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Heavy Metal Pollution - Science topic

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Generally we use chitosan to remove heavy metals.
Please help me if you have some fruitful documents.
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The chitosan is a biopolymer that is considered an eco-friendly and efficient alternative of biological origin. Chitosan has become an actor in water treatment. Its use in coagulation/flocculation, adsorption and chitosan-assisted ultrafiltration processes.
By its properties of non-toxicity and biodegradability, chitosan can represent an effective substitute for mineral salts and synthetic polymers for the removal of turbidity in the treatment of drinking water but has the defect of increasing the TOC of the treated water.
Materials of biological origin such as chitosan appear to provide alternative and innovative solutions. This amino polysaccharide has great potential in water treatment due to its biological nature, its origin (obtained mainly from waste from the fishing industry), its non-toxicity, its polycationic character which distinguishes it from other polysaccharides and natural polymers, and its technological versatility. This biopolymer has indeed aroused growing interest since the 2000s to recover and eliminate contaminants present in industrial effluents due to its wide range of applications.
Regards
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There are different treatment methods for wastewater for organic and inorganic(heavy metals) pollution. Majorly, chemical processes such as precipitation, oxidation, neutralization, electrolytic, ionic exchange, and adsorption are considered in cases of heavy pollution.
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Graphene based adsorbents for remediation of noxious pollutants from wastewater is used.Adsorption is one of the most efficient techniques for removing all most all types of pollutants i.e. inorganics and organics.After using in the wastewater purification as adsorbents of different toxic species (e.g., heavy metal ions and organic compounds), the spent graphene-based materials should be separated from the medium, regenerated, and then recycled. The separation of these materials is a boring process due to their small size. It depends on the nature of materials. Different techniques have been employed to effectively separate graphene-based materials from wastewater, among which the most substantial are centrifugation, cross-flow filtration, field-flow fractionation, and electric field (Ali et al., 2018c; Kim et al., 2006; Moeser et al., 2004. The recyclability of spent graphene-based materials is the other emergent problem.
So too much important to understand advantages and disadvantages of the processes.
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Nowadays, many industries and activities discharge various types of heavy metal ions with their effluent including Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, etc.
Is there any industry in which copper and cadmium are the major constituents of its effluents?
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Tannery effluent have large amount of Cr. Iron also may be present in many type of wastewater due to treated systems and pipe. Cu I don't find it in most copper industries wastewat such as wire. Ni and Co in the military industries wastewater. In fact the presence of heavy metals depending on both industry effluent and regulation limits. I mean some regulations accepted high concentration of heavy metals in wastewater.
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Dear community:
In my literature review on electroremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals, I’ve come across many researches that have used a kaolin/kaolinite sample like a soil model. In addiction, I’ve also noted that no justification related to this usage had been given.
In this respect, I think of this justification should be given due to many people when start to work on this issue are not aware of the similarity relationship between the soil and kaolinite/kaolin in terms of chemical composition and the fact the kaolin is itself a natural soil component. Moreover, as far as I was taught, one have to justify every approach done in a research project.
Finally, It’d be noted that I’ve already achieved to figure it out, but after I’ve looked for it in literature related to chemical composition of soil and scientific models.
Please, let me know what do you think about this concern.
I thank you in advance.
Best regards.
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Indeed, This clay has a low retention capacity
Its interfoliar distance is of the order of 7 A, low compared to other kinds of clay
Kaolinite forms in well-drained soils, by acidic pH.
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The status of global soil heavy metal pollution
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Il faut voir les rapports des nations unies
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I am currently doing my research on sustainable rehabilitation of selected abandoned mine sites in Namibia. One of the selected site has got a huge slag dump and is a source of heavy metal pollution especially arsenic, zinc, lead and vanadium.
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Tshivute Iipinge you may contact Dr Ibrahim A. Allamin in Nigeria for further advise as he did the experiment in our lab. Would be interesting to see the capability of this hardy plant to remediate the contaminated soil. In addition you can do metagenomic studies to see population shifts/succession.
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Increasing the demand of lead recycling industries in so call E- vehicles or eco friendly initiatives. It was observed that the SOP and the work culture is rarely bothered about the exposure to the labour in such recycling units at melting section, lead oxide mill, red oxide area and ingots making sections. So I want to know about the study conducted on the accumulation of lead in the lungs of the front line workers and is chances to defuse lead from lungs ( respiratory system/track) to blood ??
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The workers in secondary lead smelters lead normally suffer from the lead poison. It is body accumulated poison which causes by the time a sever effect on the lungs, kidneys, blood, bones, and brain. I worked for several years in lead smelters and suffer from this poison. The treatment of such poison is to follow the following points:
1. The importance of staying away from sources of pollution until starts to go down, or reduce the exposure time.
2. Make sure to wear personal protective clothing and focus on appropriate respiratory masks.
3. The lead in the lungs and blood need to be extracted by special medicines, The pomegranate drink is a good extracted liquid for the heavy metals like lead.
I would like you to focuses on the first point as soon as possible in order to get raped to reduce lead poison concentration.
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I have searched various documents and found usage of different values by various authors, please share proper details for oral response dosage for heavy metals as per USEPA norms (Latest)...
Thanks in advance
PS: Working for Indian scenario of Heavy metal pollution in groundwater...
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you can visit this website for Rfd and toxicity values of any element and compound.
It is an easy and informative
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How to calculate ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in environmen??
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Is frog a model organism for metal toxicity assay? How much heavy metal-containing meals do frogs consume? What does the literature say about effect of heavy metals on frogs? How many people consume frog meat? People in terms of cultures. These are some of the areas of your research that you must tidy up. My answer is Yes! you can. However, your ecotoxicological model will be localized.
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Please help me with suitable reports/ papers/ articles that provide the permissible limits of Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Mercury in commonly consumed vegetables such as Radish, Spinach, Cauliflower etc.
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Sure! i also need the same for Africa (Sub Sahara))
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How many mechanisms are there between heavy metal pollutants and microorganisms? Who can detail the application of these microorganisms in the engineering field?
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How many mechanisms are there between heavy metal pollutants and microorganisms? This question isnt directional as too many heavy metals or microorganisms are involved and of course mechanism differs
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Looking for references for a new article
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Thanks Anju Baroth
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I just participated in a farmland restoration project and suddenly found that no-tillage technology is a very effective way to control heavy metal contaminated farmland.
Mechanism of straw returning to soil for prevention and control of heavy metal contaminated soil:First , straw returning has a certain barrier effect on chromium pollution caused by atmospheric deposition;Then, the straw is degraded to release organic matter, which on the one hand increases soil fertility, on the other hand, soil organic matter can be complexed with free chromium to reduce the bioavailability of chromium.
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Hi Xinlin, Would you kindly put some parameters around the claim? Paul.
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I want to set up a pot experiment of which phytoremediation techniques should be used as to remove metals. So, which plant I should use or who are the most effective accumulators.
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Brassica juncea is the most suitable plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.
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In one of my experiment, some adsorbent is used for the removal of heavy metals from water. Now I want to recover the metal from residues.
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First of all, It depends on the type of adsorbent material that you used.
In heavy metal removal processes, desorption/regeneration of adsorbents is one of the essential aspects as it controls the economy of water treatment technology.
For effective regeneration of adsorbents and metal recovery, acids (such as HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, HCOOH and CH3COOH), alkalis (such as NaOH, NaHCO3, Na2
CO3, KOH and K2CO3), salts (such as NaCl, KCl, (NH4)2SO4, CaCl22H2O, NH4NO3, KNO3 and C6H5Na3O72H2O), deionized water, chelating agents and buffer solutions (such as bicarbonate, phosphate and tris) were used in various studies.
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Several methods are available such as phytoremediation, washing, eletrokinetic treatment, and vitrification etc. So, which technique is more feasible and effective?
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I think phytoremediation is the most feasible method for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil.
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The aim of speciation procedures is to maintain the integrity of heavy metals species and minimise sample preparation procedures that may alter heavy metals speciaton. There is a tendency for laboratories to choose methods they are familiar with rather than the most appropriate procedures likely to obtain accurate and unambiguous speciation data.
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Chemical Speciation and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals ...
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Especially in metropolitan areas.
Which one has the highest impacting today?
Which heavy metal have the highest pollution rate in urban soils todays?
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Excellent question and answers, according to our team study in Iran: lead in water pipes , traffic intensity , residential wastes , vehicles and urban industries !
Please kindly see the attached article!
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The physical and chemical properties,
Toxicity,
Impacts on human, animals, plants, soils, waters, ...
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Well, According to WHO, 2011
Guideline value; 0.02 mg/l (20 µg/l) Occurrence; Concentrations in groundwater less than 0.001 µg/l; concentrations in surface water less than 0.2 µg/l; concentrations in drinking-water appear to be less than 5 µg/l .
Tolerable daily intake (TDI) 6 µg/kg body weight, based on a NOAEL of 6.0 mg/kg body weight per day for decreased body weight gain and reduced food and water intake in a 90-day study in which rats were administered potassium antimony tartrate in drinking-water, using an uncertainty factor of 1000 (100 for interspecies and intraspecies variation, 10 for the short duration of the study).
Regards
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I have searched many papers for allowable concentration of Copper and Chromium in industrial wastewater but I didn't find anything useful.
I would be so grateful if you help me with this matter.
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No permissible limits for Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) in waste water.
The available permissible limits in guidelines are for drinking water
Cu = 2 mg/L
Cr = 0.05 mg/L
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any one use biological methods to asses the vaible form of heavy metals in the soil intade of chemical one
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I am using dielectric cell to detect the heavy metal pollution in the soil, using Fe, Cd, Zn and Pb.
how can i differentiate between these four HM??
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These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a competitive means for the detoxification of metal - bearing industrial effluents.........Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and evolved different..... Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and reflectance spectrometry can be used .For details consult https://www.science.gov
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Can somebody suggest to me the best way to analyze REE's and heavy metal contents in tree bark samples? Is it necessary for me to take any precaution steps in analyzing heavy metals in soil samples by using FAAS? Especially to overcome the problem related to the phosphorus or silica factors.
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You can also use the ICP-OES, for this you must incinerate the sample at 450 degrees and dissolve it in 1.5% nitric acid
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Is it possible just comparing only the element concentration in biota and sediment, excluding the TOC and lipid?
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I think that if possible, but doing the analyzes separately
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Based on the attached picture, is it possible for the fluorescence probe (carbon dots) to quench all the heavy metal ions with slightly different values or there is some thing wrong with the reading and it is suppose to be selective determination. Please help.
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Looking for simple elaborate explanation...
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Hi Mirza,
Indices are efficiently utilized in pollution evaluation of water resources, and their application depends on the purpose and objectives to which they are intended for. Besides pollution monitoring of water resources, creation of indices may cover trend analysis and enforcement of standards.
If you want to develop an index to answer or solve your research problem, you need to follow the sequence below;
1- Identify and select the relevant parameters as a good candidates for the index.
2- Calculate the subindex of each parameter.
3- Assign weightage (Priority or importance) to the selected parameters.
4- Aggregate the subindex and weightage to get the overall index which can be used practically to classify the water for various uses.
Find the attached publication and links for more references;
Best regards.
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Dear Researchers!
The PLI value greater than one indicates the metal pollution in the sediments. Is anyone experienced the extremely high values (suppose 100 or 1000) in the marine sediments samples?
Please share your experience!
Thanks in advance!
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Hello Asmat,
I have published a paper that reported extreme metal pollution load indices of up to 31. However this was NOT in marine sediments. It was in peri-urban freshwater dams that received a lot of urban run-off and effluent discharges. I suppose it is possible to have values of up to 100 after a prolonged period of pollution. This is because metals generally adsorb onto sediments, therefore keep accumulating over time. You also need to be sure that the metal levels you are detecting in sediments are not due to the geochemistry of the bottom surface (as opposed to pollution).
Here is a link to our publication.
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How can I extract heavy metals from heavy metals accumulating plants for phytoremediation?
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Dry-ashing and wet oxidation are the two widely adopted methods for extraction of heavy metals. For details go through this important descussion. https://www.researchgate.net/post/Which_method_should_I_us_for_extracting_heavy_metals_from_plants
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I'm working on cumulative risks assessment of lead, chronium, nickel in groundwater and drinking water.
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Interesting
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"Combustion induced transport of heavy metals in the gas phase - A review" is your paper. I need the paper to consult what Water-soluble lead in the atmosphere is, but I cannot load this paper. Could you give me this paper by emails? My emails is sutao@gig.ac.cn. Thanks
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Interesting
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Different approaches have been used or developed to mitigate/reclaim the heavy metal polluted soils and waters including the landfill/damping sites and industrial effluent. Among these phytoremediation has got popularity due to low cost.
Different researchers suggests different plants for different heavy metals under the concept of phytoremediation. It is true that plant uptake heavy metals and make it part of its body. That plant or part of it is disposed off somewhere. But heavy metals will remain is heavy metals and transfer from one place into another. So where is mitigation?
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If you see the philosophy of treatment of waste, we are only changing the form of pollution.
It can not be completely treated. Wastewater is treated, sludge is produced, land pollution is created. Air pollutants are absorbed, water pollution is created. Solid waste are scientifically burnt air pollution is created and so on..
Similar is the case in Phyto- remediation the phyto- accumulation helps saying that heavy metals are reduced.
The treatment technology is basically pollution transformation process.
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Prepared EndNote Library. It will be great help for me.
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I am very sorry sir. Thanks for your co-operation. If possible please try to provide me. If not possible then its ok.
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Dear Sir/Madam,
My name is Munish Bidjai. I am a graduate student chemical engineering with food technology as a major.
I am writing my thesis about what the impact is of environment and initial processing on the presence of the contaminants: heavy metals and pesticides in commodities green coffee?
To answer this question, it is necessary to divide this research into three components.
  • Green coffee bean origin
  • Species of green coffee bean
  • Type of production process
I would like to sincerely ask if you have some literature of these kind of topics for me so I can build my case further and use it as a reference for my dissertation.
I would like to thank you in advance.
please contact me by mail: m.bidjai@hotmail.com
Yours sincerely,
Munish Bidjai
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Dear Mr. Kan,
Thank you for your mesage.
The parameters I have set are seperate for environment and processing.
It is true that heavy metals will not disappear no matter what process is applied. However, could it be possible that heavy metals in water that is used for wet processing could accumulate on green coffee? If yes, how could that be possible and what are the possible risks.
My thesis is to research the presence of these contaminants on a risk based approach. I am currently working as a graduate intern at Jacobs Douwe Egberts in Utrecht and this thesis is to improve the Material Monitoring Program of JDE. Unfortunatley there are not many specific research reports about these topics. At least I have not been successful finding a lot.
I hope that you could help me further in my study.
Kind regards,
Munish Bidjai
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Most of the cases, various metals having species and their toxicity varied largely; so how we can quantify the effect of these metal species on other metal present in soil system.
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Thank you your suggestions.
I have worked with few metal combinations................
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I need to analyse plant rinsate for analysis of heavy metals as part of a Mine spill contamination project. Do we have any standard protocol for plant rinsate analysis?
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Please follow EPA protocol for heavy metal analysis.
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How we can explain that the iron oxides and organic matter content control the concentration of heavy metals in the sediments?
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Hi,
Thank you for your prompt responses to my question
Regards
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I am doing a pollutant (eg: heavy metals) percentage removal analysis with time for a soil column. I received data for pollutant removal percentage for each element with time. I want to find out the trend of those data. What would be the best trend indicator? Linear? Polynomial or something else?
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Not sure exactly what you need.  A spreadsheet such as Excel would give you different options for fitting you data (linear, exponential, polynomial, etc.) to a model as well as giving you an R^2 as a "goodness of fit"  that can be used to provide a statistical probability of a trend.  If you just need to determine the probability of whether a trend exists, you might consider a Mann-Kendall statistical test for trend.    
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Hello:
I need the values of Nisso softnes of this Heavy Metals Cd Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn
I m looking for in Chemistry books and internet and not found results.
Thank you
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Explain Nisso softness? 
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Hello everyone, I am studying the behaviour of nematodes against heavy metal toxicity. I want to perform comet assay, but finding it difficult to optimize the protocol. Although, in C. elegans comet assay has been reported with exposure to BPA, but, I can't find a protocol where nematodes are exposed to toxic metal-containing pollutant under a natural environment in presence of multiple elements. If anyone can suggest a method for the experiment, I remain grateful!
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Hi Linee
Toxicity of Chromium III is very different from that of Chromium VI
That is the first thing you need to define
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I am working on heavy metal contamination of soils at mechanic site and i need international, regional and even national permissible limit of the metals am working on
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Dear Linus Aposu
You can following the attached paper too.
regards
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Currently, I am doing a research on heavy metals in fresh and salted fishes. Therefore I want to know the latest maximum permissible limits of these heavy metals (Cr, Cd and Pb). The limits which I have are very old (FAO/WHO 1983/1989). Precisely, I want to know about chromium. Thank you
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Dear Davina
Please kindly  Follow : 
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Heavy Metal Regulations – Faolex. Legal Notice no. 66/2003. 2003. http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/eri42405.pdf.
FAO/WHO (FAO/World Health Organization) (2002) Codex alimentarius—general standards for contaminants and toxins in food. schedule 1 maximum and guideline levels for contaminants and toxins in food. Reference CX/FAC 02/16. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
A . Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls Guidance. 3. College Park: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration; 2001.
they have been listed by the US Environmental Agency (USEPA) based on their potential for human exposure and health risk (Birungi et al. 2007).
The joint FAO/WHO Expert  Committee recommended a PTWI concentration
under 5 lg/kg body weights for mercury(Torres-Escribano et al. 2010).
Best regards, parisa
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I am analyzing heavy metals in soil and water in abandoned copper mine area. I need the background values.Hope your answers would help me.
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CHECK THE EPA AND WHO WEBSITES!
YOU CAN FIND THE INFORMATION THERE.
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I understand the relationships, but I am looking for a clear diagram that shows this. There are many that show nutrient availability as a function of pH in soils, but I am looking for one specifically for heavy metals. I will of course provide attribution.
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Samantha - I understand the kind of diagram you are looking for. I dont recall seeing one and Leonardo is right, such a diagram would be deceptively and potentially dangerously simple (actually so is the pH/nutrient one). "Availability" or toxicity/risk is a function of many things not least redox potential, pH, organic matter content, source of contamination, age of contamination, sequioxide content, CEC etc etc. There has been some progress trying to develop "models" for estimating risk / toxicity from commonly measured soil parameters (such as pH, CEC, OM, Fe). Take a look at previous discussion on the topic - link below.
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I find contradictory citations and have not been able to get my hand on the original article. Does any of the heavy metal folks on this site have a copy of the original article that they can share, or at least check for the correct citation? Thanks.
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Mohamed:
Thank you for your response. I like the human health risk that you discuss in your paper. After all, that is what ultimately matters the most.  I read the Muller and Suess paper that you cite as a source for Igeo but I didn't see anything about Igeo in the paper (the Muller and Suess paper). Did I overlook it? The original source must be something like this: Muller G (1969) Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geol J 2:109-118.   but there must be a mistake in this. That article doesn't seem to exist. I wonder if anybody on this forum has the complete and correct reference, or has an actual copy of the original article.
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Hello
I am looking for a easy protocol if possible even without spectrometer to measure for different heavy metals in water or urine! I have no really need to know exactly how much metals ions I have. My experience it's just to know have or have not? I saw some papers who define the presence of few heavy metals by the same dithizone compound. I am trying to learn more about it!
Thank you!
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old book of "Colorimetric determination of traces of metals" Sandell, E.B. NY 1944 you can find methodology for heavy metals
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Can any body please suggest some literatures describing the bio-available proportion of metal from contaminated/polluted soil to animals (e.g., Bivalve mollusc/polycheate etc.) ....Advance thanks due to your kind cooperation. 
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It depends on the forms of metals, solubility of the metal forms, the demands of the organism in terms of the metal (e.g. essential metals like Fe, Si for e.g. the exoskeletion of marine organisms) or their analoges, the life cycle of the organism etc. Usually, pollutants are concentrated in the organisc phase of the sediments.
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My partner and I are working on a paper with Ipomoea aquatica as the focus of phytoremediation. If the plant is not fit for consumption, what can be done to the plant after phytoremediation? Especially if it hyper-accumulated heavy metals?
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Dear Patricia
Extracting and analysing metals from areial parts   and roots and purification of metals in order to get it back into industry could be done.
Best regards
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My partner and I are currently doing a research in phytoremediation. I would like to know what are some beneficial uses of plants that have acquired heavy metals (lead and zinc) in their cells. Can they be converted into bio fuel knowing that they have these heavy metals? what are some other uses for plants subjected to phytoremediation?
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Thank you all for answering my question!
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Aside from precipitation, what other factors could affect the levels of mercury or other heavy metals in the environment?
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Well, you have to read and search about Hg sources in the environment and then study your area and see if there is discharge source which may contain Hg. also you can make the same for other metals.
also you have to keep in mind that metals are present in marine environment but in a low or high concentrations varying according to the metal so you have to know the background concentrations of metals in environment. 
regards
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I need details information about permissible limit of Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn & health & environmental effects of those metals.
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 Dear Safia Habila
Thank you so much for feedback. I need the permissible limit of  soil not water.
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What are the most important heavy metals that move to milk ?
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Dear Shaimaa Sabeh
This lead and after that cadmium. But in camel milk: 
2016;36(1):132-139 DOI 10.1590/1678-457X.0069.
Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran. Food Sci. Technol (Campinas) [online]. 2016, vol.36, n.4, pp.717-723.  Epub Oct 13, 2016. ISSN 0101-2061.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-457x.16116.
The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.
Keywords : camel milk; mineral element; heavy metal; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP).
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Any recommendation it we intended to determine heavy metal content in 50% caustic by ICPOES?
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 my dear, i agree with Paul Milham ·
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Municipal and industrial wastewater often contains a cocktail of a multitude of heavy metals and nutrients. Bacteria present in such wastewater may develop multiple heavy metals resistance to cope with such heavy metal stress as an adaptive strategy. These bacteria with multimetal resistance property have the potential for remediating the wastewater or soil contaminated with multiple heavy metals. I expect some enlightening   and enriching inputs from RG friends and researchers.
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The case of bacterial multimetal resistance  is a bit different from resistance to single metal but is more worthy as a tool for bioremediation. I am particularly interested to tolerance and resistance strategy and the cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanism involved there. How does escape mechanism and tolerance in course of time evolves as an adaptive  strategy and means of detoxification and/or removal?
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currently, I am now conducting my research for my final year project. the title is a biogeochemical exploration of a gold deposit in Sokor, Tanah Merah, Kelantan, Malaysia.
1) firstly can someone give me an idea about the species of plant that can be an indicator for a gold deposit which suitable with the climate here?
2) secondly about the method. can some give a clear explanation about the sample preparation and digestion for plant and soil sample?
thank you.:)
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Hi Nursyasya,
In terms of the species I won't be much help, but if you look into the literature on phytomining, I'm sure someone will have an example of a tropical plant that is a good bioaccumulator of gold. 
With regard to the analysis you have plenty of options, particularly with the low detection limits of ICP-MS. Firstly the soil - this depends on whether a significant proportion of your gold is associated with silicates, if not then it's relatively simple. Make sure your sample is dry, then digest the soil sample in aqua regia (3 parts conc HCl, 1 part conc HNO3) with a solid to liquid ratio of no more than 0.1. Due to the hazard involved in this stage, do this in small batches, generally a few grams in 50 mL depending on the expected content in the sample. Then filter and dilute the sample for analysis. Where you have silicate-associated gold, you may need to grind the sample significantly finer to release it. This is because silica phases will not dissolve to a significant extent in aqua regia.
The plant samples are most likely best dealt with by burning the plant matter and treating the ash as with the soil above. The issue here is trying to make the procedure reproducible so that you're experiments can be compared to each other. Therefore, you'll need the same part of the plant, with similar moisture contents, etc. The moisture is best removed by freeze drying to minimise potential plant decomposition during conventional drying. 
I'll add a caveat here that I'm by no means a biologist and so am happy to be corrected about my suggestion for the plant treatment.
If you need more detail or advice just ask. Good luck!
Cheers,
Laurence
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How can I measure the chromium content in a sample containing algal cells by using DPC method?
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Thank you all for your responses with valuable attachments.
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Please can you help me to find Standard and guidline of the permissible limits of toxic heavy metals (copper and silver) in sediment, bivalve and sea water ?
Thx in advance
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 Dear   Khouloud BOUKADIDA 
Please follow the 
standard EPA documents
and also the best references which dear Mikhail reffered.
Best Regards
Parisa Ziarati
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Does anyone know about permissible limit of the trace elements (Cd Cr Cu Mn and Ni) for milk or other food? I've been seaching for it in WHO and FAO publications but not all of them are listed
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Permissib limits by WHO/FAIn ppm
Cu .05
Pb .001
Cd .003
Cr .06
Co .005
Ni .05
Fe .3
Zn  5-15
Mn  .05
Cu .05 to 1.5
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During calculation of Igeo, EF and CF I couldn't find background references value in Bangladesh.Now which value can I use instead of it? can I use UCC values & which values are helpful for that?
Advance thanks for honest collaboration.
Kind rigards
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this is not an easy question. As a basic approach the comparison with the Earth Crust Abundance values is quite correct.  I also would recommend comparing with average shale values; the values are, by good reasons, generally in the range of the upper crust. You may find tabulated values in the internet,  e.g. at Yuan-Hui Li (author); A Compendium of Geochemistry: From Solar Nebula to the Human Brain; Table VI-5a.
The main problem is the question of sample grain size you are using and the digestion method. A common recommendation to find background values is the use of fine grain sediments, meaning < 2 mm grain size. However, this range of grain size may contain a lot of sand fraction, which in river sediments generally consists of quartz. Due to transport mechanisms there is a general shift to quartz enrichment in river sediments. The more quartz grains in the sample the less will be the metal concentration, and you cannot compare with average values from literature. So, for sampling you should prefer backwater situations in Feni River or sections with slow moving water where you will find fine grained sediment (< 63 µm); or you have to sieve the material. You also should keep in mind that literature values rely on total digestion. So, with only few exceptions, you also have to do total digestion prior to analysis (e.g. digestion by HF, which is a really awkward job).  Some metals will be easily extracted nearly to total by aqua regia digestion, like Pb, Zn, Cd. These element concentrations can be compared to literature. An additional question is whether a comparison to literature values is really helpful when looking for enrichment of metals. A better proposal is comparison to local background values. For this you have to find out stream sediments from uncontaminated sections in your region, possibly rivers with a high catchment area. With some effort uncontaminated sediments can also be found in the lower part of sediment cores from bayous.
Possibly a look to our sediment surveys on Chilika Lake (India) or Elbe bayou sediments (Germany), both in Research Gate, will give you additional ideas, e.g. on the question of availability of heavy metals.
Good luck and kind regards
D. Zachmann
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Hi
I've soil extractions by TCLP for contaminated soils by Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn from a shooting range. These extractions were applied to untreated and treated soils with different nanoparticles as ammendment to reduce available content.
I've the final values of each extraction but I've seen some differences between papers when they calculate and put the data. Final results are expressed in mg/kg, mg/L or as leachability of x element from the x total concentration (%)?
From what percentage is considered a good reduction and to talk that amendments are adequate?
Other question. There are any recent guideline for contaminated soils with references values for each element? USEPA has any actualization from the original TCLP method?
Regards and thank you in advance
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 Dear Raj Singh
Thank you !!
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I have found ucc value for Fe (from Rudnick & Gao 2004) is 4.09 wt%. but how can I convert it into mg/kg unit?
advance thanks for response and precious time.
kind regards.
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Saif ultimate lelan
4.o9% = 4.09 Gm  Fe  in  100 Gm  crust
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Effect of heavy metal lick Zinc, copper and iron on pathogenicity of plants fungal pathogens
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I have no study in this project.
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I want to calculate Igeo for sediments heavy metals. is the SPSS software helpful for it???
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Ms Excel is suitaible and easier for calculating Igeo. Simply draft your formula in Excel, input the metal conncentation in the sediment and the reference/background concentration of the particular metal and the correction factor......
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I am currently working on the bioaccumulation of nickel in Sargassum polycystum, but I can't seem to find the level limit of nickel in said species. Anyone who knows the level limit in accordance to WHO and NAOCC? 
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Good luck to you
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In my previous works I use a local standard limit for heavy metal contamination in soil. But I search a generalized limit. Because recently I involve in a number of coal based power plant EIA projects, where it is very much important for my future projection. Thanks in advance for your help.  
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I need to calculate LOD in Hg analysis of fish sample. My method is;
Blank: put 10 mL nitric in microwave vessels and run the program and volume up to 50 mL and read (result received in microgram/L)
Sample: take 1 g sample+10 mL nitric acid in microwave vessels, then run the program, 
My equation is for LOD=mean+ 3*standard deviation
But I receive blank reading in microgram/L unit (See attached excel sheet), then how I calculate LOD? Can you give the example or correct my excel sheet
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@Henrik
You are correct, assuming each sample is exactly 1.00g, and the volume is 50 mL.  Your calculation assumes that all 15 weight measurements are exactly 1 gram.  The spreadsheet should have separate columns for the weight extracted and volume used of each sample. 
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Heavy metals are toxic elements, which may enter into the food chain through fertilizers. We are going to review the standards of heavy metals in chemical fertilizers in Bangladesh for which I need the references from our neighboring countries.
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Dear Md. Abdus Satter,
Please see the attached file. I wish  could be useful to you
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In my region, Suaeda vermiculata showed a clear dominance in sewage polluted areas. Among the plant species examined in these polluted areas, S. vermiculata was found to be the least in the accumulation capacity to heavy metals. How can we justify its use in phyto-remediation processes?
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i want to measure the concentration  of some heavy metals
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With all due respect Prof. Ewald Schnug, but using HR-ICP-MS for measuring the concentration of "some heavy metals" in water is like using sledgehammer for cracking the nut. This technique is good for advanced measurements like isotope dilution for high precision purposes (et. forensic) etc., but not for measuring concentration of metals in water. In this case "regular" ICP-MS is enough. 
But Mr Ali abd-elrahem asks about simple method. I would suggest FAAS for elements with high concentrations (Ca, K, P, Mg) and GFAAS for elements at trace concentrations. These techniques are relatively easy in comparison to ICP-MS and even not mentioning HR-ICP-MS that requires skilled and experienced staff to operate.
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I made an RDA analysis in R environment, where I would like to anylise the effects of soil heavy metal pollution on plant species distribution. I made the following script and unfortunately on the plot ther are row numbers. The rows mean the sample sites for both the species and soil data collections. 
The used script were: 
Preparation:
Envir<-read.csv("varmetal.csv",dec=",",sep=";")
Species<-read.csv("speciesmetal.csv",sep=";")
impvar<-c("Ph","As","Pb","Fe","Zn","Zr","Rb","Sr","Mn","Co","Cu") 
Envi<-Envir[,impvar]
Species2<-decostand(Species, "hellinger")
attach(Envi)
RDA plot:
fml<-paste("Species2 ~", paste(impvar, collapse=" + ")) 
rdaf<-rda(formula(fml))
spe<-scores(rdaf)$species[rank(inertcomp(rdaf, proportional=T)[,1])>ncol(Species)*0.8,] 
sit<-scores(rdaf)$sites 
cen<-scores(rdaf)$centroids
par(mfrow=c(1,1))
plot(rdaf, main="RDA") 
text(cen*1.1, labels=c("Ext", "Int"), col="blue")
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You are presently using the "plot method" of function RDA() and this does what the author of the function had in mind. However, you may directly access the content of your list rdaf. In vegan this is very complicated and for this reason I implemented a "table of contents" in my book. Hence, excerpt the coordinates from rdaf using "myscores<- scores(rdaf)". Now, your x- and y-coordinates are in myscores$sites[,1] and myscores$site[,2]. Then plot(myscores$sites[,1] ,myscores$site[,2]). Now you can do all the formatting yoursef, including the arrows and their scaling.
Davids solution is of course simpler!
Otto
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Respected research fraternity I am working on a project “Heavy metal contaminant interaction on lime stabilized expansive soils”. I would like to understand the chemistry of salts like Arsenic Trioxide, Cupric Nitrate, Potassium Dichromate, Lead Nitrate and Mercuric Nitrate when they react with oxides of aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide and calcium oxide. The effect on diffused double layer with these above reactions. The concentration of effluent liquid taken for experimental work is 50ppm and 100ppm.
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Copper salts are not recommended for soils.Samall qauantities may be allowed
Lead nitrate is toxic and absorben by plants. Mercury  salts are hihgly toxic and is prohibited.  Chromates are soluble and end in freactic waters and is toxic
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I didn't find permissible limit of p-ASA and ROX in water
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Please follow the references:
 FAO/WHO .2006. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Sixty-seventh report of the Joint FAO/WHO Ezpert Committee on Food Additives. WHO technical report series. No 940.
FAO, Heavy Metals Regulations: Part 1. Legal Notice no. 66, 2003, http://www.faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/eri42405.pdf.
 CCFAC. Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods), Food Standards Programed: Joint FAO/WHO, Fifth Session. CCFAC (Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods), The Hague, the Netherlands, 2011.
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Aluminium cadmium barium and strontium are being applied by forced aerosol Spray into the atmosphere above us continuously.  You only have to look at the sky and the changes in it to see that this is real.  Carnicom.com  is scientific research on this crime on humanity.  Why are there not more scientists researching this when we can see it clearly exists and is getting worse.  What are the long term effects on human biology. What are the effects on bees and floral and fauna plus our waterways.  If we are that concerned about the environment and our health why are we not working to stop it.  
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Hello
might be able help you do a book.
with regards
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there are so many methods of water quality indices; I want to know that does any method use physicochemical and biological parameters to represent overall water quality in a single term.
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There is information and a useful spreadsheet available via the attached link Avinash (Water Quality Index 1.2). It takes into account most of the parameters you list and it can probably be adapted to meet your specific requirements. There are numerous other indices available.
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I'm planning to conduct a study about utilizing heavy metals from plants that had used for phytoremediation, but I'm confuse cause I can't find any literature that explaining about extracting heavy metals from plants.
So I would ask which method should I used for extracting heavy metals from plants? And how about possibility outcome? Is it a liquid or solid?
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Dear Eleni
Please follow the page : 
As I have done this method many times.
Best Regards
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I hope you help me find a Standard of the permissible limits of toxic heavy metals and thallium  in soil stream water and sediment.
This project is located in China.
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The answer will depend on where the project is located.  For instance, the United States is divided into different regions and the U.S. EPA for the region sets the permissible maximum contaminant level for each media (soil, surface water, sediment, air) for that region.
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I'm interested to research on mitigation of heavy metal of water but getting confused for make a suitable protocol for measurement of water hardness & turbidity.
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If you are specifically interested in metals loads in water, I would measure total suspended solids (TSS) in the water column rather than turbidity. Turbidity can be used as a surrogate for TSS, but only if you have a well known relationship. TSS will affect the total metal load in the water as particulate matter will either contain metals or metals will bind to the surface. If you are interested in biological impacts, best to also measure soluble metals (or even speciation). Hardness measurement is used to assist interpretation of risk from certain metals (notably Cd, Ni, Pb Zn) whose toxicity is modified by hardness (the higher the hardness, the higher metal concentration that can be tolerated by freshwater organisms). USEPA has algorithms to modify guideline or toxicity values according to water hardness.
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Hello,
If I want to calculate the enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) .... in  sediment core , Should I use the average concentration for all sediment core or I need to calculate it for each layer of the sediment core ??
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Dear Dr 
I agree with Dr Asmat that : Each layer contamination analysis telling you more information as compared to average concentration.
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Hi! My co-researchers and I are studying the application of biochar on the adsorption of heavy metals in soil. We are planning to plant the biochar at a certain depth under the soil and recover it after a certain time. The problem is how are we going to recover the biochar. I hope someone can help. Thank you!
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How about you use /prepare magnetic Biochar?
By impregnating the clean  Biochar / Remediation-Char  with the right substance, I would call this DesignerChar, it should be possible to pull all the Biochar from the research site.
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My research is about the bioremediation activities of acanthocephalans in Philippine freshwater lakes. Many studies have shown the high potential of acanthocephalans as biosinks of heavy metal contamination (lead, mercury etc.) in freshwater lakes. In fact, one study shows that bioaccumulation capacity of the acanthocephalan can be up to 147 times higher than that of the fish tissue (Paller et al., 2016). Here is a copy of the journal article this is based on.
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The reason they accumulate so much heavy metals is because they are parasites on tertiary feeders at the top of the food chain already high in heavy metal content.   Algae, missed  or bacteria might work better