Science topics: AgricultureHorticulture
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Horticulture - Science topic

Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology.
Questions related to Horticulture
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Within a project about geographical traceability of horticultural products, we would like to apply classification models to our data set (e.g. LDA) to predict if it is possible to correctly classify samples according to their origin and based on the results of 20-25 different chemical variables.
We identified 5 cultivation areas and selected 41 orchards (experimental units) in total. In each orchard, 10 samples were collected (each sample from a different tree). The samples were analyzed separately. So, at the end, we have the results for 410 samples.
The question is: the 10 samples per orchard have to be considered pseudoreplicates since they belong to the same experimental unit (even if collected from indepedent trees)? Should the LDA be performed considering 41 replicates (the 41 orchards, taking the average of the 10 samples) or should we run it for the whole dataset?
Thank you for your help.
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Nick VL Serão Thank you for this solution. I have been looking for this answer. But do you know how to accomplish this on R?
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Future job opportunities
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Thank you so much dear @Sourajit Dey for your suggestions.
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Light (PAR) is necessary for photosynthesis. But how to calculate the minimum amount of sunlight necessary for the expected growth of a crop( no crop loss ) and beyond this PAR the plant is considered to be subjected to low light stress?
Is there any paper of systematic protocol?
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To optimise most plant growth it is recommended that they receive 500–1000 µmols of PAR light for every m² (PPFD). Less than this and growth rates will be low :)
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Let's face it, cultivation in greenhouse is often afflicted by pests, from powdery mildew to aphids.
We still use plants that don't appear affected, but they're still subjected to phytosanitary treatment and there might be effects that are not noticeable or considered.
How important is to mention phytosanitary treatments in publications? Should we always plan our experimental design with controls for possible effects of phytosanitary treatments?
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Yes it was much important to mention phytosanitary treatments in publications. Other wise there will be huge biodiversity loss to countries by invasive pests, diseases and weeds. That's why we should plan our experiments with proper care and follow all phytosanitary verifications.
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Dear Researchers
Kindly suggest me the potent chemicals, which can be used in depredatory bird management in horticultural and agricultural crops
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Because of the limited market, quinone's use in bird control could be terminated by these requirements. Strychnine - This chemical is currently used to kill pest bird species in urban and agricultural areas which was a medicinal plant alkaloid obtain from Strychinus nuxvomica and not harmful to nature.
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Dear,
Researcher,
I am Dr Tanmay Kumar Koley, presently doing research on bioactive molecules from horticultural crops. I have some rare plant material which have high starch content. I want to study some of the properties such as X-ray diffraction, thermal properties (Differential Scanning Calorimeter), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy etc. of that starchy plant sample. If you have these facilities or can suggest where I can avail these facilities it will be helpful for me.
Your contribution will be appreciated as co-author.
Thank you
My contact: 9369641602
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Hi,
All these techniques would be easily available in any Research Institute nearby.
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Mangoes are harvested in June-July under humid conditions and high temperature (more than 40 degree celsius). Due to the lack of cold storage and cold chain in Nepal, farmers are not able to reach urban markets. I am looking to understand if using ethylene absorber sachets can enable them to reach distant markets.
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See this article and the cross references...
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I would say most invasive alien plants are synanthropic species in that they were introduced intentionally for horticulture or other cultivation purposes, or they were unintentionally introduced but are 'weeds' that thrive in disturbed areas and associated with cultivation at some point. I'm struggling to think of good examples of non-synanthropic invasive plants, but I can think of animal examples.
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Many of here offered examples are wrong. Synantropic means introduced, acclimatized and naturalized for alochtonous species, and widespread on secondary habitats for autochtonous species.
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Can anyone please provide me the NBPGR minimal descriptors of different Horticultural crops?
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Please contact Dr S.K.Mallick...he has all these...
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I saw very different works during my researches. For some people, a species can be considered exotic in Europe when its native range is quite far from the continent, i.e. North America. Others prefer to consider it exotic when the native range falls in a different biogeographical region, i.e. a species from the Mediterranean Basin found in Germany.
If we are talking about phytophagous arthropods, things get worse, because their movement usually depends on their host plants, and therefore, on their introduction in different areas for gardening and horticulture purposes.
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Dear Dr Alice Casiraghi . See the following useful link:
CITE: Ramirez, K.S., Snoek, L.B., Koorem, K. et al. Range-expansion effects on the belowground plant microbiome. Nat Ecol Evol 3, 604–611 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0828-z
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I wonder that if I would know the mathematical relationship to find the root propagation of a fibrous rooted coconut tree (Coccus nucifera) or a tap rooted mango tree (Mangifera indica) then I can excavate the entire plant safely and install it in a better place if I need to have a building construction where already a tree was planted. This would be the most sustainable approach considering the human requirements and ecosystem wellbeing.
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simv lembro ja ter lido que existe um padrão de distribuição espacial de biomassa.
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Silicon is a multi talented element carrying several different benefits for horticultural plants. Previous reports revealed that using calcium or sodium silicate as a foliar application is increasing the photosynthetic rate. However, it isn't dissolved in water. How can I use it ?
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Thank you dear Ali F Almehemdi it really helps.
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Dear sir/ madam,
Please mention any distributor/ dealer in INDIA who can provide one RHS colour chart for Department of Horticulture, CUTM. Any contact number/ email id if you are having, please share with me.
Thanks in advance.
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Interesting.
Image: Recording foliage colour using the RHS Colour Chart as a reference. (Image reproduced courtesy of the RHS Herbarium Image Collection.)
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Hi
I’m looking for free online conferences on plant science / food and nutrition / agriculture / horticulture etc.
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Check OMICS International
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Hi,
I’m a PhD student. I’m looking for a short term scholarship for PhD students.
The aim of it is to prepare a common publication (selenium, zinc, bioactive compounds in plants).
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i am in innovation commercialisation and would like to get funding for the project, not a PHD studentship
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A Journal publishes articles about horticultural related researches with no publication fee, peer-reviewed and indexed in Scopus.
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International Journal of Plant production , New Zealand J of crops&Horticultural science, International J of Horticulture and Agriculture, Indian Journal of Horticulture, Journal of Horticulture and Foresty
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I am trying to design an agricultural and horticultural calendar for Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts of Assam, India. What are the steps that I should begin with?
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Hello everyone,
We are planning to study how plant growth promoting bacteria are affecting various plants (eg. wheat, barley, etc.). We would like to coat the seeds with bacteria. We prefer film coating. I can't find any proportions of seed, inoculum, carrier materials and sticking agents.
Could you please share the recipe you are using for your research? We prefer using cellulose or lime as a carrier material.
Thank you in advance.
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we all know that it is our traditional practice which we are performing in any problem in our kitchen garden to farm level is it good to apply or not, how it is good or what are its effects.
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farmers ,agricultural sectors workers are always ignored ,although we are only because of them,what the reason behind this .....................
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In my personal experience I have find the higher rate of sprouting when fresh cow dung is applied on the top side of cutting what might be its reason.
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Most of the farmers are rearing honey bees in both field and horticultural crops. But whcih crops we will get the high & good quality of honey.
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People in our village have some belief of controlling some pest and disease, they apply salt in the rice field, what is its scientific importance.
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Journals related to fruit based Agroforestry and horticulture basically for a review paper.
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Journal of Horticulture and Forestry
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The rot starts from the root region being completely dark first then pulpy-like appearance.
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Is there any relationship BER with water stress except Ca defficiency ?
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The formula for the Seedling vigour index is given as:
Seedling vigour index I = Germination (%) × mean seedling length
Seedling vigour index II = Germination (%) × mean seedling dry mass
In the paper quoted below, The seedling length was taken on the 7th day.
Referred paper:
Kumar, B., Verma, S. K., Ram, G., & Singh, H. P. (2012). Temperature relations for seed germination potential and seedling vigor in Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii). Journal of Crop Improvement, 26(6), 791-801.
But, we, in our research did the thinning out on the 7th day and raised only one model plant per replication (of particular treatment) for the next 9 days i.e. 16 DAS. We did destructive sampling of the model plants on the 16th day. So we don't have the length and weight data of the sample plants on 7th day but only on the 16th day.
Shall we proceed to calculate the Seedling vigour index of thinned out seedlings only (on day 7th)? Or combine both data directly (of 7th and 16th day)?
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Generally, 5-10 days depending on the culture media/condition.
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Unfortunately, we came across tragedy in our personal apple garden and a few of our trees have majorly infected by Fire Blight pathogenic agent. I have attached a few photos of infected trees, I think there is a relationship between the white stains on the bark of the tree and diseases outbreak. I think the more white spots there are, the more the tree is exposed to the disease. However, this is my experimental understanding and I have no academic expertise in this field. That disease has appeared only on the red apple trees.  
I would be very happy if you put me in the right pass and let me know how I can overcome that disease. 
Sincerely yours 
Bagher
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Below mentioned suggestions might be helpful to you -
Select resistant varieties whenever possible.
  1. Avoid heavy pruning or excess applications of nitrogen fertilizer, both of which encourage new growth.
  2. Avoid planting close to wild plants of hawthorn, apple or pear.
  3. As soon as fire blight is discovered, prune off infected branches 1 foot below the diseased sections and burn them to prevent further infection. Dip pruning shears into a 10% alcohol or bleach solution between each cut to avoid transmitting the disease from one branch to another.
  4. Early applications of liquid copper are effective against this plant problem. Mix 0.5 to 2.0 oz per gallon of water and apply at silver tip and bud break — repeat at 3 to 5 day intervals up to petal fall. Use the lower rate if disease pressure is light and the higher rate when conditions favor heavy disease pressure.
  5. Bacterial spread can be reduced by applications of products that contain Streptomyces lydicus as the active ingredient. To obtain best disease control, applications should be made at the start of the bloom period and every five to seven days thereafter.
  6. SERENADE Garden is a broad spectrum, preventative bio-fungicide recommended for the control or suppression of many important plant diseases. For best results, treat prior to foliar disease development or at the first sign of infection. Repeat at 7-day intervals or as needed.
  7. The systemic action of Organocide® Plant Doctor moves throughout the entire plant to treat most common disease problems. Mix 2-1/2 to 5 tsp per gallon of water and apply to foliage. Spray to run-off, as required for disease control.
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Excuse me, professor, i'd like to know the ambient CO2 concentration (ppm). Hope you don't mind to tell me. Thank you.
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Hi everyone - I am looking for a new role in aquaponics, hydroponics, soilless culture,research and development in sustainable agricultural production systems as postdoctoral, assistant professor and any other positions with phD qualified and would appreciate your support. Thank you in advance for any connections, advice, or opportunities you can offer. #OpenToWork #opportunities #sustainable agricultural production systems #aquaponics,#hydroponicsystem, #postdoctoral,#postdoctoralfellowship,#researchanddevelopment,#plantnutrition #horticulture #agriculture #agronomy
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Why dont you narrow down further picking up some specific issue...instead of such open ended researchable topics...
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I'm a horticulture student and I have difficulty in contructing what topic will I study. I want to focus more in growth and production
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There are always external conditions that adversely affect horticultural plants growth, development or productivity. This is an extremely wide and hot research area that you can read and search for a gap of knowledge to start from.
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My farm location has 800 mm rainfall. Soil is deep black soil. Ph:8-8.5 Turmeric is a 9 months crop. I have no drip facility. And I can give irrigation once in every month from November to March. Sowing is done in July last week. Another 600 mm rainfall is expected during August to November, max. being in August, September and October, with ~30, 50, 20 ratio. If I use mulch I cant use surface irrigation. And rainfall will be probably lost through surface runoff. However, mulch conserves soil moisture, keeps water losses away from weeds and minimizes weed load, reduces soil temperatures. What is the possible production scenario?
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The soil temperature will affect the crop bearing in mind that no irrigation is done.
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There is sweepage of the white fussy outcome of liquid with foul smell and destroying plant completely it is in the particular plant since few days, what is this and how it can be controlled?
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Have a look at this useful link.
Thanks!
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In plant pathology, I think definitions of canker and anthracnose seem to resemble. Are they synonymous or is there any difference between them based upon type of causative agent, based upon area and severity of symptom or something else?
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This can be very helpful, I have copied this directly from the internet.
I owe not right for the information
Minnesota has had a wet spring. The Twin Cities have experienced a winter that seemed to drag on for longer than expected, and only reluctantly given way to a wet spring. Many people assume that an abundance of water is healthy for trees. In many cases, that assumption is true: but not always.
Sometimes an excess of water can cause bacterial and fungal tree infections to spread more. To help homeowners ensure their trees are healthy this spring, Birch Tree Care discusses two diseases that are hampered by wet springs.
Bacterial Cankers
The bacterium that causes canker, Pseudomonas syringae, penetrates trees through damaged bark or an existing wound, such as a pruning cut. Bacterial canker is found commonly on Cherries, Crabapples, and Plums. Bacterial canker infections happen during Autumn, Winter and early Spring - during cool, wet weather. The infection spreads by rain, water, and pruning tools not disinfected.
Cankers begin to form in mid-spring, and soon afterwards shoots may die back. Small holes appear on foliage from early summer.
This bacterial infection is relatively easy to spot - "gummy" lesions characteristically form on branches or trucks. In spring, when trees begin active growth, a sour-smelling sap may ooze from these troubled areas. The bacterial cankers become darker than the surrounding healthy bark, and the underlying tissue is moist and reddish-brown to black.
If the infected area circles the branch or trunk, the leaves above the diseased area turn yellow. When this happens, the growth of the branch or tree stops entirely, and the tree or branch dies.
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Birch Tree Care has over 30+ years of professional experience in tree related diagnostics. This wealth of experience allows us to share some valuable insight with you in accurately identifying and treating a bacterial canker.
Symptoms of bacterial cancers are not only present in branches and trunks but also shoots and leaves. Other signs like wilting leaves, shoot dieback and more only make bacterial cancers easier to spot.
Bacterial cankers may cause small brown spots to appear on leaves. These brown spots are usually round and fall out later, leaving leaf holes. Overall, this produces an appearance that looks as if the leaves have been hit by shotgun pellets.
Treatment
Prune flowering trees during blooming (July and August) when wounds heal fastest.
Remove wilted or dead limbs well below infected areas. Burn these branches, or take them to a landfill.
Paint the freshly cut area with wound paint to protect the tree against re-infection.
Birch Tree Care offers free quotes to customers. If you would like to have your ornamental trees expertly treated, reach out to our certified experts today.
Anthracnose
Fungi in the genus Colletotrichum cause anthracnose. Colletotrichum is a group of plant pathogens responsible for diseases on many plant species. Spores overwinter in infected twigs, branches or fallen leaves and spread through wind and rain the subsequent season.
Infected plants develop dark, water-soaked lesions on stems, leaves or fruit. The centers of these lesions frequently become covered with pink, viscous masses of spores, especially during moist, warm weather.
Common hosts include ash and oak. In ash trees, infection usually occurs in the foliage or twigs. In oak, however, the infection can happen in the twigs, shoots, leaves or buds. The optimal temperature for anthracnose to develop in ash is15-20°C and the fungus grows more rapidly with wet weather. Oak anthracnose develops most quickly when temperatures around 10 °C.
Ash leaves infected during spring become misshapen. In early infection, leaves develop brown and yellow blotches while the edges of the foliage curl and eventually fall off.
In early infection, leaves develop blotches of necrosis, while later infections produce necrotic leaf spots with a chlorotic ring. Severe infections can cause significant defoliation: eventually, larger branches may be cankered and killed. Several seasons of infection can cause trees to decline or become susceptible to other pests.
In oak, there are generally three phases of the disease; twig blight, where young branches are encircled and killed, shoot blight, where new shoots are killed during expansion, and leaf blight, where leaves become distorted and necrotic at the tips or along veins. Repeated infections of established trees rarely cause permanent damage, but younger trees may need protection.
Treatment
Remove cankered branches and prune trees. Pruning the tree increases air circulation and helps prevent moisture.
Rake and destroy fallen leaves where the fungus can overwinter.
Apply a fungicide containing Chlorothalonil.
Fungicides are toxic carcinogens and must be applied correctly. Reach out to Birch Tree Care to book tree care and expert service.
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agriculture, soil, mycorrhizal fungi, biology
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If the volume of soil used is not large, an autoclave or micro-oven can be used for sterilization.
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Is there any post emergence weedicide to control nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus) in cotton without using any shield or perventive nozel? Any weedicide which can kill nutsedge but doesnt harm cotton crop?
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The best post-emergence herbicide in Cotton is Hit Weed Maxx (Pyrithiobac sodium 6% + Quizalofop ethyl 4%) @ 500ml/acre. It should be sprayed between 15-25 days after sowing the crop and weeds should be at 2-3 leaf stage @ Manan Khan
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We are feeling a shortage of land and less efficiency of resource used how it will be the concept of Multiple Layer High-Density Farming (MLHDF).
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There are successful models in Kerala where plantation crops, spices, fruit crops have been appreciably used for best resource utilization and profitability.
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As our general practice in the rice field show increase in yield, and more vegetative growth, what are the constraints and prospects for its wide application and adaptation in rice, horticultural crops, and many more?
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Yes, integrated application of manures and chemical fertilizers is a must for improving soil nutrient status and nutrient use efficiency and ultimately enhances nutritional security under a rice-wheat system.
Also check,
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We are trying to estimate curcumin content in Turmeric genotypes. Rhizomes are cut in pieces and oven dried at 60 o C. Certain genotypes retained the original colour on cut surfaces and others changed to brown to dark brown on cut surfaces. What is the reason? Does polyphenol play a role ? What about other factors? We are sure that it is not due to excessive heat, as we have seen this even under lower temperatures.
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Sometimes infected zones typically appear as dull brown and dark.
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The yield of plants is found to be increased with the conservation of perennial to annual plants what are the processes, advantages, and disadvantages?
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Firstly, it is next to impossible to make perennial plants behave like annual plants.....secondly , if at all you try , it won't be a sustainable exercise. Bonsai you can try....like perennial ornamental plants into annual plants...But , i doubt for fruit crops...
Good question, out of box thinking....
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In some places, it is common to grow high cash crops (usually horticultural crops) even if there is a surplus of its production in such places. The common reasons for that are it is more efficient in using water and more important it has high cash return. On the other hand, in most of the time we can find in the same places a huge shortage in the production of strategic crops (usually field crops). Usually it is justified that, high cash crops can be exported for much higher prices and in return strategic crops can be imported. However, with the ongoing scarcity of water which forced some countries to pan the exportation of some crops and some other countries are using some of those crops as a pressuring tools on other countries, in addition to the conflicts that come up making trade unstable,
what is the priority of the type of growing crops.... strategic crops or high cash ones?????
Kindly share your opinion.
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From farmer point of view cash crops is better because thier income will be augemented.
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The North eastern region of India (26.3 m ha geographical area) is having an unique geographical and environmental characteristics with very high annual rainfall, no or meagre rain during November to March, soil acidity, P fixation, soil, nutrient and biodiversity loss due to primitive farming practices like along the slope cultivation, shifting cultivation, lack of soil and water conservation measures and so on. The major challenge is sustaining food security and at the same time conserve natural resources. Drought, floods, hailstorms, cyclone, land slide, earthquake etc are major natural disasters in the region which farmers/people face every year. By 2050, about 30% deficiency in food grains is projected. Oilseed and pulses sector deficiency remain very high. Same is the situation in fish, milk, meat, eggs and so on. Only Horticulture sector is able to meet the requirement and provide a reasonable surplus, thus, there is opportunity for processing and value addition to enhance income and employment. Massive infrastructure and investment is needed for meeting seed and planting materials requirement for crop, animal and fishery sector. Mechanization is still one of the lowest in the region and restricted mostly to rice cultivation that too for field preparation, threshing etc. Light weight automated machines are required for field preparation, planting, intercultural operations and so on. There are large number of farm machines available in various parts of the country many of them may be suitable for the region, with only a little modification. Conservation agriculture is the real need of the region with principle not restricted only to three but beyond like agroforestry, integrated farming system, efficient water use, integrated nutrient management and so on. Rain water harvesting and its efficient utilization, acid soil amelioration, and sustaining soil fertility through integrated nutrient management holds key for achieving Sustainable Development Goal in the region. Addressing shifting cultivation through improved management approaches and farmers participation is also the focus at present. Trans boundary pests (insects and diseases)-their survey and surveillance and adequate management is the major thrust for protecting crop and animal. Addressing marketing and socio-economic issues are also important aspect of agricultural development of the region. Look forward suggestions for devising effective agricultural plan for sustainable hill agriculture. Collaboration and partnership in research is welcome to achieve the goal of self sufficiency and resilience in farming.
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The observation made are very pertinent in the background posted towards self reliant NEH region. The secondary agriculture activities on value addition are most needed. System intensification by use of conservation agriculture also needed specially for maize based system. The various studies on conservation agriculture showed good promise in the region and provided opportunity for second crop. The use of maize for silage baling could also help in enhancing livetstock productivity. The quality protein maize having high lysine and tryptophan showed a promise for food, feed and nutritional security for improved human health and pig and poultry productivity.
The sweet corn also showed good promise in Mizoram needs to be upscaled elsewhere. The babycorn and popcorn also needs to be explored for enhancing income and livelihood security.
The use of small-scale mechanization needs upscaling by using suitable machinery in the region for durdgery reduction and enhancing farm profitability.
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I’m working on the use of stable isotope ratios in traceability studies of horticultural products. Based on literature and previous studies, I can use any tree part for the analysis when it comes to Sr isotope ratios. However, things change considering H and O, as their isotope ratio may vary considering different classes of organic compounds in plant materials, due to differences in the metabolic pathways of each class (to simplify, let’s consider that all the material was synthetized during the same time frame, e.g. same growing season).
So, I would like to know your opinions about the following points:
1. If I analyze δ2H and δ18O in different tree parts grown in the same period (e.g. shoots, leaves, fruits analyzed as bulk sample), should I expect that the different proportion among classes of organic compounds in each part can lead to a significant difference in their δ2H and δ18O?
2. Analyzing a specific class of organic compounds (after extraction) instead of the bulk sample, should I get the same value in all the different tree parts?
I found several papers discussing this specific topic but related to C and N isotope ratios, can you suggest me any papers related to H and O? Many thanks.
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*Recent developments in application of stable isotope analysis on agro-product authenticity and traceability
Yan Zhao, Bin Zhang, Gang Chen, Ailiang Chen, Shuming Yang, Zhihua Ye
PMID: 24128481 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.08.062
Abstract
With the globalisation of agro-product markets and convenient transportation of food across countries and continents, the potential for distribution of mis-labelled products increases accordingly, highlighting the need for measures to identify the origin of food. High quality food with identified geographic origin is a concern not only for consumers, but also for agriculture farmers, retailers and administrative authorities. Currently, stable isotope ratio analysis in combination with other chemical methods gradually becomes a promising approach for agro-product authenticity and traceability. In the last five years, a growing number of research papers have been published on tracing agro-products by stable isotope ratio analysis and techniques combining with other instruments. In these reports, the global variety of stable isotope compositions has been investigated, including light elements such as C, N, H, O and S, and heavy isotopes variation such as Sr and B. Several factors also have been considered, including the latitude, altitude, evaporation and climate conditions. In the present paper, an overview is provided on the authenticity and traceability of the agro-products from both animal and plant sources by stable isotope ratio analysis.
*Hydrological cycle research by D & 18 O tracing in small watershed in the loess hilly region
Xu Xuexuan 1,*, Zhao Jiaona 2,*, Zhang Xiaoni 3,*
International Soil and Water Conservation Research, Vol1, No3,2013, pp75 82 Mar 18, 2015
The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of the hydrologic cycle in the loess area in China. Sixty eight water samples from precipitation, soil water of the 0 – 4 m layer, surface water in the valley, ground water (spring and well) were collected and the Deuterium (D) and Oxygen – 18 (O) of these water samples were analyzed to interpret the relationship among those waters in the watershed in the loess hilly region during 2005 – 2009. The results show that: the D & 18O of precipitation in Yangou was consistent with that of Xi'an, apparently the north migration of water vapor in Xi'an; according to the correlations among the differential waters in D & 18 O, confirmed that precipitation recharge could account for most of the sources of valley flow, with part of the recharge water going to soil water recharge. The D & 18O of groundwater were very close to that of precipitation, likely the soil preferential flow was dominant in groundwater recharge although the infiltration had a certain lag. Under the influence of rainfall and evaporation, the response of the soil moisture profile, and its D & 18O profile were different. The soil moisture had the strong influenced layer in the 0 60 cm range, a weak impacted layer in 60 160 cm, and a stable layer below 160 cm. It was shown that the soil evaporation depth could be up to 160 cm because the D & 18O changed in that depth. The study could increase our understanding of the magnitude and pattern of the hydrologic cycle, which should improve water resources management in the watershed scale.
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*Authenticity and quality of animal origin food investigated by stable-isotope ratio analysis.
Vinci G, Preti R, Tieri A, Vieri S. J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Feb;93(3):439-48. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5970. Epub 2012 Dec 4. PMID: 23209000 Review.
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In many conservatories around the world, as well as in many organic-farms, insecticidal soaps (potassium salts of fatty acids) are widely used to combat aphids, mealybugs, mites etc. They are considered safe to mammalians and are prioritized instead of chemicals.
Very little to no information can actually be found whether the soaps may be toxic to amphibians. Can anyone help us on this matter? An eductaed guess would tell me that the thin film created by the sopa on aquatic enviroment as well as, presumably, on the skin of the amphibians would cause significan damage.
Many thanks!
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I looked up the technical fact sheet and although there was no specific mention about amphibians apparently it is toxic for fish and aquatic invertebrates and the EPA requires it not to be applied to water or to contaminate water sources with it. I think this supports your hunch.
"Scientists concluded that potassium salts of fatty acids are slightly toxic to cold-water and warm-water fish (1)."
"Potassium salts of fatty acids are highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates."
"The EPA requires all product labels containing this active ingredient to state that the product is not to be applied directly to water and the user is not to contaminate water by cleaning equipment or disposing of wash water that contains potassium salts of fatty acids (1, 11)."
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A Neem tree palnt is a tree plant has the tendency of growing very tall under favorable climatic conditions. Its tap-rooting system enhance its capability of survival through photosynthesis.
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Property distinguishes Neem tree from other horticultural plants is that it is bitter in test and due to the presence of limonoids , it has medicinal as well as pesticide properties.
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What improvements to crop varieties can be made to ensure that emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture and horticulture are significantly reduced?
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The update technology is the use of electric tractors in Turkey
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Knowing the overall hazardous effect of chemical farming too we are not getting away to organic farming, even on a small scale or on a large scale in too so what will be the challenge during the approaches or organic farming. Thank you.
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Organic farming is one of the approaches to enable and ensure sustainable agriculture and remains one of the strategic solutions to the challenges of climate change. This type of agriculture has gained in importance especially in developed countries.
However, organic agriculture, especially in developing countries where it remains limited, must overcome several challenges, including among others:
- The availability of information relating to the conversion to organic farming
- Appropriate training in organic production methods for extension staff
- Institutional support to assist farmers in the production process but also in marketing
- Investissemnt in the workforce
- Face the consequences of low yields, especially during the first years of conversion to organic agriculture, hence the government's financial support is necessary to help overcome this difficult stage
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We all know the role of microbes its miniature of the miracle how it can be , used in revolutionizing science in various fields.
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Microbes function to maintain soil quality, plant growth, yield, and plant health. Microbes can fix atmospheric nitrogen, decompose organic wastes and residues, detoxify soil invaded with chemicals, suppress plant diseases and soilborne pathogens, enhance nutrient cycling, and produce bioactive compounds such as vitamins, hormones, and enzymes that stimulate plant growth.
The use of bio-inputs such as biofertilizers, biopesticides, and biodegraders comprising of beneficial microbes keeps our biogeochemical cycles alive by acting as miniature factories inside the soil and provides a continuous supply of nutrients as well as plant protection metabolites when required.
Panpatte, D. G., Jhala, Y. K., Shelat, H. N., & Vyas, R. V. (Eds.). (2018). Microorganisms for Green Revolution: Volume 2: Microbes for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem (Vol. 7). Springer.
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I'm looking for rootstock for papaya grafting. Is there anyone have any experience? 
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Thank you, sir.
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It is generally seen light coloured varieties has more storage life.what's relation with colour and size with storage life.
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This is very interesting Mr. Pankaj Kumar Yadav
The higher incidence of rotting in large bulbs may be attributed to higher water content. Moreover, the sprouting of larger sized bulbs in storage may also be attributed to the late time of harvesting. The colour of the outer scale is correlated with the storability of the onion. The onion bulbs with high pyruvic acid content have better storage quality. The red onion varieties have higher phenolic compounds than the white varieties, which protect them against pathogenic infection, and thus have a better keeping quality. Light red-coloured onions were found to have a lower respiration rate while comparatively higher respiration rate was found in dark red and white-coloured varieties. These show that colour and bulb size likely have an influence on storability/ shelflife of onion, however, it seems also other factors associated with postharvest and storage are attributing the storability of onion bulbs.
Dear Pankaj Kumar Yadav you may also see:
WARD, C. M. (1979). The effect of bulb size on the storage-life of onions. Annals of Applied Biology, 91(1), 113–117. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1979.tb07420.x
Isma’ila M, E. Karu, D. A Zhígila, Yuguda U. A. Postharvest Storage and Shelf Life Potentials among Selected Varieties of Onion (Allium cepa L.). Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences, 2017; 5(4): 271-277.
DOI: 10.21276/sajb.2017.5.4.3
Tripathi, P. C., & Lawande, K. E. (2019). Onion storage in tropical region—a review. Current Horticulture, 7(2), 15-27. DOI: 10.5958/2455-7560.2019.00014.1
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Mulching in agronomic crops is also mentioned in many literature
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Thanks a lot Aseel M.H. Hatif Gurjeet Singh Swaminathan C. for your answer .
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Shallow soils have less than 50 cm depth of solum. Generally, they have a thin A horizon over the bedrock or the parent material. Shallow soils are common on hilltops, hillsides, and throughout mountainous regions, where the thin topsoil may be the only thing that lies between the ground surface and subsurface rock layers. They usually lack subsoil and may be poor in quality as well as thin. Some soils are considered shallow if they have root restrictive layers or shallow groundwater table so that roots cannot penetrate those shallow layers.
As mentioned in the above statement on the definition of the shallow soil. So, is there any one package to remedy the shallow soil or are there any integrated management practices for the reclamation of shallow soil
which suitable agronomic or horticultural crop to grow in it. Moreover, which suitable trees or fruit trees to grow in it, Therefore, my request is the practical suggestions to solve or manage this phenomenon is very important, besides the literature review, and articles also are needed.
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Cultivation of shallow root crops.
Digging of holes and adding of mixed soil with organic matter.
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Can anyone help to explain the control measures of fruit sour disease in Fig ?.
As this disease is persisting in fig tree from many years, every times new fruits comes it seems to be normal but on ripening it starts rotting from inside. Small vinegar flies can be seen inside the fruit.
This problem is repeating every year, resulting all fruits to become rotten on ripening.
I have some pics of infected fruits with gall on leaves as well. Hope these pics explained best the situation
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Basic studies are needed to find out exact reason. Few publication have mention that Vinegar flies and dried fruit beetle cause it. It is just a secondary infection for causing fermentation of fruits.
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In 2016 I have developed a set of mutants in two varieties of turmeric-Mydukur and Prathibha. Now, in M1V4 evaluation, have identified a few are performing better than the parents. I am going to analyze quality parameters in these selected lines. I have sown M1V5 (selected mutants) along with parents this 2020-21 season. From here, I want some of these to be developed and released as varieties. Whate are the steps to be taken from here. Please help me.
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Hello Kalidas,
You can take these selected mutants and grown under different environmental conditions with different locations to test their performances and selected the best variety that has not change its performance.
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How to meet the increasing demand of high quality of horticulture products by increasing its production of sustainable basis without adversely affecting the production of food/Cash crops or habitat for livestock in the face of looming threats of climate change and environmental degradation
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Water harvesting structures or small ponds to be dug in the farms and pond base can by covered with laying material and same can be used in critical stages of the irrigation in vegetable and fruit crops. Forest tree species can be plated on the boundries/bunds of the farm to reduce the heat waves to boost the higher production.
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I am working on horticulture crops, with defined number of farmers, who market at a known formal market.
Does anyone have reference to recent work in this direction? What were the lesson and would be glad to see findings and methodology used
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I am working on impact evaluation
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Kindly list out the plants, or any research article
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Resveratrol: a natural polyphenol found in more than 70 plants:
grapes,
cranberries,
mulberries,
pistachios,
peanuts ......
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DNA sequencing company we want to recognize for their work and services
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some option can be:
... sequencing was performed by Macrogen (USA) and the analyses were ...
... sequencing was performed by Macrogen (USA).
...sequencing reaction was performed by Macrogen USA (Rockville, MD).
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Flower variety has grafted with wild rootstock to improve the colour and disease problems. If we succeeded, can we claim it as a new variety?? or what will be the legal or actual situation? What ownership we can get on that new flower variety??
Horticulture Crop Breeders may answer to this ..
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Dear Noushad, local regulations exist regarding the rules to determine if a genotype
is new variety. However, some basic and common principles or rules exist. First, it must be demonstrated that the character is really new. Second, the new character must be stable. Third, the new variety has not been previously registered.
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Horticultural crops can be considered to help spread of Corona virus ?
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There is no scientific evidence indicating that horticultural crops can help spread of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
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I am a PhD Scholar in the Department of Horticulture specialized in Floriculture and Landscape Architecture. I want to carry out my research in biotechnology of flower crop. So plz suggest me some current research topics regarding this.
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I also want see more suggestion
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Horticultural crops can be considered to spread of Corona virus ?
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Hi,
could you please elaborate your question?
If you are referring to the transmission animal-plant and vice versa I would say that no, the coronavirus is restricted to the animal world.
If you are asking if is possible to have a virus that has a host of both plants and animals, then yes. I suggest you to read this paper to have a better idea on which viruses I am talking about (Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Reoviridae etc).
Finally, if you are mentioning the spreading of the virus in the field human-human then I guess that working in an environment without protection or where there are high amount of plastic where the virus can survive for many hours it could increment the possibility to get infected. However no study has been conducted up to date regarding this possibility.
Best regards
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Dear all,
I am trying to figure out how to derive and n parameters of the Van Genuchten equation for compost samples taken from an urban farm. RETC has predefined values for these parameters for different soil textures which are not appropriate for my samples since they have a high percentage of organic carbon. In addition, I cannot use Rosetta because the samples' bulk density is very low (<0.5 %) and I have no data in silt content.
Kind regards,
Stella
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Anoop Kumar Srivastava , Claudio Beni Apologies, I meant 0.5 g cm^3 !!!
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Some residues from ferilizers coatings, and products of hyrogels/agrogels degradation are accumulated in plants tissues. I am looking for literature about this issue, where I can find more details, especially, data related to polymeric contaminations like products of degradation or microplastic. I will be grateful for any help.
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Hello! I am working with short-single walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in water. There is .3g in 30ml of water. I need concentrations of 10ug/ml, 20ug/ml, 30ug/ml, and 40ug/ml.
I was told that since the CNTs are already dispersed that we basically need to take X amount of our stock solution and dilute it with X volume of water and we will have our desired concentrations.
I am a horticulture major and this is my first venture into a project of this magnitude. I can't seem to find a chemist or bio professor to help me, can anybody help me out? Would really appreciate it.
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Daniel Jackson yes, you are right, you need made serial dilutions from the primary solution. I recomend you this video to understand the method.
Regards.
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UPDATE: SEE MY LAST COMMENT FOR SOLUTION!
I'm trying to figure out the best conditions to grow my N. benthamiana plants in a growth chamber. I will be Agro infiltrating them later, around 4 weeks of age. Initially I was thinking:
16hr light/18hr dark day length
25C/23C temp
60% humidity
150-170 umol/m2s light intensity
However, after some reading I've noticed some people use different conditions, including 12hr light/12hr dark day length, 15hr light/9hr dark day length, only 75 umol/m2s light intensity, etc.
Does anyone have any suggestions or tips for what works for them or what the best conditions are? Thanks!
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SOLVED! Thank you to everyone for all your help, especially Nicolò Maria Villa !
We recently got new growth chambers, switching from fluorescent to LED light. For plants, you need a white LED light (contains most of the light spectrum). I found out that our growth chamber manager also added a large number of far red light (which, in plants, stimulates a shade avoidance response) which is why my plants looked like they weren't getting enough light. I had these far red lights removed, and the plants look great now!
I also changed to a short day cycle, which made my plants look greener and much healthier, as suggested in the responses.
The following are the conditions that are now working great:
Using LED lights (full spectrum white lights)
16hr light/8hr dark (short day cycle)
25C day/22C night temp
55% humidity
150 umol daylight, 0 umol night
20-20-20 fertilizer once per week to older plants
Planting in non-autoclaved metro-mix soil, placing seeds on top (not covering them with soil), then leaving them covered with a plastic humidity dome for 2 weeks.
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I saw the termite attack on my cannabis farm. The termites had hollowed out the stems of mature plants. Without any apparent symptoms. I was able to control it by adding poison to the irrigation water. Does anyone have a similar experience in this regard? Termites are not reported as a common pest of cannabis. How can I report this?
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Thank you Ladan Ajdanian
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I am a graduate student majoring in horticulture.
My first semester just ended and I'm planning to design a simple experiment.
I want to make synthetic DNA that would encodes a short peptide that consists of just 9-10 amino acids.
If I made the artificial DNA with an appropriate promoter and inserted the fragments into the plant (by agrobacterium), would it produce the peptide all over the cell?
Or, if I want to locate the peptides in cytoplasm below cell membranes, what am I to do to make it so?
The DNA fragments would be very short.
I'm curious if it could be simply made in the lab and how much it would cost if I ordered it from a company.
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Look up Dov Borovsky. Diet Pill for mosquitoes. We made TMOF, a small peptide that turns off trypsin synthesis in mosquitoes. And other insect spp. Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor. It works in flies and other deleterious insects.
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Harvested water from field and vegetable production
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Rainfed cultivation is possible under coastal conditions in rainy season with cucurbits, okra and leafy vegetable crops
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Neem tree is a long perennial tree that have the tendency of growing tall under favorable climatic conditions. It has a tap-rooting system that enhances its photosynthetic ability.
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Is it also act as sterilant.
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Wondering if anyone has attempted it, what techniques work best, and whether of not there is cross-species compatibility of grafting.
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Mimosa pudica is grown abundantly and naturally in western ghats of sahyadri region in India. In fact it is a common weed in mango, cashew, coconut orchards in the region. However the attempts to prepare grafts of it are not made in Maharashtra.
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I have received conflicting information about the exchange of ions during K+ uptake by roots in hydroponic systems. The first explanation is the root releases H+ in exchange for K+ to maintain electronegativity in the hydroponic solution thus lowering the pH. The second explanation is the root releases carbonates in exchange for K+ thus raising the pH. Which explanation is correct?
I know that there are different K+ transporters (low affinity at high K+ concentration, high affinity at low K+ concentration). Could these conflicting explanations be based on different K+ transporters?
Thank you!
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When the potassium cation is absorbed and utilized as Paul Milham explains the charge balance is maintained in the plant by secreting into the soil a hydrogen ion maintaining the cationic balance. I am attaching the distinctly difference the absorption of Nitrogen as ammonium has on the soil pH compared to the absorption of nitrate as indicated by the pH color indicator.
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How can we become more sustainable in both the pre- and post-harvest horticultural sectors. What is being done and what can be done to improvise the footprint.
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Hi,
for insulation you deffinitely ant to look vacuum insulation related options:
Consider both the roof and wall cooling:
For packaging:
And cosider approaching this thing fe.g. orm indicartors point of view:
B.R.,
Ari
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In the way to reduce the quantity of food waste, I'm thinking how can we compost dairy products (yogurt, milk, powdered milk, cheese ...), and use it as fertilizers.
Also, I'm searching about some horticultural or agronomic techniques when we can reuse dairy products.
Thank you in advance.
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Please take a look at this useful RG link.
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Agarwood is taken from "Aquilaria agollocha" species. Mainly related to perfume industry. But it says that there are some medicines produced by using agarwood.
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Hello, as part of my research I am looking into the wellbeing of those employed in horticulture. Gardening is used as a restorative exercise, my question is gardening as a job as beneficial as doing it as a hobby?
I am going to use the Warwick Edinburgh as part of my research, can anyone recommend other questionnaires that would be useful in terms of questions to ascertain socio economic status etc
Many thanks