Science topics: History
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Would Adolf Hitler have the necessary time, energy, determination and anger to take over Germany and start World War II if he had been given a job by the German government after Germany lost World War I?
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Many historians consider the Treaty of Versailles (1919) as the root cause of WWII. The Treaty of Versailles imposed insurmountable reparations on Germany, loss of land, and restriction on the military, and forced that country to accept responsibility for WWI. By so doing, the treaty contributed to a festering economic, social, and political climate that made many Germans receptive to Hitler (and his ilk), thence the National Socialist German Workers' Party's plans to restore Germany to its former glory.
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Hi, I need this paper to observe a subject on fashion through history. Does anybody has a full text of this paper from the journal Tekstil, vol 60 number 10 pages 518-to 521  ?
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Hi,
This was a question for a project of five years ago, but thanks anyway.
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Totalitarianism and ideologies have often ensured that political, historical, philosophical, scientific, and artistic ideas conform to what the rulers consider correct. This has led to scientific impostures and rewritings of history, which are ethically questionable if not unacceptable. Illustration: Skulls from the collection of Samuel Morton, one of the American fathers of "scientific racism", illustrate his classification of humanity into five races (fruits, according to him, of five divine decisions), which today are outdated. Left to right: Black American woman and white man, Native Mexican man, Chinese woman and Malaysian man, PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT CLARK/ UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
This forum is intended as a platform for discussion and exchange on the topic where all examples and illustrations are welcome.
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The Euro-Atlantic world put a geopolitical price tag on Ukraine
The principle of force remains at the heart of international relations
Motives for its use may be different. From the point of view of realpolitik, Russia's motives in this case are just. The current Ukraine is an artificial formation, like most of the modern post-Soviet republics, including Azerbaijan. But this is not about the fact that artificiality does not give the right to life and independence. Again, from the point of view of real politics, all historical constructions are somehow artificial in nature. The categories of "who is older," "who is wiser," and "who deserves more" are useless unless "I can" and "I do" are backed up. Ukraine had 30 years to prove its right to sovereign existence in the geopolitical jungle. But instead of using the human, scientific and industrial infrastructural potential left over from the Soviet Empire and forming its statehood on this basis, Kyiv chose a simpler path - the identity of opposing itself to Russia. The form “I am a titular Orthodox Ukrainian, not an Orthodox Russian” is understandable. Many used such technologies, but the local "elites" did not fill it with content.
The Euro-Atlantic path of development is a form that also lacked content. Why? It is impossible to become a part of this supranational identity by jumping over the stage of forming one's own. You cannot go into the home of self-sufficient Americans, French, Germans, British and Dutch without understanding who you are and what contribution you can make to the family. Such elites will not allow you to be part of their core, but you are always welcome to use your ardent and suicidal desire to prove loyalty. The problem is not that Ukraine wanted to join the EU and NATO, but that it wanted to do it at any cost. And this price was clear from the very beginning - to contain Russia and be a constant threat and irritant for her. Unfortunately, it was not statesmen who were in power in Kyiv, but manipulators-compradors who solved two problems - to maintain power and steal more from the national wealth.
Was Moscow supposed to put up with this from the point of view of the school of realism? No. Nor should the States put up with Soviet missiles in Cuba (which President Kennedy called "our backyard"). Since 2000, Moscow has been proposing to start a multilateral process of developing a new European security architecture, but hears only "we are not conducting dialogues on equal terms with the losers in the Cold War." Immortal rules of realpolitik: if you want to be heard - force it, if you want to be equal - get it. The call to dialogue does not work, only the force that inspires fear works. This is the only way to achieve your goals in realpolitik. The Euro-Atlantic world has placed a geopolitical price tag on Ukraine. How else to explain the fact that no one is in a hurry to fight for a “dear and valuable” colleague who has been promised a place at the family table for decades, but is kept in a room for servants and guests. Russia immediately offered a place at the table in her family, but Ukraine prefers the golden spoons and forks of the euro table. This can be understood, but not constant threats and opposition. Nothing personal, just geopolitics!
This crisis should be a lesson for countries that prefer to become part of other teams at any cost, instead of building their own independent state with their work, intelligence and pragmatism. President George Washington said it best: “A nation that treats another nation with habitual hatred or habitual kindness is, in a way, a slave. Such a nation is a slave to its hostility or its good feelings, either of the two is enough to lead it away from its duty and interests.
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Memory policies promote places, monuments and even objects as memorial records of a past that should be remembered and celebrated as registers of a culture and identity. Through activities framed in pedagogies of memory, schools insert in their didactic activities the visit to places of memory. But is the pedagogy of memory dependent on memory policies established in educational policies or encouraged by national educational strategies? Can we say that memory policies pave the way to the establishment of memory pedagogy in school activities?
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Schools operate in highly-regulated, often non-marketized, environments that are rigidly defined by and measured through external inspection, including examination-based student learning improvement performance targets. Schools are required to meet government, local authority, and other performance measures. In the Foucauldian sense, therefore, it ought not surprise that the pedagogy of memory should be driven via school activities by memory policies that are rooted in national educational strategies.
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I am conducting research in the area of heritage planning and conservation. Heritage Impact Assessment(HIA) is necessary before any kind of change or development in the built environment around a heritage site within a defined regulated area to determine its impacts on the potential of heritage. In India, it has now become mandatory by the National Monument Authority (NMA) in case of any centrally protected monument. Visual Impact Assessment is a very important component of an HIA to asses any future impact on the overall landscape of the place around the heritage site. To be precise, according to NMA guidelines, it is required to check the skyline concerning the heritage site, any visual obstruction in views of the heritage site, shadow on the heritage site due to new development, and consideration from building design bye-laws.
Guideline for HIA by NMA can be found here: https://www.nma.gov.in/documents/20126/51838/HIA+Report.pdf
From the available example of HIA reports, I understood that experts are using 3D software, first to model the existing structures and then adding the proposed structure to generate the views in the form of images/renders to visualise the projected development. Sometimes, it is done by only drawing a section and marking the human eye angle. I am not sure how they are validating these views. From these images/renders only, one can not say very definitively whether these are accurate or not. Also, I am unsure about the view/camera point selection.
I have not been able to find any study on the assessment of the overall visual quality of the surrounding area due to new changes.
It would be great if you know of any study or documents or share some light on this.
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check the pdf. below.
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What is the current consensus among historians and other scholars? Apart from his alleged relationship with Mrs. Crawford that compromised his political career, did Dilke have other clandestine romantic liaisons?
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Sorry,I don't konw this history.
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I am interested in trans-Atlantic news dissemination in understanding how the revolutions of 1848-49 were diffused to the new world by newspapers and other information outlets.
Ultimately, I'm hoping to identify and read specific issues from European newspapers that would have arrived by boat in New York, Boston, Montreal. I want to know the dates stories were published (in EU) and what date those arrived in North America.
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I cannot give you a specific date and title of the journal. but I think you will find relevant information in Timothy Mason Roberts' book "Distant Revolutions: 1848 and the Challenge to American Uniqueness" link: https://books.google.pl/books?hl=pl&lr=&id=9-Rzwwo6kZYC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=newspapers+in+New+York+in+1848+in+the+face+of+the+revolutionary+events+of+the+Spring+of+Nations&ots=zWa1eliiAD&sig=ZSs82Kv6zuSHlmEjLiapcz9NEbU&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
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https://www.researchgate.net/project/Ancient-Hydrological-Knowledge-and-Old-Hydraulic-Structures Can we share information about ancient hydrological knowledge, old hydraulic techniques, and ancestral water management methods
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The Central Bank of Tunisia (BCT) has put into circulation a new banknote of 5 dinars (type 2022) with a dimension of 143 mm x 73 mm, bearing the image of the engineer and left-wing activist and agricultural engineer , Slaheddin Amami (1936-1986); Tunisian agricultural engineer who had initiated the reform of the Tunisian hydrological system. He has made important contributions, in particular to the agricultural problems of arid and semi-arid zones, and more particularly, to the genius of local populations to adapt to them by developing ancestral knowledge on the management of water and soil resources, explaining the foundations of dryland farming in southern Mediterranean countries.
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Although this is not a new theme, the phenomena of "memory manipulation" and "politics of memory" always seem current to us. Even though they are different terms, they are close from a semantic point of view. Memory policies resort to manipulating memory using conditioning actions that, in some aspects, recall Skinner's reinforcement schemes. Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes have adopted this strategy in the iconography of classrooms and the contents of school textbooks. Thus, we can point to the school as a space where the propaganda of non-democratic political regimes intensified their politics of memory? Can the same phenomenon also be observed in democratic regimes?
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Thank you very much for your comment. Personal opinions are critical to building good reflections together. We can discuss education in many aspects (formal, non-formal, cultural, etc.). Similarly, we can talk about memory politics from a positive perspective of remembering and protecting the past and identities (cultural, regional or national) or negative (manipulations with ideological and nationalistic objectives). I agree with both themes and aspects that we must apply systematic observation (research) to build a scientific approach to this problem.Many thanks again.
Best regards,
Rooney Pinto
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The 2023 ranking is available through the following link:
QS ranking is relatively familiar in scientific circles. It ranks universities based on the following criteria:
1- Academic Reputation
2- Employer Reputation
3- Citations per Faculty
4- Faculty Student Ratio
5- International Students Ratio
6- International Faculty Ratio
7- International Research Network
8- Employment Outcomes
- Are these parameters enough to measure the superiority of a university?
- What other factors should also be taken into account?
Please share your personal experience with these criteria.
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Cenk Tan; There are, of course, several websites that rank the universities worldwide. However, QS is the most famous of which.
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I address this dilemma to historians and anthropologists. Is it or is it not beneficial to colorize archival photographs using artificial intelligence? When I first discovered this possibility it all seemed beneficial, but after reading more I also saw ethical challenges. I am interested in the perspective of historians and anthropologists, and I am looking for further literature recommendations.
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Sometimes it may be useful to use the method of coloring .. but it does not necessarily have to be successful in all cases
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Dear colleagues,
I was trying to find texts of some of the capitulations treaties of the Ottoman Empire with European powers, as I am preparing study material. However, I was able to find only doctrinal sources (articles) quoting them, but no full text or parts of their texts.
Can anyone help me where to find their texts, ideally online in english. It can be any typical capitulations agreement like with England, France, Venice, Russia or any other. Just to give some examples in the study book to prove the point what they were about.
Thank you in advance!
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I read somewhere that it began in 1845, just want to confirm.
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Yellow journalism is an exaggerated, exploitative, sensational style of newspaper reporting. It emerged at the end of the nineteenth century when rival newspaper publishers competed for sales in the coverage of events leading up to and during the Spanish-American War in 1898.
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Hello everyone,
I´m in the next couple of months writing my dissertation. My thinking is along the lines of: Corporate heritage/history colliding with innovation and relevancy for the upcoming generation (millennials) in the luxury watch market. Especially the following paper has peeked my interest: "The corporate heritage brand paradox: Managing the tension between continuity and change in luxury brands"
However, there is also a lot of conflicting material and papers out there on the millennials, and not sure if I would end up studying two separate matters with this topic.
My question is if someone has any tips on how to attack this? If you have some expertise on the topics, and willing to share some thoughts/info/guidance it would be of great help. Ultimately, any help or feedback is very much appreciated!
Best,
Ario
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Hi Iranmanesh,
I am curious to hear how your thesis progressed, I am quite keen on studying a topic within the same industry of horology for my Bachelor's thesis.
Cheers
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The anti-establishment ethos of New Historicism wasprofoundly influenced by Foucault's theories of Power/Knowledge and Discourse. what does new historicism owe to foucault?
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The anti-establishment ethos of New Historicism was profoundly influenced by Foucault's theories of Power/Knowledge and Discourse. His primary concern has been with power's relationship to the discursive formations in society that make knowledge.
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I'd love to see a rough sketch of how the task would go.
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  1. Give students raw data and ask them to write an argument or analysis based on the data.
  2. Have students explore and write about unfamiliar points of view or “what if” situations.
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Is The Bureau of Archives within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China accessible to foreign researchers? Thank you!
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Ithink it's hard for foreign researchers!
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Einstein acted somewhat reluctantly as an expert witness during WWI on a patent dispute between a US company and a German company producing gyrocompasses. In a paper to a World Patent Information journal I summarised the details. Any further information on Einstein during WWI would be valuable.
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May you could also check the book: Einstein's War: How Relativity Triumphed Amid the Vicious Nationalism of World War I by Matthew Stanley a professor of the history of science at New York University,
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Are you interested in the application of complex systems to the global history of humankind? I'm working on such a project, and I'm interested in discussions with like-minded people.
I published several articles on that in "The Complex Systems" journal (thecomplexsystems.com). A short overview of my work is in my blog (vtorvich.com) and the description of my book "Subsurface History of Humanity: Direction of History" on Amazon.
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All classifications are up to people.
Everybody will tell you that the history of humanity started around 5,150 years ago. Of course, not the same wording would be used. The phrase would be like this. The history of mankind is recorded history. In other words, our history began only when humanity invented writing.
The reason is simple and very convincing. The magic word is convenience. It is much easier to work with historical facts and artifacts if you have written records about them. It is hard to work with only archeological or similar data. The history with existed written records is a comfort zone for everybody. Any choice of the beginning of the history of humankind as a date before first writing will throw researchers and the public out of this comfort zone.
When did the Agricultural Revolution happen? Well, it began many thousands of years before writing was invented. If the history of mankind began in 3150 BC, then that revolution is thrown from the history of humanity into prehistory.
I consider humankind's history, as the one, which started in 42000 BC. Why exactly at this date?
You could read it in my book - https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08WZCVDTD.
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A while ago I attended a course titled "Contemporary Themes in History" which was essentially events of the 20th century, however, thought thematically. What I'm looking for is the particular textbook which followed the same structure. and it had hand picked interesting chapters such as on: cultural revolution, feminism, Islamic fundamentalism.
I have been trying to search for it on Google search engine, however, I'm totally incapable of finding anything related to "textbooks" only some results for popular non-academic books!
Any advice/suggestion are appreciated.
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See there is lot of books available regarding 20th century. But it didn't contain the same theme of the conference that you have been attended. May be they could collect the theme by referring so many books
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In Wikipedia (English), the article "John Wanamaker" tells that 
  • the first "Fixed Price" retail Price Tag appeared in 1861 at Oak Hall, at Sixth and Market Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This was the invention of John Wanamaker.
  • Oak Hall grew substantially based on Wanamaker's then-revolutionary principle: "One price and goods returnable".
 The article notes:
  • One could argue that the Sumerian culture established some of the concepts of Fixed Pricing along with perhaps Bennetts Of Irongate in Derby, United Kingdom, however these are not the system-wide retail Fixed Pricing systems and Tags we know in a modern context.
  •  Wanamaker was an innovator, creative in his work, a merchandising genius, and proponent of the power of advertising, though modest and with an enduring reputation for honesty.
  • Although he did not invent the fixed price system, he is credited for the creation of the price tag; he popularized it into what became the industry standard and did create the money-back guarantee that is now standard business practice.
 In article "Department Store" (Wikipedia), we read
  • One of the first department stores may have been Bennett's in Derby, first established as an ironmongers in 1734. It still stands to this day, trading in the same building. However, the first reliably dated department store to be established, was Harding, Howell & Co, which opened in 1796 on Pall Mall, London.
In the textbook of History of Japanese Economic History, the story of Mitsui Takatoshi is famous (Mitsui is family name and Takatoshi is his given name.).
In 1673, he founded a cloth shop in Edo (now Tokyo) named Echigoya and started the system "payment with no overcharges" (meaning fixed one-price) and "selling cloth by inches". Although there was harassment from other shops, it prospered and it is told that this fixed one-price system spread afterwards. Echigoya was the origin of all Mitsui companies.
I wonder if Mitusi Takatoshi is the first person who publicly announced fixed one-price policy. Does someone know a case of older date where a kind of fixed one-price policy  was announced publicly?
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I found two additional information on the beginning of one-price system.
One is noted in Werner Sombard's Liebe, Luxus und Kapitalisum.(1922). Sombard notes that it was Au Petit Dunkerque, a bijoux shop, situated at 3 Quai Conti (6e Arr.), Paris. Somard cites a book by Mercier published in 1783. The note appears in number (4) of the short history of silk industry in Section 2, Chapter5. (p.277 in Japanese translation Kodansha Gakujutsu Bonko).
Another information is given by Neil McKendrick in McKendrick, Brewer and Plumb (1982/2018) The Birth of a Counsuemer Society. He writes in page 86:
  • what James Lackingtonhad tried to introduce in 1780 -- fixed prices and no credit -- was regarded as being established by 1800, and by 1821 a single fixed 'No ABATEMENT' linen draper was reported to be taking £500 a day and employing thirty assistants.
The Echigoya case of 1683 (See my three posts above) precedes about one century before one-price, no abatement and no credit system seemed to be introduced in Paris and London.
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I want to expand and publish a chapter of my dissertation which focuses on the question of social housing. Does anyone know where I can publish small books regarding social sciences, in particular art and architecture?
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Dear Rahmat, it depends whether you want to publish your book in a renown publishing house (such as Springer Nature or Elsevier), or whether you would be fine with just publishing it somewhere. There are lots of self-publishing models such as Lulu, Blurb or CreateSpace. You can read more here: https://mashable.com/2009/03/01/publish-book/?europe=true
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Please let us discuss this New Year Riddle:
Why does the New Year begin with January 1 of all days on a normal day of the solar year, explicitly 11 days after winter solstice?
Why is the beginning of the year not on another day of the year, like for example 5, 10 or 15 days after winter solstice or at the spring or autumn equinox, or any other day?
What is the reason for the beginning of the New Year just on this day of the solar year? Please post here your ideas in this discussion.
If you think to know the correct answer please send an email to calendersign@gmx.at.
As the first you will receive a copy of the German book STERNSTUNDE by Sepp Rothwangl.
Have fun and a happy New Year
Sepp Rothwangl
CEP -238.947
SEAC Fellow
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The evolution of the modern western calendar ("Gregorian Calendar") is well described in these Wikipedia articles:
Calendar evolution seems to have been guided by a chaotic intersection of religious, social, economic, and political issues, with no one factor completely responsible.
. Additionally, from personal observation when discussing "significant calendar modifications" with family members, and from historical records of protests around such changes, we find that many average people have "Reified" abstract calendar concepts (those beyond the objectively observable components of Solar-Day, Lunar-Month, and Solar-Seasonal-Year), and get very confused and upset in response to such changes. (Eg: British Calendar Riots of 1752.)
. Also, many highly-religious people believe that their calendar was created by god, and consider any organized social attempt to "change the calendar" as insane blasphemy. (Eg: Biblical Genesis imputes that god created the 7-day work week.)
. When combined with the basic astronomical problem of reconciling a solar year with approximately 12.368 lunar "moonths" and 325.25 terrestrial solar days - everyday mathematical disharmonies that have perpetually irked civilized humans - it would seem to be a near miracle that the modern western calendar has been so relatively stable since 1582, and a sad necessity that the calendar year begins 10-11 days after the Winter Solstice.
---
(Caveat: these are my considered opinions based in reliable and well-reasoned encyclopedic sources; I have no recognized academic expertise in this field.)
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Hello friends,
I want to get my Ph.D. in social movements and protest politics in Pakistan. Are there authoritative research books/articles written on the history of social movements and protest politics in Pakistan?
After a month of search, I couldn't find a single book, though there are several research articles written on the topic but these are just case studies of some events.
Is there any theoretical work done or going on in the field?
Thanks
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We are living in a world that sometimes two brothers or sisters may not understand each other. In such a situation, a number of historical records, literature phrases, and similar subjects may get confused or misused.
The question is here how physics may solve those kinds of difficulties.
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Sure. For example, the emissions of night lights maps contribute to an understanding of the geographic distribution of the population. The spectral emissions based on physical foundations.
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Can the second-language version, strictly speaking, be considered a translation of the first-language version or is it merely a somewhat looser interpretation? How do such authors approach the task? How are the two versions produced (e.g. conjointly or serially?) and how closely are they related?
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There is an emerging subfield of translation studies called “self-translation studies,” and there are a lot of studies already done on this topic. Eva Gentes has compiled a bibliography on self-translation.  You'll find a number of projects on self-translation on RG as well.
I myself have published articles on the topic. In my view, self-translation is “rewriting,” ”reworking,” “re-creation,” and “translation of the self.” Please see: e.g.,
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Dear Researchers, What if Covid-19 ends and returns in a new way with a new challenge ? Are we prepared enough to face that? I think it largely depends on our (human) reactions and activities. Our awareness, preparedness and a potential vaccine can save us this time by the grace of the almighty. Scientific invention and natural conservation may resist the return of this kinda virus as per as global warming is a rising concern. On the other hand, if it is a part of global politics (Bio-war) among super powers, only God knows what is waiting for us, the common people/countries. Because , I am afraid if it so, there might be counter attack. Lets see what is waiting for us. What do you think in this regard? -Shamsuddoha
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I agree with your perception, There may be a great chance that 2019-CoV Virus will return with higher resistance or maybe some other virus will intervene in our lives. We cannot deny the chance of bio-war either, So definitely its time to rethink for the society to adapt techniques for less contagious and higher Immunity conscious working lifestyle. And yes this is not the end, Just an Ignition!
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Dear Colleagues around the world at RG,
This is an open forum for your comments. RG is one place where people from all over can exchange views.
The world is a rather hostile and violently competitive place in many aspects. That is not new.
But along with frightening news and media coverage, I do see people forming new pathways to work together. Do yo think that this will help to foster cooperatve behavior as a stimulus?
I think that anthropologists, sociologists, historians, creative field workers in the arts and humanities all can answer this Q from their own field's perspective.
How can we make this happen? That include people in rhetoric and communications, those in public health, manufacturers, etc.
What do you have to share?
This proverb may come from China. The sources say it is difficult to pin down:
"It is better to light just one little candle than to curse the darkness."
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Just as the ocean is made of many droplets. sometimes we can be the change we wish to see.
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I'm attempting to build a hypothesis about the Gupta Empire of classical India, and am interested in understanding monsoon and temperature levels. Tree rings, Himalayan ice cores, any leads would be great!
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Dear Anirudh,
You will find a lot of papers based on the past 2000 yrs of climate history in India. Few of them
1. Yadava and Ramesh 2005: Monsoon reconstruction from radiocarbon-dated tropical Indian speleothems
2. Sinha et al., 2011: The leading mode of Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation variability during the last millennium
3. Sinha et al., 2015: Trends and oscillations in the Indian summer monsoon rainfall over the last two millennia....................................
Important review papers...................
Misra et al., 2019: Holocene climate records from lake sediments in India: Assessment of coherence across climate zones
Dixit and Tandon 2016: Hydroclimatic variability on the Indian subcontinent in the past millennium: Review and assessment
Please also go through the papers from the Himalayan region based on pollens and treen rings. You will get a lot of information.
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My perusal of the literature in the field shows that constructivism has been used majorly in studies on learner-centered instruction. Are there any other relevant theories, models or frameworks available?
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هناك الكثير من الاستراتيجيات والنماذج والطرق التدريسية الحديثة التي يمكن ان يستخدمها المعلم مثل استراتيجيات حل المشكلات استراتيجيات التفكير او العصف الذهني وغيرها كلها تتمركز حول المتعلم وتجعل من المتعلم محور العملية التعليمية
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Hello everyone,
I´m in the next couple of months writing my dissertation. My thinking is along the lines of: Corporate heritage/history colliding with innovation and relevancy for the upcoming generation (millennials) in the luxury watch market. Especially the following paper has peeked my interest: "The corporate heritage brand paradox: Managing the tension between continuity and change in luxury brands"
However, there is also a lot of conflicting material and papers out there on the millennials, and not sure if I would end up studying two separate matters with this topic.
My question is if someone has any tips on how to attack this? If you have some expertise on the topics, and willing to share some thoughts/info/guidance it would be of great help. Ultimately, any help or feedback is very much appreciated!
Best,
Ario
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I will for sure have a good read at that, thanks a lot Michael!
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It consists in no one realizing for 91 years that Zwicky 1929 was right with his explanation of the Hubble law.
And so even after he was proven correct by Cryodynamics a decade ago.
Forgive me for putting it so bluntly.
May 20, 2020
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Now again 4 months have passed...
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Hi! I'm looking for theories, methods and approaches to study the history/evolution/conception of a given concept/term/label/topic within a given scientific discipline, mainly through the (textual) analysis of the discipline's (pivotal) writings. I'm particularly interested in approaches that would draw from ontology, terminology, conceptual analysis, conceptual history, historiography, etc., but I don't really know where to start. I'm especially interested in what the discipline's most influential writers have to say about a specific object, however they might have labelled it, and how the discipline's various theories and approaches regard that object. The approach would have to work both semasiologically (from a label to its concepts) and onomasiologically (from a concept to its labels), as there is no necessary relation between a given label and a given concept. Any ideas? Thank you very much!
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For the evolution of a mathematical conception you might look at Imre Lakatos, Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery.
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I spent the past few months interning as an independent researcher at the Field Museum in Chicago. Here, I spent my time observing the design procedure that leads up to the creation of a context-focused exhibition. The term culminated with a paper at the end on the nature of objects in such exhibitions. I'm currently looking for places which can help me review, edit, and publish this work. Any direction would be helpful!
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Some journals will accept conceptual papers, i.e. not based on empirical data collection. But you would still need to draw on the academic literature.
Here is my recommended structure for a conceptual paper:
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2019 - ncov probably outbreak and we should seriously face it. Governments all over the world have taken various measures and achieved different results. Maybe some of these measures and public policies will appear in future textbooks for students to analysis, either positive or negative.
From these measures and policies and the results they have brought, we may be able to predict and explore how may this crisis develop and ended, and more importantly, what we can learn from them, for future generations and for ourselves.
Thanks for any leads or ideas,we can discuss from news,public policies,social behavior etc
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Italy entered in phase 2 after a strong lockdown from the 15th of March to the 4th of May. One of the most significant output is the high level teleworking spread and success. This will likely remain as a successful effect and learning for future policies
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Given:
I wonder: Is there a useful network structure, already available as a reference source, that interactively depicts relations among elements of Quantum Mechanics Theory?
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Thank you again for furthering this discussion with pertinent information,
Behnam Farid
! I appreciate your having provided a perspective and sense of direction that the project I have suggested might take. I confess that I really did not expect anybody simply to say: "Oh, HERE it is, Steve!". So you have been significantly instrumental in helping to "kick the ball" in the right direction. I hope that those with a greater vested interest in developing such a project than I have will consider doing the work necessary to bring it to fruition. :-)
There are other fields of interest that also might benefit from such an approach.
All best wishes, -Steve-
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On 11 March 2020 the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared Covid19 a pandemic. International public health is their mandate, after all. The problem is that, after admitting that “Pandemic is not a word to use lightly or carelessly”, the Director-General Tedros Ghebreyesus went on to say that “We have never before seen a pandemic sparked by a coronavirus. This is the first pandemic caused by a coronavirus. And we have never before seen a pandemic that can be controlled, at the same time.” These words are not only inexplicably careless and fraudulent, but constitute the clearest proof that on 11 March 2020 the WHO flouted its own wisdom and may have scammed the whole world into a pandemic. Since that date, the WHO seems to be leading the global fight against Covid-19 on false pretenses. Perhaps they were pushed into declaring a pandemic, or they do not know what they are doing. But the fact remains that on 11 March 2020 Covid-19 had NOT YET become a pandemic. Ghebreyesus even admits that “Of the 118,000 cases reported globally in 114 countries, more than 90 percent of cases are in just four countries, and two of those – China and the Republic of Korea - have significantly declining epidemics. 81 countries have not reported any cases, and 57 countries have reported 10 cases or less”. SO WHY DECLARE A PANDEMIC?
There are lingering unanswered questions about the WHO’s “lack of transparency, the role of the experts who are being paid by the pharmaceutical industry”, and so on. Indeed, there are a number of recent concerning examples. For instance, in June 2019 the WHO ruled that, although the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was “a severe emergency,” it did not yet qualify as a global emergency. This was the second time the U.N. agency had decided that the Congo outbreak did not qualify to be a global emergency. Then there is the question of H1N1. “In the months leading up to the WHO’s declaration of the pandemic as a ‘level 6’ contagion – the highest possible level – many countries including Italy, Germany, France and the UK made secret agreements with pharmaceutical companies. These contracts obliged the countries to buy Swine Flu vaccinations only if the WHO raised the pandemic to a level 6.” The 2018 documentary TrustWHO by filmmaker Lillian Franck “unearthed footage that showed WHO delegates six weeks before the level 6 pandemic was issued as having described Swine Flu as a ‘moderate’ situation."
The main point concerning Covid-19 is that, by its own admission, WHO seems to have declared Covid19 a pandemic IN ORDER to avert a Covid19 pandemic. This seems illogical, and a scam. The end date of an event cannot come before the start date. You cannot be in a pandemic that has not YET started, and you can only avert a crisis that has NOT YET taken place. But you cannot have BOTH a pandemic (that is already taking place) AND efforts to avert a pandemic (that has not yet taken place). Certainly, there is a riddle posed by Ghebreyesus’ use of the phrase “at the same time”. I ask: how can an end date come BEFORE a start date? How is it possible that a manufacturing date can come AFTER an expiry date? The current global coronavirus crisis is proof that global agencies such as the WHO can, and do, actually cause irreparable harm. Perhaps their global roles need to be called into serious question. At a time when the blame game has started about who or what caused the current global health crisis, it seems that WHO caused the pandemic, and the blame for the Covid-19 pandemic lies squarely on the shoulders of the UN agency.
UPDATE: On 27 July 2020 WHO described Covid-19 as "a global health emergency" https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-who/who-says-covid-19-by-far-its-worst-global-health-emergency-idUSZ8N2DO000 Notice that this is a subtle shift in language, from pandemic to "health emergency". The definition of a "global health emergency" is ambiguous, and does not necessarily indicate a pandemic, although it could imply it. From seeming to be quite CERTAIN, they are now using deliberately ambiguous language. There is nothing in the notion of a "health emergency" that is NEW, and yet Covid-19 has been punted as NEW, thus justifying the unprecedented measures, such as the setting aside of democracy and human rights (because we are fighting an unprecedented enemy), destroyed livelihoods, mandatory face-mask wearing, physical distancing, lockdowns, closed economies, schools, social life etc.
Is the WHO, by this flip flopping and ambivalent language, trying to tell us something in a coded manner? Was their hand forced? Is there an internal struggle in the institution? Or is the WHO the one driving the scam?
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World Health Organization (WHO) has done late in declaring coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as pandemic. If WHO would have declared it as pandemic earlier, then the situation would have been much better today.
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I am looking for a specific issue of René Worms' Revue internationale de sociologie somewhen between 1925 and 1927. Do you know of any online archive beyond Gallica?
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It seems that that mgazine is located at Paris
Bibliothèque de l'Hôtel de Ville
The are telling that they have years 1925, 1926 & 1927
Best Regards
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Study the history of mathematics. Likely, it will start at Mesopotamia 3000 BC. Now, it is undisputed H. sapiens trace back to Africa, perhaps earlier than 200 millennia ago. So, didn’t the early humans think about themselves and the environment around them? Of course they did. And they used tools of mathematics. Nearly 60 years ago, that mathematics was discovered in Ishango, the border between Uganda and the DRC. So, why does mathematics ignore Ishango?
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The most interesting, of a large number of tools discovered in 1960 at Ishango, is a bone tool handle called the Ishango Bone (now located on the 19th floor of the Royal Institute for Natural Sciences of Belgium in Brussels, and can only be seen on special demand)
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Good morning,
I was looking for some introductory works on ethnic differences during late Qing times. Especifically, I would like to find data about regional differences in language and religion in comparison to Han Chinese, especially for Mongolia, Xinjiang, Manchuria, and Tibet.
Thank you very much for your help.
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Thank you very much! I have already checked it out and it looks like what I was looking for.
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There have always been more poor people than rich people in any given place at any given time, though rich people would seem to fence themselves off from harm more, eat better, allocate themselves better health care, insure themselves expensively from risk, invoice their burdens on the poor, and live longer. In thousands of years, the population of the long-living rich has never come close to outstripping that of their shorter-life-spanned poor compatriots. Why is this the case?
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Hi Nyasha, the mortality rate of poor people is relatively high indeed, but so is their fertility rate, which offsets earlier demises. This contributes to a quite stable proportion between the rich and the poor.
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Its clear that there is about 15 years (2004-2019) after the publication of AKS primality testing in 2002 and its modifications in 2003-2004. AS result, is there any development happened in this theory after 2004 ?
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Many results appeared every day; all that you need is to followup on the published articles. That required access that allows you to see all the updates.
As of November 2017, the largest discovered prime was in November 2017
using the ECPP ( elliptic curves primality tests ) method. It has 34,987 digits.
It takes 756 days to test the primality of 2116224- 15905.
See
Caldwell, Chris. The Top Twenty: Elliptic Curve Primality Proof from the Prime Pages.
Best wishes
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Illinois just signed a new law mandating that LGBT figures that have made significant strides in humanity in the state's history be taught in schools. What do you guys think?
Teaching tolerance is very important in school, specially when it comes to LGBT tolerance
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We are all learning to re-think and re-examine history in many different fields. Whose history is taught? Who is excluded from history? If a group is excluded from history, we need to ask why. As groups that have been traditionally excluded from the mainstream of history such as women, Hispanics, blacks, and other groups of color, etc. are now being addressed, as research surfaces that questions heteronormativty, it is logical that LGBT persons who have contributed to historical accomplishments be recognized.
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The major challenges to historical research revolve around the problems of sources, knowledge, explanation, objectivity, choice of subject, and the peculiar problems of contemporary history. Sources The problem of sources is a serious challenge to the historian in the task of reconstructing the past. Is there more?
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History is written by the victorious and for the victorious,therefore we depend on the victor’s honesty and truthfulness.
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Can creativity unfurl our ancestral history of mark making and need to communicate via graphic symbols?
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Certainly no
Best Regards Holly B. F. Warren
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Beyond the events on October 16th, 1846 ("Ether Day"), which stories are worth to be recognised about the history of Anesthesiology? Which are the most impressive, curious, or funny things we should remember?
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These anecdotes are fun reading, but if you really want to learn how real medical science advanced, and how modern anesthesia evolved during the prelude to WWI, you should read Crile's book "Anoci-Anesthesia" that is available free on the Internet. It is a classic. Crile was a master surgeon and serious researcher who built his own dog laboratory and methodically studied pathophysiology. You should also read the screeds of Ralph Waters, the founder of MD anesthesiology, and the publications of Yandell Henderson, who proved the clinical benefits of CO2.
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By the late 19th century, cylindrical (panoramic) perspective was well known. It was taught in perspective books and used for immersive anamorphoses in the popular "panorama" displays. But what is its origin/earliest formal treatment in the literature? I'd be thankful to be told about the earliest informal treatment as well as the earliest formal ones (as a perspective proper, with calculation of vanishing points and classification of line projections as sinusoids, and understanding of its relationship with its associated cartographic map).
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Thank you, Mátyás! I don't think it answers the question exactly (the earliest reference seems to be to the 19th century panoramas) but it seems a very interesting reference which I will certainly look into.
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This is stated in many publications. It is even named Phi in honor of the sculptor. But is it true that the measurements of the Parthenon facade are in this proportion?
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For my part, Francisco, I’m skeptical.
Those who see golden sections in the end elevations of the Parthenon never mention the side elevation. To harmonize part of a building and not all of it sounds like an oxymoron. Who would bother? The extravagance and diversity of the various overlaid explanations might also tell us something. Especially as these overlays don’t seem to acknowledge the well-known optical corrections in this building.
Unfortunately, there’s no documentary evidence and the question can’t be settled empirically. Phi advocates allow themselves a bit of a fudge factor in fitting the Golden section to actual rectangles and especially to non-rectangular things like a gable end. So, for example, one would never know whether a designer had used Alberti’s “sesquitertia doubled” (9:16) ratio or the irrational Golden ratio, or neither. And if the conceptual differences don’t matter, then surely phi doesn’t matter.
Ultimately, however, the doctrine of the phi rectangle is an element of sacred geometry. As such it is an article of faith, outside the realm of critical thinking. So if a phi rectangle has been revealed to someone in a fish or an assemblage of marble blocks or a crumpled newspaper, then this cannot be denied.
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Yep. RG is equating science with experiments. There may be those who like this, but experimentation is NOT THE ENTIRE SCIENTIFIC METHOD (and I would argue that experimentation is THE LEAST OF IT -- especially if one is developing a new perspective and approach). RG appears to have no appreciation for "just" verified observations -- even though that may be exactly what really new discovery looks like . Those observations may, in time (but not right away), be followed by experimentation. Verified observations by themselves may be very important and all we have for some time (in some new areas/kinds of investigation).
The outrageous bias of RG is so great that they now hide the Project Updates (of the Log) with multiple queries about one's experiments and hypotheses -- as if all good, clear hypotheses could be put "in a nut shell" (in a small "blank", with little context) AND that experiments are all that matter (or at least all that deserves several special headings). How about a heading for: "Verified Observations"?
I would ask: What experiments did Einstein do to lead and come up with his understanding of the universe? Did he start with experiments? NO!! He started with observation and MATH (which is basically verified observation). True, eventually some experiments were done to VERIFY HIS IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS -- but all this did NOT begin with experiments..
And, all of this is not to mention major swathes of Biology. Come on, give us a break.
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And: Daniel Goldman:
OBSERVATIONS are are as falsifiable as experiments, if they lack high inter-observer reliablities (P.S.: p<.05 has NO magic). That all aspiring scientists do not know this is frankly disgraceful. Realize that science is just good reliable, and shown valid, COMMUNICATION -- as is true of all good communication; this can most certainly be found and true of sets of observations. Experiments are communication; observations are communication. DO NOT TRY TO PUT "MAGIC" IN TO ONE OF THOSE.
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From Art To Science, Islamic scholars have made their contribution.
But do we appreciate and understand the extent of it?
How many other cultures play an invisible part in our lives?
Egyptian and Chinese and Zimbabwean and Hindu cultures go back many thousands of years
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Islamic history, especially that stretching from about 700 c.e. to 1300 c.e., is replete with pioneering contributions, many of which subsequently developed further to underpin modern society. In alphabetical order, a (very) short list would relate to agriculture (including textiles), algebra, architecture, public libraries and colleges, numerous sciences and the humanities, medicine (including surgical tools), and optics. (There is coffee too.)
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This is the text of article 33 of the Italian Constitution. Is this principle correct? Is it applied in your country? What are you willing to sacrifice to defend it? In 1931, only 12 university professors in 1200 refused to pledge allegiance to fascism in Italy, and they were fired or imprisoned. What would you think about?
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I agree with you
Best Regards Andrea Ricci
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Greetings
Does anyone know the history of E. coli XL10-gold (strategene)? Did it originate from XL1-Blue and what was the procedure? If you have a reference even better.
Yoram
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According to the Agilent's manual, XL2-blue is a derivative of XL1-blue, and XL10-Gold is a derivative of XL2-blue.
Through, I've noticed a notable decrease of firefly luciferase expression from pLR vectors in XL10-blue compared to XL2/XL1, so it may have more extensive differences.
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I was threaten by a French guy (not on this site) who kindly advise me not to play with fire, revelations from 16th C books could harm a lot of people. And Algerians were not ready to read their own history in Topography and General History of Algiers. So I'd rather spent my time educating them.
It's just too much for me, this kind of philosophy still prospering nowadays in 2018. As a matter of a fact, it's the French government's position regarding francophones: educate Africa. Vulgar and pretentious.
We all know how good French did the job. The book i'm translating, Topography and General History of Algiers, was translated in 1870. They forget the introduction, the publication license, the marginalias and took away a lot of details, transforming it in a "non-sense History". After that, they forced Algerian to remember how chaotic and illogical was their story at mandatory school, provoking hate, despair and discouragement among Algerians towards their own History. Now, 50 years after the Liberation, little by little, they are recovering and History is turning a passion in the country.
Do you think knowledge can be harmful?
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It is a very interesting book indeed. On the other side Africa is already educated . From the view-point colonialist and post-colonialist countries "education" means re-education.
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Good day.
To make sure I am on the right path, would anyone care to chime in on what they consider to be the major historiographic issues associated with Romantic era historical scholarship in western Europe. So far I have been focusing on Germany and Denmark - but, I would appreciate any and all input, suggestions, direction etc. that you can provide as regionality is not an issue.
Thanks and keep well.
Kat
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You should read first some books by Isiah Berlin on the topic.
The key issue in Romanticism is the shift of priority from Reason to Feeling. You can observe this trend in art, politics, and history of historiography. If you want more precise information, please ask.
Best regards.
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In many countries, reading is reportedly declining, we read less and less books, which is reportedly related to the development of information media on the Internet. Perhaps the development of social media also contributes to the declining readability of books.
I have a favor to ask:
Please enter the title of the book on literature you read last time?
Please reply
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I do not remember the book that I read it all, I usually read paragraphs or chapters that I needed or interesting in from a book.
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How to input load combination data to sap2000 with analysis linier time history?
Is that dead load, live load include?
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Please check reference below.. hope it will be helpful for you… Regards…
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I must now, at least for a moment, speak more generally:
FIRST: _YES_, I said DELUSION and meant it in its typical and serious meaning.
We must curb clearly (when examined realistically and rationally -- and all based on REAL actual experience, as it is) wrongful behavior (HERE: action), speech, and thought, _OR_ I profoundly 'feel' the clear sense of misery and extinction. I, myself, and with and for those I know well, 'see' all this with certainty, too -- though it is possible not all of these people 'sense' doom, admittedly. I do (for what that might be worth).
I say most-active efforts must personally be made to curb _ALL_ of this, no matter how benign it may SEEM to be (for reasons YOU can understand as well) -- THAT IS my view. (What may seem like "a little" may beget A LOT.) (Thus-changing MAY or may not be possible; it IS clearly unlikely, looking at "theory" (esp. Psychology; and, its research), philosophy, and history: but this should make us really try, not give up.) [ Before extinction: many, many terrible troubles may precede this (of course). Not wanting to be so thoroughly unpleasant, let me say: Have a nice day. Reading all my "stuff" would help, this day and henceforth. (WE must stop playing in the 'fields' of our Earth.)
P.S. I posted a very positive and affirmative (pro-adaptation) answer to: https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_do_you_choose_between_two_or_more_mutually_exclusive_hypotheses_with_equal_explanatory_power_and_scope . Perhaps this will help you know the whole "me" and not be negative or skeptical. And: I am consistent. ]
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اسف
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It may sound illogical and I am hesitant to ask this, but sometimes I feel that "I have seen a few moments/location already in-advance before I was actually live/see them". I have shared same with a few friends and a few of them said they also experience same. However, logic behind why is beyond imagination at this point.
Have u felt this ?
Or it just something that our mind Imagine !
Your experience, advice, and comments will be appreciated.
Thanks
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Maybe strong intuition, in mt country, we call it the sixth sense. Amazingly, not all people have this sixth sense.
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Why in the age of science and technology development, research on the development of modern ecosystems still neodarwninian concepts of evolution are not fully consistent?
In the history of the development of life on Earth, the emergence of particular types, phylacteries and species of flora and fauna according to the Darwin concept of evolutionary knowledge, global cataclysms repeatedly occurred on Earth, after which the majority of flora and fauna changed to a significant degree or completely. These stages of accelerated evolution leading to the relatively rapid emergence of many new life forms, characterized by completely new forms of life organization of particular types and species and entire ecosystems, are not fully fully understood, researched and explained. These gaps of knowledge are the source of dogmatic undermining of the entire Darwinite theory of evolution. In view of the above, the question still remains: Why in the age of science and technology development, research on the development of modern ecosystems still neodarwninian concepts of evolution are not fully consistent?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dariuz:
There is absolutely no ambiguity in the application of Neodarwinian paradigm to explain the evolution and prediction of future life on planet Earth, which originated some 3.8 Billion Years ago and during this time it witnessed The Big FIVE Mass Extinction events during Phanerozoic. No catastrophic event like Bollide impact or Flood Basalt etc. could be invoked to explain the global extinction/innovation of Terrestrial Life at high to low latitudes, Deep to shallow sea, except causing local loss of Life. Scientific literature is littered with fallacious ideas explaining the evolution dictated by catastrophic events, which was bitterly opposed by Darwin himself, firmly believing in Gradualistic mode of evolution. Mass extinctions are explained as accidental clustering of Gradualistic Background Extinctions occurring only five times during the entire span of life on planet earth..
Best
Syed
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Is that person to be found amongst the present billionaires ? Or are these figures to be found from our long gone past ?
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I agree with Dr Wilkin.
Mansa (/Emperor) Musa Keita or Musa I of Mali (c. 1280 - c. 1337), a 14th century African emperor of the Mali Empire.
A Muslim emperor and a successful military leader.
Jeff Bezos the current richest man in the world is worth US$150 billion.
Mansa Musa's net worth adjusted to today's value is roughly US$400 billion.
The source of his wealth was his land's vast amounts of natural resources particularly, gold.
His wealth became known to the world in 1324 during his pilgrimage to Mecca. During this journey, he caused mass inflation in Cairo by spending so much gold on the poor.
Word of his wealth spread across the Mediterranean. He is included on the 1375 Catalan Atlas.
He built the legendary Djinguereber Mosque in Timbuktu, which still stands today.
Huffingtonpost - Mansa Musa Of Mali Named World’s Richest Man Of All Time; Gates And Buffet Also Make List
Independent - Meet Mansa Musa I of Mali – the richest human being in all history
Forbes Africa - Person Of The Year For 1324
Business Insider by Pulse - Here's what it was like to be Mansa Musa, thought to be the richest person in history
RT - Space mining will produce world’s first trillionaire
news.com.au - Goldman predicts the world’s first trillionaire will mine asteroids
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I'm looking for some publications (books, articles, chapters, etc...) about seamless tube history (steel, cast iron or copper seamless tube), in particular in their tecnhological development during 19th and 20th century. Can somebody give me some suggestions about it?
I have already found:
- James Percy Boore, The seamless story: A history of the seamless steel tube industry in the United States
- Douglas Alan Fisher, The epic of steel
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Dear fabio,
for your work on seamless tube history and literature work.
i will be suggest to you springier, Elsevier, and Taylor journals may be different such as
International Journal of Pressure Vessels
Thin-Walled Structures ,
and you follow this link you will get some idea.
thanks
regards
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For some time now, we have been listening to the changes implied by the advent of the Technological Singularity, as a point of no return.
The discussions are as versatile as they are disturbing.
In that moment of increasing autonomy and perhaps independence from Artificial Intelligence, it seems to be evident that technological changes will exceed the human capacity to assimilate them.
Authors such as: (Theys, 2012), (Kurzweil, 2012); (Ruiz, 2013) (Cordeiro, 2016), among others
They have offered a very abundant discussion to the rspect
How do you imagine philosophy in that new horizon?
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I think that philosophy is always at the level of the respective state of science and technology, especially since a whole series of philosophers have also embarked on a full study of physics, biology or chemistry, also in the context of mathematics and technology, just as scientists and engineers have embarked on philosophy.
The more the possibility of human self-destruction begins to become reality and how today the quality of life of later generations is in danger of being diminished by the exploitation of limited resources, by war or by omission of measures, the more the question of the limits of technology, growth and political oppression becomes an issue in philosophy. Man is not only a learning being, he is also a being that produces conflicts and dilemmas. It is precisely where progress seems to be at its greatest that we become aware of this.
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Why or why not?
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All you have to do is get out of the Western European intellectual bias of individualism. If you look for individual decisions dictated by collective group decisions ( Durkheim ex-posited that and so did Jung) and look for historical evidence outside the individualist region (North America and Europe), you will find plenty. If you follow the economic theoretic paradigm, you will not find any evidence of any thing meaningful
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Well, the Company funded its war expenses by raising India Bonds in England, from the banks in England and finally from the Presidency Banks in India. But how did its Indian adversaries do it?
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Well, by the usual means: raising taxes from the population or by calling in their vassals who had to furnish horses and men. And in some cases they employed European mercenaries against their enemies. About the financial side you can consult Irfan Habib (though he deals mostly with precolonial Mughal finance) and Stig Förster about the creeping acquisition of territory by the EIC.
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I'm interested in both personal better/worse and societal better/worse.
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If humans focused on what was going well, they would perhaps feel more content inside, but I can't help thinking of lemmings. That's what we would be. Just happily follow that leader, right over a cliff. Or at best, content with what you have makes one stagnant.
By focusing more on what is wrong is how we improve everything, constantly.
I think it is fair to say, the only reason living conditions for mankind keep getting better, overall, is because humans are never happy with the status quo. Yes, for every improvement we soon discover we are paying a price. But then we solve those problems. In the meantime, we are living better than we were before.
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We are tracking down the earliest print appearance of the term “personal computer(s)”. We invite readers to contribute any earlier evidence for the term “personal computer(s)” to this project, with any original copy of those dated written materials, not unsupported recollections.
Those evidence could be in articles, books, thesis and dissertations, proposals, magazines, newspapers, memorandums, pamphlets, and other miscellaneous pertinent documents.
We hereby desire to express indebtedness to anyone, who would facilitate any original archival materials to answer the following open questions, including but not limited to:
  • When was the term “personal computer(s)” first coined?
  • Who did coin the term “personal computer(s)”?
  • What if the coiner is not a computer celebrity?
  • Did the term “personal computer(s)” appear in any classified document first?
  • Did the term “personal computer(s)” appear in non-technical materials first?
  • Did the term “personal computer(s)” appear in non-text materials first? (say, audios, videos, cartoons, comics, etc.)
  • Was the term “personal computer(s)” borrowed from other languages?
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Thanks for your kind responses.
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We are tracking down the earliest print appearance of the term “software(s)”. We invite readers to contribute any earlier evidence for the term “software(s)” to this project, with any original copy of those dated written materials, not unsupported recollections.
Those evidences could be in articles, books, thesis and dissertations, proposals, magazines, newspapers, memorandums, pamphlets, and other miscellaneous pertinent documents.
We hereby desire to express indebtedness to anyone, who would facilitate any original archival materials to answer the following open questions, including but not limited to:
  • When was the term “software(s)” first coined?
  • Who did coin the term “software(s)”?
  • What if the coiner is not a computer celebrity?
  • Did the term “software(s)” appear in any classified document first?
  • Did the term “software(s)” appear in non-technical materials first?
  • Did the term “software(s)” appear in non-text materials first? (say, audios, videos, cartoons, comics, etc.)
  • Was the term “software(s)” borrowed from other languages?
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Dear Zhiwen Hu ,
Computer software, or simply software, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.
Regards, Shafagat
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Sanskrit Symbols.
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Most welcome dear
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As part of my dissertation I want to problematise, analyse and assess the Florentine Codex as a source that can provide a truly indigenous perspective. Although indigenous people were part of the project, many eurocentric biases and categories can be found in the text such as the classifications in good and evil. Not used to binary thinking those categories especially in Book 10 show the European influence. Can anyone suggest more ways to problematise the Florentine Codex, in what way it allows us to understand indigenous life and what further limitations it has? Due to the strikes in the UK I have not been able to speak to my dissertation tutor for about a month now and I am not sure whether it is possible to contact her before the deadline so any feedback would be fantastic!
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Understanding the sociocultural context of the Florentine Codex, including all the people involved in its creation, supression and conservation --friars, native nobles educated by friars, elderly natives that were consulted--, is a huge undertaking and doing a thorough job would take more than one lifetime. The important thing is to understand the manuscript as a product that emerged from a specific alignment of people and circumstances in the mid sixteenth century. Separating native and European cultural elements may be impossible, since these elements did not exist separately at the time of the manuscript's production in the minds of its creators. What one can do is back up and look at both pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican culture and precontact European culture, then look deeply into the history, linguistics, literature, and visual culture of sixteenth-century New Spain, to have the necessary background to comprehend what is being reflected in this document. For a dissertation, I think it would be necessary to focus on some specific aspect of the manuscript's content, especially since you mention an impending deadline. Perhaps you could write up whatever aspect you have worked on most, leaving the rest for future projects. Dissertation tutors usually don't expect graduate students to solve ambitious problems; they are happy just to see a competent piece of scholarship and the completion the requirements for obtaining the degree within a standard frame of time.
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Who is the philosopher that made the greatest contributions to mankind.
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Ibn Sina is better known in Europe by the Latinized name “Avicenna.” He is probably the most significant philosopher in the Islamic tradition and arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era.
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I am doing time history analysis of a structure. I want to know which time histories data should be used for the analysis? What are the criteria for choosing this data? I need explanations for it that why I choose it?
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The beginnings of everything lie elsewhere. Historical periods tend to be arbitrary, set for study purposes. And, although events may appear to be geographically determined, again elements will lie elsewhere.
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Scholarship is very broad and this may be a difficult question to answer but I would be curious to read your recommendation?
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Socrates started it all through his intellect and reasoning.
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Start from ancient times until the present.
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Imam Hussein and reason known
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I am working on a book on ancient history and would like to learn about scholars from history department from across the globe.Thank you for your help.
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They structured urban society. Presented us with its very foundation. We have retained it, all its paradigms, its sense of the otherness of nature, typology (a way of viewing reality), the initial construction of humanism, professionals, intellectuals.
I adore its poetry-Gilgamesh, etc, full of ideas.
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Taking into account the estimated age of the Earth, the estimated number of snowfalls which occurred over its history, and the estimated number of snowflakes which formed in each snowfall, what is the probability that an exact snowflake configuration has occurred at least twice? At what point does the old saying that "no two snowflakes are alike" become false due to the sheer quantity of snowflakes which have formed in the history of time?
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Two Snowflakes Ever Alike?
1. "No Two Snowflakes the Same" Likely True, Research Reveals
Researchers do know enough to confirm that the "no two snowflakes are alike" adage is likely true for ... a microscope and claimed they found two that look alike. .
2. Who Ever Said No Two Snowflakes Were Alike? - The New York ...
Jan 23, 2016 · As the East Coast braces for the first ferocious snowstorm of the season, we wanted to revisit a frosty adage: Is it true that no two snowflakes are the ... .
3. Why no two snowflakes are the same - The Washington Post
The early snow was a perfect excuse to ponder an age-old question: Is it true that no two snowflakes are alike? ... it’s possible for two snowflakes to be identical. .
4. Is it true that no two snowflakes are alike? | Mental Floss mentalfloss.com/article/20296/it-true-no-two-snowflakes-are-alike Is it true that no two snowflakes are alike? ... Bentley sometimes told people that he had never seen two snowflakes that looked alike and published several magazine ...
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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Evolution history
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Yes, humans are vertebrates. Fish are also vertebrates. But in between fish and mammals there were several major steps. Amphibians, lizards, snakes, birds, marsupials, mammals and a few other types of animals are all tetrapods. We all shared one common ancestor that had 4 appendages. I recommend the book "You Inner FIsh" by Neil Shubin.