Hippocampus - Science topic
A curved elevation of gray matter extending the entire length of the floor of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. The hippocampus, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Questions related to Hippocampus
What is the dimension and weight of ventral hippocampus?
Is there is a paper support the difficulty of separation of both ventral and dorsal hippocampus
Or any paper support biochemical analysis of hippocampus not require isolation of certain hippocampal region?
We are interested in isolating the hippocampus from frozen brains (flash frozen with isopentane and stored in -80C). Does anyone have a recommendation on how to best isolate the hippocampus? Do we need to thaw the brain and then isolate or should we section frozen and then isolate? We are interested in then running PCR once the hippocampus is isolated.
I have these squiggles that are appearing in my GAD67 IF stain and I'm not sure why. I've used this secondary antibody (Cy5 goat anti-mouse) with another primary antibody and never had this problem. In some areas, the squiggles aren't bad, but in others like the hippocampus, they're more prominent.
EDIT: I don't know why the image is coming out blurry on here.
I am working on a project entitled 'How exercise protects against the neurological impacts of stress.' I can see that during the 1980's there was a flurry of research suggesting that because circulating levels of β-endorphins increased during running that this was responsible for the 'runner's high.' However, later on, researchers dismissed this, arguing that β-endorphins cannot cross the blood brain barrier and this phenomenon should be attributed to endocannabinoids. But now I see rat studies indicating that β-endorphin levels do increase in key parts of the brain, including the amygdala. And I can also see that it may contribute to neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Could I argue that yes, β-endorphin levels do increase during exercise and do mitigate the effects on stress by specific changes in the hippocampus by creating a 'runner's high'?
Does anyone ever done cell sorting of microglia from 1 whole mouse brain? how many total cells do you obtain and how many specific cd11b after cell sorting?
What about 2 hippocampi?
I'm trying to isolate microglia cells from adult mouse brain and from specific area such as hippocampus and i'm interested to understand how many cells I can get from the total and after cell sorting!
Thanks all :) :)
If I use only 1 hippocampus to measure certain neurotransmitter using ELISA, I am afraid that it is not sufficient. Is it possible to measure 3 items from rat's hippocampus using ELISA?
I am working on primary hippocampus neurons from mice. I am trying to look at the effect of amyloid beta on the neurons. I am looking at parameters like cell death, number of neurons in a field of view, neuronal length. I also want to try to analyze the neuronal coverage or area occupied by neurites to understand how amyloid beta affects the neurons.
Does anyone know how to measure the neuronal coverage or area occupied by neurites?
We are currently performing this protocol in tissue obtained from mice (Cortex and hippocampus)
following the next steps:
MSH Buffer :
230 mM Manitol
70 mM Sucrose
5 mM HEPES
+protease inhibitor cocktail and a phosphatase inhibitor
+ 1mM EDTA (0,2M)
1 hemisphere of hippocampus in 400 ul of MSH buffer
Centrifugate to 600 g x 10 min 4ºC
-Rescue supernatant and centrifugate to 8000 g x 10 min 4ºC
Rescue pellet ( mitochondrial fraction).
The problem arises when we made western blot to the determination of mitochondrial purification and we still have citolosic proteins ( as observed by b-actin) in the mitochondrial fraction.
I homogenize my sample with PBS and then I add solphosalcylic acid %4 in same mount in the supernatant. The sample incubated for 30min in 4c and then centrifuged in 4000g for 10min and I add prepared Ellman reagent the samples and incubated for 15 min in room temperature but i dont see yellow color. I am sure my Ellman reagent is active and I think that my sample preparation has problem. Does anybody have any experience in GSH measurement to help me??
As there are two methods for the intrahippocampal injection for the establishment of SE.
Kainic acid and pilocarpine.
which one is better?
As far as I know, the kainic acid is a typical model for TLE, while the direct injection of kainic acid will trigger the excitoxicity which make me have some questions upon this model. Like, the theory of this model is that inducing the epilepsy then result in the degeneration or the excitoxicity triggers the epilepsy?
Hope anyone could discuss with me about that interesting question. THX.
Good day scholars.
Please I want to extract RNA from two brain regions of rats - striatum and hippocampus. Rather than using commercial kits, I want to use conventional method of extraction so as to reduce cost of extraction from about 300 samples. Please I will appreciate if anyone can help me with a step by step protocol that can be used for this RNA extraction. Please the RNA will be used for Gene Expression and other downstream applications. I will appreciate a reliable protocol from anyone who has been into such.
Thanks very much.
I'm working on taking LFP signal from the hippocampus of mice brains for my project, So I wonder what percentage of the baseline signal you would consider as LTP? and what is the best period of time to take a signal for recognizing LTP after rapid and sequential stimulations?
I am studying the post-synaptic protein quantitatively in ventral hippocampus and have problem to identify postsynaptic soma/dendrites with a reliable marker, at immunohistochemistry level. Would be most grateful if some colleague could give me a hint... Thanks much.
In time past it was believed that the human brain cells do not produce new cells and that our brains remain static throughout life and any damage to any brain cell is a life long damage. But recently it has been brought to our knowledge that the brain does produce news cells continually at the hippocampus and the sub ventricular regions of the brain and that this regeneration process can been enhanced through physical exercise and that it plays an important role in memory and stroke rehabilitation. What are the characteristics of the hippocampus and sub ventricular zone that aids this peculiar characteristic and how can this be applied to our knowledge of neuron regeneration in other parts of the brain?
I have a Cre-DTA mouse which Cre is specificity express in brain, and i have used 400ppm
tamoxifen diet to induce Cre express, but the efficiency was too low, so want to use 4-OHT improve the cre recombination efficiency, but i find that there are so little information about 4-OHT use in specific tissue, such as brain, my question is how to use 4-OHT in brain (concentration\dose\diluent)?and what is the disadvantage of 4-OHT use in brain?
I have seen a paper which use 3-5ul 2mM 4-OHT in 4%EtOH in hippocampus, which induce brain parenchymal recombination, but mo figure about the result , so if there anyone else also try 4-OHT inject in brain? Thanks~
For isolation of mitochondria from rat hippocampus, chilled isolation medium (0.25 M sucrose containing 10 mM Tris–HCL, pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, and BSA 250 lg/mL) is made.
Can we make this solution and store it for long? If yes, kindly confirm how long, at what temperature would we can store and use this already made chilled isolation medium ?
or it should always be freshly made ?
If we place our rat hippocampus in this solution, how long can we keep the tissue in it until mitochondrial isolation from the tissue ??
Can we preserve our isolated hippocampus tissue in it for several weeks ? If no, suggest the alternative.
Samples were homogenized with a mortar and pestle and then passed through a syringe but at the first centrifuge step the sample is getting stuck - we can't see anything on the membrane and only about half is coming through.
Has anyone got any experience with this kind of tissue and these columns? Thanks!
Glutamate activates synaptic ionotropic NMDA receptors present in the post synaptic densities or PSDs, which sequentially activates the CAMK2 and CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) that actively participates in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory formation in adult brain, Then what is the exact role of amyloid beta 42 oligomers with respect to NMDA receptors a in causing dementia ?
I am currently preparing a paper on feeding regimes in some European syngnathids. I am highly interested in data on mouth and snout (especially mouth gape )biometrics in adults of the following species: the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus, and the pipefishes Syngnathus acus and Entelurus aequoreus. The aim is to assess any relationship between those biometrics and the composition of the diet in the wild. I would greatly appreciate any information. Thank you very much in advance.
I am working on estradiol neuroprotection impact and measuring its concentration in hippocampal female rats in their diestrus phase by 17beta-Estradiol ELISA (Diagnostics Biochem Canada). To extract estradiol from hippocampus the tissue was homogenized in 150µl PBS and centrifuged at 15,000g for 30 min at 4ºC and supernatants were collected. The problem is almost no level of estradiol was detected through this method.
Do you have any experience in preparing sample dilutions to measure the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, TGFβ, MCP-1, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and so forth) for an ELISA when it comes to any rat brain tissue, especially hippocampus. I'd prefer not to perform a pretest, and waste any well-strips beforehand. Based on your experience from different labs, what would be the expected protein concentration ranges of these cytokines in a supernatant saved from tissue homogenate prepared from a healthy rat (Sprague Dawley) brain tissue (hippocampus)?
with the aim of doing RT-PCR, we homogenized hippocampus and took the aquatic phase. Now we need to do western blot analysis but just the organic phase (included protein) is left. does somebody know the protocol?
I have H&E stained hippocampus sections and would like to look at thickness and number of degenerated cells of hippocampus at different areas in different studied groups to confirm neuronal loss after injury. Thank you
I've recently begun collecting hippocampus tissue from mice brain for a project of mine but as it is my first time working with mice brains, I was wondering if there's a good marker or stain for hippocampus to validate that the tissue I am extracting is actually hippocampus.
I'm looking to validate my hM4Di expression in GABAergic neurons of the hippocampus through acute section recordings. Attached is what we have so far but my PI argues that it did not silence the neuron entirely. Could someone share resources or experiences with hM4Di recordings to help me contextualize my results? Is this typical or should I be troubleshooting my DREADDs expression?
I'm trying to patch Purkinje cells but I always get -200 pA of leaky current after I break the giga seal. It reaches -200 pA about 5-50 sec after I break the seal.
I'm using a classic K-gluconate based solution. I already checked for osmolarity, pH and so on. I also tried an intracellular solution containing EGTA. However, it always go back to -200 pA, even when patching on another setup.
Never had this problem when patching pyramidal cells of the cortex or hippocampus.
Any help, tips or advice are more than welcome :)
I am recording local field potential from stratum radiatum at CA1 by stimulating Schaffer Collaterals. I wanted to get a better idea of the size of SR as I do not want to get too close to the pyramidal layer or hit the lacunosum-moleculare layer. Literature search did not return any measurements. Also, how far do dendrites extend from the cell body at CA1 pyramidal layer into the deeper layers of the hippocampus?
we would like to see/count projections of 5-HT neurons and their synapses in the mouse/rat brains - mainly in cortical areas and the hippocampus - to see if they are affected by our experimental treatment. For that sake we would like to use immunohistochemistry on PFA-fixed free floating brain sections.
We already found that TPH2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) effectively visualizes 5-HT neuron axons. Right know we are looking for a marker of synapses to combine with TPH2 IHC so that the synapses stained with TPH2 are doublestained with this marker. We already tried synaptophysin+tph2 combination but sadly synaptophysin signal was too abundant (unspecific). So now we are looking for a marker more specific to synapses of 5-HT projections to pair with TPH2 IHC. Any ideas we can try? Thanks in advance for any input.
The brain tissue sample is stained with NeuN. I want to be about to automatically count neurons especially of the dense area of the DG region of the hippocampus.
I'm measuring fEPSP in the CA1-CA3 hippocampus region and lately I have had presence of bubbles in the bath where ACSF comes in. This leads to unstable recordings and from what I understand the bubbles are caused by the in-line solution heater. I have been thinking pre-heating the ACSF in a beaker where it's perfused before it goes to the in- line solution heater and was wondering what kind of heater you guys might be using out there. Preferably one that is not know to cause any electrical noise and small so that it fits/gets completely submerged in a 500ml beaker. Thank you!
I'm going to analyze GSK-3 concentration in rat hippocampus homogenate but I don't know how correctly should I calculate this concentration per total protein level examined by Bradford method?
If damage occur in certain area of those region , different presentation will occur ?
For example CA1 is reach in place if damage occur in it what is the consequences?
Thanks and best regards .
Currently I have some FFPE embedded mouse hemispheres. However, I wish to analyse solely the hippocampus and a region analogous to the DLPFC. Is this possible? And if so, should I melt the block, dissect and re-embedded? Or is it possible to punch tissue cores without the need to re-embedded? (I have an array puncher)
Does anyone have any good tips on how to distinguish between hippocampal pyramidal and basket cells?
I am studying the morphology (dendritic branching and spine counts) of hippocampal neurons in golgi-stained mouse tissue. I was initially looking at pyramidal neurons, but my PI suggested I could look at basket cells too. However, when I looked at the morphology of basket cells in the literature/on neuromorpho,org, they looked similar to some of the neurons I had been labelling as pyramidal neurons.
I know that typically pyramidal neurons have a singular long apical dendrite that extends for some distance before other dendrites branch off it, while basket cells have multiple branches from at or close to the soma. Also that neurons with soma clearly within the pyramidal layer are more likely to be pyramidal neurons, but neither of these criteria feel clear cut enough for me to be confident. Sadly the basket axon doesn't seem to be labelled in any slices as far as I can tell.
I've attached a few images of cells I have included. They are collapsed z-stacks of about 20-40 um in z-axis. If anyone could give their opinion on what cell type they are and why, that would be very helpful.
Thanks in advance!
I've been trying to lesion dorsal hippocampus after surgically implanting bilateral cannulas in wistar rats. other than manual restraining, Is there any other way?
I'm consistently having small fEPSP's of approximately -0.01 mv. I've been moving the position of my electrodes and increasing the stimulation intensity but the response doesn't change much. I'm looking at the CA1 region of the hippocampus and would like to do an LTP experiment.
I'm following a protocol that was done in our lab 10 years ago. However, I recently set up the rig after it had be unused for the last 10 years. I'm not sure how to rule out potential problems for the rig. This is a consistent problem that happens each time I record. Does anyone have suggestions for what to check for?
According to the vertebrate literature, I got the impression that head-direction cells are always anchored to an allocentric reference frame. This can easily be tested with freely moving animals. But what is about tethered animals that can freely rotate around their body axis but can`t change their actual position. Are neurons encoding the animals heading automatically defined as allocentric ones? Or how could you test with a tethered approach, if the neurons encode heading in a allocentric reference frame or in an egocentric one?
I bumped into the difficulty that I couldn't get any signals from my brain section in the DG region of hippocampus. However, I have standardized the BrdU protocol in my brain positive control. Any possible reasons to have that issue??
My BrdU protocol:
DNA Hydrolysis with 2N HCL at 37oC for 30min, and the neutralised with 0.1M Borate buffer for 10min, and washing with 1X PBS and go for the normal immunostaining step.
for my Master thesis (not a publication) I compare Astrocytes of Alzheimer Hippocampus brain slides with (more or less) healthy ones.
For that I use k-means in Fiji to generate a ROI around GFAP flourescent signal to get the cells. Then the ROIs are put on the original acquisitions to measure the integrated density (mean grey value * area) to compare the expression of GFAP with a second protein of interest.
The ROIs quite precisely get the cell bodies and I'm happy with it.
1. Do I have to do something in addition like a citation or validation to proof the method is doing what its supposed to do?
2. How do I best measure the colocalization/correlation of those two proteins? I'm not sure if measuring the intensity under the ROI is enough to understand the correlation of expression of these two proteins. Do I have to set it in relation to the global pixel value or something like that?
I would be very glad to get some support :) Hope you are all fine :)
I'm setting up an electrophysiology rig examining LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. What is an appropriate tip diameter size for a stimulating electrode to generate fEPSP? Also, I'm planning to use Tungsten Concentric Bipolar electrodes.
I am trying to start a protocol involving bilateral cannula implantation in specific brain regions in mice (mPFC, hippocampus). For that, I need to buy an anesthesia system. I found many alternative companies to buy from, but I am particularly interested in MINERVE 1301303. I am also considering WPI EZ-B800 or Kent Scientific SomnoSuite® Low-Flow Anesthesia System. Can anyone give me feedback about these anesthesia systems? Maybe you have other recommendations? I will be grateful for all suggestions.
I am injecting AAV2-Retro virus (AAV2-retro-EF1a-DIO-FLPo-WPRE-hGHpA from Addgene) that carries cre-dependent flp recombinase, in the mouse dorsal hippocampus and I need to verify that the spread is limited to the hippocampus. When the virus infects the cells in the hippocampus, there will not be any fluorescence expression because the viral construct has no fluorophore. I am of course exploring alternatives to this virus so there will be fluorophore expression. However, I was wondering if there is any other easy way to check the viral spread. Has anyone tried any antibodies against AAV2 proteins?
I am looking for a skilled personnel in Kuwait University that is familiar with antioxidant studies using ELISA kit or other techniques on rat's brain homogenate, particularly the hippocampal and anterior cortex regions.
I have done a seed to voxel analysis recently using conn toolbox. I have a basic question about how to report the result. My seed was a hippocampus structural mask and I compared its functioncal connectivty with the whole brain between two condiions. The result was a netwrok that included several clusters. but I'm not sure how to report this result. For example if the netwrok contained a special cluster (e.g. DLPFC), can I say that hippocampus showed a significant change in connectivity with that cluster (DLPFC) in one condition compared with the other condition? Can I infer about the connectivity of one of the clusters separately or I can only infer about the whole netwrok?
Many thanks, Haleh
I have to determine the effect of some phytoconstituent on MARK4 and microtubule of neuron. How can I do it. I mean do I have to first extract the MARK4 from hippocampus and cortex by RT PCR and then check its expression? Or what else. Please suggest.
Hello to all.
I am performing a thesis on Cognitive disorder modeling in rats and the effect of
Pharmacological Treatment on the disease and the expression of certain miRNAs.
I am seeking guidance from any researcher who has experience in "Rat brain tissue miRNA analysis" to help me understand more about my project so I would be grateful for even the smallest info and tips based on your experience.
I would also be really thankful if anyone could help me with informations about U6 as a housekeeping gene and primer design for this sequence.
Thanks in advance.
In terms of learning and memory, do you think that proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 may act differently in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus?
I've some data that shows TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are reduced in the prefrontal cortex but increased in the hippocampus in the animals with impaired learning and memory scores in Morris Water Maze and Novel Object Recognition tests. In my opinion, it may possible that the neurotoxin that I used may reduce live cells and cause to detect a lower amount of proinflammatory cytokines. However, since the level of them are higher in the hippocampus (as expected) I can not make any connection with that difference between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
Of course, there are some papers reporting the diverse role of those cytokines in different conditions, however, I could not find the proper and clear answer for my case.
Thank you for your help.
I want to prepare brain tissue for western blotting. I have the hippocampus extracted and frozen in liquid nitrogen. I tried to crush it using a tissue pulverizer but I was afraid that would lead to contamination. What's the best way to prepare the tissue and lyse it in RIPA buffer? Also, is there a specific volume per gram of buffer I should follow?
I have a question about the shelf life of Corning's NuSerum I that we use for the first days of primary culture of neurons from the rat embryo hippocampus. How long do you keep it at -20°C before it starts to degrade? We have been worried about premature death since this summer and we still have this solution to check. There is no expiration date, it is simply noted storage superior or equal to 3 months, which does not mean much. Thank you.
These images were the immunofluorescence of my protein in the hippocampus. The images represent the merged signals with DAPI signals (blue),my protein(red), astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP,green).thanks.
Does anybody know a program in which I can enter data from biological replicates, with an untreated or treated category to plot as bar graphs? I know this feature exists in GraphPad, but as I am a student, the license is too expensive for me at the time.
Is there any other free software that can deliver a similar result?
Very likely there is an option to achieve this using the R framwork, but I am very unexperienced with programming in R, so I would prefer a pre-made software solution.
My use case is counting specific cells in the hippocampus and plotting the different cells per area as a bar graph with n=4 different biological replicates. I want the graph to show the different data points for treated/untreated condition, the bar to be the Mean and to be able to show the error via normal error bars. (see image attached)
Thanks for your help! I would be very glad if there is a free alternative to GraphPad for my usage.
All the best,
What modifications do you make in ACSF for aged mice brain hippocampus recording?
Please if possible explain specifically for cutting and recording solutions?
So, basically I would like to analyze the entire Hippocampus concerning the number of cells showing a certain stain. However, with the magnification I need to differentiate between the cells, the entire Hippocampus is not in one image. Is there an efficient way to merge the images of the different sections of the Hippocampus without them overlapping?
Thanks in advance,
I'm doing segmentation of hippocampus in matlab using LAC method,i want to create mask for the segmentation of hippocampus..Can anyone help me in this regard..
I'm going to start a project with single-cell ATAC-seq for analysis of open chromatin regions from freeze tissue samples.
I'm lost about the nuclei concentration.
If I made a nuclei isolation protocol from the human brain freeze tissue sample (hippocampus), what would be the nuclei mean number from these?
2000 nuclei? 5000 nuclei?
There is any paper about that?
When I read articles I can only find the information "mostly surrounding PV+ interneurons but it doesn't help me... I guess it is found in the cortex but where?
In the cerebellum it's more clear. And I don't know about other regions like hippocampus, amygdala... So if you have any clue it could be very usefull. Thank you!
How long after the conditioning (control) rats remember the shock.
I know it depends on various factors (age of the animal, shock mA, etc.). What's the longest period you've come upon.
Hi everyone! I will isolate microglia from adult hippocampus by using Miltenyi protocol with Adult Brain dissociation kit and Cd11b microbeads. I will perform the success of my isolation with CD45 and Cd11b antibodies for FACS and then I will plate the cells on coated coverslips (30' UV and then washed with h20 for 3 times) with polylisine for immunocytochemistry experiments in DMEM-F12+GlutamaX 10% FBS 1% pen/strep, 1% gentamicin and 10ng/ml of MCSF.
I'm thinking to stimulate cells not more than 48 hours and changing at the same time of the stimulation.
What do you think about this protocol? Do you think it will work well?
It's the first time that i try to isolate microglia from a specific brain area :)
Our lab is interested in doing single-unit recordings in area CA2 of the hippocampus. We have a lot of experience with single-unit recording, but not in area CA2. Does anyone have experience trying to identify this area through histology? We are interested in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus.
I'm interested in isolating RNA from mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. My lab routinely uses the Trizol method for large pieces of tissue (eg, liver and intestine), ending with dissolving the RNA pellet in 200 uL DEPC water. For hard-to-extract tissues (eg, adipose) we reduce the final step to 20-50 uL DEPC water. Is this an acceptable modification for hippocampus, or should I reduce the volume even more? We usually aim to get at least 250 ng/uL RNA for reverse transcription but I'm wondering if this is possible with such a small piece of tissue. Are there any other modifications to help with yield?
I'm currently working on my thesis, that is related with testing the anxiolytic effects of some substances in mice.
However, I believe I can enrich my project by adding histological assays, due to their low cost and relative simplicity.
Could anyone provide me with some advice/suggestion? Thus far, I've encountered analysis of addrenals and hippocampus, but I believe there can be more (especially with the heart tissue).
Our lab has noticed that after several tissue preparations for organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, some of our tissue is developing what appears to be large holes between the CA1 and dentate gyrus. Has anyone using this model noticed this or have any suggestions on how we might address this issue?
We have checked CO2 levels in the incubator, and no changes have been made in our procedure or culturing media preparations.
I need to induce LTP in hippocampal acute brain slices (rodent) and measure extracellular fPSPs.
Different bipolar stimulation electrodes available on the market have different impedances (0.1 MOhm, 0.5 MOhm, 1Mohm, 1.5 MOhm, and 2 MOhm) and I am not sure about the most suitable (no info from the customer service…).
Could anyone recommend a particular impedance based on experience?
I am working on scopolamine induced Alzheimer rat model. I want to keep the HC of one hemisphere for ELISA & WB. My Questions are:
1) does single HC will be enough for application of both tests?
2) is there a common buffer to keep the HC in for both tests?
3) which is it better to keep the samples; with or without homogenization in the recommended buffer?
I will appreciate if anyone can share his/her protocol with me
The most accepted definition for RRP is " a small subset of the many vesicles in presynaptic bouton that is more readily released than other vesicles which are in the recycling and reserve pool", and RRP consists of "docked" vesicles. Well, can we increase the number of docked vesicles in the presynaptic terminal? If we do it, what is the physiological mechanism underlying this increment? Does this increment depend on the increase of intracellular Ca2+? Does the increment of the size of active bouton lead to the increment of the size of RRP?
I would like to quantify the number of dendritic spines in all the maturation stages by using a coronal section of a mouse brain. I will be looking more specifically in the hippocampus.
I would like to use a platinum/iridium electrode for schaffer-collateral stimulations in a mouse hippocampal slice preparation.
I have good success using regular concentric tungsten electrodes, but for a specific purpose, I want an electrode that contains no stainless steel.
I have had no luck finding a commercially available twisted wire platinum/iridium electrode, so I was wondering if anyone had a good recipe for making them?
thanks in advance!