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Heritage Conservation - Science topic

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I am looking for studies and articles that can shed light on the development of public policies for the conservation of historical heritage in cities and local communities. Contributions are most welcome.
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any vague idea could be of great help. thank you
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Book:
· Muñoz Viñas, Salvador (2004), "Contemporary Theory of Conservation". (It's an english traduction from the spanish original)
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There is so much research about Photogrammetry but very little of that research is focus on cultural heritage inside museum settings.
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Hi Heather,
can you clarify if by photogrammetry for conservation you mean applications for a) documenting heritage objects for dissemination/virtual display/augmented exhibition, or b) contactless study and/or vistual reconstruction, or c) identifying and mapping decay, previous conservation interventions etc.? because these are usually different categories of documentation in terms of quality and product requirements.
+1 to Arnadi Murtiyoso 's comment
regards,
Efstathios
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Keenly looking suggestions about the prospect and challenges of scientific study in Heritage, Indigeneity and Folklore Studies (HIFS) at the educational institution around the world.
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Contrary to what we're taught, tradition is not a static thing. Times change, generations change, and what we know changes. The most stable aspect of any tradition may be its ability to change, making it able to accommodate changing times, changing generations and changing information. Otherwise, no matter how old and once revered, a tradition can disappear like a magician's bouquet, to resurface if--and only if--it becomes timely and relevant again.
If this were not true, we would all still be sacrificing animals on hilltops to reach the ears of our various gods; on the other hand, we can retain a tradition by reinterpreting it. Eighty years ago the majority of people in the USA believed that the story of Adam and Eve was the natural history of the world. Some still do. But the mainstream no longer does, and has retained the tradition by reinterpreting it as an allegory, or poetry, about the beginning of time and the fate of mortals. Where we locate the sacred realm (in the celestial dome or the womb of the earth), our aesthetics, assumptions, aspirations and animosities will shape every aspect of our expressive behavior, and every mark we leave on earth.
We have to trust people to recreate the past, interpret the present and shape the future in their own best interest--no outsider knows better what that is. To best respect tradition, we have to stand back and watch it change, and seek in those changes, the spirit and mentality of the people who generate, modify and maintain these traditions over time, free of molestation from those who purport to know better than they.
Its only when powerful outsiders interfere in the process of a peoples' own strategic and creative changes in tradition, or try to take over; to guide, shape, change, or prevent change in tradition, that harm is done. Instead, stand by. Watch. And learn. Speak out when powerful interests try to take over a peoples' traditions to suit their own interests and agendas. Then let life happen, let tradition adjust, and learn what we can from the changes. Some things will inevitably be lost, yes--but some will always be gained. Watching and learning would be us at our most respectful and creative. If it seems an imperfect solution, its still most likely the best we can do.
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Chaos theory and urban heritage conservation
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Of all the elements of the internal formation of the city (the principle of chaos) in the midst of the (supposed system) which is not fulfilled according to the various references, we are concerned.
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Hi, good morning, as a paper and book conservator, I have some knowledge about leather. In Portugal there is an history of producing it, specially in Alcanena.
I might help in this matter if you are interested.
Best regards.
Leonor Loureiro
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Yes I care
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Majuli is a wonder of nature. Situated in the midst of the mighty Brahmaputra river, Majuli is the largest freshwater river island in the world. There are numerous tribes living in the island, maintaining their folk culture and continuing a tradition that is unique and remarkable. The island is populated by different colourful communities, majority of them abide by the tenets of the Vaishnavite Guru, Saint Srimanta Sankaradeva. My book titled ‘Majuli: Resources and Challenges’ is an edited volume that gives a comprehensive view of the resources and challenges of Majuli. It is published by Authorspress India. Majuli remains largely an unfamiliar terrain for most of the Indians. Majuli’s efforts for world heritage conservation has not succeeded yet. Majuli is characterised by Sattras and Their Heritage. There are issues like Protecting Majuli from dominating Brahmaputra, Sustainable Design Solutions for the Mitigation of Flooding and Riverbank Erosion in Majuli Island, Eco-restoration of Majuli Island, Land-use/Land-cover in Majuli etc. For more about Majuli, one can check the site http://majulilandscape.gov.in
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Majuli is the world’s largest riverine island situated in mid of river Brahmaputra in Assam state of Northeastern India. It is a site having extreme historical and cultural importance, and warrants immediate exposure to the scientific community. The island faces an acute erosion problem at rate of 1.9 km2/year. If the situation remains unattended, the island will soon be engulfed by the Brahmaputra river and will become extinct from the world map. Please take a look at the following RG links.
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The Diocletian’s palace in Split is known to receive management decisions, which have represented the developing process of heritage management world wide. From stylistic restoration and demolition of postantique structures that didn't belong the the Roman Period, until Riegl's ideas to keep buildings that contributed to the image and harmony of the site.
Is there any other significant example elsewhere that shows the debate or conflict between the domination of historicitized image of a heritage site in a town, and the advocacy of layered-historical complexity?
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You can look at the Classic city of Bosra (Dera'a district-Syria), where the local population settled on the antique ruins were displaced to better enhanced the cultural heritage and follow the preservation sheme according to UNESCO. The site inscription goes back to 1980, when less care was given to add local population and local economy to the cultural heritage's sites management. But the same, even more radical, cleaning-up can be seen actually in the 2015 UNESCO site of Amida-Diyarbakır, where the inner buffer zone was nationalized and the majority of the "modern" buildings destroyed. We will see what will be done on the antique substract, or what remain of it.
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What is the appropriate types of contracts for heritage conservation? Which one is more common in government-owned heritage? employ contractors for such projects or do it by the authority itself?
Is there a specific cost data for conservation heritage buildings in different countries? If not, how the cost is estimated?
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I invite discussions from geologists and scientists; who are working on geochemical investigations of rocks and cement or lime-based construction materials.
Scope of the discussion:
- Geo-chemistry of weathering of artificial rock ‘concrete’
- Geo-chemistry of heritage mortars (including lime and Surkhi mortars)
- Investigations related to weathering and deterioration of siliceous rocks (including alkali silica reaction in concrete materials)
- Investigations related to weathering and deterioration of calcareous rocks (including alkali carbonate reaction in concrete materials)
Salient Points to Discuss:
- Methods of geochemical calculations
- Relevance of binary and ternary diagrams
- Number of ions - Formula on basis of 24 (O or OH) and their relevance, when and where to use?
- Number of ions - Formula on basis of 18 (O or OH) and their relevance, when and where to use?
- Number of ions - Formula on basis of 6 (O or OH) and their relevance, when and where to use?
- Number of ions - Formula on basis of 4 (O or OH) and their relevance, when and where to use?
- Number of ions - Formula on basis of any other equivalents; i.e., 22, 23, 2 (O or OH) and their relevance, when and where to use?
- Significance of addition and subtraction diagrams based above equivalents; to calculate possible cationic exchanges during weathering and or any other chemically and thermally hostile aggressive environments.
- Calculation of stable mineral assemblages
- Relevance of Rittmann Norm Method – Is this method can be used for all rocks, cement-based systems or for lime and Surkhi to study their changes in aggressive environments. What is the limitation Rittmann norm in this perspective?
- Suggestions on any other related and specific methods.
- What will be inference from a plot ‘X’ ions to ‘Y ions or vice versa. i.e.,
Examples: - (1) A plot of amount of Ca ions in X axis and Si ions in Y axis or vice versa. (2) Dolomite ions to Calcite ions. (3) Aluminum carbonate to silicon carbonate. (4) Carbonate ions to chloride or sulphate ions.
- What will be the inference from a plot of ratios or additions?
Examples: Correlation between Ca/CO2 and Si/Al
Correlation between Na+K and Ca/CO2
- Geochemistry of salt crystallization and gypsum formation in rocks, lime and cement-based materials.
- It will be highly appreciable if you could discus in addition to the state art information provided in the text book an introduction to the rock forming minerals by Deer et al. (1992), and Stable Mineral Assemblage of Igneous rock by Gottini et al. (1973).
- Discuss if anyone has codes/algorithms/excel books and programs written within this scope of geochemical investigations.
Thanks in advance.
Mohammed Haneefa Kolakkadan
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Please find attached the link to our paper on the "Effect of mineral additions on prevention of alkali silica reaction in SSC - Effect of ..."
including graphs related to geochemical investigations.
Maybe it will help you in the discussion.
Best regards,
Guenter Grundmann
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Inquiring in particular into the formation of (national, ethnic, cultural) identities; governance; tourism & cultural heritage (representation, commercialisation, commodification); importance of world heritage 'craze' and national ranking; ancient cities;
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Dear Silvia, I suggest you review Pierre Bourdie's work on place effects, it may be an interesting look at the elaborations in space
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What do people think of the idea? Other suggestions are also welcome.
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Good Afternoon Fabio
That's great News I will keep you in the loop with developments
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is temporary use a viable strategy for the conservation of historic buildings and in what ways can temporary use contravene or contribute to the established principles and priorites in conservation, if you have country specific anecdotes this is also interesting... thank you
Note : Temporary use here is defined as a movement (see Urban Catalyst or Temporary City by Bishop and Williams), rather than an acitivty defined by a specific timeframe. The temporary use movement is based on >intention> : an intentionally time-limited use which, due to financial constraints, promotes maximum adaptability (working wihtin existing conditions) and community enagagement (social versus financial capital). 
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As said above, the best best strategy for the preservation of historical heritage assets to to keep the asset in use. Ideally in place and unchanged. Any adapative (re-)use usually comes with an impost caused by adaptation, and thus usually at some cost to the integrity of the asset.
Most importantly, the cultural significance assessment of the historical heritage assets will drive what activities and management actions (incl. adaptive re-use) are acceptable. Thus there is no hard and fast answer to your question.
The impact of the temporary reuse can be physical, but also intangible  such as in the  the re-use of religious structures by other denominations, other religions and secular parties. A discussion of this aspect can be found in 'The Future of Defunct Religious Buildings: Dutch Approaches to Their Adaptive Reuse' (see below)
The issue here is to what extent the temporary use that is proposed, requires an alteration or adaptation of the existing fabric. If none, then there is no issue. But even if only small, then the cumulative effect may be significant.
Ideally, a set of criteria for temporary use should be developed that govern the acceptance or denial of the proposed use. Also, what is deemed temporary here. This needs some clarification. For example, a  proposed 10-year use period of a 300-year old structure could well  be considered 'temporary' ....
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Dear Colleagues, we are interested in studying the international regulations on the matter of respecting the religious and cultural heritage in Eastern European post-communist urban areas.
We plan to start our research from the assumption that at the local level of urban planning there were incremental changes in policy-making and loopholes in the legislation which allowed private Investments interests to speculate the legal void and thus consider building business/recreational centres in the near proximith of historical/religious sites/ old city centres.
At this point we need references on international regulation on urban planning with a view on historical preservation.
Thank you in advance
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The best single document which discusses the various buffer zones for CH monuments, sites, parks, etc is the UNESCO World Heritage Report #25 (attached here). The importance of implementing various regional and local stakeholders can never be under-emphasized. The UNESCO report is good for examining the aspects of buffers, corridors, etc. These are often only suggestions and recommended policies, but at least you have international codified policies to utilize.
I hope this helps Catalina and good luck, TRP
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With the recent questioning of western model of heritage preservation, indigenous models are being discovered all over the world and are found to be more [public] inclusive in opposition to the exclusive nature of western model. Consequently, public participation in heritage creation is being debated. How can these indigenous models play into the acceptable dogma (western model) especially in this post-colonial era?
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Any discourse of heritage management using indigenous models must first take into consideration the type of heritage and how the citizens of the polity where they exist explain, interogate and venerate the heritage in question. This is because, it is only when heritages are engaged ontologically from the axiology of the owners that one understands the rationale for the model used in preserving them especially inline with the challenges posed by environment. To then blend the model into western constructs without taking the latter issues into consideration would be doing harm to the heritage. For a synergy to occur betweeen indigenous models and western models of heritage management, the ritual practices in the indigenous method should be made to undergo a scientific inquiry, rather than dismiss it as one of the uneccessary eccentrics of a primitive society,
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(Qual é o principal patrimônio industrial no mundo? E em seu país?Quais sítios ou elementos são reconhecidos em seu País? Quais não são?)
(¿Cual es el principal patrimonio industrial en el mundo? ¿Y en su país? ¿Qué sitios o elementos son reconocidos en su país? Cuáles no?)
"Industrial heritage consists of the remains of industrial culture which are of historical, technological, social, architectural or scientific value. These remains consist of buildings and machinery, workshops, mills and factories, mines and sites for processing and refining, warehouses and stores, places where energy is generated, transmitted and used, transport and all its infrastructure, as well as places used for social activities related to industry such as housing, religious worship or education". (Nizhny Tagil Charter, TICCIH, 2003)
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My answer is that TICCIH publishes reports every three years on the state of industrial heritage in each country where there is a TICCIH section. Some of these are on the TICCIH website (for 2015 and I think 2013) and for others you can always ask TICCIH how to obtain copies.
These report will go a very long way to answering your query Ronaldo.
Regards
Iain Stuart
TICCIH Board member
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Hi all, I am looking for available commercial software or open source tools to model the decay of mud brick structures and focus future preventive interventions. We have surveyed and monitored the UNESCO site of Çatalhöyük in Turkey for 4 years and have a huge amount of data spanning from surface 3D data, measurements, temperature, humidity, salinity, etc.
I am aware that many GIS tools can do spatial analysis on the data we collected and do the job but I would like to use a 3D approach and not sure whether or not ESRI Arc Scene can do the job.
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Hi Heidi and Evangelia,
Thank you for you answers. I will look into the CNM collection risk model and search for EUROMED and TECHNART papers. I will also contact The Association for Preservation Technologies that seems to be a good point of reference on this topic. See http://www.apti.org/ for more information.
Does anybody else have suggestions or comments on this topic?
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I have been workin on a sandston monument Modhea Sun Temple. The Stresses generated in the temple after earthquake are 1/6th of he material capacity. The monument had retrofication work in 1971 and new sand stone was used for few windows and plinth region. After 2001 bhuj earthquake new sand stone work showed cracks but old sandstone structure did not showed any damage response. From the material aspects what could be the prime reason?
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One reason you get cracks at the corners of windows in an earthquake is because of the stress concentration effect.  If you replace old (deteriorated) masonry by new masonry then (everything else being equal) similar loads (another earthquake) are going to cause the structure to fail in the same place.
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Historical stones contaminated by Halite ! looking for possible origins
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I've worked in the American Southwest and Jordan-Egypt for two decades, and I've observed and measured intensive salt efflorescence far from any saltwater. It was from (i) NaCl/KCl constituents in the adjacent and substrate sandstones (mobilized from leaching and percolation), and (ii) from aridlands salt accumulation in deep regoliths/sand substrates where it rises to the surface with fluctuating ground water levels from agriculture, effluent pumping, and natural flooding.  Where are you that this is a problem?  Also, are you downwind from the salt source?  We have identified aerosols salts from 70-80 kms from upwind agricultural and sea sources.
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Does reinnovating the structure alter their genuineness? 
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The management of heritage is a tricky balance of legacy, authenticity and practicality. In some countries heritage buildings are seen as important in society but only maintained as a 'facade' with internal adaptation permissible. There is also the factor that in some countries (we might generalise as Western countries but this is not universal) that heritage is higher up the political agenda and this might affect how use is permitted. Perhaps then it becomes an issue of pragmatically using heritage buildings in a useful way whilst maintaining what makes them unique from a heritage perspective.  My article 'Organic Community Tourism: A cocreated approach' in the Annals of Tourism Research (2013) might be useful for you.
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Currently, I am working on a studio project with a group of undergraduate students of the urban planning department of the University of Moratuwa who are studying ‘Anuradhapura’, Sri Lanka. Anuradhapura city has been identified as a World Heritage site by the UNESCO. Also, it is famous as one of the most prestigious places among the Buddhist pilgrims over time. However, in the contemporary planning practice, the typical way to conserve a heritage site is isolate that place or separate it from the people and prohibit all the activities including construction, modification, etc in the particular location. Anuradhapura also has not escaped from this reality. However, we need to propose some strategies to conserve this place without isolate it from the inhabitants. Not only that, but we also expect to make those inhabitants the agents of conservation of the city. Therefore, please mention if you know any relevant case study or literatures to develop our planning strategies to Anuradhapura.
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I think you could take the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (UNESCO, 2011) as starting point. there are some case studies done and published (papers / conference papers) by our team, one also in Sri Lanka  http://purl.tue.nl/58494520021879. You can find more publications on my page or the page by  dr. Pereira Roders: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ana_Pereira_Roders
Also the work of https://www.dur.ac.uk/archaeology/staff/?id=2880 could be interesting as its on another famous Buddhist site (on http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666) and the impact of pilgrims on the living heritage
success and looking forward to the results!
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Does anyone have experience of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for analysis of historic mortars? I have facilities available to me but I am not sure if there is much potential for this in my field of research - I work with new and historic lime mortars and am interested in possibly using this technique to identify additives in the mix.
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Hi Katrin, I'm afriad we haven't made any more progress with this. The model building process that is required for this to work is a very time consuming task. We're unlikely to make progress with this any time soon unless we have a student you ahs time to input all the required info.
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I'm ready to cooperate and exchange information in this regard, I am working on
a case study in the World Heritage TAKHT-E SOLEYMAN.
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Dear Mozzaffar
I think its useful to recal the Theory of Restoration by Cesare Brandi where he defined two main kinds of values: historical and aesthetical ones. Very important is the definition of a scientific methodology for the understanding and communication of the values. In this way, the theory of architectural surveying and restoration, as intended and developed by ICCROM - International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (http://www.iccrom.org/) are useful references. Their are based fundamentally on the “historical-critical method” for the philological study of architectural and urban heritage.
Certainly Brandi wrote in a general way, first considering works of art like paintings and statues. Declining his theory according to the architectural heritage, also the following elements assume an additional particular importance: matter, space and use. Moreover, in the architectural field the historical values are more important that in other ones: a building can be intended as the result of a continuous process of modification and stratification occurred during its life.
I think that the architectural field can learn from humanities and archaeology, but architecture have own characteristics that a requires specific approach, also for its protection and restoration.
All the Best
Stefano
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The relevant national, regional or local authorities have a duty to encourage the
most appropriate use to be made of the protected heritage of this period.
Encouragement should be given to finding new uses which take account of the needs of present-day life providing the new use that does not run counter to the architectural or historical significance. Could you please share some examples?
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What were the original purposes of places like the caves of Lascaux, the pyramids in Egypt, the buildings of the Mayas, the original Buddhist inspired buildings in the East compared to their current use? Tourism, or not tourism?
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Im a final year student working on a dissertation and I am struggling to find professionals who deal with stained glass to answer any of my questions. I would greatly appreciate it if professionals out there could answer these and help me attain my degree.
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Your questions require lengthy answers. Perhaps you could check some papers and guidelines for questionnaire design, and think of how you could analyse your results. i.e. SPSS. Once you come up with a better structured questionnaire, you can search for glass CONSERVATORS (that's how the profession is called) through Conservation Discussion List, IIC, AIC, UKIC, ICOM etc.
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Experimenting with glass bottles to trap warm air under our new lab.
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Mark, I live in a country with a lot of sunshine and heat. I had to restore my house in Jerusalem's oldest Jewish Quarter outside the Old City walls and we kept the façades and the domed ceilings inside, but for the rest, I designed the plans for getting a license from the municipality.
Perhaps that you know that every house in Jerusalem is built of stone, sometimes two parallel stones with an earth filling in the 19th century, whereas nowadays stones with a concrete backing. The latter can become extremely hot in summer, so isolation blocks and polyurethane are used to cool the inside of the house.
The roof is a slab of concrete and if the prescribed ceramic roof tiles are laid on top, the heat remains the same.
So, what did I plan? I created a wooden construction of lathes 18 cm above the concrete slab and on these I laid the roof tiles. When you open some tiles, or keep a slot open, air will circulate and take out the heat in summer, whereas in closed position, the air cushion will keep the heat inside during the winter.
So, if you would use wine bottles beneath your floor, you have to leave them intact, not broken, whereas you let air circulate from the outside inwards--as a draft--between your bottles, as a result of which your floor will be cooled.
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We cannot find a good and useful theoretical framework to use in our study
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Google scholar work by Rifkin, S. or Biaras, B. for framework to measure CP
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I am very interested in the idea of transforming old industrial buildings into habitable homes, and allowing the natural character of old buildings to be celebrated in new and trendy homes. I love the idea of The New York Loft.
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Arizz-
What you are referring to is a concept called adaptive reuse. I find this area to be lightly researched, but is pretty much a staple for discussion among those in the historic preservation field. You see the adaptive reuse concept alive and well in the U.S., but still so much of American development is of the greenfield variety (taking virgin land and developing it for residential and commercial purposes). The strengths of adaptive reuse would be that the historic character of a town/city is preserved through the retention of these buildings over time. Also, there are municipal benefits in that fixing these buildings up means that less water, sewer and utility lines have to be laid down for the outer suburbs. The same is true for the road system..you don't have to create new roads in an adaptive reuse situation. Regarding the weaknesses part of your question, many developers do not see enough in terms of acceptable profit margins to proceed with this type of development compared to traditional greenfield development. The problem is exacerbated by the issue of stringent building codes in the U.S. (which affects the supply side of the equation) and buyers' preference of newer homes with no problems over nostalgia and temporary "hipness" (the demand side of the equation).
I hope this helps!
Andy Carswell
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Perhaps they yearn for a brand new home or and empty plot of land to build on, or to salvage an old/heritage listed property, or to find restoration opportunities, or..?
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Dear Arizz,
I guess the answer can be a bit different in different cultural setting, although some economic framework is probably universal (cost to quality ratio, adaptability, risk involved being good examples). But home is not only a rational economic decision. There is a social and cultural factor involved. As you house is a material sign of your status, having a brand new 'bespoke' house in the suburbs in some societies (say Poland) can indicate household's social status, and distance from the others. In other societies the old renovated mansion in a prestigious location would be a sign of aspiration to the elite (if you are interested in other than economic perspective, I recomend you P. Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste as a good starting point).
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I want to know if heritage language instruction is a part of your school system, recognized by the authorities, organized on a parent voluntary basis or non-existent?
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In terms of the built environment Australia tends to have strict heritage regulations, which are governed by the state. There are also various heritage advisory bodies which use a number of criteria to assess the significance of each building.
And although I feel our heritage buildings are very much respected and appreciated, heritage language does not always win out against new modern construction.
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I understand that heritage listings are important to preserve the history of the townscapes and streetscapes at the very least, and buildings of that age and life usually have exquisite character, but coming from town where there are numerous houses listed as heritage, some people question which houses are worth the effort and land to save? How would one go about making that decision?
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You summarized my response well; that is an excellent way to view it. Let me give you an example- many years ago, I visited the Fort Donelson Battlefield site, and the buildings at the site were exact replicas of the original structures. The historic essence and integrity of the site was maintained, even if non-historic structures were used. I have seen similar treatments with some historic bridges, where the original was destroyed and an exact replica was built, which allowed those who better wanted to appreciate the history and cultural significance still could. It would be like a living history. It is analogous to the Civil War reenacters, who don costumes and reenact American Civil War battles exactly as the occurred, a living, interactive history, which is more educational and illustrative to people than mere words and maps.
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As one of my methods for the masters I would like to know other people's opinions on the use of ICP within archaeology, especially plasters, mortars, and stucco's.
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ICP-OES is convenient method due to low detection limits, and large linear working area which enables determination of major, minor and trace elements in the same sample. However, you could have problems with traces of Pb, As, Hg which could be solved with some analytical tools.
But the most important fact is that ICP-OES is a DESTRUCTIVE method, so you will have to dissolve your samples and destroy them completely.
In contrast,SEM-EDX is not a destructive method, but its quantitative results are obtained only for the surface of the sample.
There are many things to think about, mostly when developing and validating your method. Best luck
Iva
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Having little experience of FTIR I could do with some help with understanding the output.
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A very good book on FTIR spectroscopy in general (containing also some information about FTIR spectroscopy of minerals) you can download under the following link: http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/pdf_publications/pdf/infrared_spectroscopy.pdf
IR-Spectra of many minerals can be downloaded under: http://rruff.info/ (although the www is called database of Raman spectroscopy, for many minerals also FTIR spectra ar given!)
An old but still very helpful book on the subject is: Victor Colin Farmer (1974): The Infrared spectra of minerals, Mineralogical Society, London, Mineralogical Society monograph, 4
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Degradation is permanent (2nd law of thermodynamics), and therefore also the protection of heritage objects and materials have to be permanent. With that comes a need for the introduction of mass (conservation) technologies into the professional care of collection items
The choice of preservative treatment or technology is dependent on the underlying analysis and determination of the properties of object (input and output control, analysis of object before and after conservation). In terms of mass technologies or processes may be considered more procedures / processes.
Mass technological methods of protection and preservation
• Input and output control of the object (example non-destructive, semi-destructive methods for analysis more variables)
• Mechanical and chemical cleaning
• Desalination
• Annealing - oxidative, reductive atmosphere
• Plasma-protection
• Impregnation (deacidification, consolidation, petrification, ..)
• drying
• lyophilisation
• sterilization and disinfection
• digitalization
• and others
All material carriers of cultural heritage are permanently exposed to degradation, which necessitates the need of their constant protection. The rate of degradation of carrier media and heritage in Slovakia is two to three orders of magnitude higher than the required rate of protection. For quantification of object cultural heritage see: http://knihask.eu/novinky_2011/Potreba-ochrany-2011.pdf or attached file (english version).
Example
The accomplished quantification and analysis of the current state of affairs in field of cultural heritage protection of the objects in the Slovak republic has identified a need and a necessity to build the lacking infrastructure and secure qualified personnel resources So that the discrepancy between degradation speed and effective protection is eliminated. An answer would be the launch of the national network of authorized centres for protection of cultural heritage (IKC-NET) (author of idea: Prof. Svetozar Katuščák, http://knihask.eu/technologia.htm ), while observing the conditions of sustainable development.
Implementation of the results project KNIHA SK (http://knihask.eu/novinky_2008/Hanus_Ljubljana2008.pdf )
The aim of the State project of research and development "Preservation, stabilization and conservation of traditional information carriers in the Slovak republic" of the program "Current problems of the society development" is to propose optimal solution of the problem of preservation of traditional information carriers, especially of documents on acidic paper. Key implementation achievement of the state-run project KnihaSK lies in Proposal of optimum technological procedure for books protection and establishment of Integrated Conservation Centrum of the Slovak National Library (IKC SNK). IKC SNK forms an integral part of the national network of technological conservation centra for complex protection of cultural heritage. IKC SNK is an integrated system composed of the following subsystems: conservation and restoration of information carriers (K), digitization (D) and research (V). From the viewpoint of system engineering and good industrial practice, the capacity of the key technological operation – deacidification – can be increased in IKC only at simultaneously applying the necessary technological operations related directly to deacidification and digitization.(www.knihask.eu ). Very important is the selection of best available techology The (BAT) for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Example - Criteria and requirements for technologies. Multicriterial evaluation system of a conservation technology (http://knihask.eu/novinky_2011/Criteria-requirements_technologies.pdf )
Relevant answer
Answer
mass technology is needed , but it does not included the past and culture is in the past and must be preserve in the future, with future technology.