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Honeybees - Science topic

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The cubital index is a measure of the relative length of the cubital vein, which is a vein located in the forewing of a honeybee. The cubital index is calculated by dividing the length of the cubital vein by the length of the wing and expressing the result as a percentage.
The cubital index is used as a morphological character in the identification and classification of honeybee subspecies and populations. It has been found that the cubital index can vary significantly among different honeybee subspecies and populations, with some subspecies having a relatively long cubital vein and others having a relatively short one.
There is some evidence to suggest that the cubital index may be related to the foraging behavior of honeybees. Some studies have found that honeybees with a higher cubital index may be more efficient at foraging and more successful at finding food resources, while those with a lower cubital index may be less efficient at foraging.
In addition to its use in the identification and classification of honeybees, the cubital index may also have practical applications in the management of honeybee colonies. For example, some beekeepers may use the cubital index as a tool for selecting bees with desirable foraging traits for breeding purposes.
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I am currently working on designing a flow cytometry protocol to detect apoptosis in honeybee Kenyon Cells. However, I am not sure which fluorochromes or antibodies I can use to identify the
neuronal populations and then to see apoptosis/necrosis
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Hello Lina María García Forero,
If your experimental goal is to detect apoptosis and/or necrosis in kenyon cells of honeybee, I would suggest you to carry out the experiments as given below:
Take out the kenyon cells and fix them in 4% PFA on the slide and then carry out ICC using apoptosis markers to see the extent of apoptosis in the cell of your interest.
Once you find that your experimental protocol induces apoptosis/necrosis then try to harvest the cells (>10000 kenyon cells) and then conduct the flow cytometry using apoptosis/necrosis markers antiobody tagged to FITC/TRITC etc.
Best
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Hi! So I had a question, which I am hoping someone who perhaps has worked with honeybee tissue before, can give me some much needed help. I am working with honeybee larvae cryosections, cutting them up to 20 μm thick and staining afterwards with alpha-bungarotoxin for visualization of acetylcholin receptors. The problem is, the tissue keeps breaking and it's way too brittle. It has holes in the middle too. I have tried two methods: the first being fixating the larvae O/N with 4% PFA at 4°C, then immersing O/N again in 15 % sucrose solution, and finally embedd in OCT medium in dry ice. The second is freezing them directly in OCT in dry ice and fixating after cryosectioning. Any advice for preserving the integrity of the tissue? Thank you.
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passage it to 30 % sucrose solution after 15% sucrose immersion for 2-3 days then passage it to cold (-80) methyl butane solution for remove bubble in fast freezing prosses then embed in OCT medium in dry ice.
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How we can store/ preserve or handle the pollen collected from bee colonies so as to feedback the bees during dearth periods to maintain the colony strength buildup? Please suggest.
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The collected pollen from pollen trap during clear sunny days should b transfer in airtight containers and it can be stored either in refrigrator in the areas where summer temperature rises upto 30 degree centigrade. However in cold climatic condition it can be either stored under normal room temperature..but refrigrator is recommended. Yes it can be use as feed for bee colonies during dearth period either as single feed or by mixing with other components ie soybean flour 'icing sugar'glucose'gram flour etc to make a patty and thn supply to bees as feed during dearth conditions.
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I am looking for good pollen substitute to feed honeybees during dearth periods
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Hi Shabir,
A lot of protein patties are existing now in the market, but often locally produced and not so evident to buy.
If you want to produce it by yourself, the general idea is to make a patty with rather high protein content (16-20% calculated on dry matter) and to put it in contact with the brood nest so that nurse bees can directly consume it. To reach this amount of protein content, you need to use higt proteic sources, like leguminosae flour (soja, peas, etc) or yeast.
You may use at least 10% of pollen (from healthy colonies) to mix with your proteic source, as pollen contains some attractive substances inciting bees to consume it. Mix pollen and proteic source with some syrup and water to get a correct consistency.
Put 50g to 200g by colony each week when necessary, but verify that the bees consumed it, as they always prefer fresh pollen of their own instead of patties.
Hope this helps.
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I know there are so many algorithms like Genetic, Ant Colony , Honeybee and harmony search algorithm but which one is considered as the best for creating educational timetable?
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This is just my personal view nothing to do with others view
If we want the students to increase thier performance and efficiency
I think it's best to teach their favourite subject and teach them where to use, when to use, how to use after that to teach them others subjects and tell them it's necessary to know this subject too for their future but most importantly we should first found out about their like and dislike subject then teach them what they like then their dislike
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If you are working on honeybee colony acoustics then I need your help to fill out assessment form (link given below) for my Ph.D research. I would be highly thankful for your assistance.
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sorry, i don´t work on honeybee acoustics
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I know only how to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per acre of crops for honey production. Therefore, I need your help to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per a given area of crops for pollination.
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Hi Tura,
This number is often defined in pollination contracts, that are mainly respected by the major farmers. I suggest you to collect some of these contracts among beekeepers or seed/fruit producers so you can make an estimation of the "economical need" for crop pollination.
If your question is about the "real" number of colonies necessary for crop pollination, you have to consider the landscape aroud the crops.
- if there is a largely diversified flora/fauna, and the global part of you crop in the landscape is small (<20% for instance) and if the individual surface of each crop is small (<1ha for instance), the natural pollinators will be generally sufficient.
- if your crop is the major part of your landscape, and the rest is poor for pollinators, you should bring colonies as Marian told.
Michel
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I need research material or data related to my subtopic: Significance of dancing pattern for honey bees ( A.mellifera) for Review Research.
Preferred time range 2016-....., if you have material before this time range you can share too.
Note: Material should be open source or full text along with APA/Reference.
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What are the common adulterants in commercial honey? how to identify pure honey and adulterated honey with the help of NMR spectroscopy? Is there any other technique to check purity of honey?
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On the NMR spectrum of high-quality honey, the signal from sucrose will be
weak, and in the honey of bees that were artificially fed with
honey, the signal from sucrose will be significant
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We would like to control the honeybees' ID at the entrance of a flight tunnel.
We would like to detect a honeybee in a cube of 10x10x10 cm3 in front of the tunnel door while flying, and thus opening the door to automatically record its trajectory and its ID number coming from a RFID tag about 3 to 5 mg.
Do you know any European compagnies selling this kind of monitoring devices for flying insects?
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I have successfully worked with the RFID technology from https://www.microsensys.de/en/solutions/small-animals-identification/
However, I wouldn't call it "low-cost" as it is currently very pricey, i.e. > 1 EUR per chip + the readers and host 2000-3000 EUR.
You can check the following review for some more resources and contacts to authors who used different manufacturers:
Cheers,
Richard
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iam sure that solution in honeybee
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No such information is reported, I think.
Thanks
N Das
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There is data about the location and characteristics of plots of Oilseed Rape on several farms, as well as the relative abundance of different pollinator species counted at each plot. The variables included are:
Farm
latitude
longitude
pct_flower
temp
variety
type
species
group
relative_abundance
1. Investigate the effect of temperature and flower coverage on the relative abundance of pollinators (overall and for honeybees specifically - in the group variable).
2. The difference in pollinator relative abundance (overall and for honeybees specifically) among farms, varieties, and types.
I have researched papers and many google searches to try and understand which test I need to complete for these. Am i correct in thinking temperature, flower coverage, and relative abundance are all continuous data and i look at these against honeybees. Or do I need to extract honeybees vs each of the other variables in question?
I have looked at Kruskal Wallis tests, or ANOVA, and also Poisson regression, though I am confused on if I am correct.
Any help would be appreciated!
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Have you asked your advisor or other people in the department for help? You should be able to find someone at your university to help with these sorts of questions.
From UCLA, though:
"The [linked] table shows general guidelines for choosing a statistical analysis. We emphasize that these are general guidelines and should not be construed as hard and fast rules. Usually your data could be analyzed in multiple ways, each of which could yield legitimate answers."
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In the 1920s, Karl von Frisch pointed out that bees use special dancing patterns. What scientist or people think about bees communication before its discovery.
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For sure, Adrian and various collaborators of his argued that bees locate foods solely by odours. That was around 1923.
It seems, though, like Von Frisch was the first to witness bee's communication. But you may want to read Ameisen, Bienen und Wespen: Beobachtungen über die Lebensweise der geselligen hymenopteren by John Lubbock (1899). I unfortunately couldn't find a translated version.
However in The Bee Battles: Karl von Frisch, Adrian Wenner and the Honey Bee Dance Language Controversy" by Tanya Munz in 2005, she mentions: " Von Frisch was not the first to investigate insect communication. In his 1923 paper,he already cited nine other well-known authors who’d investigated bee and antcommunication. Buttel-Reepen, 1900, 1912, 1915; Wasmann, 1909 [1899]; Forel, 1910,1924 [1874]; Lubbock, 1883."
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Will the creation of mechanical nano-insects solve the problem of declining populations of bees and other pollinating insects?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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...Nanotechnology has tremendous applications in the food, pesticide, fertilizer, chemical, and agriculture industries. Nanostructures or nanoformulations are fabricated by manipulating, at atomic or molecular level, reactants in definite ratios for improving the physical, chemical, and conduction properties as well as strengthening the functioning materials applicable in agriculture, medicine, and environmental monitoring. ... The nanoparticles, APC molded into functional nano-biopesticides via green technology, could selectively target insects for plant and environmental safety. ... Lade, B. D., & Gogle, D. P. (2019). Nano-biopesticides: Synthesis and Applications in Plant Safety. In Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection (pp. 169-189). Springer, Cham.
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Hello,
I would like to visually identify and quantify the pollen morphotypes carried by insects which have been stored in 70% ethanol. The insects are Diptera (mainly Syrphids), and Hymenoptera (mainly wild bees, bumblebees and honeybees). To facilitate pollen identification, we have collected the anthers of all flowering plants species encountered on the studied sites, and also stored them in 70% ethanol.
Firstly, is it possible to visually identify pollen after it has remained for several months in alcohol, because I read about pollen hydration that could cause damage to the exine? If it is, what is the best way to collect the "free" pollen from ethanol and the pollen that remains on the insect's body? Then, is there a specific method for preparing pollen that has been stored in 70% ethanol for visual identification under the microscope?
Thank you very much for taking the time to read and answer!
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I think that the pollen should not change greatly morphologically. Try it should work.
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I am doing research of beekeeping the factors they consider do beekeeping. I want to conduct this research from the lens of moral economics. I am looking for any recommendations, studies, and references that can help.
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While it is clear that Apis mellifera (as well as many human food crops) have been introduced to other parts of the world, the matter of whether that was a negative, positive or neutral influence is to me, a question, not a fact.
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I am plotting the colour loci of various grassland species in the framework of the Maxwell Triangle to assess the discriminability of the species by the honey bee (Apis mellifera).
My problem now is that I don't know how to calculate the coordinates for the monochromatic colour loci in the bees perception.
Any help would be appreciated.
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You may want to look at:
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
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I collected count discrete data from six treatment and a control given to honeybees and the data were counting of dead honeybees of if no recorded zero frequently, but to proceed ANOVA the raw the transformed data were not normally distributed.
So, what should I do before using non parametric Kruskal-Wallis's test?
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You could simply use Poisson regression. This is easy in R, a good link for this is: https://rcompanion.org/handbook/J_01.html
What you basically should do:
1. Run a poisson regression and a null model. In R, your code would look something like this:
yourmodel <- glm(deadbees ~ Treatment, family = poisson, data = beedata)
nullmodel <- glm(deadbees ~ 1, family = poisson, data = beedata)
2. Then compare both models to judge whether treatment has an effect
anova(yourmodel, nullmodel, test = "F")
3. An important assumption of Poisson regression is that the variance is equal to the expected value. If the variance is bigger (which is often the case), your data is overdispersed, and you will have a high risk of type I errors (falsely rejecting the null hypothesis). Therefore, you should test for overdispersion. In R, you could use the package 'AER':
library(AER)
dispersiontest(yourmodel)
Now, there are two possibilities:
a. If your dispersion test is not significant, this means that a poisson distribution is appropriate: you can continue with your current model.
b. If your data is overdispersed (dispersion test significant), you should use an alternative to the poisson distribution, e.g. Negative binomial distribution.
In case of a: if the effect of treatment is significant, you want to know the differences between the groups. For this, you could use a post-hoc test. You will need a few packages though. R-code:
library(multcompView)
library(multcomp)
library(emmeans)
marginal <- emmeans(yourmodel, ~Treatment)
pairs(marginal, adjust = "tukey")
cld(marginal, alpha = 0.05, Letters = letters,
type = "response", adjust = "tukey")
Now your output shows your parameter estimates of each group. Groups that do not differ significantly from each other are indicated with the same letter in the .group column.
In case of b, you need to run a new model using a negative binomial distribution:
negbinmodel <- glm.nb(deadbees ~ Treatment, data = beedata)
nullmodelnb <- glm.nb(deadbees ~ Treatment, data = beedata)
anova(negbinmodel, nullmodelnb)
Here, R performs a chi-square test. If significant, there is at least a significant difference between some treatments. You can do the same post-hoc test as you would have done with a Poisson model, but now use this model (negbinmodel), instead of the poisson model (yourmodel).
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Are neonics really tested for honeybees in real practical world really, that they are so letal that they should forbidden?
Now after the prohibition of neonics, farmer suffer of a explosion of the CORN ROOT WORM (Diabrotica virgifera). Some maize field got already fully destroyed in Austria.
Look:
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Neonics are insecticides. Insecticides kill insects. Bees are insects.
Bees are a special problem because they collect nectar and then concentrate everything in the nectar. That includes any insecticide. This is then fed to small larvae which due to their size are exceptionally vulnerable.
That said, politics and money get involved and the result can be a problem.
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I watched a documentary, "Rotten", that explored the various methods of honey adulteration. The high demand for honey with the sharp decline in honeybees are a concern.
Seems such practice of honey adulteration is widely practiced.
As consumers, how can we know pure honey from altered ones?
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" ( Wang, S., Guo, Q., Wang, L., Lin, L., Shi, H., Cao, H., & Cao, B. (2015). Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography. Food chemistry, 172, 669-674)
Abstract
According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3–7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5–7.5% and 10–100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology".
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Communities around the world have engaged in the discussion and implemented measures (actions/ policies/ etc.) supporting pollinators (beyond A. mellifera). Do you know of early adopters, success & failure stories, and methods of measuring those?
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Contrary to what some environmental activist groups are claiming, data collected by the crop protection industry from the USDA, FAO and StatisticsCanada shows that "honey"bee populations even in intensely farmed areas of the world are increasing rather than rapidly decreasing in the last decades (see graphs).
The main cause for honey bee colony losses is due to inadequate or even due to no Varroa treatment at all. The responsibility lies with the beekeeper.
However, honey bee colonies as a superorganism seem to buffer stressors of different kinds more "easily" when compared to other, primitive eusocial or solitary pollinators.
This is why, for instance, many findings of pesticide effects on the individual bee level do not necessarily translate to the colony level. Strong colonies are able to take a lot of damage on the one hand, and are maintained by beekeepers on the other, being able to balance environmetal impacts. This does not apply to bumble bees, solitary bees and most other pollinators!
In my opinion, future bee research should therefore focus on (i) a more effective, sustainable and easy to apply Varroa treatment (with the final aim of a stable parasite-host relationship), (ii) better trained beekeepers and (iIi) shift the focus more on other pollinators than honey bees to generate monitoring data, giving insights in possible losses and regional problems.
Richard
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My research group and I are currently doing research on beehive monitoring. Since we plan to apply deep learning models, we collect sounds produced by honeybees from beehives in the local farms as part of the training data. However, we found that some data were contaminated by human voice as there may be people talking next to where our recorder was placed at. Is there a signal processing/machine learning model that separates the noise produced human from the bee sounds? Most papers I found so far seem to treat human speech as the targeted output and others as noise, not the opposite case.
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Particularly when male sterile lines are used as female parents.
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Hello,
Even though pollination through different bee species is given, hand cross pollination seems by far more effective:
The species of Trigona spp. seems to be ahead of self pollination in Indonesia:
And it seems that small native species of bees pollinate the chili flowers effectively in Brazil:
Pollination efficiency of hot pepper by honey bee, stingless bee, and self-pollination were compared in Indonesia:
However none of the above mentioned studies deal with hybrids in particular. Nevertheless I would suggest that the western honey bee should be capable of this task, probably as well as bumblebees (Bombus spp.), commercially avialable.
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For example the large carpenter bees can visit Calotropis or other wild bees visit Peganum. I would like to understand how the bee deal with these plants and is the nectar of these plants contain the same toxic contents of the whole plant? 
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Thanks a lot for this great clarification, although I left Saudi Arabia 3 years ago and the questions was to figure out how larger carpenter bees is adapted to get nectar from Calotropis procera. The stems of the plans also were used by bees for nesting. I may try to find this work again when I will be back to Egypt after my research visit to Hungary.
Thanks again Christopher and I wish for you all the best.
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i m going to feed during dearth periods both pollen and carbohydrate sources but wont be feeding in few replications taken as control
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If you want to prevent robbing you can equip your hives with robbing screens and reduce the size of the entrances. You should also try to separate them at least a few meters from each other.
Usually robbing results in fights at the entrance of the hive and in a large pile of pieces of wax on the bottom board or at the entrance. This wax comes from the honey being uncapped by the robbers.
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First great project to look at the bumblebees. In France where I live they are replacing the honeybee. And there seems to be lots species of large solitary bees of various colors as well. They certainly have taken up the workload in my backyard.
Why flowers? Recently in England, honeybees go out of their way for lavender, bourrache, and marjolaine. So these flowers all are used in traditional European medicines and have the reputation of being anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial. Have you noticed any "pharmaceutical " use by Bumblebees?
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I might have confused with my answer. I'm in northern Canada, was just visiting in Tanzania (there, honey bees are the dominant (and native) pollinator, doing well and with no obvious effect from Varroa). Here in my part of Canada bumblebees seem to be doing very well. I was trying to find for you a reference to a paper that TRACKED bumblebees (GPS) in Britain (I think) and showed a map of individual foraging that would interest you. Sorry I didn't find it.
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Is it really important for beekeeper to know that his colony that is situated in some remote apiary is swarmed? Is it always needed to go to the apiary to catch the swarmed bee colony? Would there be any value of some automatic system, that can tell the beekeeper that bee colony is just swarmed?
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Swarming is the natural reproduction process and it has advantages and disadvantages for the beekeeper. Preventing swarming also comes at a cost (like checking the colonies often, searching and destroying queen cells). If you catch the swarm, you have a new family. The recently swarmed colony will need to raise a new queen and that will lower your production. Swarming can actually be beneficial against varroa: the colony which has swarmed will have no brood for a month more or less, so the varroa will not be able to reproduce, it is also a good time to treat. The swarm will have no brood either, so once you have it in a box you can treat it and kill all the varroa. Have in mind that in most of the world varroa control is the biggest problem beekepers face.
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I'm need a strain of honey bees are tolerant to high temperatures Because to
high temperatures from 50 degrees thus, a weakness  or death of Hives in
summer.And giving  a good brood and is inclined stolen.?
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Yemeni honey bees have a good ability to survive under high temperature conditions but not up to 50C. The survival ability of honey bees can be enhance by providing the bees with good water resources, protect the bees from direct sunlight, house the bees in a suitable beehive type with good ventilation, and provide the bees with suitable amount of food. Also, you should take care about relative humidity, bees can survive better under conditions of high temperature and high relative humidity (about 65% or more) than conditions of high temperature and low relative humidity (65% or more).
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Hi,
In my experiments, I grow honeybee brood under different incubation conditions and I want to compare these conditions by analyzing and plotting a growth curve with weight data of the individuals. To do this, I do not know if I should test whether my data fit well to established growth functions (linear, logistic, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, etc.) or whether I should specifically evaluate which is the function (one that has not been reported before) that explains the growth of honeybee brood in different incubation conditions. In both cases, I would not know how to perform the analysis. Could someone help me? I would appreciate a lot your help!
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I'd use a von Bertalanffy growth model and make the appropriate allometric weight-for-length substitution. See page 49: http://derekogle.com/fishR/examples/oldFishRVignettes/VonBertalanffy.pdf .
That's a 4 parameter nonlinear model. You could pool data across incubation conditions, then add a factor variable encoding those incubation conditions. You could then allow one, two, three, or all four parameters of the model to vary across conditions. If you had two incubation conditions and you let all four parameters vary, then you are estimating 8 parameters. Use AICc to determine if you should constrain some parameters to remain constant across conditions.
If you've never maximized a likelihood before, then you might need to consult a statistician. I'm not aware of any canned routines out there for doing this, but some may very well exist.
Good luck!
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There are a number pf plastic hives on the market, but has anyone published on their relative benefits and disadvantages compared to traditional wooden hives?
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"Recently, hive equipment has been made of materials other than wood. Plastic material is most commonly used and all hive parts, including one piece molded combs made from plastic, are available to the beekeeper. Generally, plastic equipment is as yet unproved, more expensive than wooden equipment, and being used to a very limited extent by the industry." in Beekeeping in the United States.
To my knowledge nobody has tested this yet, and this equipment is much more expensive than wood. Given that you can't smoke it or expose it to a flame to kill spores after fould brood infections, when swapping equipment between hives, or to clean wax an propolis, I would not recommend buying plastic equipment.
Also, beekeeping is this fantastic agricultural field where everything can be made of recyclable and degradable materials (metal, wood and wax mostly), why would someone want to bring plastic in this?
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Hello sir,
I am Majharul Hoque. I am an engineering student, studying in USA. lately, vertical farming has caught my attention a lot. I want to know do you have a working model of hydroponic farming? is there any chance of combining it with indoor fish farming as well as using honeybee for the purpose of pollination and honey extracting in the vertical farming system. vertical farming technology is getting very advanced day by day and a big city like New York has one of the biggest company of vertical farming. It's really incredible. is there any funding or government loan in Bangladesh for starting a vertical farming company?
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Hi Maharul,
Practical models of vertical farming with fish farming are there in India. Combining it with honeybee, I have not seen. Best wisher to you.
Regards
Emmanuel
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I am working on food web stoichiometry and I'm looking for a literature on constrains that may be posed on the bees' development because of N and P scarcity in pollen. Herbivores in general are N and P limited. Is this also true for pollen eaters (pollen is a concentrated sustenance, rich in nutrients)?
Thanks in advance!
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Food Scientists, Biochemist
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Lane titration for reducing sugars.  HPLC for monosaccharides commonly found in honey like Fructose and Glucose.
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Dearests, I am working on Proteomics and want to check the immune response (changes) brought by a challenge from a pathogen to the honeybee larvae based on hemolymph samples. 
Furthermore, I want to do the study in the LC/MS system. 
I have also collected all the required hemolymph samples.
How is it possible?
Can you please suggest me on sample preparation for this study? 
Really thank you for your advice and valuable help.
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I agree with the answer of Wojciech Cypryk. In case that you want to detect relative changes in proteins related to immune response against any type of external agent, I would suggest you to perform an iITRAQ labeling (4-plex or 8-plex). After labeling you will be able to observe all relative changes in the proteins caused by the challenge. Then you need to see from all those proteins which are related to the immune response.
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There are a few papers on this topic, but where are the scientific data that can allow assessment of various products in a comparative way? Papers by Saffari et al., by Sihag from India, and De Jong et al. from Brazil address the issue quite well. I wonder about the digestibility of various flours that form the bases for these diets. Soy flour is a common ingredient, but I have heard it is wanting in some way for bee nutrition.
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The impact of feeding certain pollen substitutes on maintaining the strength and productivity of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). Bulletin of Entomological Society of Egypt, Econ. Ser., 41: 63-74.
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Generally,  in deep flower (Flower of Ticoma gaudichaudi) rock bees and Indian bees visited more frequently, however Italian bees were not seen to enter in such deep flower (The onsite population of above said bees were there).
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This pollen type occurs frequent in the gut content of Bumblebees collected in Belgium. It might be from an exotic plant occurring in gardens however.
For more images, see also:
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Dear Koen,
Most probably it is a Rosaceae pollen and could be pollen of Crataegus or Prunus. I have already prepared modern pollen samples from Rosaceac- Creataegus collected from Zagros Mountains, Iran and its pollen looks like what you have posted here. Crataegus tree is a favorable source of nectar for Bumblebees.
Best
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The mDNA interegion includes the COI-COII region, the tRNAleu gene and the 5’ end of COII subunit gene. The length of the intergenic region varies between honey bee races and helps distinguish between their phylogenetic lineage. who can tell me how are those segments identified? how do there look (the segments). Any recommended source and advice
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As I am studying determination of pollen trapping frequencies of Apis mellifera colonies, I have to also ascertain the plant species of pollen source as part of my research proposal. As I have placed pollen traps to collect pollen I witness good amount of pollen of orange colour is getting collected apart from mustard's yellow pollen.Near to my apiary, crops  like Mustard (full bloom) and chickpea (yet to undergo flowering). I couldn't figure out from where does this good amount of orange pollen is coming from.
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Simone has rightly mentioned. You have to analyse the pollen types through acetolysis technique. The purple pollen might be Mimosa pudica (small tetrad type, psilate) and the orange one may be Delonix regia (trizonocolpate/colporate, reticulate type with thick exine).
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Reaction of honeybees to smoke/fire is well known: they get less aggressive, begin to gulp honey etc.; the tranquilizing effect of smoke is widely used by beekeepers around the world. However, is such reaction known also in wild, not domesticated bees, bees of different species? And, was an original function of this adaptation (as it is probably not the adaptation to human beekeepers), for example, an reaction to wildfires in nature, somewhere mentioned or recorded, please?
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Dear Marpha, dear Imadeddin, thank you for your answers so far. Yes, plants (and other animals) were formed by the same selective forces, proximate explanations such as those on physiological level are also interesting. I am also absolutely convinced that the reaction is identical in case of natural/human-made smoke/fire. However, is there any mention in bee literature that this bee adaptation to fire/smoke is a natural, evolutionary adaptation to wildfires (thus older than relationship human-bee)? 
Many thanks once more time,
Martin
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I intend to analyze the existence of antibiotic in honey
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I was planning to extract and analyse VOCs from different ages of honeybee larvae using the SPME analysis in a GC/MS system. Here, I want to make it clear that I have got the results already.
Thanks so much in advance for your valuable advises.
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I guess by the fact that your asking you don't want to process them using the software that you used to run the samples?  Not sure the reason for this but it would be a logical approach.  Identification is best done using a MS library in conjunction with linear retention index and possibly standards where possible.  NIST or Wiley are good choices are you could use something like the fragrance and flavor library from Shimadzu.  There are third party data processing software packages like TargetView from Markes but you will still need to build your own library.  Linear retention indexs and similar are based on the GC method and column type and building this into your own personal library ensures that you can process data faster.  Most packages have deconvolution settings that allow you to digitally clean the chromatogram but you have to be careful that you don't lose vital ions in the process.  AMDIS is a good free system that takes a little learning and is clunky but does the job.  A host of MS processing software is also available for free on-line some linked for more metabolomic analysis but can do a good job.  THe main problem with the free stuff is that you have to figure it out for your self as the instructions are often lacking and no training is available.  Not sure if I understood your question correctly but hope this helps.
Kieran
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This species could be 
1. Bombus barbutellus (Kirby, 1802) sensu Lecocq et. al. 2011
2. or Bombus equestris (Fabricius, 1783) (now Bombus veterianus F., 1793)  sensu Warncke, 1986. 
Which one is Bombus monacha Christ,1791?   1791!!! see the date
The description is here, in page 131
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Sorry, I cannot.
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Small hive beetles Aethina tumida are serious scavengers of Honeybee
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Hi Lori,
Thanks for your willingness to help me. I am working on SHB population genetics. I have already received samples from Australia. I would be happy to get samples from other countries (Jamaica, Cuba...etc).
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Is there any different between virgin, mated, cadged and free queens?
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I agree wih  Indu Kumari completely. The presence of bee queen affects the wax secretion and comb building capacity of the workers by releasing pheromones to orginize and conrol all the work activities within the hive.
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I am looking at yearly data sets to quantify the impact of abiotic factors on honey bee flight. It is obvious that at certain times of the year (winter) the temperature is the most important where as it is solar radiation and light intensity (summer) for other times. I could arbitrarily divide the year into four parts based on calendar seasons, but this would not accurately reflect the abiotic conditions. Is there a way to determine from what value an abiotic factor becomes the dominant influence? I do not have a strong statistics background so I am hoping for some guidance. Thank you.
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Hello,
Look up about detrending time series. Assuming monthly data, the simplest way is applying this multiple regression
yi = w0 + w1 ti + w2 sin(2πti / 12) + w3 cos(2πti / 12) + εi
but, as Zivan said, it is difficult to say which would be the best model
Bye
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These are Ecuadorian Bees from the Napo Province, they are honey producers, we do not posess any keys refering to this group, so any help will be very appreciated.
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Hola:
Como dice Mr. Sampson, la literatura esta muy dispersa a nivel de especie.
La segunda abeja, por su coloracion oscura, por sus alas claras y su tamaño grande en comparacion con otras Meliponas es mas o menos facil: Estamos entre M. fuliginosa o M. titania del grupo fuliginosa.
La otra es mas dificil y tocaria ver los ejemplares y compararlos con nuestra coleccion de referencia, pero de lejos parece una especie de Melipona del grupo eburnea aunque la coloracion de su pilosidad y de su integumento es bastante clara.  Yo diria que la taxonomia de muchos grupos de meliponinos aun esta en construccion. Una opinion mucho mas confiable que la mia la podrias obtener de la Profesora Guimar Nates de la UN-Colombia, del Dr. Ricardo Ayala de la UNAM o del Dr. Victor Hugo Gonzales de la U. Kansas.
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Dear colleagues,
As I am trying to provide concepts to develop a bee demography model, do you have any clue on how to calculate honey-bee metabolism (possibly related to different bee stages)?
I know from literature that the main drivers are temperature, body mass + load, ontogeny, activity but also genetics. Is that correct or do I miss some variable?
Finally, I would like to know energy expenditure of bees and relate this to food consumption (in terms of nectar and pollen inputs). 
Thank you very much for your help and kind regards,
Giorgio Sperandio
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thank you very much Chris. I will go through the paper and find some more information.
Cheers,
Giorgio
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It may be very variable in natural or semi-natural habitat, but what about intensively managed agricultural landscape? For example, in northern Germany there is almost nothing else than oilseed rape in some areas. Would honeybees (try to) maintain an almost variate pollen diet or would they increase the proportion of OSR pollen? What about the relation quality/quantity? Thank you.
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It is possible, but you need a good sampling of pollen source of plants that surrounding the experiment. You also need a good sample of individuals, for calculate the average proportion of pollen, and thus you will have an average closer to the reality of the different plant species and how much pollen of each species is being carried by honey bees.
Best regards
Cristian
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Hi
I am measuring the antimicrobial activity of various honeys and would like to identify the composition of each also.
I was wondering how would you measure the concentration of Bee Defensin-1 in honey?
Also Methylglyoxal too, if possible.
Thanks very much!
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PFA
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Is there any new evidence (after Klaudiny et al. 2005 Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35) on the exact site of production of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from royal jelly of honeybees?
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Thank you for the information, Jorge.
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Pesticides residues
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Nice, thx a lot Sandra! ^^
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Hi,
I have an automated camera monitoring system for recording honeybees visiting thistle Cirsium arvense. In addition to honeybees other insects have been visiting the thistle, see attached zip folder. 
Is it possible to identify these insects to species level or genus? If, you know, please answer with a reference to the image no.
The location in Southern part of Norway during early August. 
Regards,
Ronny Steen
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Yes, I don't know your local species, but they are all flies.  The hoverflies (which most of these look like) are a wonderful group of little insects.  I find them almost every day in late summer on my plants (in Michigan in the U.S.).  They love, for instance, the asters.  They also mimic bees and there is one amazing one that mimics a wasp.  Here are some pictures.  I was photographing wasps on my goldenrod one day in September and right after snapping a picture this wasp came buzzing loudly around my head and shoulders.  I had to back away from it.  Later while cropping the day's pictures I laughed out loud - the wasp was a fly!  Your img 6021 looks a bit like our Rhingia nasica male. Your flesh-eaters (Sarcophagus) look so much like ours.  Welcome to fly lovers' club!
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There are many strategies in the literature which are geared towards the individual questions of each study. We are looking into establishing some long-term monitoring sites and it seems all we have to reference are area surveys established in Europe, which are generally 1 ha plots. I want to know if anyone has compared surveys of different sizes? So far, I have been unable to find this in the literature, but perhaps someone knows of a small scale report, or has an opinion on the matter. Thank you.
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It very much depends on the way you plan to do the sampling, e.g. pan-trapping versus transect captures.  Some of the references in the attached might be helpful.
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I am looking for a reference which measures the division of labor in honey bee colonies as a unit, what is the percentages of bees in each task?
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In August (peak period) the mean proportion of bees of one (41%), two (23%), three (17%), four (11%) and five (8%) week old bees did not differ between frames (10 frames per hive) (Research Vol. 51 (2) pp. 174 - 178, DOI:10.3896/IBRA.1.51.2.05).
This can give a rough estimate, but exactly the work based division of individual in different proportion to my knowledge is not known. Lot's of parameters and factors (internal and external) going to alter the proportion at a given time point. 
Really Interesting!!! Firstly how much? and then secondly how they monitor the exact numbers ? if any. 
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Unfortunately I have been unable to get a picture so far.
This bee favours plants of the mint family. It is quite small but not slender, it hums very loudly (there were several working the lemon balm and it sounded like a conversation) is probably not more than half an inch, and has dark and verly light gray (or "black and white") markings on its back, on the upper segment looks somewhat like a spot.
They are very fast fliers and remove nectar as rapidly as they gather pollen. And I might add that they carry pollen sacs that are enormous for their size - as large as on the honeybee, though this is a much smaller insect.
I have tried looking online. Most bees that I have seen have black and white stripes. Or they have stripes but appear largely hairless.
Any help is welcome!
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The photograph of the bee is required for its identification.
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Honeybee foragers visits weeds flowers i.e parthenium and they have whitish spiders and they caught honeybee foragers from head. Serious problem in our area how to solve ?
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Thanks Gurgen. Yes it is white crab spider. But further confirmation will be needed. I am trying to figure out the management/control of these spiders...
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Bees are known to forage up to 12 kilometers for nectar produced by flowering plants. In their search, bees could be exposed to different systematic pesticides that are designed to rid human propagated vegetation of insects that eat these crops and carry pathogens and diseases.
When producing honey, the molecular arrangement is dependent on which flowers bees pollinate. In harvesting and consuming honey contaminated with neonicotinoids, will this adversely affect us and poison our body systems?
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Hello Jason,
Honey combs have a magnificent characteristic: the wax absorbs most materials, including pesticides. I'm not absolutly sure about neonics, but it can be checked.
If  the honey is extracted in modern facilities, and if its filtered, the amount of wax in the honey will be so small that exposure to neonics is negligable. 
Bear in mind that we eat neonics in our fruits and vegtables, and if I'm not wrong, it contaminates our drinking water.
And so, honey should not be a major source for such exposures
Erez
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Some recent literature have restarted the debate about the attraction-repellent function of pollen grains and nectar. It is known that some pollen and also some nectar possesses toxins preventing them of being consumed by some species of bees or even other pollinating groups. It was also shown that nectar may have alkaloids and other substances able to "manipulate" the flower visitor psychology increasing visitation rate. So, would you expect that generalist eusocial bees should have different criteria to collect a resource that is mainly consumed by adults (nectar) or by next generation (pollen)?
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Good ideas Peter! Why not also follow the causes for visiting various sources of pollen? Peters answer is somewhat restricted to pollen mixing during a single foaging trip, which might be caused by the rareness of some flowering plant species or signal standarsization (formerly Mullerian mimicry) in these plants. Recently Eckhardt M, Haider M, Dorn S & Müller A published an article termed Pollen mixing in pollen generalist solitary bees: a possible strategy to complement or mitigate unfavourable pollen properties? which arreared in J Anim Ecol. (2014) 83(3):588-97. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12168. showing that pollen mixing might be caused by toxic pollen. Other caused might be rareness of amino acids and other compounds in pollen of some plants. In these cases solitary bees are more affected than eusocial bees, the latter of which exhibit pollen mixing at the colony level.
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I am interested to purify honey bee DNA from honey samples and even royal jelly to identify the bee species which produced that product (eg. Apis cerana, Apis mellifera, Apis dorsata ecc.). How much DNA can I extract from this kind of samples? Can I find bee DNA even in commercial samples that have been filtered?
Thanks a lot for your help
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This would not be an easy task if the honey is will filtrated, but if the honey do have incidents of being extracted in traditional methods then you might find small particles of the bees like parts of the legs and wings. and the would be on the upper layer of the honey jar. 
But this would be a very not easy task
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I would like to explore I.I. on Bee Queens. Is there any risk in facing that technique.
Thanks in advance for your courtesy in this matter.
Regards
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With I.I.  we can create specific crosses that do not occur naturally. Also, virgins could be inseminated when drones are naturally unavailable by using stored semen . On contrary, generally the I.I. queen live shorter than those which mate naturally. Also, one may exclude some natural factors which may exclude inferior drones from superior ones.
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Any research in India or abroad on the micro-biome of the gut of Apis dorsata?
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Martinson, Vincent G., et al. "A simple and distinctive microbiota associated with honey bees and bumble bees." Molecular Ecology 20.3 (2011): 619-628.
Disayathanoowat, Terd, et al. "T-RFLP analysis of bacterial communities in the midguts of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana honey bees in Thailand." FEMS microbiology ecology 79.2 (2012): 273-281.
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As the cells are also vertical, the size alone does not seem a sufficient reason. Are there any references on this issue?
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During the early pupation stage the queen is very delicate, perhaps the vertical orientation relieves pressure which would interfere with her development.
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When training bees with sugar water as a reward it is imortant to know whether the bees can sense sugarwater. Is there any opinion or literature about whether bees can see sugarwater, bees can feel the increased humidity caused by the sugarwater, or bees can smell sugarwater?
Klaus
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I think often the nectary itself/flower petals have yeasts and bacteria on, but it personally wouldn't surprise me if bees and flies and things brought in more. It sounds like a fairly straightforward experiment for a summer student, perhaps - could be nice to see it done!
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How do honey bee drones know what area is best for congregation and how do they locate the females within that area?
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The drone aggregation areas seem to depend on visual cues in the landscape.  I recommend - G. Koeniger, N. Koeniger, J. Ellis, and L. Connor . 2014.  Mating Biology of honey bees (Apis mellifera).  Wicwas Press.  pp. 155
The drones locate the queens by pheromone and by vision.  In trapping drones we use a dark target (queen sized) and Queen Mandibular Pheromone as the olfactory que.
Early work on synthetic pheromones was done by Keith N. Slessor, Lori-ann Kaminski, Gaylord G. S. King, John H. Borden, and Mark L. Winston; their work was patented in 1991. Synthetic queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is a mixture of five components 9-ODA , (-) isomer (9-HDA), (+) isomer of (9-HDA), HOB and HVA in a ratio of 118:50:22:10:1.
These compounds are: 9-ox-2-decenoic acid (9ODA) + cis & trans 9 hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9HDA) + methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (HVA).
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Very interesting article and what great technology to use for health issues concerning Coffee plantations. However I have a few questions concerning the native pollinators. From the article it seems that within the coffee plantation and the surrounding "natural area" little or no pollinators were present. Are the native pollinators missing because they are not well adapted to coffee? Or are there naturally lower levels of native pollinators in those areas? Was there a baseline study done before hand to see the amount and diversity of pollinators present on the sites? Have the sites been altered so much that there is not enough nesting habitat for the native pollinators? And my final question is there a chance of the non native honeybee displace the native pollinators?
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I don't think this is a very good paper to base these questions from because it is not intended to be a review of native pollinators in coffee systems. The paper by Ngo et al. might be a better place to start.
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What material in the bee sting causes thrombocytopenia?
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Yes it does...  interacts with some drugs  and with patients with Auto Immun disease
and with some patients with Helicobacter pylori... and in some anemia disorders
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I tried several special stains, but none works on 100% of the organisms on Nosema in bees. I was hoping that people working in other fields (even fish or other) might have a better experience than me on other stains I could try, or modifications that might improve the sensitivity.
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Hi
I think that the chromotrope 2R is suitable for microsporidia detection and diagnosis.
Regards
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Pollen that a bee has moved into to the scopa are no longer useful for pollination. Are there exceptions from this rule from a pollination textbook? What about pollen from the ventral scopa of megachilid bees, that often press the scopa to the pollen bearing organs of the flower? Or pollen grains deposited in a scopa of long bristles without regurgitated nectar?
My main question is: Is there any literature documenting the availability or inavailability of pollen stored in the scopa for pollination?
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Dear Klaus,
According to my unpublished data, the ability of pollen germination decreases sharply after its placement in skopa. After that pollen is much stronger sterilized by bee female under the formation a pollen ball in the cell (probably by adding secretory substances). This prevents further germination of pollen in a cell, for not spoiling the food for larvae.
Best regards,
Vladimir.
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I am studying feeding behaviour in adult honey bees and would like a good method to sample faeces. I will have several test cohorts so it will be a repeated sampling. One thought is to use filter paper at the bottom of each cage and/or dissect guts of bees from each test cohort. But if anyone could give me a better/less time consuming way to sample it I would appreciate. Thank you.
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Well, I do not think that you will be able to sample a sufficient amount of faeces from living bees in cages at all (because of their special rectum). In our cage studies bees hardly ever defecated, although we kept them for more then four weeks. The only exception was, when bees were infected with gut parasites like Nosema apis or ceranae. I think you should go for your second suggestion and use cohort representatives for each measuring interval.
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Is there any added nutritional benefit from feeding brown unrefined cane sugar to honey bees compared to refined cane sugar?
Is there any one commercial sugar source (agave, stevia, corn syrup, maple syrup) better or worse for honey bees?
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I think that point is not just about source of sugar:
Point can be quality of final product.
Technology of production can harm honey bee artificial diet.
That can have influence on higher level of HMF and that chemical can be harmful for honey bee digestive system, but there are no many papers talking about that.
Bees that are not vital enough can suffer more severe than others.
Until today no standard load limitations for that chemical in honey bee feed products.
That can be an issue among the others.
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I want to work on honeybee hemocyte.How can I prevent honeybee haemolymph from coagulation for long time?(60-120 min)
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Try the addition of 200 mM (final concentraiton) arginine, pH 8.
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I need some practical experimental data about honey bee colony food consumption during passive wintering period. What amount of food should be considered as normal consumption. We have made practical experiment and it is needed to compare data.
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I think you are asking the wrong question by assuming there is a specific answer to the question you pose. Variables include outside temperature -bees wintered on the Canadian prairies consume vastly different amounts of stores from those wintered on the Pacific coast;  race Italian bees eat more than Carnolians etc.; weak colonies eat more than strong, dead don't eat much at all. I think a better question might be related to the race of bees you are wintering in similar winter conditions to what you are attempting