Science topic

Honey - Science topic

Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) is the one most commonly referenced, as it is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans.
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Right now, I am doing a project to characterize yeasts that I isolated from honey.
I found that the yeasts can grow even at 40% sucrose medium. is this yeast can be considered osmotolerant yeast, if yes I needed some reference to prove that this yeast are may or in fact osmotolerant.
Thanks.
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Try to find earlier reports on similar line, you should fine information regarding their standard classification based on concentration of sugar uptake
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Completed BSc forestry and MSc Environmental Science. For the past ten years, I am working on honey bees in western ghats (diversity, distribution, modeling, and people participation in conservation). Ready to join anywhere in the world but research should be in India, especially in western ghats only.
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Hello Charanakumar,
It is great to see your interest and motivation, I would recommend searching articles that you have cited in your past research and mailing the main or co-authors after reviewing their profile. It is difficult to mention any university or professors who do work on any particular domain, but once you mail them, they might reply and redirect you to more specific people who work on those areas or may have funding.
Feel free to ask anything more if you wish to know more, All the best.
Regards
Sanjana
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Hi all !
I want to check weather three targeted compounds of raw honey such as chrysin, cape and caffeic acid in the raw honey. Does anyone have experience handling this sample? do i need to extract using methanol or just filtered water? I have standards for all three compounds. Thank you.
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Hi Dr.Haslina
I am interested in this topic please send me a message on my WhatsApp 00249911511696
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The result of the analyzed honey electric conductivity was 0.89 mS/cm and ash content was 0.64 g/100g. However, the standard electric conductivity of honey is < 0.80 mS/cm and ash content is < 0.60 g/100g. The analyzed honey exceeds the standard. So, what does this mean?
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Высокой минерализацией характеризуются падевые меда
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Honey bee algorithm uses particles to mimic actual honey bees; annd I preferred it because:
Although other species of bees are five to ten times more efficient, on a per-bee basis, at pollinating certain fruits, honeybees have bigger colonies, cover longer distances, and tolerate management and movement better than most insects. They're not picky - they’ll spend their time on almost any crop.
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Dear Prof. Аабу Абед ,
I have two papers related to this valuable subject:
Here are some from the first paper:
  • The differentiation between honeybees’ behavior and computer also attracted hundreds of researchers in proposing some artificial intelligence algorithms used to solve many real-life problems. The researchers found these bees live in groups called colonies where each bee colony, also referred to as hive, has at least three well-known subgroups of bees: scout bees that responsible for searching for the new food sources (i.e. solutions) which are the flower nectar, onlooker bees which knew the amounts and determine the exact places of any food source by watching the dancing ways of the scout bees, and the employed bees which are responsible for gathering the food from the resources' places that are defined by the scouts. They also found the members of each group (i.e. colony), as well as the subgroups, have their own structure for the working tasks and dominance hierarchy. [31][29]
  • By studying the behaviors of these colonies especially how all the bees contribute together in generating the optimal solution of the nectar harvest, the research work held by Saab et al. (2009) introduced a novel and valuable optimization algorithm based on using the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization. With the condition that the probability of choosing any candidate solutions (i.e. flower nectar as the food source) is directly connected with the fitness function (i.e. nectar's amount, nectar's quality, and the distance between the colony and the food’s source), the importance of their algorithm in the real-world is its ability to balance between the two searching phases exploration and exploitation in the searching iteration steps around finding and reaping the flower nectar. For a more detailed explanation and illustration of this algorithm, the interested reader can refer to the mentioned paper. According to the real implementations of the two scenarios of scouting and forging processes, this algorithm can be used to employ many real-life optimization problems that don't demand supervision which includes, but are not limited to, the following examples: combinatorial optimization problems, stochastic problems, multi-targets, data-mining-search-engine crawling, parallel implementation, multi-targets, and parallel implementations. [31]
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I am having trouble finding a vendor (I'm in Canada) for honey bee queen pheromone components (particularly (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid and E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid). Any leads?
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By the way, I found a company (Intko Supply ltd) in Canada that supplies 9-ODA and 9-HDA!
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I'm studying three different species of bees (16 colonies) and comparing data on feed consumption, honey production, and pollen cell production. However, because the colonies I'm looking at all have different numbers of bees, will this affect the results of my data, and if so, is there a way to make the results more even and accurate?
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To carry out a inferential statistical test even groups isn't required. You can use dunnett's test for unequal variances and fisher test for equal variances.
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In the conservative way I feed them with honey and water every two days by wetting a piece of cotton. Thanks a lot!
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Thank you very much for the help Ht. Decemson and Yifei Yu ! I am searching of a way to avoid manual feeding every 2 days, maybe a product or tips&tricks to construct an automated feeder.
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Hello everybody, hope you are doing well!
I am doing some tests on pollination effectiveness of honey bees, and I am looking for a method to sterilize faba bean flowers. So, let me know If you have any idea about the way of doing flower sterilization in this plant.
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Pasupuleti Sivaramakrishna, Thanks for your answer.
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As part of a much larger project, I made honey with thc & mushrooms for my family and friends, mostly over 50 years old, various maladies ranging from Crohn's, depression, PTSD, post-cancer opiate cessation, post cancer cording and scar tissue pain relief, end of life mental wellness, and Veteran's wellness through end of life care.
Please discuss and contact if interested.
Thanks kindly,
Glenn Edward Adams
Founder: Terra Vetus Therapeutics
Founded: Buffalo, NY
Inventor: Hospice Honey
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Glenn: are you familiar with the practices of "apitherapy"? The American Apitherapy Society has many practitioners with expertise that may be applicable to your initiative. drstangaciu@gmail.com may refer you to a nearby resource.
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As you know, there is Dastase enzyme in honey and in previous analysis methods, one of the criteria for distinguishing natural honey from artificial honey has been the presence of this enzyme, but with the development of industry and achieving the production of this enzyme, people use this enzyme to produce honey. It is called natural honey and the use of such honey as natural honey is nothing more than counterfeit. Does anyone have any research on how to detect this enzyme or
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Hello,
The estimation of a good enzymatic activity does not allow to identify the artificially added diastases.
Thus, to test the quality of a honey, the measurement of only one parameter is not sufficient anymore.
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For example ants that developed thermoregulation of their nest. Bees that generate heat through movement and the storing of energy in other forms such as in honey or wasps that just protect their queen long enough to start a fresh in spring. Maybe there is other more exotic and complex or simple examples out there?
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Hello Igor; Here is an example from my own observations. The small desert rodent Neotoma lepida (Desert Packrat) makes a large pile of sticks, bits of cactus, and other bits of vegetation. A large nest may be more than 2 m in diameter and as much as 1 m high. The individual makes a nest deep in this pile. The nest resembles that of a "typical" bird. It is dug into a platform of fine vegetation bits. The animal uses this platform as its toilet! Urine and feces are embedded in the platform and the mass ferments warming the nest by a few degrees. This is the theme in the winter when temperatures may regularly fall below freezing. During the summer the individual occupies another nest placed away from the toilet platform...it is cooler there.
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Is there any publication that has investigated how long it takes for nectar to dry within a cell inside the hive, before it is capped? I am aware that it depends on multiple factors such as the type of nectar collected or the rel. humidity of the air. While something comprehensive would be great, I am just looking for a starting place for now.
Thanks in advance for your help!
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Dear inside the cell the sap or nectar will not dry until bees not attend to it..because the bees have ability to probe chk and then suck the sap that having more sugar content ..if sugar content less than 60 _70 % then bees will not suck the sap and not waste the time to carry droplet that having maximum water content ..they carry this high sugar content sap drop to the cell ,where workers bees attend to it they with the help of their wings movement dry the extra water content when it reach less than 14 percent than cell is able to capped to ready it for honey..
However if population strength in hive is less and not healthy than the droplets would start drying after 24 hours as not attended by bees..
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Shortly:
Different farm animal species have some criteria for microbiological standards in their feed based on historical or modern acceptance of risk control.
As I know, honey bees do not have any internationally recognized microbiological standards for their artificial feed.
For their feed, which is not sourced from flowers or plant saps products, but others that are artificially made for their consumption we do not have proof for their microbiological safety.
All kinds of marketed products known as sugar syrups, sugar candies, Pollen sugar honey mixtures, etc. are commercially available on a big scale. Honey bees are farm animals, managed and fed with the product that we do not know enough about what can be harmful microbes in that products. Not just spores of Bacillus, Paenibacillus but also for some more common Enterobacteriaceae or yeasts?
What are your thoughts in this given context?
Do they deserve more care for not just chemical compounds but also for microbiological flora that can harm their gut microbiomes? Or they are resilient enough against whatever we put in their feeders?
Is it time to change some underestimated risk factors from the feed?
Thanks for your thoughts.
Violeta
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Hi Violeta
We evidenced a general lack of data on bee feed quality in the Coloss Nutri Task force, and we are building a project with different laboratories to study this topic. If some of the quality parameters are already addressed, we have no specific SOP for microbiological studies. If you are willing to study this point, and if you are member of Coloss (easy membership, you could join us at https://coloss.org/projects/nutrition/)
In my lab, we are studying the composition of the bee microbiota with Maldi TOF mass spectrometer, this tool could be easily used to identify the microbial composition of bee feed. No problem to collaborate if necessary.
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Most of the farmers are rearing honey bees in both field and horticultural crops. But whcih crops we will get the high & good quality of honey.
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We Have tried several caging techniques to introduce laying Carniolan (Apis mellifera carnica) queens to queenlees colonies of the East African lowland honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata). Unfortunately, nothing works!!.
Should you have experience with this issue, please do guide us!
or you please do share your thoughts should you have suggestions.
Thanks
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I suppose you used best practice for introduction. In desperate cases we use special introduction cages (https://www.wachs-hoedl.com/Zusetzkaefig-100). I might send you one in case you still need it.
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The honey production potential of a given forest is estimated from the summation of the honey production potential of the dominant and major honey bee plant species of the forest in different seasons of the year. Accordingly, the honey production potential of the dominant bee plant species will be estimated as the total no. of productive plants with massive flowers per a given area * average honey yield per plant/season. Are there any other methods?
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Hi! I have a problem with this pollen type. I'm analyzing a sample of fall honey and I can't identify this type of pollen. Other pollen types from the sample are Polygonum, Plantago, Trifolium and Rumex. I was thinking that this may be Medicago sativa? Pollen approximate size is 35 μm.
Thank you!
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thank you Ourdia Zennouche
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varroa destructor honey bee ectoparasite
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Varroa destructor rearing in laboratory conditions: importance of foundress survival in doubly infested cells and reproduction of laboratory-born females Vincent PIOU, Angélique VÉTILLARD
Apidologie (2020) 51:968–983
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Recently, using honey 10 ml every 5 minutes po for immediate preoperative protection of the esophagus in children with an esophageal button battery has been proposed and added to guidelines [Mubarak A et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2021]. There is one experimental study that looked at the mitigating, pH-neutralizing effects of a variety of agents, including fruit juices, maple syrup, honey and sucralfate suspentsion, which I guess these recommendations are based upon [Anfang RR et al. Laryngoscope. 2019]. The approach is intriguing but I wonder if anyone has clinical experience the application of honey in this setting, and/or working on clinical studies.
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Honey can reduce esophageal injury in the critical time between ingestion and when a child is able to have the battery properly removed. https://www.chop.edu/news/new-national-guidelines-recommend-ingesting-honey-after-swallowing-button-battery
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It's an idea to create a rapid test kit, with some data backing up that this so the test can have a certain degree of acceptance for the honey quality, (in terms of adulteration).
A majorly possible chemical reaction that would indicate the adulteration,
or if a sensor-based system what would work???
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Consider the source: some countries (incl Canada) check often and have an excellent record of allowing only authentic honey sales. The water test is only a measure of low water content: no assurance of purity. Pollen presence MAY indicate authentic honey, but could be faked. Hydroxymethylfurfural HMF is present in honey but also in heated syrups. Labels are (only) as good as their writers. Diastase is an enzyme in honey and economically unattractive to add to syrup, so might be an indicator of authenticity. Corn syrup (but not rice syrup) adulteration can be detected by a carbon isotope (C4 vs C3) analysis. True authenticity of honey can be got by NMR nuclear magnetic resonance (=MRS ) analysis, which requires expensive lab equipment. Such tests are being used, resulting in a reduction of fake product being shipped. Other measures like mass spectrophotometry are under development to reduce the cost.
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As per Ayurveda, honey should not be consumed with substances which have Ushna Virya (warm potency substances)
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Honey or Madhu should not be taken with warm items or not to be processed. Only one condition i.e. as Shodhana dravya as Oushadha it is given in lukewarm. Vamana Oushadha Kalpana.
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I'll be testing the antimicrobial property of honey using the disk diffusion method. I want to know how I can impregnate the blank paper discs with different concentrations of honey and how much?
and how long should I dry them before putting them into the agar plate? Is air drying okay?
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I suggest you dilute the honey to have about six treatments and three replications.
Stock should be 100%,
70%, 50%, and 30%, one standard antibiotics and control treatment.
You have to thoroughly mix the honey to get uniform suspension.
Dip the docs into each treatment and air dry for 5 mins and place it on the agar.
Note: you can check literature and check the right concentrations of the honey. Can also consider the above concentrations.
Sterile distilled water should be used for the dilution.
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I know only how to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per acre of crops for honey production. Therefore, I need your help to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per a given area of crops for pollination.
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Hi Tura,
This number is often defined in pollination contracts, that are mainly respected by the major farmers. I suggest you to collect some of these contracts among beekeepers or seed/fruit producers so you can make an estimation of the "economical need" for crop pollination.
If your question is about the "real" number of colonies necessary for crop pollination, you have to consider the landscape aroud the crops.
- if there is a largely diversified flora/fauna, and the global part of you crop in the landscape is small (<20% for instance) and if the individual surface of each crop is small (<1ha for instance), the natural pollinators will be generally sufficient.
- if your crop is the major part of your landscape, and the rest is poor for pollinators, you should bring colonies as Marian told.
Michel
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Adult diet: equal amounts of protineX, yeast, honey and sucrose along with 50% honey solution.
Temp and RH: 27+-2 degree C; 70%
Observation: eggs get black and shrivelled; some also form embryo inside but still don't hatch.
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There are so many factors that can influence hatchability of eggs and size plays a big role. In ostrich eggs, we found that small eggs that weighs less than 1200g are unlikely to hatch. Hatchability for small eggs is lower than medium and large eggs.
Other factors contributing to failure of fertile eggs to hatch include insufficient nutrients in the egg and exposing the egg to conditions that do not meet the needs for the developing embryo.
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Hello Safii Syarida and Duncan Warwick,
My name is Lauren, I am Third Year Dental Hygiene and Therapy Student at Teesside University in the United Kingdom. I am carrying out a systematic literature review Dissertation on Manuka Honey and its effect on gram negative and positive microorganisms in the oral cavity.
I am writing to you today to inquire whether you have any Journal Articles and Research Papers available that would help support my findings and if you would be able to provide them to me.
Thank you for your time and consideration, I hope to hear from you soon.
Kind regards,
Lauren Pitts
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The foraging behavior of European honey bee on Pigeon pea......?
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I am developing a method to detect insect DNA in food samples via DNA metabarcoding.
I already designed primers (1 forward and 1 revers) for an amplicon of ca. 200 bp length that bind to mitochondrial insect DNA. Right now I am testing those primers in PCR to find the right temperature and conditions. I consider amplification curve and melting temperature from PCR and also bands on an agarose gel of all DNA-samples. All insect samples work well, but i have a quite unusual problem with honey bees:
They have a band at 200 bp on agarose gel, and there also is a melting peak at about 78°C. This is as expected and also like all other insect samples. But there is a difference: There are no amplification curves of honey bees in PCR.
I already tried cleaning the DNA extract with magnetic beads, that didn't help.
Additional information: I use EvaGreen as a flourescence dye in PCR.
Does anyone have an idea what could be the issue or what i could try to solve it?
I am happy to give more information about the conditions, if needed.
Thank you in advance.
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I would call tech help at bio-rad. Are the bees all run on their own assay or do you have any results from a plate of some bees and some other amplimer showing this result or are all of the negative results on bee only plates?. If you have a bee pcr band amplified then I agree with Katie A Burnette then this looks like a technical problem possibly something has changed the exes on the graphing so the curves cannot be seen for your bee assay or you have found a way of hiding the display for these samples so the data may be there but just not showing
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I am really wondering to see modern society (money and honey driven society) and the vast inequality of the this society. Even reputed ones are highly influenced with it. What could be the ultimate results of this kind of modern culture in future?
Thank you in advance for your opinion.
Regards,
SP
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Prof. Shukra Raj Paudel: "Money Speaks Louder Than Ethics"!!!???
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I'm working on pollen DNA metabarcoding to identify the floral composition of honey.
How much pre-PCR dilution of mixed-template DNA extracted from pollen (honey) is appropriate for the Metabarcoding?
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Good to know, best of luck with your continuing research.
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I'm studying floral origin of honey samples and noticed that one of the samples ( Linden honey) contains numerous broken pollen grains and a low APC (~6000/10g). Is it normal? Is it something wrong with this honey sample? What might be the reason for this?
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Hi Andreea, you cannot go with the viability test because the pollen in the honey samples are basically "dead". You might consider your methods of preparing the pollen samples and the origin of your honey samples. It is possible that during honey collection, the pollen grains get damaged.
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I need research material or data related to my subtopic: Significance of dancing pattern for honey bees ( A.mellifera) for Review Research.
Preferred time range 2016-....., if you have material before this time range you can share too.
Note: Material should be open source or full text along with APA/Reference.
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Hello,
A research article on honey compares 4 groups (ischemie-reperfusion, honey+ischemia-reperfusion, busulfan, busulfan+honey). Under Results, it says "When SI scores examined, there was a significant increase in the spermatogenic index in the HIR and BH groups (p<0.001)." But on the graph it shows HIR to be lower than IR. So the significant increase is compared to what? To baseline? But I believe they measured SI only. after the experiment. If someone could please clarify?
I have uploaded the article.
Thank you,
Joe.
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There is an error in SI graph and data expression, they are contrary.
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I want to know whate method should i use to determine that the yeast i isolate from honey is osmpohilic and can produce ethanol? i think of using PGYB (peptone glucose yeast broth) media then streak it on PGYA (peptone glucose yeast agar) with enhanced glucose to determine whther it is osmophilic or not and to eliminate the osmophobic yeast, then transfered it again to PGYB for ethanol fermentation, what do you think?
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Please see the attached document
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I am looking at the antimicrobial effects of SurgiHoney and Manuka Honey at 3 different concentrations against P.syringae and L.innocua. I want to compare the results.
I have 10 repeats of each dilution of each honey against both bacterium.
Can someone shed some light on where to start and what test to use? I thought i needed to find the mean of each dilution and then compare those, but that would just be comparing one number ( eg. 12.% dilution mean for manuka against 12.5% dilution mean against Surgihoney)
Any help would be great,
Thanks
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There are a lot of caveats--whatever test you use has assumptions that your data must meet (common assumptions include normal distribution, etc.).
For a situation like this, you may look into matched pair t-tests if you are comparing two sets of dilutions.
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I want to know what can i use yeast and mold isolated from honey for?
I think the yeast or mold might be osmophilic. Or if the honey have been pasteurized it might be thermotolerant also.
will it have a certain characteristics that have a biotechnological or bioprocessing use?
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There are many studies confirm that fungi are found in honey and beehives. So threre are many fungi considered as osmophilic or xerophilic fungi.
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Protein analysis methods are already available in literature but separately for pollen grains, consumable grains (pulse and cereals), honey. In case if one prepares a solid material by combining certain food components, where the character changes, how proetin in that prepared diet can be analyzed?
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I want to know why honey diastase activity must be controlled? What happen if the diastase is to high or to low? and why it is considered a bad product?
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What are the common adulterants in commercial honey? how to identify pure honey and adulterated honey with the help of NMR spectroscopy? Is there any other technique to check purity of honey?
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On the NMR spectrum of high-quality honey, the signal from sucrose will be
weak, and in the honey of bees that were artificially fed with
honey, the signal from sucrose will be significant
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iam sure that solution in honeybee
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No such information is reported, I think.
Thanks
N Das
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I am exploring how probiotics and prebiotics can help honey bees in their fight against diseases and pest. Is it possible to use probiotics and prebiotics supplements, and not chemical treatments, in the bees' fight against these issues?
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The activity of lactic acid bacteria against bee bacterial pathogens are a subject of intensive research now and the results seem promising. Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) may be of special interest for the production of probiotics. Check for example: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41396-019-0541-6
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I have prepared slides of pollen sample collected from honey bee corbicular load, but it looks the pollen grains are of different size, create confusing. Is it possible to get such like that?
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I wasn't aware bees foraged on one species per trip, but I hadn't watched them in such detail. A few other thoughts occurred to me:
You are assuming that the bees are able to unload every single pollen grain that they collect, leaving absolutely no grains inside the pollen sacs between trips. Unless it was the first foraging trip by the bee ever, I would expect to see a few different pollen grains, especially if sampled later in the day.
  • Are you are using clean/fresh equipment between bees, not reusing the same pair of tweezers or whatever you extract pollen with?)
Considering how often you find a piece of food stuck in your teeth hours after your last meal (or is that just me?), is it realistic to think the pollen is completely emptied every time? I don't know the process by which they do it or the equivalent scale to humans:
  • Given the large range of sizes of pollen, what is the human equivalent? i.e. a human hand holding a grape or an apple or a melon?
  • Do bees just squeeze the pollen sacs or do they have an appendage to scrape the pollen out?
  • How variable is the pollen size? You might be looking at a highly variable plant species, or mature/immature pollen (unlikely as it is usually only released when mature), or perhaps hydrated vs dehydrated?
Assuming a single species and a single size class seems to be simplifying things a bit too much. I would suggest investigating the plant species your bees are foraging on in more detail.
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In the 1920s, Karl von Frisch pointed out that bees use special dancing patterns. What scientist or people think about bees communication before its discovery.
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For sure, Adrian and various collaborators of his argued that bees locate foods solely by odours. That was around 1923.
It seems, though, like Von Frisch was the first to witness bee's communication. But you may want to read Ameisen, Bienen und Wespen: Beobachtungen über die Lebensweise der geselligen hymenopteren by John Lubbock (1899). I unfortunately couldn't find a translated version.
However in The Bee Battles: Karl von Frisch, Adrian Wenner and the Honey Bee Dance Language Controversy" by Tanya Munz in 2005, she mentions: " Von Frisch was not the first to investigate insect communication. In his 1923 paper,he already cited nine other well-known authors who’d investigated bee and antcommunication. Buttel-Reepen, 1900, 1912, 1915; Wasmann, 1909 [1899]; Forel, 1910,1924 [1874]; Lubbock, 1883."
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After cross referencing alginate hydrogel properties (common material used in islet cells encapsulation), I saw some of its property have similarities with honey. I wonder are there studies or research about the effect of honey on islet cells if you will observe them by putting islet cells on a petri dish with honey?
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Through my reading of the literature on the classification of honey bees in the world, I did not find an internationally accredited taxonomic study on the Iraqi bee races.
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I think it is because no scientists / funding organizations were not interessed by this issue. So I think that the question is not "why". I think you should ask: is it worth for somebody to study the races of honey bees present in Irak?
and my own response is a big "YEEEEEEESSSSSSSSSS"!!!!!
Why? 1- because my experience in beekeeping in some African countries taught me that the "racial" differences between regions in the same country have a high influence on the hive management and should be learnt before developping a program of rural development based on beekeeping. 2- as citizen of a Middle East country (Israel) it should be interresting to me that a colleague from a neighbooring country could find a/some good unknown races of honey bees that are adapted to the semi-desertic environments of the region, different than the A. mellifera syriaca for exemple, which is "too defensive" in her behaviour. 3- as a researcher in honey bees/beekeeping, I think we have to try to know the maximum about our honey bee characteristics and diferences to "play" with them, and be able, in particular, to use good sides to resulve some problems - for example about their health
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I asked for protein purification, identification and isolation of unknown proteins and test versus GS-9L other than that we already got in our patent WO/2014/040605 - form native sample of honey?!
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Dear Khaled
There are several procedures for protein purification and identification. So search in the literature for one depending on the nature of your protein. The easy technique is ion-exchange chromatography on a column. Following purification, it is convenient, as the first step of characterization, to estimate the protein apparent molecular mass on PAGE, in native conditions, and denaturing conditions using SDS.
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The most important exocrine glands in honey bees found to be implicated in pheromone production come from body regions which include, the head where the mandibular glands are found; the thorax which houses the thoracic salivary glands; and the abdomen where the dufour gland and epidermal glands. Honey bees workers are known to posses nasonov glands where they secrete pheromones which are used to mark potential food resources such as nectar rich or pollen rich flowers... But do stingless bees have nasonov glands ? and if they dont, how do they mark out potential food resources for their nest mates to locate
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This indeed a question of insect chemical ecologist. However, reading the following may help you.
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I have a mix of 3 medicinal plants. I want to know if there is a change after boiling and mixing it with honey?
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TLC, HPLC, GC-MS
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Hi,
Sulfonamide group antibiotics are present as both free and glycosylated conjugates due to bulk carbonhydrate compositions of honey matrix. We are typically using the acid hydrolysis sample pretreatment before total quantification of sulfadimidine residues in honey matrices. I have tested PNGase F enzyme as glycomics agent for selective cleavage of N-linked sugar moities. Further MS based research showed that enzyme is giving main reaction product as parent ion with 263,3 amu. I guess, this is pointing NH2 removal from sulfadimidine after enzymatic incubation.
Is there any alternative way to break the N-linkage (NH2 bound glycans) enzimaticaly without alteration of the structures?
Thanks in advance...
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What kind of PNGase F have you tested ? Have you tried PNGase F-II or Glycopeptidase A ? Take a look on Merck proposes:
I usually stick to these two enzymes and never experienced any problem.
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Due to the fact that I have good results in determination 13C/12C of honey and honey protein, and O18 in wine water, I realize that I don’t have problem in instrument methodology, but in preparation, i.e. destilation of ethanol. Does anyone have the idea of preparing a representative sample of ethanol by distilling the wine, to obtain a good yield and not to change the isotopic composition of the sample? Thank...
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Ethiopian medicinal honey wine
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I want to know speciality of having honey comb structured materials in mechanical property aspects .
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Honeycomb structure provides more strength per unit mass. It has good impact absorbing quality, so it can also be used as an Impact attenuator in cars.
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I am performing a FRAP experiment on honey and I wanted to determine if what is the most suitable incubation time in performing it. As for honey, the incubation time until the plateauing activity can be observed after an hour but I am not sure if whether this is accurate or reliable since reagents tend to degrate over a period of time.
pls help
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I saw some paper mentioned that the content of lipds in honey was zero. Is it true? If there are, I hope to know the content of total lipids in any sepecific honey.
Thanks
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Please take a look at this useful RG link.
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Precise different methods
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I'm doing a study by using honey as my main treatment substance. The problem with honey is, honey collected from different sources have different physicochemical characteristic and its ingredient is also different. Does each honey sources need to undergo separate toxicity test? Human have consume honey for thousand of years and we can relatively say it is safe especially after rigorous standard food post-harvesting processes. 
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I obtained useful information from your reply on this RG question,
Regards for all
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Whats are the anti microbial factors in honey ?
If I add honey to yogurt is honey anti microbial factors will effect yogurt starter activity?
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Many factors have been shown to contribute to the antimicrobial activity of honey, such as its high viscosity, low pH and hydrogen peroxide content.
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How to differentiate between MODY diabetes & Type-1 Honey Moon taking in consideration:
1- Gene mutation test is not available in developing countries
2- C peptide test (either fasting or postprandial) may show good results in both MODY diabetes & type-1 Honey moon temporary partial remission phase
3- GAD antibodies may show positive even in healthy indivuals
4- Antibodies negative result (islet cell antibodies, Anti-insulin antibodies, IA2 antibodies) does not eliminate the possibility of type-1 diabetes (many type-1 cases showed negative antibodies!)
5- The case is under 10 non-obese diabetes without diabetic ketoacidosis
6- Only very strong family history of type-2 diabetes was reported.
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Please check
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the information of honey bees in india , punjab most important and result of colony strength
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Nutrition , honey
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1. Honey Thickness:
  • Pure Honey: It is Fairly thick and takes the time to move from one side of the jar to the other.
  • Fake Honey: Not dense at all. Fake honey is very light and runny.
2. The stickiness of Honey:
  • Pure Honey:  It tends not to be sticky if rubbed between fingers.
  • Fake Honey: It is fairly sticky because of the high percentage of added sweeteners and additives.
3. Taste of the Honey:
  • Pure Honey: The taste vanishes in a matter of minutes. If you heat and cool pure honey, you will alter the taste and kill all healing and nutritional values.
  • Fake Honey: Taste will remain for a little longer because of added sugars and sweeteners.
4. Honey Smell/Aroma:
  • Pure Honey: If experienced, you can actually smell aromas Mild scent, probably the actual smell of the flowers from which the nectar was collected.
  • Fake Honey:  There is mostly none or just industrial sour smell.
5. When Heating honey:
  • Pure Honey: If you heat the pure honey, it caramelizes quickly and does not make foam.
  • Fake Honey:  Never caramelizes and forms the foam and becomes bubbly because of the added moisture, sugars and water..
6. Dissolving Method:
  • Pure Honey:  Doesn’t get dissolved in water, but will lump and settle at the bottom. Gets diluted when stirred for a while. Mixing in equal amounts of honey and methylated spirits, honey settles at the bottom.
  • Fake Honey: Stays incoherent and gets dissolved water right away. Dissolves in methylated spirits while making the solution milky.
7. Flame Test:
  • Pure Honey: If we immerse a matchstick in the honey, it lights easily with no hesitations.
  • Fake Honey: Matchstick does not light easily due to the presence of moisture.
8. Bread Test:
  • Pure Honey: When spreading on a slice of bread, the slice hardens within few minutes.
  • Fake Honey: It gets the bread wet due to moisture content.
9. Absorption Test:
  • Pure Honey: Few drops poured on blotting paper do not get absorbed. When poured on a piece of white cloth, it won’t leave stains.
  • Fake Honey: Gets absorbed into blotting paper. Leaves stains on a white piece of cloth.
10. Impurities:
  • Pure Honey: Presence of impurities: dirty-looking particles, pollen and bee body parties.
  • Fake Honey: Absence of impurities.
11. Egg yolk Test:
  • Pure Honey: When poured into a container with yolk alone and the mixture stirred together the yolk appears like it is cooked.
  • Fake Honey: Has no effect on the yolk.
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For a reasearch and/or source recommentation/provision,
Many thanks, Omer
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Dear Michel,
Many thanks for your kind reply and valuable data provided.
Let's keep in touch, Regards,
Omer
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Social insects like honey bees are able to mount individual defences against disease causing pathogens, as insects innate immunity involves a diverse set of actions including the secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The search for novel AMPs is pointed to the direction of plants as plants could potentially offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against honey bee diseases such as American foul brood and European foul brood. But is this feasible and tenable?
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They could be administered in water too
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I want to find articles that study the health effect of honey and refined sugars
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Refined sugar hampers matabolism and produces obesity and metabolic syndrome.
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The layered nanomaterial i used belongs to triogonal prismatic crystal structure (honeycomb- 2H)
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It doesn't really matter what value you use for the constant in the Scherrer equation as long as you state it in any publication and are aware of the fact that strain and instrumental broadening of the peak(s) is not assessed in the Scherrer equation. Do not use different values for materials in the same family and you'll be able to compare. Most people will use a value around 0.9 although (in theory) the variation could be high.
You may be better utilizing Williamason-Hall.
There's a bunch of discussion on RG on this exact topic. Start here:
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I want to analyze the honey quality including adulteration by FT-NIR(Fourier transform near infrared )spectroscopy diffuse refelectance measurement mode .please i need information by any one of you who have experience on this area ?
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A quick search for "honey" "ftir" "adulteration" in Google Scholar returns over 1000 results, the first one is the following paper, dating from 2001:
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Dear all
I am studying about ripening of honey which is practiced naturally in beehives. I then encountered a new term "Artificial ripening of honey". I am not getting any information about this on review/research papers and other websites. Kindly help in this regard. What is artificial ripening of honey? Is it a fraud or way of adulteration or standard practice in beekeeping?
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Different honey bees have different jobs. Some of these bees are “forager” bees, which collect nectar from flowering plants. The foragers drink the nectar, and store it in their crop, which is also called the "honey stomach". The crop is used solely for storage, and the bee does not digest the nectar at all. The forager bee then takes the nectar back to the hive, regurgitating the nectar directly into the crop of a “processor” bee at or near the entrance to the hive. While the forager heads back to the flowers for more nectar, the processor bee takes the nectar to the honeycomb, which tends to be near the top of the hive, and regurgitates it into a hexagonal wax cell. But now the nectar needs to ripen. The processor bees add an enzyme called invertase every time they regurgitate their nectar (and it takes many loads of nectar to fill a cell). The nectar consists largely of sucrose (table sugar) and water. The invertase breaks the sucrose down into two simpler sugars: glucose (blood sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar). By definition, honey contains less than 18.6 percent water, but water usually makes up approximately 70 percent of nectar. During the ripening process, the bees “dry out” the nectar. One of the ways they do this is by fanning their wings, which creates airflow around the honeycomb and helps water evaporate from the nectar. Once the nectar has ripened into honey, it contains so little water that no microbes can grow in it. It is called 'natural ripening of honey'.
But some times due to some unfavourable conditions natural ripening is not possible. So, nectar contains water. It leads to deterioration of honey during storage. This situation demands artificial ripening. So, we can define 'artificial ripening' as the removal of moisture by some artificial method which is not done by honey bee itself.
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Flowering of Dillenia pentagyna. The tree bloomed yesterday morning at CEC BNHS. There wasn't a single leaf. When I was passing under the tree I could hear the buzzing sound of hundreds of honey bees feasting on the nectar and helping in pollination. I went to see the flowers again in the afternoon and the road under the tree was golden yellow with the sprinkle of petals of the tree. All flowers had shed the petals and only few honey bees could be seen on the tree. The flowering was over. Here are three photographs. Another tree had blossomed 18th June 2019. At BNHS Conservation Education Centre (CEC), Goregaon, Mumbai. Dt. 19 June 2019.
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A one-day blooming flowers are well known in mass flowering trees that carry a very high number of flowers and relatively a small number of fruits. This reproductive strategy allows an effective competition among the potential progenies. An avocado tree carries about one million flowers during a flowering season of 4-6 weeks. Each flower opens for 5 hours as a female, close for the night, and opens again on the following day for another 5 hours as a male. So it is receptive for less than a day. Out of the one million flowers on a tree only 2-5% succeed to set, about 40,000 small fruits per tree, and out of these small fruits about 1% only grow for adult fruits. Therefore, a competition for pollination is carried among the female flowers, and a similar competition for visitation happen among the male ones as well. A more severe competition on the tree is in force among the tens thousands of small fruits, which carry combinations of both male and female traits.
Mass flowering trees' flowers are open for only a day to allow as many flowers as possible along the limited blooming season. However, a tree that carries many one-day blooming flowers, which all open simultaneously on the same day looks strange. It is too risky.
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I am making a research about the bee foraging plants. It is known that pollen contents of honey that comes from nectariferous plants reflects the botanical origin of honey. But some plants such as orchid and Anacamtis (orchidaceae) produce pollinium rather than the pollen grains that famous to all people. In my field observation i saw bees visit Orchidaceae plants & feeding on their nectar. My question is there any article or publication or a way describes how to detect honey originating from Orchidaceae which produce pollinia rather than pollen or it is not possible.
My second question Rex Sawyer in his book (honey Identification 1988) showed pollen grains of Asclepias Sp. in honey from North America. What is the intertpretation of this because asclepias produces pollinium not pollen (see its picture in https://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_JLL38&res=640). Is it because the pollinium rapture and releases its pollen which detected in the honey.
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Yes, pollinium looks rather different under a microscope than pollen, so it is easy to recognize in a honey by melissopalynology. But in the honeys I am studying until now, I exceptionnally see pollinium. You can make a reference slide of this species, or if necessary, with samples of the pollinium, I can prepare you a reference slide.
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Dear colleagues,
We have a Nanodrop model (Nano-300 AllSheng) which allows for scanning samples from 200-800 nm. I was thinking whether it could be used as an alternative to more sophisticate methods of sample compositional analysis, e.g. purity of honey?
I was wondering if anyone here has ever experimented to use a nanodrop in that context, instead of usual DNA/RNA purity or protein dosage analyses. Please provide any relevant insights.
Thanks in advance,
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I have returned to answer my own question, and encourage colleagues to break the habit and try out Nanodrops with samples other than DNA/RNA.
I have successfully employed this machine in rapidly assessing the purity of alkaloid extractions, using synthetic analogues as controls. No cross-contamination nor other issues with the equipment were perceived, provided we cleaned the equipment properly with compatible solvents between each use.
My paper describing the method is available below:
Raw data is available at:
Hope this discussion inspires others.
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Dear Sir/Madam,
I have started research works on collection and identification of different species of Alphitobius genus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alphitobiini) associated with honey bee colonies. Further, also share taxonomic key information regarding the same.
Thanks & regards,
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Thanks a lot dear Tharaka Wijerathna .....regards.
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I was told that pure, original honey is safe for diabetic patients.
Is this true?
What about if those bees were fed artificial sweet syrup/glucose based?
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Both honey and refined sugar contain high amounts of carbohydrates. Indeed it has been shown that honey also has carbs in the form of glucose and fructose which are simple sugars found in processed ones. With respect to honey's usefulness as a proxy for processed sugar in diabetes, reports show that honey is better compared to refined sugar. Some studies indicate that switching from refined sugar to honey may help keep blood glucose levels down, reduce inflammatory markers and improve levels of cholesterol which are essential in the management of diabetes. In one of such studies, people fed with 75g of solution containing honey resulted in raised blood sugar and insulin levels in those with and without type 2 diabetes within 30 minutes with blood glucose of those using refined sugar being marginally higher than honey. After 2 hours, the blood sugar levels reduced, remaining lower in the honey group, compared with the refined sugar group. This suggest that honey may improve insulin levels, which is key in diabetes.
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I watched a documentary, "Rotten", that explored the various methods of honey adulteration. The high demand for honey with the sharp decline in honeybees are a concern.
Seems such practice of honey adulteration is widely practiced.
As consumers, how can we know pure honey from altered ones?
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" ( Wang, S., Guo, Q., Wang, L., Lin, L., Shi, H., Cao, H., & Cao, B. (2015). Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography. Food chemistry, 172, 669-674)
Abstract
According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3–7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5–7.5% and 10–100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology".
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Hi,
I'm trying to detect Sugars (frucose, glucose, maltose and sucrose) in honey using a HPLC method. This method is based on a existing method from an article. I'm using an altima amino colomn and a RID-A Detector. In the results fructose and maltose are two merging peaks. How can i seperate them? I've already tried a lower flow rate and different eluens compositions. My eluens was first (65:35) acetonitrile/water (from the article) and then (80:20) acetonitrile/water. There was no difference detected. I'm very new to the HPLC so i hope you could give me some hints on what i'm doing wrong.
Thanks.
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Using an Amino column under the conditions, you described means that you are running HILIC conditions. I am a big fan of HILIC, but sometimes it is a bit tricky. First: In HILIC acetonitrile (ACN) is the weak eluent, while water is a strong eluent. Hence, the samples must not be present in a pure aqueous solution. Why? Because if they are, you will co-inject the strong eluent, which in other words can and will cause the separation to "collapse." Hence my first suggestion is to prepare the standards with a high concentration of organic solvent (ACN).
Your move towards higher ACN concentrations is a good one, as this should improve the separation - remember ACN is the "weaker eluent."
Then: You might not like the following: If your samples contain reducing sugars, the amino columns tend to age, due to the formation of what is known "Schiff-base." Hence, how old is the column, and was it in use before for the analysis of sugars?
Consider the column temperature as well. Usually, we chromatographers tend to think in "the higher, the better" when it comes to temperature. Which in most of the cases is true, for all the benefits of reduced backpressures, higher efficiencies due to increasing diffusion processes... There is however a BUT...
But there are many examples out there where cooling the column (or generally speaking using the column at lower temperatures) had significant benefits. Keep an eye on the column backpressure as viscosity will increase with decreasing temp, but you should be okay with the high ACN concentrations.
Finally, HILIC is one way of separating sugars. And w/o knowing better, I'd assume that you are after higher concentrations (RI-detector!). You can use this detector also in conjunction with other separator columns like ligand exchange columns. Those are cation exchangers loaded with different cations (H, Ca, Ba, Ag). You can have such columns from different vendors, but maybe you find such a column in your institute.
A good starting point for method searches is this free database:
I did a quick search for Carbohydrates and HPLC, and there are several interesting HILIC entries.
I hope this is of some help.
Good luck with your research
Detlef.
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Please share your insights and references on the scientifically proven health benefits of honey.
Is there a difference between honey types in this regards?
Is it true that diabetic patients can take natural honey but not the commercially produced ones?
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Dear Mohamad-Hani, here are the recent reviews on the question:
Nguyen HTL, Panyoyai N, Kasapis S, Pang E, Mantri N. Honey and Its Role in Relieving Multiple Facets of Atherosclerosis. Nutrients 2019;11(1):E167. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356546/pdf/nutrients-11-00167.pdf
Cianciosi D, Forbes-Hernández TY, Afrin S, Gasparrini M, Reboredo-Rodriguez P, Manna PP, Zhang J, Bravo Lamas L, Martínez Flórez S, Agudo Toyos P, Quiles JL, Giampieri F, Battino M. Phenolic Compounds in Honey and Their Associated Health Benefits: A Review. Molecules 2018;23(9):E2322. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225430/pdf/molecules-23-02322.pdf
Zulkhairi Amin FA, Sabri S, Mohammad SM, Ismail M, Chan KW, Ismail N, Norhaizan ME, Zawawi N. Therapeutic Properties of Stingless Bee Honey in Comparison with European Bee Honey. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2018;2018:6179596. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327266/pdf/APS2018-6179596.pdf
Bobiş O, Dezmirean DS, Moise AR. Honey and Diabetes: The Importance of Natural Simple Sugars in Diet for Preventing and Treating Different Type of Diabetes. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018;2018:4757893. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817209/pdf/OMCL2018-4757893.pdf
Miguel MG, Antunes MD, Faleiro ML. Honey as a Complementary Medicine. Integr Med Insights 2017;12:1178633717702869. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5406168/pdf/10.1177_1178633717702869.pdf
Pasupuleti VR, Sammugam L, Ramesh N, Gan SH. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017;2017:1259510. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5549483/pdf/OMCL2017-1259510.pdf
Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS. Honey--a novel antidiabetic agent. Int J Biol Sci 2012;8(6):913-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3399220/pdf/ijbsv08p0913.pdf
Best wishes from Germany, Martin
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For my work i need to know the methods of oligosacchrides in honey
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Hi!
I think you should be able determine oligosacchrides in honey with the same methods used in determining them from plants or legumes. Nowadays, there several methods for that ranging from HPLC-RID/ELSD to TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography). You will need to extract the oligosaccharides using ethanol and led acetate.
Regards!
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Some findings suggest a medical care of cataract by honey
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Please take a look at this useful RG link.
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I need the explanation on the methods to analysis of phytochemicals
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@Teferi Damto
You can use UV-Vis spectrophotometer only to quantify the phytochemicals. You cannot use it for qualitative analysis.
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