unless of course the source of the stressor is uncontrollable, and in which case an emotion focussed approach can be more adaptive - see work by Lazarus and colleagues. Proactivity is also most likely positively correlated with constructs like self-efficacy and inversely correlated with constructs such as helplessness. I believe there is a measure of proactivity - perhaps check for references by Spector?
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I am looking for a task which induces positive mood. This would be a control condition which will be compared to an experimental condition for reducing anxiety. In particular, I would be interested in a positive mood induction activity in which the participant perhaps listens to an MP3 track with relaxing music and a narrative that tells the participant to imagine going through a relaxing experience (e.g., spending time on a beach, exploring a tropical forest).
However, I am also interested in hearing about other mood induction tasks which might be better than the described idea I currently have in mind. 
An important criteria of this task/activity would be that it had been shown to be effective at inducing a positive mood. Further, it would be important that the task would not have any aspects in which positive memories or images about the self are brought up.
Many thanks for the help
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Music is commonly used stimulus for mood induction; there's an extensive literature on physiological response to music listening. Films and stories are also an effective method of mood induction.
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Now shift towards centralization to decentralization, employee control to employee empowerment and dependency to independence, how can I control the Human behavior, which Hr system help to cope the limitation of this shift?
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Coping with uncertainty is really the crux of the issue for both systems and people.  I can't think of a single system for HR management that will answer the issue comprehensively.  Planning for uncertainty is certainly within the bounds of any New Public Management system for HR and this needs to be part of the approach for people.  Really, the question of change as the only constant can't be effectively addressed by systems alone, or by looking at human behaviour without an examination of the whole environment in which it operates.  I agree with Morris, that we need to address employee interaction and look at problem-solving; re-assess our leadership of change; understand the relationship of  organisational culture  to individual change and empower our people to take change on as an opportunity.
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I propose the following hypothesis:
The No Free Lunch Theorem and hypothesis of instinctive animal behavior, according to which they are completely innate.
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WHY are there still constant questions on learned vs innate??  During very important developments (during/with/as ontogeny), behavior change is likely BOTH (in effect) AT THE SAME TIME (I mean literally, not just the effects of each at the same time: BOTH OF EACH operating AT THE SAME TIME).
See "Human Ethology and Development" Project.  Read a lot of the short essays (from my updates, question-and-answers, and comments) and then read the 160 page paper attached below ("A Human Ethogram ...").  And, many might want to read the associated 40 page paper, "Information Processing Theories and ... ".  NO one has contradicted the view of these 2 papers for months, now, and in the years before eye-tracking technology, no one questioned the view for DECADES.
(This Ethogram Theory should be considered NEW, because ONLY recently has there been the eye-tracking technology in existence to test the major hypotheses.)
We have all just been subjects of 2 great myths: (1) 'advanced' organisms have less innate and more learned (just really a presumption, based on nothing) and (2) all innate factors (including, in behavior!!!) are present at birth (VERY unlikely, and again NO REASON to believe this).  I submit that both are FALSE (good evolutionary behavior theory, and ethology argue against those presumptions).
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I’m currently involved with an experimental drug protocol for treatment-resistant depression that excludes participants that have borderline personality disorder.  I was inquiring if there is a short assessment tool that helps objectively diagnose a patient with BPD? I understand that diagnosing BPD is a difficult and long process. However, for a research protocol that is time sensitive especially for screening a potential participant, does a valid test exist for BPD?
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Hello,
At our DBT clinic we use the SCID-II interview for diagnosis (First, MB., Gibbon M, Spitzer RL, Williams, JBW, Benjamin LS.: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, (SCID-II). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1997), as well as some questionnaire measures to gain a more complete picture of the individuals BPD symptom severity. We use the Borderline Symptom Inventory, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation questionnaire, among others. 
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I want to focus on value-capacity model to determine whether it is a necessary model for enhancing our self-controlling ability.
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Thank you, Ewalds-Kvist.
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I am currently elaborating a lineage explanation of a modern human behavioural trait: psychedelic pharmacophagy (or the beneficial ingestion of "mind-manifesting" substances).
The purpose is to show how small changes in biological and cultural mechanisms can take us from ancestral ape's rudimentary capacities for tolerating and sometimes exploiting secondary metabolites to modern humans' capacity to instrumentalize psychedelics in order to enhance cognition and social  bonding. In other words, I want to explain the origins of such an evolutionary novelty by making plausible certain trajectory of change through phenotypic space.
For this purpose, I would like to examine articles that have tried to do something similar, i.e. elaborate a lineage explanation of a behavioral trait (and not a physiological or morphological one like, say, the eyes) in order to have some examples to use as paradigmatic input.
Any advice and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
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"Lineage explanation" sounds like an a priori restriction to non-phylogenetic approaches, i.e. the concept of putting the occurrence of behaviours (or other features) in a chronological order on the basis of their occurrence or non-occurrence in related groups.
Researchers as early as Konrad Lorenz inferred evolution of behavioral traits from their distribution in certain bird groups (he emphasized the importance of phylogenetics in some of his papers, e.g. "Die vergleichende Methode der Stammesgeschichtsforschung" = "The comparative method of phylogenetics" from 1978). Some more recent examples include phylogenetic studies of bird vocations, see. e.g.
Apart from birds there are among others various studies on language evolution, tool-making, group behaviour etc. in humans and apes , see. e.g.
Often these studies combine experimental ethological, phylogenetic and historical/fossil data.
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Several interdisciplinary studies are emerging in different disciplines, in an attempt to address human behavior inference; its impact in clusters and dynamics of social structures. Can you provide references related with Internet design and social interaction aspects? Whirch metrics (roots in social sciences) are being considered?
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Dear Rute,
I agree with Dr. Costa that social network theory is important. I do not know how mathematical you are. The term "metrics" has clear mathematical sense and suggest some distances between objects for quantitative analysis.
But what are your objects? In economics, agents interact only via market. However, it was discovered that the market for art has complex structure with high role of social network that influences individual decision.
I know two literature trends. The first is about social dynamics; a good book is: https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/social-dynamics
The second is about mathematical theory of networks. Here I can mention such authors as Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, Duncan Watts.
You topic clearly suggests two topologies: social interaction of an agent and internet connections. One cannot draw all complexity in real mathematical graph. So its statistical properties should be studied. Some physicists know how to do that but they do not know social problem that you need to formulate, better in mathematical form.
What is the current opinion about the level of serum testosterone and human behavior?
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some studies showed that testosterone may be associated with aggression. other studies pointed to decreased levels of testosterone in animal diabetic models. what do you think about various roles of testosterone in human behavior?
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Testosterone is said to be linked to strength, confidence and agression. Testosterone is  usually high in the elite performers of sports such as throwing, sprinting and powerlifting. Men of African descent tend to have high testosterone and it is said that the reason for the high prevalence of Prostate cancer  in this group.  There are  however conflicting studies negating this hypothesis. Testosterone is definitely linked to aggression and this is why it is the main anabolic steroid for cheating competitors who want to have the edge.
Do informational and normative social influence have an interaction effect on human behaviour?
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Cialdini's (1990) Focus Theory of Normative Conduct outlines two types of norms that affect human behavior: the descriptive (what is normally done), and injunctive (what ought to be done) norms. However, while there is a lot of literature reporting the effects of both types of norms on behavior. I can't find any study that has explored the interaction between both types of norms. Given that one can can imagine that both types of norms could be concurrently relevant in a given situation, it would be good to know how they relate to each other. Does one type of norm suppress or accentuate the effect of the other?
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I'm working on a systematic review (for my comps) on this topic, and so far have not found much on the interaction of the different types of norms, or even how any norms relate to each other (I imagine they are connected in related networks and uphold each other). So that will be one of my suggestions for future study. But check out Christina Bicchieri's work (The Grammar of Society, 2006) which talks some about the different types of norms and how, for example, descriptive norms can turn into injunctive norms, or how a descriptive norm to one person may be an injunctive one to another. If I come across more relevant readings I will post ^_^
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I'm looking for a paper and pencil test that quantifies an individual's tendency to connect the consequences of their behavior with their behavior. For example, to what extent does the individual believe their current health status is connected to their past behavior? I've looked at locus of control measures, but they don't seem to capture this. I've looked at insight measures, but they seem related to insights into one's pathology.
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Here are some insight scales:
J Stud Alcohol. 1998 Jan;59(1):52-5.
HAIS (Hanil Alcohol Insight Scale): validation of an insight-evaluation instrument for practical use in alcoholism.
Kim JS1, Kim GJ, Lee JM, Lee CS, Oh JK.
Encephale. 2008 Jan;34(1):66-72. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2007.01.001. Epub 2007 Sep 5. [Insight in schizophrenia: assessment of 31 patients with different scales]. Travers D, Levoyer D, Millet B.
The goal of this study was to assess insight in schizophrenic patients with  The self-questionnaire (Marks et al. Self Appraisal of Illness Questionnaire (SAIQ) [Schizophr Res 45 (2000) 203-11], and the Amador Scale for assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disease [Amador XF, Strauss DH. The scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder (SUMD). Columbia University and New-York State Psychiatric Institute;1990], consisting in an interview with a psychiatrist who finally assesses four dimensions (consciousness of illness, symptoms, need for treatment and consequences of illness) plus a total score. In addition to these scores, Amador's scale gives the opportunity to score attribution a patient gives to illness for his symptoms.
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Our eyes and ears are the two interfaces between us and the outside world. Whatever we observe and experience in daily life are collected as data and processed by our brain. The outcome of these processes in our brain is our thoughts, beliefs and actions.
This process is similar to that of a computer except that the ability of our brain, in
certain ways, is much more.
Since childhood, our brain is exposed to different observations and incidents. The data collected through teachings by family, society, school, religion and etc. has a direct effect in our present way of thinking and behavior. This data is stored in our memory and is running on the background. If somehow the brain receives a data which is corrupted (through observation of an unpleasant event or other means) the process of this data could have different outcomes depending on how the brain is trained (programmed) in earlier stages. Sometimes the outcome is very tragic.
To stop these kind of data from running in brain the use of medication is recommended by medical doctors. But how effective these medications are and how successfully they can repair the damages to the brain are the questions to be answered by experts.
In a computer system, when a corrupted file is recognized it is either removed by antivirus or manually if the location is known. However such options are not available for human brain yet.
So, as a scientist what can we do for the brains that are not trained or have not the capability of handling all different types of data (observations or events)?
A simple observation shows that listening to a favorite music can temporarily stop the execution of corrupted files in the brain. Therefore an interesting topic of research is "the effect of sound waves on the processes of human brain and how it can permanently remove the corrupted files from the memory".
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This is a great and complicated question Amir.
First of all, when you talk about "corrupted data", do you mean "traumatic experiences"? I suppose that because it fits to your description, specially the "tragic outcome" part.
As you mentioned, listening favorite music could inhibit the execution of the corrupted files, but I think we need a little more to remove them. For example: How (Under which circumstances) did the "corrupted files" get installed? Once we know the installations process, we could "uninstall" the bad files...
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I am trying to design an algorithm using OpenCV and ROS that will detect/classify different poses of the human body: standing, sitting, lying, walking, moving upper part of body to grape some object and so on. I correctly detect/classify Human body detection with skeleton tracking using RGBD method. But I am facing difficult to find the COG in each body part in detection of Human Body Skeleton, such as left hand, right hand, left and right leg and center part of the body.
Does anyone have any experiences with skeleton tracking with COG in each body part ? Is this task impossible?
Thank you.
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They seem joints to me (the only exception is the rump), and can be approximated by just a point. So, no need to compute a COG for them.
Or does the G in COG not stand for Gravity but for e.g. Gyration?
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Many years of working with Alaska Natives have convinced me that most of what we call suicide prevention is in fact intervention. I am interested in reinforcing & inventing appropriate cultural components to assist in the formation of secure identity at early ages, and changing our definition of prevention.
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Thank you for asking the question, and thank you Mr. Mehimauer for your response. I am interested in learning more about suicide prevention. In November of 2013 three friends called me on the same day with suicidal ideation. I was able to calmly engage them in conversation and they all reconsidered their intentions. I followed up with personal visits to reinforce our conversation and to be sure they were safe and would seek additional support. In April another woman spoke with me about her plans for suicide and I had a frank discussion with her about her current situation and talked about her unforgiving family and how that was affecting her in her current struggles. 
I don't have any professional training in suicide prevention nor do I have any type of degree in psychology, save General Psychology I and II, but I do have a lifetime history of depression and add on psychiatric illness due to severe traumas through-out my life. 
I am interested in reading more about what professionals have written about suicide ideation and appropriate intervention and resilience training for the sad and forlorn. If you could steer me to other appropriate literature I would be most appreciative. 
How do you consider the humanistic needs of Green buildings in the whole life cycle?
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Green building refers to the constructions that can maximize resource conservation (including energy, land, water and materials), protect environment and reduce pollution, under the condition of providing people with healthy, applicable and efficient living space. What’s more, the aim of green building is to realize the harmony between human-beings, environment and buildings. (Li Y, Yang L, He B J, Doudou Zhao. Green building in China: Needs great promotion[J]. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2014, 11: 1-6.) I am recently conducting a research about the humanity of green buildings. It is well known that a lot of research about the thermal comfort, energy saving, and cost-efficient had been conducted, so the humanistic needs of green building is neglected all the time, so how to consider the factor about the humanistic needs in the whole life cycle?
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Thanks a lot for the answers from all researchers, and  I want to get more responses about this interesting topic. Here the humanistic needs are only focused on the technical level, such as the indoor air, daylighting. From the perspecive of end users, the concept of green building contains a lot of content in the whole life of buildings. 1. The cost of green building should be associated with people's income level. 2. Green buildings should be integrated into environment, not only the natural environment, but also the social environment. The soical environment means some place with historic culture and even some residential memory. 3. The architectural style should meet the requirements of family living conditions, this should contains house layout and functions, house layout and style of green building. Of course this firstly meet the Meet the demands including lighting, ventilation and energy conservation, basic residential functions, public space, esthetics, traffic facilities, privacy, lighting, landscape, enhancement.  4. The residential space not only contains indoor space, but also includes outdoor space. Indoor space should include the indoor comfort and energy efficiency, namely, the focus of all the people. Outdoor space should contain the architecture, environment, landspace and open space. 5. The ficilities should meet the requirements of community service and open space. Of course, the understanding about the humanistic needs here is not sufficient. Please add your comments and suggestions here. But some investigation conducted show the humanistic needs are not well met. At present, these investigation are only in the energy consumption and indoor comfort. The humanistic needs have to be conducted further. In general, the humanistic needs relates to the social requirements of all people. Here is the needs of end users, Of course, the social needs of investors also should researched.  When it comes to the research methods, at present, it only confines in the questionnaire, and does anyone put forwards some other methods?
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There are many theories about homo sapiens development compared to others. And I know why but it´s not so easy to Google I have notice.
So my question is how many know this, and is logically simple but it´s not so easy like we learned to use tools.
THERMAL ENERGY, AND WE GET MORE TIME  TO DO OTHER THING´S.
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That really depends on what features of Homo sapiens you are focusing on and at which point in time are you referring to. For instance, are you referring to the eventual evolution of H.sapiens specifically, or the evolution of 'human traits' through the hominin line?
There are numerous theories concerning the evolution of humans, at numerous levels. Some theories focus narrowly at the evolution of specific traits, such as bipedalism (as one example); whilst some are focused broadly, at how the entire human organism formed.
When considering the popular theories of human evolution today it is clear that theory has changed dramatically overtime, most significantly from uni-factorial to multi-factorial theories. Today the impetus is on trying to understand and reconstruct the environments and ecosystems in which humans evolved. This approach allows a greater understanding of the selection pressures that favoured the adoption of specific traits - traits that eventually led to the emergence of H.sapiens.
Multi-factorial approaches demand a multi-disciplinary approach that incorporates understanding of how, why, where and when environmental changes occurred on Earth. This information can be derived from lacustrine deposits, sea cores, ice cores and paelosols - to name but a few. These data are then complemented by local environmental data such as fossils, and, in particular, pollen and leaf wax lipids. By collating this data an environmental profile for a specific area can be inferred. Using this data, a greater understanding of the environmental, and most significantly: the environmental changes, that our ancestors lived in and endured, can be gained. By understanding these changes, and analyzing specific human traits, it is possible to make educated assertions as to what pressures drove the evolution of certain traits.
Evolution, however, doesn't only occur through natural selection, but also mutation, genetic drift and gene flow. This is extremely useful because mutations can be tracked through time in order to create a timescale for the arrival of some traits, that are comparable to environmental changes. This is however, a very big task, especially when millions of years are in the way, and when the temporo-spatial relevance of environmental indicators are essential.
A great place to start, would be a broad outlook. Theories such as The Turnover Pulse Hypothesis, Deep Lakes Hypothesis, Aridity Hypothesis, Variability Selection Hypothesis and consider the Red Queen Hypothesis (although aimed at short generational timescales insects, it is still very interesting). These theories all try to outline the circumstances for the emergence of the human organism, not just a specific trait, making them a great background for further research.
Also it is very worth while looking at the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, in order to assess some current limitations.
Hop that helps and good luck.
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In a rather old paper, Wagenmakers, Farrell and Ratcliff (2005) suggest that it is difficult to introduce Self-Organized Criticality and nonlinear dynamics to explain human behavior. They write: "the absence of a specific model for how self-organized criticality produces the observed behavior makes it very difficult to derive testable predictions. The authors conclude that the proposed paradigm shift is presently unwarranted." See the paper included here or find their paper in this link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1404501/pdf/nihms2267.pdf.
However, in a more recent paper, Ramos, Sassi & Piqueira (2011) argue that SOC can be used to predict human behavior. (see http://cbpfindex.cbpf.br/publication_pdfs/RamosSassiPiqueira2010.2010_07_05_11_50_10.pdf).
Therefore, it seems that there are two different opinions, i.e.: (a) SOC cannot be used in the field of human cognition and psychology and general, (b) SOC is useful to predict human behavior. In this regards, perhaps we can also consider that there are special circumstances where human being can experience critical phenomena, for example there are some people who can jump on high fences or walls when they are in danger (for example running from fire or dogs etc). So it seems that in certain circumstances, it is possible to use SOC to explain human behavior.
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As the human brain is practically the quintessential self-organizing system, and human behavior an outcome of brain function, it would seem to be trivially true that self-organizing criticality is necessarily characteristic of human cognition. The only way in which it could not be would be if, contrary to the dynamics of virtually all complex systems, the phase space of the human brain or subcomponents thereof contained no critical points. This is intrinsically and obviously unlikely if not clearly false. However, the problem is whether the realization that a complex, self-organizing system has critical points is one thing. The ability to identify these in such a way as to further the psychological & cognitive sciences is another. Unfortunately, there is a distinct lack between our understanding of SOC in general and our ability to predict, explain, or even use standard mathematical formalisms behind descriptions of SOC in e.g., granular physics to do anything meaningful when it comes to human psychology or behavior. In part this is due to the relative simplicity of systems which exhibit SOC. In part it is due to the general lack of necessary mathematical proficiency in the psychological, behavioral, cognitive, neuroscience, and other brain sciences.
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Isn't the obvious solution and the elephant-in-the-room 'BETTER HUMAN BEINGS'? Shouldn't the focus be on better human beings rather than better technology? Why is it that everyone wants to develop better technology rather than focus on better humanity? Because no one has the answers and no one wants to change themselves? In environmental degradation, is it not obvious that nature can heal itself, if only left alone, and it is we humans who need regulation? Many natural parks managers do just that; seal off the area from human interference to let nature heal and recover. It is classified as 'Strict Nature Reserve"by IUCN. Complacency and inaction are not advocated here, as many have misunderstood, but the shifting of focus from technology to the human being. As technology is no match for human greed, isn't introspection & restraining ourselves more relevant than developing more technology, which caused the mess in the first place, by making it easy for a few to consume more? Since technology is only a short term quick fix which fails after a short time, isn't the real problem our addiction to material consumption & our lack of understanding about human nature? Isn't developing more technology sustaining the addiction instead of correcting it, leading to more complex problems later on, needing more complex technological quick fixes like higher drug dosages, more ground troops & equipment, (along with their debilitating side effects) in the future? Isn't this the vicious addiction circle we are trapped in? As researchers, do we merely buy more time with technology OR go to the very root of the problem, the human being?
A lot of hue and cry is made about climate change and the environment in general. Public and private money is poured into research to study its effects on the environment, sustainability etc. Should we study nature or ourselves?
" Our studies must begin with our selves and not with the heavens. "-Ouspensky
Human activities have been found to have a direct correlation to climate change and its impact on the environment(I=P x A x T, the Ehrlich and Holdren equation), in spite of what some complacent sections say to protect their own self interests.
We hardly know about Human nature. We can scarcely predict human behavior. We need to find out why we think like we do and why we do what we do and why, in spite of all knowledge and wisdom, consume more than what we need, in the form of addictions to consumption and imbalance not only ourselves but also the family, society and environment around us..
Humanity is directly responsible for all the unnatural imbalances occurring on the planet. Yet we refuse to take responsibility and instead focus on climate change, or fool the public exchequer with a 'breakthrough in renewable energy just around the corner'. We scarcely know what drives human beings. If we had known, all the imbalances around us would have had solutions by now, given the amount of money plowed into finding such solutions. Are we blindly groping in the dark of climate change because we don't know the answers to our own nature?
Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change? Why focus effort on 'externals' when the problem is 'internal'- 'me'?
Aren't we addicts denying our addiction and blaming everything else but ourselves?
" We are what we Think.
All that we are arises with our thoughts.
With our thoughts, we make the world." - Buddha 
IMHO, We don't need to save the World. It is enough if we save ourselves from ourselves. The need of the hour is not vain glorious interventions, but self-restraint and self-correction!
The Mind is the Final frontier.
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"Is it not high time we focus on what makes us human, correct our consumptive behavior and leave nature to take care of climate change?"
The either-or construction of your question creates a false dichotomy. We don't have to choose to focus on climate change OR human behavior--we can do both! Indeed, even if NSF and other grant funding institutions switched their priorities entirely today, that's not going turn a biochemist into a psychologist, sociologist, or behavioral economist. Moreover, one might characterize the climate-related problems we are experiencing as simply manifestations of overconsumption--human behavior. Perhaps a better way to phrase this question is: should research funding priorities change to focus more on understanding, predicting, and ultimately changing human behavior? That's a question I could answer with a wholehearted "yes"!
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Reinforcement is a highly rated behavioral technique, but isn't it a form of addiction?
We are making a person addicted to reward, so he/she is behaving well for getting a reward (in any form).
What happen if the delivery of reward stopped?
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Others have offered some great insight, but from a complexity approach to psychology it is worth noting that there is much more going on with addiction than reinforcement cycle and reward alone. Recent neuroscience studies, for example, have identified that there may be underlying biological differences in how different individuals' brains respond to drug substances.
In rat research, Kasenetz et al. (2010) found that animals prone to addiction have certain synaptic pathways that, after exposure to a drug substance (e.g. cocaine) lose synaptic plasticity. In effect, reward pathways become "hard wired" after drug exposure. In other creatures, once the substance is out of the body and no longer available, the reward pathways undergo synaptic plasticity; the reward pathways "realign" in to function without the drug presence.
Other individual differences doubtlessly play a role with addiction as well - including Locus of Control, intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, individual stress response (i.e., assessment of a stressor as a threat or challenge), and complex factors with the "self system" such as self-esteem and self-control. Of course, psychopathology is a well-known factor with addiction such that a substantial number of people who are addicted to some form of drug also have an underlying, preexisting psychological disorder.
So, while the ideas from operant conditioning do clearly link to reward and addiction - there's much more going on here beyond reinforcement alone.
Cited: Kasanetz, Deroche-Gamonet, Berson, Balado, Lafourcade, Manzoni, & Piazza (2010). Transition to addiction is associated with a persistent impairment in synaptic plasticity. Science, 328, 1709-1712.
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Within the Mousterian record of western Europe, we have evidence for usage of black pigment made from MnO2 by Neandertals (50 000 years old at Pech-de-l'Azé I for instance). I've been using the analogy with the ethnographic record as well as some preliminary experiments to argue that they might have been used as dye stuff/stain (see Soressi et D'Errico, 2007 as well as Soressi et al 2008). Would anybody know of usage of MnO2 pigment for other purposes than body decoration/symbolic purposes?
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Dear Marie
I have been studied the medical and cosmetical uses of various minerals (see my papers on academia.edu) .
For the MnO2 (pyrolusite, ) I documented rather accidential use of it.
The by-product of the cave art was probably the intoxication and altered states of consciousness due to inhalation of MnO2 in suspension (the MnO2 is the only mineral that causes this kind of biological reaction - see works of M. Lorblanchet (e.g. 1995 Les grottes ornees de la prehistoire) and various works on intoxication in the manganeese mines in 19th and 20th centuries, e.g. Hine, Ch. H. & A. Pasi. 1975. Manganese intoxication. Western Journal of Medicine 123(2): 101-107; Dietz, M. C., A. Ihrig, W. Wrazidlo, M. Bader, O. Jansen & G. Triebig. 2001. Results of magnetic resonance imaging in long-term manganese dioxide-exposed workers. Environmental Research 85: 37-40; and some Polish if you want :)
Another use (external) is for antiseptic reasons - it is the mineral of negligible toxicity for humans.
From Neolithic pyrolusite (in various minerlogical forms) was used for pottery and angoba decoration.
Iternal use of MnO2 in the treatment of anemia was discredited at the beginning of 20th century and even claimed as dangerous due to iron absorbtion disorder caused by it.
In 20th century for steel production, as pigments, in pils technology.
Sincerely
Michal Wasilewski PhD
PS. I will be delighted for any articles or informations on medical uses of any minerals.
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Is it better than the classical models (TPB; HBM) that, in my opinion, are better to describe why a given behavior occurs, rather than indicate how to change it? If you know a "better" behavior change model, please let me know.
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Thank you very much for your helpful advice !
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Is there an addiction component of the routined behavior, including the decisional behavior? We act daily less or more in routine, we think and make decisons by routine. Can we say that we are somehow addicted to routine? If this is true, this addiction would potentate any other specific addiction, as an addiction implies routine as repetitive behavior and so on. Where do we draw the line between pathological and Pavlovian in routine?
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Routines and addictions share a degree of automaticity, but the latter are highly motivated habits that can become compulsive. Thus, brushing your teeth is a routine, but this does not activate neural reward circuitry in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and orbital frontal cortex (unless your toothpaste has some unusual added ingredients). One major theory ( Robinson & Berridge's 1993 incentivisation model) posits that stimuli present when rewards are evoked acquire motivational properties (ie, become incentives) through classical conditioning. These become salient, grab attention and contribute to cycles of compulsive drug use or gambling. By virtue of repetition this becomes increasingly automatic- as indeed is attentional engagement- and evades cognitive control. Moreover, the reward sensitivity is enduring and contributes to relapse after abstinence.
See also Everitt & Robbins aberrant learning theory for an alternative account of the acquisition of compulsive drug seeking behaviour.
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Hi there. I happened to read that "infrared reflction eye-tracking tecnique cannot be used with newborn babies". Though I agree with this statement, I could not find a proper reference nor an explanation.
Intuitively, I think of at least three facts that prevent good calibration with newborns: 1) Newborns are incapable of tracking moving objects 2) N. have low sensitivity to light sources 3) N. can only see a 25 cm away.
However, I did not find any confirmations to my speculations in relevant methodological papers. Thanks to anyone who will answer and indicate any references!
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John Wattam-Bell told me once that newborns (< 1 month old) can sometimes exhibit greater corneal reflectance, which can degrade the eye-tracking signal.
To be honest though, I wasn't aware that eye-tracking *cannot* be used with newborns, and I am somewhat sceptical of that claim. That said, since neonates are seldom awake, and have extremely low acuity I can well-imagine that it would be extremely difficult to conduct an eye-tracking experiment in such a population (e.g., like you say motivating them to complete the calibration procedure alone would be very taxing..), and more passive techniques, such as ERPs, are generally preferable.
EDIT: NB: I don't think your 3 reasons are the primary ones, since they would not be unique to automated/infrared eye-tracking (and manual/human gaze-tracking in neonates is certainly feasible!)