Science topic

Historical Analysis - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Historical Analysis, and find Historical Analysis experts.
Questions related to Historical Analysis
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
23 answers
Totalitarianism and ideologies have often ensured that political, historical, philosophical, scientific, and artistic ideas conform to what the rulers consider correct. This has led to scientific impostures and rewritings of history, which are ethically questionable if not unacceptable. Illustration: Skulls from the collection of Samuel Morton, one of the American fathers of "scientific racism", illustrate his classification of humanity into five races (fruits, according to him, of five divine decisions), which today are outdated. Left to right: Black American woman and white man, Native Mexican man, Chinese woman and Malaysian man, PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT CLARK/ UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
This forum is intended as a platform for discussion and exchange on the topic where all examples and illustrations are welcome.
Relevant answer
Answer
The Euro-Atlantic world put a geopolitical price tag on Ukraine
The principle of force remains at the heart of international relations
Motives for its use may be different. From the point of view of realpolitik, Russia's motives in this case are just. The current Ukraine is an artificial formation, like most of the modern post-Soviet republics, including Azerbaijan. But this is not about the fact that artificiality does not give the right to life and independence. Again, from the point of view of real politics, all historical constructions are somehow artificial in nature. The categories of "who is older," "who is wiser," and "who deserves more" are useless unless "I can" and "I do" are backed up. Ukraine had 30 years to prove its right to sovereign existence in the geopolitical jungle. But instead of using the human, scientific and industrial infrastructural potential left over from the Soviet Empire and forming its statehood on this basis, Kyiv chose a simpler path - the identity of opposing itself to Russia. The form “I am a titular Orthodox Ukrainian, not an Orthodox Russian” is understandable. Many used such technologies, but the local "elites" did not fill it with content.
The Euro-Atlantic path of development is a form that also lacked content. Why? It is impossible to become a part of this supranational identity by jumping over the stage of forming one's own. You cannot go into the home of self-sufficient Americans, French, Germans, British and Dutch without understanding who you are and what contribution you can make to the family. Such elites will not allow you to be part of their core, but you are always welcome to use your ardent and suicidal desire to prove loyalty. The problem is not that Ukraine wanted to join the EU and NATO, but that it wanted to do it at any cost. And this price was clear from the very beginning - to contain Russia and be a constant threat and irritant for her. Unfortunately, it was not statesmen who were in power in Kyiv, but manipulators-compradors who solved two problems - to maintain power and steal more from the national wealth.
Was Moscow supposed to put up with this from the point of view of the school of realism? No. Nor should the States put up with Soviet missiles in Cuba (which President Kennedy called "our backyard"). Since 2000, Moscow has been proposing to start a multilateral process of developing a new European security architecture, but hears only "we are not conducting dialogues on equal terms with the losers in the Cold War." Immortal rules of realpolitik: if you want to be heard - force it, if you want to be equal - get it. The call to dialogue does not work, only the force that inspires fear works. This is the only way to achieve your goals in realpolitik. The Euro-Atlantic world has placed a geopolitical price tag on Ukraine. How else to explain the fact that no one is in a hurry to fight for a “dear and valuable” colleague who has been promised a place at the family table for decades, but is kept in a room for servants and guests. Russia immediately offered a place at the table in her family, but Ukraine prefers the golden spoons and forks of the euro table. This can be understood, but not constant threats and opposition. Nothing personal, just geopolitics!
This crisis should be a lesson for countries that prefer to become part of other teams at any cost, instead of building their own independent state with their work, intelligence and pragmatism. President George Washington said it best: “A nation that treats another nation with habitual hatred or habitual kindness is, in a way, a slave. Such a nation is a slave to its hostility or its good feelings, either of the two is enough to lead it away from its duty and interests.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
4 answers
This is a work in progress attempt to crystallise the 3 main ontologies, schools, mindsets and underlying theology, metaphysics if you will, among the "3 Wise Men" (Goodman - UK, Reimann - German, and Jacobson - US) from CoCo. Each of CoCo's founding fathers' learning technologies reflect their nationalities, and by extension, their national universities' concerns and agendas for the learner.
By tracing the underlying "self" of their respective technological formulations, one could delineate their contrasting (sometimes overlapping, ontologies, schools) mindsets and govern-mentalities embedded in their respective learning technologies.
In Goodman's works, there's a preoccupation with space and architecture, notably the need to recolonise monotonous routine driven places. There's a strong streak of Marxist geography found in the works of David Harvey that focuses on redistributing justice and power via spatial arrangements such as design driven planning and regeneration. Through the spatial (re-)arrangement of the learning environment, (To be continued!).
Relevant answer
Answer
Secondly, here are the projects I am engaged in, though ultimately, to go even beyond Heidegger's mindset, I think the most fruitful way forward is to renounce the WESTERN METAPHYSICS of MIND BODY CARTESIAN FRAME, and venture into CHINESE METAPHYSICS.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
2 answers
For my current article, I would like to share the list of over 200 newspaper articles which form the main group of sources for my analysis. The list is around 3000 words long, so it wouldn't make sense to append it to the article itself.
Are there any data depositories which support this sort of background data for qualitative historical analysis?
Relevant answer
Answer
للاسف ليست في اختصاصي ..واتمنى ان ترسل لي الاجابه في حال حصولك عليها لانه موضوع مهم
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
3 answers
We could conceive of a society in which men practically never meet face to face—in which all business is conducted by individuals in isolation who communicate by typed letters or by telegrams, and who go about in closed motor-cars. (Artificial insemination would allow even propagation without a personal element.) Such a fictitious society might be called a ‘completely abstract or depersonalized society’. Now the interesting point is that our modern society resembles in many of its aspects such a completely abstract society.
-The Open Society and Its Enemies Ch.10
Relevant answer
Answer
And he added:
"Of course, our picture is even in this form highly exaggerated. There never will be or can be a completely abstract or even a predominantly abstract society—no more than a completely rational or even a predominantly rational society. Men still form real groups and enter into real social contacts of all kinds, and try to satisfy their emotional social needs as well as they can."
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
28 answers
For a source to be considered reliable it must contain accurate historical information.
But how does one determine the accuracy and reliability of sources in modern and recent history since not much has been written on the subject matter?
Relevant answer
Answer
The first key points historians want to check about a source is whether the source is based on accurate knowledge and understanding. To do this, they might check whether the author was there at the time, whether the author was involved in the event, whether the author understood the overall context.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
5 answers
We are living in a world that sometimes two brothers or sisters may not understand each other. In such a situation, a number of historical records, literature phrases, and similar subjects may get confused or misused.
The question is here how physics may solve those kinds of difficulties.
Relevant answer
Answer
Sure. For example, the emissions of night lights maps contribute to an understanding of the geographic distribution of the population. The spectral emissions based on physical foundations.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
50 answers
We can see that the impact of our past (especially, significant historical events, such as the revolutions, economic and political crisis etc.) on the present of human society, mainly, is explained by historians, political analysts and journalists. Such method is needed, but not enough for understanding the essence of current events in our today society. In other words, it is needed a new aspect of view current state of our society, which includes natural sciences especially theoretical physics. What do you think about it? Is a historical analysis enough for understanding the essence of current events in contemporary society?
Relevant answer
Answer
Historical data is the tool for comparing the current situation in the society. Retrospective events will always support the contemporary issues of the current situation of the society. It can be used one of the feasibility analysis for taking scientific decisions on the current events
The historical analysis will bring the complete picture of the country. If planners and policy makers didn't know the past historical events then the appropriate planning would not be successful. It is only for comparison purposes as well as learned lessons that will help to avoid any repeatation.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
106 answers
What sorts of things does imaginative literature teach us? Is imaginative literature a luxury or an essential aspect of the human experience? Should the teaching of imaginative literature be included in educational curricula as a required subject, or, at least, an elective?
Relevant answer
Answer
It is a simple fact that everything we feed is growing. And a second simple fact is that we only become to know what we are able to believe in. So it is very important to deal with imaginative literature to feed our Imagination!
The process of becomming able to to things is: Conception (Imagination) followed by perception, followed by action(radius).
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
5 answers
Hi
I have run PCA for 3 years of data so by this I got factor scores for each item/subject for every year. Now, I need a single value to use in my model from three values.
Should i take average of factor scores or should i use a recent value? What is an appropriate way to use factor scores for transport delay data analysis?
Relevant answer
Answer
Great. You are progressing quite rapidly. Keep Going and good luck By the way Monash Univ. has a great statistics dept. The greatest statistician of all time (R.A. Fisher) is buried there
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
13 answers
I am trying to calibrate a hydrologic model for a large watershed in central Mexico(Lerma). I found several stream gages in the watershed, but hourly streamflow data from the gages is not consistently available till 2018. Also, I haven't been able to find any historical rainfall data. To collaborate my model, I need both rainfall & runoff data.
Can someone suggest any source to download rainfall and runoff data for the central Mexico-Conauga?
I would truly appreciate any help.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
2 answers
I m trying to construct a portfolio in R and choose the stocks from SP500 or FTSE100 componets that have the highest PE ratios. I am looking for historical data of PE ratios for the last 5 years of the individual stocks of all companies listed in the index to do backtesting . Is there a dataset that provides this?
Relevant answer
Answer
Is Value Line still available? Best, David Booth
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
2 answers
Dear Professor Grushka, Do you intend to write something about the theory of changeable sets for non-expert readers? I think that his works on the subject are very interesting in many respects, but usually too technical perhaps for non-mathematicians or mathematicians working in a different field. Since this theory has applications in both physics and mathematics, I believe such an introduction would be very interesting! With my best Regards, Ricardo Vieira.
Relevant answer
Answer
1) I would like to clarify the question. Did You mean the theory of CHANGEABLE sets?
2) Concerning the theory of changeable sets, first of all, I plan to implement my minimum program of obtaining new interesting results. And then I might begin deal with their popularization. At the present time, the most complete and understandable exposition of this theory You can find in the preprint "Draft Introduction to Abstract Kinematics. (Version 2.0)" (https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.28964.27521 or http://vixra.org/pdf/1701.0523v2.pdf). Also I plan to rewrite more popularly the introductory sections of this preprint in it's future third version to do more understandable the motivation of fundamental definitions of changeable set theory.
3) I am very grateful for your comment and positive general assessment for perspectives of my activity, and I will bear in mind your suitable remark about popularization of the results.
With best regards Yaroslav Grushka.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
4 answers
Look further into the development history of the countries.
Relevant answer
Answer
I thought that the 'same stages-theory' was discredited since 1960s by Alexander Gerschenkron's works (collected in Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays).
In my opinion, the main point isn't to check if the model is applicable today, but to understand the historical contest which gave birth to the model. As a matter of fact, the theory was deeply influenced by the Rostow's work as advisor of the White House and by the idea that economic development would bring to a collapse of USSR...
Maybe, an useful starting point would be Rostow's autobiography: http://eh.net/book_reviews/concept-and-controversy-sixty-years-of-taking-ideas-to-market/
The models don't exist independently from the people who create them! :-)
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
34 answers
I have read many books and articles which consider the XIIth century a moment of great changes in the culture of Middle Ages, a moment where the writings and manuscripts become more used and important. The so-far oral predominance has been increasingly reduced towards the so-called written culture. Do you agree? Does you research is any how related to this topic?
Relevant answer
Answer
Martha's comments encapsulate to me the definition of "written culture", we have the use of written law codes, charters and commercial documents, as well as Church material, 'secular' histories and even fiction being written down, this suggests that the organs of society had embraced the written word to the extent of primarily functioning through it, this to me is more important to define a "written culture" than is worrying about the % of literacy in that society, in this respect the Medieval West stands comparison with other undeniably "written culture(s)" such as Classical Athens, Imperial Rome or Pharoanic Egypt
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
3 answers
looking for informaition on living practices in london in the 18th century specifically regarding the women who rented houses any one know any papers or books which touch on this.
Relevant answer
Answer
Joanne McEwan has written quite a bit on lodging during this time.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
4 answers
I am looking for carpentries of OAK wood
Relevant answer
Answer
try checking Lemaire's books and courses
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
3 answers
I am trying to work out the most focussed research topic for a PhD study, having tried to streamline it from a very broad area of focus. First it was Quality and Quality assurance in Higher Education, then the focus moved on to History of Higher Education in a fixed national setting. That again seems to be still too broad. Now I have picked on one aspect or theme in Higher Education and wish to use annual reports for a historical analysis of trends in institutional demographics within a specific national setting over a fixed period of time of about 25 years.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank Dragos, I guess I will have to look into your suggestion.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
5 answers
How can photogrammetry be used to trace the geometry of arches in historical buildings with least error?
Relevant answer
Answer
 Dear Nicolas
Thank you very much for your contribution. It has given a clear fundamenta idea regarding the subject. For an advance knowledge i will go through internet as per your suggestion.
Regards
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
3 answers
I am interested in exploring interdisciplinary approaches to the settlement of the Pacific, particularly atoll Polynesia. How might historical linguistics respond to a paper such as Addison and Matisoo-Smith 2010 (Rethinking Polynesian Origins...in Archaeology of Oceania 48:1-12)?  If a significant incursion into Polynesia from Micronesia occurred between 500-1000AD, as they propose, how might other disciplines go about confirming or rejecting this view? 
Relevant answer
Answer
I have about thirty words that suggest prehistoric contact between Pukapuka and Kiribati. This is distinct from the strong Polynesian influence on Gilbertese that occurred about six or so centuries ago. 
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
10 answers
Are there any inscriptions in Asia, similar to the King Asoka's Damma Inscriptions ?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
4 answers
I am writing an essay on the question 'How can the popular appeal of fascist movements in interwar Europe be explained, and what limited their growth?'
I am now building up on my historiography and want to identify different historian perspectives. 
Any help will be greatly appreciated. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi ! I agree with Fabio. You could also find something interesting in Trotsky's writings :
Bon courage !
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
1 answer
I am looking for collaborators to study use of chemical history aspects in graduate chemical area courses.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes ;that would help to transform our eduction systems
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
12 answers
New Historicism is generally applied to literary works written in the past e.g. renaissance literature or Victorian literature. However, I want to practice the theory of new historicism on novels written by Pakistani anglophone writers like Kamila Shamsie, Mohisn Hamid, Bina Shah etc. These writers started writing around the start of 21st century. Their fictions are set in the Pakistan of 1980s, 90s and post 9/11 world; major historical events of the country like 1971 War, Zia regime, post 9/11 conditions usually form the background of these fictions. Please suggest! Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
hi waseem, 
interesting question .
New historicism can be employed as the  theoretical touchstone to analyze even recent writers.  Historical Knowledge manifested  in the form of  ‘historicism’ and ‘history’ is regarded as  fundamental embodiment of modernity and , I believe , postmodernism with a new perspective on terms like knowledge, reality, ideology and worldview. 
here are some publications : 
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
18 answers
I am trying to create an overlay between different (digitised) historical maps and the current map of a city in GIS. What methods are there to reconstruct historical maps in such a way that they accurately overlap with modern geodata?
I currently have the digitised version of three historical maps which were drawn at different scales (1:10.000, 1:5000, 1:2000) and in different projections.
Relevant answer
Answer
In addition to what has already been said about georeferencing, note that the Ground Control Points (GCPs), i.e. the set of homologous points you have to collect on the digitized image of the historical map and the current cartography, should be chosen as points which have preserved unchanged over time. As an example, if you can recognize the same building, pick up a points on its corners. According to the accuracy you want your final product to have, as current cartography don't use a raster map or a Google image (which can have large errors), but try to see if an official vector cartography (possibly at a large scale) is available.
After collecting GCPs, you have to choose a suitable georeferencing model. There are many models that you can choose from (and that you will usually find implemented in GIS software). The results of the transformation can be very different so be careful at which model you choose. To evaluate the georeferencing result, you should use some of the points you have collected as Check Points (CPs), i.e. points not used to compute the model but to validate it. A typically used statistics to evaluate the georeferencing result is the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
About the software usable to perform georeferencing, I can suggest the QGIS Georeferencer plugin (which however has some limitations) and the photogrammetric software PCI Orthoengine. The first is open source and available for free, the second is proprietary and available by paying the license.
I suggest two publications that better explain all my points and give you a practical example of georeferencing:
1) Brovelli M. A. and Minghini M. (2012) Georeferencing old maps: a polynomial-based approach for Como historical cadastres. e-Perimetron 7(3), pp. 99-110.2) Brovelli M. A., Minghini M., Giori G. and Beretta M. (2012) Web geoservices and ancient cadastral maps: the Web C.A.R.T.E. project. Transactions in GIS 16(2), pp. 125-142, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9671.2012.01311.x
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
1 answer
.
Relevant answer
I think you can ask IFC about this , they may help.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
3 answers
I am searching for more information about propaganda in Turkey, due to my thesis in which I want to write a short overview about the 'tradition' of propaganda in Turkey and how the situation considdering propaganda is now. Thanks a lot!
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
3 answers
Even a straight history thereof would be useful. Thank you. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Which time span are you interested in?
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
5 answers
from which file/log file i can able to get page modificaiton information (Dirty Page information)
Relevant answer
Answer
Stelios Sir,
thanks for your quick reply. I have seen Paper and code  but at this stage it would be difficult for me to extract information. May i request to give i) if log files of such output because i don't know whether NUMA architecture would work on my platform (any linux) and/or x86 architecture ii) if any standard log details of process migration available, so i am able to  extract page info from those logs....
- what are the parameters to migrate process and what is the role of kernel at the same time? can we generate a tiny OS program given in Figure 4. (https://www.academia.edu/760613/Survey_of_Virtual_Machine_Migration_Techniques)
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
6 answers
Could you give arguments or examples? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Elias,
I would argue that a demonstration of "historical thinking" can be best assessed only through essay writing. Meaning the connecting of philosophical thought, governmental systems, and the connection to everyday life of the people. 
Examples of such essay topics would be what philosophical thought processes were used to justify hereditary monarchies and the social injustices they inherently fostered. 
Why was Karl Marx and Marxist so opposed to private property and its effects on citizenship during the conquest of the America's. 
How did the English civil war effect politics in European during the 17th through the 19th centuries? 
What are the lasting effects of the age of colonization or more commonly known as the age of discovery?
In this manner one can get a true sense if the student truly understands the before (leading up to)during (the actual historical justifications used) and after (the lasting effects on modernity). 
To think historically one must be able to attach the past to the present in such a way as to people responding to the argument presented in a "no wonder we do what we do" manor. 
Hope this helps
Douglas
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
9 answers
I have reviewed the writings of some researchers like José Luis Romero and Jorge Hardoy, and usually they mention that date as a reference of urban and territorial changes, without explaining why.
Relevant answer
Answer
Claudio,
Not specifically in the year of 1880, but in Brazil three very important events took place in that decade:
Along the 1880 decade Sao Paulo state becomes the word's larges coffee producer. The result is strong immigration to the country's south and the founding of several new cities. It marks the beginning of Brazil's industrialization.
1888 - Abolition of slavery and
1889 - Declaration of the Brazilian Republic and the end of monarchy
Other events:
[it is likely that this is the event mentioned by those two authors]
1879-1880 - Chile wages war against Peru and Bolivia and Bolivia loses access to the Pacific Ocean; this war is called the Pacific War. With Chile's triumph of the Pacific War and the incorporation of Antofagasta and Tarapacá, Chile became the world's largest salt producer. This caused an economic boom never seen before driving major social and economic changes.
If you read Spanish, here is this story:
In Argentina: From 1880 a new model of economic development was conceived based on increasing exports of agricultural products from the La Pampa grasslands.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
7 answers
Studying the neutrality of the Netherlands, especially during WW I and the inter war years, I am interested in similarities and differences with other small neutral countries.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear colleagues
We are planning a conference on neutrality in Holland in November 2015. We want to compare the 'war experience' of small European neutrals, especially the Scandinavian countries, Switzerland en the Netherlands.
Will keep you informed.
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
162 answers
Do you think that the interaction between such scholars has led to the success of their work in making an impact?
Scholars such as Euclid (geometry), Newton (science), Plato (philosophy) have
been very influential in shaping the way we see the world. For example, Euclid’s
Elements written in Alexandria around 300 B.C. became a standard work in geometry. It is one of the most widely read, translated and commented on work in European history. It was translated into Arabic around 800 A.D., into Chinese in 17th century and into Sanskit in the 18th century. The first english version of Euclid’s Elements was Sir Henry Billingsley’s translation published in 1570. Euclidean geometry has been enormously influential in shaping our view of the world. For more about this, see
Plato, 428-348 B.C., descendent from kings of Athens and Messenia, student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle, founded the Academy of Athens, one of the institutions of higher learning in the Western world. He wrote about justice, beauty, equality, political philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology and the philosophy of language. For more about this, see
A central notion in Plato’s philosophy is the theory of forms. The only true being is founded upon the forms, the eternal, unchangeable, perfect types, of which particular objects of sense are imperfect copies. This theory has been enormously influential in science and mathematics. For more
about this, see
Isaac Newton, 1643-1727, son of a farmer, Professor at Cambridge University, taught optics, introduced a theory of colours of light and theory of gravitation, published his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 1687, introducing infinitesimal calculus, co-discovered (with Leibniz). During his study of optics, Newton investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that the multi-coloured speturm produced by prism (see attached image) could be recomposed into white light by a lens and a second prism. He showed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. He designed the first reflecting telescope, demonstrating his telescope to the Royal Society in 1671.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes. Those great people have a magical historical touch!
  • asked a question related to Historical Analysis
Question
26 answers
The digital humanities have created a lot of buzz in recent years. They change the way we do research, communicate with each other, and share our findings. Working mostly with Arabic source texts, computerized text analysis is still a bit tricky and has often created more problems for me than it solved. More than that I have become aware of and come to treasure the format of the academic podcast.
There are a number of podcasts with usually a very high quality, as far as my knowledge goes at least. To name just a few:
It is great how these formats offer an introduction to general as well as specialist issues. However, apart from their educational and entertainment value, is it possible, yet, to make use of such formats in our work as well? To speak frankly, is it possible to rely one's research argument on statements from a podcast?
I ask this question specifically with respect to historical research questions and with regard to the podcast as a new form of secondary literature, not as source material for media or social studies.
What do you think? Can we integrate such audio presentations in the same way as we refer to talks and lectures given 'in the real world'?
Relevant answer
Answer
I do agree with both my forerunners. Technically it is even easier as to quote a lot of other web-based contents as it presents information in linear form, so that you can quote it exactly by running time minute/second (and of course all relevant information on the website you got it from). As to the reliability of the contents packaged within the podcasts in question, this should be judged the same way as every other source - if used as a primary source, does it apply to your research questions, is it indicative of broader trends, does it capture unique attributes of what you want to get into, etc.; if used as secondary source, check the persons involved, where, how and why it got published, any interested parties, and so on. There is no basic problem arising from the 'digitality' of the format. Would you ask the same question about, say, a BBC radio feature? Just because it's on the net it's not out of science. This seems to be a kind of categorical anxiety of many who shy away from web-based content (no offense meant!), that there is some mysterious essential difference between 'the web' and 'the real world' which invalidates the contents of each one for serious use in the other. This is just not the case. The world wide web is just another part of our real world, nothing more, nothing less; it is here, it won't go away, we have to find ways to deal with it as well as with the other parts of the real world we are longer used to, for example, as in the present case, radio.