Science topic

Heat Treatment - Science topic

Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching.
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hello everyone. In accordance with the Ti-Cu phase diagram, welding these two metals, forms brittle IMCs like Ti2Cu and TiCu. does anybody know if there is any post-heat treatment cycle to remove or at least decrease these IMCs?
thank you for your favor.
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No, heat treatment below 400°C will not affect the microstructure of the material. It only serves to reduce the residual stresses.
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Dear Sir
i want to take wear test in my polymer spcimen so i want to fabricate my conterface material medical grade 316L stainless steel. but i did not get clear idea from liteatures so kindly help me how to fabricate 316L counter face...
1.what heat treatment need
2.heat treatment temperture
3.cooling method
i hope you have positive response
(Urgent)
Best Thanks
S.Sathishkumar
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Visit kindly the following useful link: https://www.sciencegate.app/document/10.3390/met11111854
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i want to use abaqus to simulate the heat treatment with a furnace. so i build the blocks and furance.i use the abaqus cavity radiation to simulate the heating processing in furance.
when i do a data check,the abaqus always prompts : "Error in job cavityradiation: The sum of 15170 viewfactor matrix rows are less than one, indicating an open cavity; however, no ambient temperature has been defined. The facets with small row sums belong to elements identified in element set ErrElemVFSmallSumStep1Inc0. If this is a closed cavity this error may indicate a need to refine your mesh. You may choose to increase the value of VTOL to allow your analysis to run without refining the mesh. However the accuracy of the results may be significantly affected so this is not recommended unless you are sure that VTOL value you set is acceptable for your model.
Job cavityradiation: Abaqus/Standard aborted due to errors."
can you tell why? and what should i do to solve the problem? thank you very much
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Did you get any solution?
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In the martensitic stainless steel solidification process, delta ferrite is the first phase nucleating from the liquid. Sometimes this phase remains in the matrix after completing solidification. In order to improve the mechanical properties of these steel, heat treatment process is necessary. In my project, I have observed a significant amount of delta ferrite in the matrix of martensitic stainless steel in the as-welded condition. After tempering (tempering temperature was below As), the amount of this phase reduced significantly. Surprisingly, despite the tempered martensite formation, hardness increased! I think the reason can be attributed to delta ferrite decomposition. I assume that delta ferrite decomposed to carbides during the first stage of tempering and then transformed into austenite at the end of heating cycle. This austenite later transformed into fresh martensite upon air cooling; as a result, the hardness increased and delta ferrite decreased. It is worthy noted that FE-SEM investigations showed the formation of fresh martensite from the bulk of delta ferrite.
Is this assumption true and does it have a chance of happening?
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I'm planning to implement controlled cooling method for forged parts instead of normalizing process. I need to know how to design metallic box and implementation method.
Kindly share your valuable feedbacks.
Regards,
Vignesh
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The exposure time in vermiculite depends on many factors: the material, the dimensions of the parts, their temperature, the number of parts in one box, etc. Usually the exposure is several hours.
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Fe with 10-12%Al forms alpha solid solution. but Al does not dissolve any Fe Why ?
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Aluminium having a FCC structure is more closely packed than Fe(BCC) thus there is very less solubility of iron in Al.
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I am going to make thin film involving a TiO2 nanocomposite But i had some questions that a RG search couldn't help me with. I wanted to pick between tritonx-100 or PEG
1) I have no idea how much of the powder or triton will i use to make the paste, and should I use PEG or triton?
2) I can't find the recommended temperature for heat treatment after the thin film is made
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In [1], the article contains practical procedure for obtaining the function of addition different percents of PEG or triton in terms of their impacts on the TiO2 film properties. Hope it helpful to start with it.
Best regards
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I am planning to measuring residual stress using Nanoindentation.
And I need the stress-free sample for reference.
The sample that I want to measure is AlSi10Mg , makes Additive Manufacturing.
so, how to make stree-free sample?
heat treatment? , how can i decide to proper heat treatment temperature?
Electric Discharge Machining?
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It is quite hard to produce a truly stress-free sample. Stress relief annealing of AlSi10Mg is tricky as you might change the hardness of your samples, see Mertens, et al 2015 - THERMAL TREATMENTS OF AlSi10Mg PROCESSED BY LASER BEAM MELTING (Hardness was reduced by ~ 10 % due to the 250°C/2h heat treatment)
Non precipitation hardenable alloys are typically annealed at 200°C till 300°C and then slowly cooled e.g. in the furnace (GDA Merkblatt W7). Whereby, a higher temperature should be able to achieve a lover stress level. If your samples have the capability of a precipitation hardening and your residual stress is related to a fast cooling steep, "up-hill quenching" (e.g. -196°C and then heating up in a steam bath) might be suitable. (see ASM Handbook vol. 4 Heat Treatment)
The proper temperature depends on the condition (amount of Mg and Si in solution or/and the precipitations) of your samples.
Every machining (even EDM) is able to introduce residual stresses close to the surface. Therefore, you might be better of with a chemical enchant or rather electrolytic polishing before the testing and after your stress relief treatment.
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I have a question and would appreciate it very much if you could guide me.
I have started preliminary work on fabrication of nanofiltration using polysulfone as the support and the polyamide as the top layer. The polyamide layer is made by interfacial polymerization of piperazine and TMC. The SEM micrographs of the membranes clearly show the formation of the polyamide layer. However, the membrane does not show any rejections of MgSO4. I have tested different operation conditions (pressure, flow rate) and have also modified the fabrication by heat treatment and longer dipping time. However, no rejection is observed. I cannot understand what the problem is. Thank you very much.
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dear colleague :
you made an error in the quantity(amaount) only between the support and the polyamine ???? check the 2 procedures and make a comparison: 1- support larger than polyamide 2- support smaller than polyamine this is where you can understand your error.
best regards
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I want to perform an untargeted lc-ms analysis of bacterial metabolite. Generally, we break down the cell of this bacteria by dissolving the pellet with methanol and then give heat treatment for 30 minutes at 55 degrees celsius to extract carotenoid.
But as heat treatment may destroy heat-labile metabolites, that is why I want to go for probe sonication. I have taken stationary phase culture and dissolved the culture in PBS buffer. Then I have done the sonication process (40% amplitude with 30 sec on/off for 20 minutes).
PBS buffer composition (100 ml, 1X PBS, pH- 7.4)
NaCl- 0.8 gm
KCl- 0.02 gm
Na2HPO4- 0.144 gm
KH2PO4- 0.0245 gm
What procedure should I follow to break the cell so that metabolites remain intact?
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As Hathama Razooki Hasan suggested, the addition of detergents like SDS, Tween-20, Triton-X in your lysis solution will be helpful for the degradation of gram-positive bacteria.
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Why can not grain size be reduced by heat treatment in cobalt base superalloys such as FSX-414?
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Decrease in grain size by heat treatment alone is possible when the material undergoes phase transformation, such as austenite to ferrite+ pearlite as in carbon steels. Nickel base and cobalt base alloys do not undergo phase transformations (phase stability is what makes the alloys suitable for high temperature applications). Therefore, reduction in grain size is not easy by heat treatment alone unless mechanical working (such as forging, rolling etc) precedes. However, grain growth can occur during solution treatment.
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I am doing subzero heat treatment after quenching for en24 steel. And after subzero heat treatment am tempering it for 450c. So is it ok to go for 6 hours for subzero heat treatment or do we have to go for 24 hours only? 
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the grade of the steel is important in order to compromise properties.... but totally 24 hours is suitable
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While doing heat treatment to SLM parts, Do we need to perform heat treatment along with the build plate or after removing parts (using wire cut EDM) from the build plate?
My main concern is to study the effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties and residual stresses
Can anyone explain this? (It will be helpful to my work if you provide an answer with the journal also)
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I invite you to check our paper, in which we compared the effect of stress relief with parts attached to the building platform on, among others, residual stress in laser powder bed fused IN718 alloy.
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Recently, I am working on a study about PWHT. I curious on when did PWHT first appear? How did PWHT develop with history time ? Which research institutions have made outstanding contributions in this regard?
hope to update the knowledge of PWHT, looking foward for your reply.
Thanks in advance.
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Please check the attached file, I hope it would help
Thanks
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PWHT (post weld heat treatment) is widely used to eliminate welding residual stress, but how to evaluate the effectiveness? what are the commonly used methods to measure welding residual stress in a component in or to be in service? Any standards?
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You could also check the Blind Hole Drilling technique for components in service. The technique is a bit old-fashioned maybe and less accurate than XRD but the equipment can easily be carried on site. Also, take in mind that it is semi-destructive cause you drill a small hole on the sample. Maybe in some cases can be repaired with cladding or even not depending on the application. Good luck!
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Trying to optimize mechanical properties of cast steel through heat treatment and would like to find any theoretical methods to generate a hypothesis defining final mechanical properties.
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Yes it is a sophisticated topic, for that I recommend you to go through the methodology included in the experimental procedure section in [1] that leading to determination the maximum austenite grain size during normalizing for a given temperature. In [2] the growth behavior and the effects of the holding time and heating temperature on the grain sizes were investigated and analyzed to predict the austenite growth using the Sellar's model.
Best regards
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Whereas strength is proportional to density in metal case.
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Because density is not directly related with the UTS. In addition, heat treatment actually reduce UTS and hardness.
On the other hand, density depends on the processing parameters.
Finally, the heat treatment is applied for stress relief.
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Hello Researchers,
As from literature it was seen that aluminium alloy Al5083 can only be strengthened by work hardening and micro-alloying. Similarly, I want to know what are the only possible processes through which AZ91 can be strengthened.
Moreover, If you suggest the process with the any limitations it would add supplementary to my work.
Thank you
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perhaps the heat treatments on the material could be "calibrated" in synergy with the parameters relating to friction stir welding to optimize the final microstructure of the alloy…. certainly not an easy job !!!
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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With the development of large size heavy section pressure vessel, local post wed heat treatment(PWHT) instead of furnace PWHT must be used. Absloutely, there are differences between furnace PWHT and local PWHT. For example, the structural constraints, the temperature distribution field will be significantly different. Obviously,The effect of PWHT will also be different. So, my questions are :What's the essential difference between furnace post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and local PWHT?How does this difference affect the release of residual stress and the change of microstructure and properties?
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Vadim Verlotski ,I‘m sorry I forgot to state that the materials I want to study are low alloy steels and stainless steels,such as Cr-Mo-V steel,9% Cr steel ,304 stainless steel ,316 stainless steel,etc. According to what I have learn, it is hard to release the welding residual stress completely by PWHT (including furnace PWHT). That's why I curious about the stress relief mechanism of PWHT. Meanwhile, that's also my motivtion for the topic of the disscussion. In other words, I want to know the difference of stress reilef mechaism between furnace PWHT and local PWHT.
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Dear All
Modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) are two parameters in heat-treated woods. In the following paper, the Authors used time, temperature, and relative humidity or wood species parameters for determining the MOR and MOE by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs).
Are there mathematical equations and formulas for determining MOR and MOE with time, temperature, and relative humidity in standard codes and other papers?
Best regards
Mehdi Nikoo
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I hope you are doing fine, and thanks for answering my question. I saw equations based on the F, L, h, and b variables.
The data consists of three input variables time, temperature, and relative humidity, and two output variables, the MOR and MOE. I modeled the MOR and MOE, and I need equations or methods that have used these three variables to compare my results.
Could you please kindly send your opinions?
Best regards
Mehdi Nikoo
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Respected fellows.
why we can not do direct aging heat treatment after homogenizing heat treatment on Fe-Ni superalloys? what is the purpose of (Solid) solution treatment which is different then aging?
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The purpose of homogenization treatment is different from solution treatment and therefore heat treatment temperature and times of the two treatments may differ. While through homogenization treatment we want to get rid of coring or solute concentration gradient in a cast alloy, in solution treatment our aim it to get all the solutes needed for precipitation hardening into the solution so that we can achieve maximum precipitate volume fraction during aging treatment.
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I have coated conductive glass with TiO2 using dip coating, the precursor I used was titanium butoxide, and I prepared 0.1 M solution with this precursor ( Propanol as solvent), the main problem is that even under various heat treatment ranges ( from 400 C for 2h to - 500 C for 24 h )I can not get anatase and the Raman spectra show the spectrum of the substrate only like there is no coating or no crystallinity. But the layer can be seen under SEM and the thickness is less than 100 nm.
Is there any suggestion on how to obtain anatase? Changing the precursor can help?
PS: I can not increase the annealing temperature to more than 500 C, because of the substrate.
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These are interesting documents to check them as well. My Regards
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Can we synthesis SeO2 (powder) Just by heat treatment of Se (powder) in Oxygen environment? And if yes at what temperature and for how much time it should be treated?
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Dear Abdul, thank you for asking this very interesting chemical question. Simply burning elemental selenium in air or oxygen is not sufficient to make selenium dioxide. You need to have a small amount of nitric acid as catalyst. An easier and more reliable method involves the reaction of elemental selenium with concentrated nitric acid. Selenium powder is added in small portions to concentrated HNO3 and the resulting solution is evaporated to dryness in the fume hood. Final purification can be achieved by sublimation at ca. 315 °C. Please note that SeO2 is quite hygroscopic. For more basic information please have a look at this rather old (1945) article:
Selenium Dioxide: Preparation, Properties, and Use as Oxidizing Agent
Please check if this review article is accessible through your institution, as it is not available as public full text on RG.
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Al A356
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@M.Amin Ezazi,
but it have to consider this temp. in kelvin not in celsius .
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to make ybco thin films by FF-MOD method during the process of formation of ybco on the substrate in the furnace we use wet O2 atmosphere from room temperature to 850⁰c , could someone please explain me why ?
Thanks in advance.
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thank you for this interesting question.
Wet oxidation process results in faster oxide growth, and strongly assists the stability of the as-deposited film against the ambient. But the main role of using wet oxygen process is the changing of the electrical property from semiconducting to metallic behavior in film resistivity vs. temperature.
Best regards
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I've been using the same 1" tube furnace to carbonize my polymer nanofibers. I follow a typical protocol where I first stabilize the sample in a box furnace (in air) at 280 C then use the tube furnace under 60 sccm UHP N2 at 1000 C (ramp 5 C/min) for 1 hour. This gave me no problem before and only recently I started seeing 2 things:
1) no sample is left after carbonization. There are sometimes some white flakes left in the crucible, but my sample is supposed to be black after carbonization.
2) the outlet end of the tube is contaminated with some white material, I'm not sure what. The sample I start with is brown color.
I have a suspicion this started happening when we installed a metal gasket with rubber O-rings on both ends of the tube. Before, we just had a rubber stopper with glass tube going through to supply the gas. However, I'm not sure how that could remove all of my samples and contaminate the tube with white stuff.
Anyone have any insights on what could have happened?? Thank you!!
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Infact, I stumbled into this as a result of my sample loss in the tube furnace as explained by Sooyoun Yu. I think I should apply some stabilisation firstly as she advised before taking to the tube furnace. I will like to know she finally solved the issue.
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I would like to simulate the microstructural evolution of a super alloy during and after heat treatments and thermomechanical treatments using the JMAK model. And I am looking for some free software that can help me.
Thanks!
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During pasteurization, proteins present in suspension in liquid egg whites are impacted by pH, the temperature of pasteurization, and tithe me the product is held hot. I am looking for a simple, portable test/equipment to measure the amount of opaqueness of the liquid egg whites after the heat treatment.
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You might try refractive index. It may not be a "direct" measure of scatter, precisely, but the chemical changes that cause scatter would likely also change the angle of a laser as it passes through the medium. That might be less sensitive to dimensional variation in the sample.
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Hi All,
I am trying to heat-kill some bacteria for an experiment, but do not want them to rapture (ie. maintaining their cell wall structure). does anyone have a quick and easy-to-do protocol for this, please?
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Hi Priscilla,
The temperature and length of heat treatments for killing bacteria depends on the bacterial species you are using, and on the growth conditions. Robustness of bacterial envelope greatly varies across species (i.e. between Gram- and Gram+). Moreover, for bacterial species able to sporulate, heat treatments are necessarily harsher and longer, if one wants to eliminate all viable spores. The physiological status of the bacterial population can also affect thermal sensitivity; for instance, actively replicating bacteria vs bacteria in stationary phase or in biofilms can respond very differently to heat.
As a reference, for Escherichia coli happily growing at exponential phase in rich medium, 5 minutes at 70 degrees might suffice to kill the entire population without affecting cell structure of most bacteria (there will always be some lysis).
What I would do is checking different temperatures and treatment lengths for your specific bacteria in the concrete conditions you are planning to use, and then check cell viability (by plating) and integrity (by microscopy), in order to choose the conditions that maximize killing without significantly affecting cell integrity.
Good luck!
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How to modify whey protein and/or casein functional property so that they form crosslink at ambient temperature or without heat treatment in solution/colloidal state.
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Deformed steel structures can be repaired with heat straitening technique. However, column straitening is a difficult task as deformation will lead to eccentricity and during heat straitening one has to ensure that
this is not aggravated further . At times columns are heavy structural members with bending at two places which poses another threat. This requires extremely careful planning to avoid failure during heat treatment. As a result most of the time these are uneconomically replaced. Do we have any new trend in restoration of bended/deformed columns.
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quite interesting case of column which was hit by a heavy earth mover and the same resulted in bending of the same. In this form lot of eccentricity has developed but the column is still intact and no distress in the entire structure. Probably highly indeterminacy compounded with very high factor of safety of the structure has resulted in the functionality of the deformed column.
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I need to deposit the anatase TiO2 layer on ITO and FTO glasses, considering the experimental parameters, I found the optimum heat treatment temperature for 450 C. However, the substrate can not bear higher than 200 C. Is it possible to decrease crystallization temperature by playing with experimental parameters? which parameter is more effective in decreasing crystallization temperature?
PS. I used Titanium butoxide as a precursor and propanol as a solvent.
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Dear Mahsa,
this is a very interesting technical question. Unfortunately I cannot provide you with a qualified expert answer, as we work in organometallic chemistry. However, I just came across the following potentially useful review article which might help you in your analysis:
Low-temperature crystallization of solution-derived metal oxide thin films assisted by chemical processes
Luckily this very instructive review article has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG. Thus it can be freely accessed and downloaded as pdf file. I'm sure it will be of interest for you.
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I want to know some research projects that I can work for in my academic curriculum in materials engineering
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You can work with aquatic quantum materials discovered by me. At a concentration near the critical concentration of the formation of spherical micelles of ionic surfactants and in the region of the conformational transition of polyelectrolytes in water, quantum fluctuations of stretching and torsional modes of water appear, which create pulsating cavities for micelles and coils. It is necessary to study these phase transitions and investigate the energy of thermal and quantum fluctuations. For full details read my articles and patents.
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when Ti/Nb etc strong carbide formers are added to steel to prevent Cr- carbide precipitation (SENSITIZING), especially in case of Stainless steels, why these steels are more prone to high- temperature grain growth? True that GB precipitates of Cr-Carbides would no longer act to pin grain boundary, but would not fine precipitates of Ti/Nb carbides also act somewhat to retard grain growth ? and why is that Nb-Stainless steels (980-1065 C)need narrower solution annealing range than Ti-Stainless steel (955-1065 C)?
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In general, there are two phenomena that explain the observed behavior of
contacting grains leading to growth. In the first place, mass diffusion across the
grains contacting boundaries followed by particles contacting boundaries migration and this step requires higher activation energy. So the mass transport by diffusion rout at any annealing temperature is strongly related to the grains surface energy. Now, the heat of formation of chromium carbides is less than titanium carbide and much less than niobium carbide and so the surface energy of grains (grains boundaries energy) becomes much higher with chromium carbides. This means that mass diffusion between grains crossing the contacting boundaries for growth become higher in the order niobium; titanium and chromium carbides and thus the growth rate follow the same trend. Therefore the stabilized steels with Ti and/or Nb are more prone to grain growth during solution annealing.
Best regards
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is it necessity to homogenize cast ingot of wrought superalloys (such as Hastelloy X, haynes 25 etc.)? if hot forging or hot rolling were done without homogenizing heat treatment what is happen?
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It is important to avoid cracks during the following conformation processes.
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I did carbonization of PAN Electrospun nanofiber at 900 C under the flow of nitrogen but SEM images of Carbonized samples are showing bead formation and fiber reduction from 700 nm to 150 nm. what could be the reason behind the formation of beads after heat treatment is it possible such a huge reduction in fiber diameter
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Milad Razbin Thank you sir for your answer.
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I have magnetic beads coated with polystyrene material ( Invitrogen Dynabeads, cat 65011). When running these beads on the flow cytometer two SSC populations appear. Ideally, if we are using beads we must see a small concentrated population. I would like to mention that my experiment involves the vortexing of beads and heat treatments.
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Hi Sandeep Poonia,
I would suggest you validate your vortex speeds and heat treatment first. Because what I see on your graphs is too much debris. You should also check your beads (storage conditions, expiration date, transport conditions etc.) Also try using SSLog/FSLİn graphs you may be able to see a better image of beads. You need to validate your protocol (gain and voltage settings) for better images.
Hope this information is helpful for you,
Best wishes,
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Develope a detailed heat treatment cycle
Plz guide me
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I want to use dried fungi biomass but I have no idea how can I kill fungi spores with less damaging fungi biomass. I was thinking about putting broth media which I cultured fungi in into the water bath for 75°C 40min and dry in with a freeze dryer. Does it gonna work?
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Dear sir, you dont mention what you need work in fungal biomass. I think that fungal conidia (spore) dose not has negative effect on the biomass function when its found with mycelia.
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I have some samples and I need to do heat treatment on them to release the residual stress after 3d printing and make better the ductility for the tensile test.
I heated them in a vacuum furnace with the 750-degree celsius for 2 hours.
As the container was graphite, we put a thin layer of Zironica powder under them. but the result was awful. as I am not familiar with metallurgy and this process too much, anybody can give me some advice and guidance on why it happened to my samples?
It seems, under the samples that are in the contact with the powder, has the blue color(dark blue), and another area is the yellowish color like gold and it seems, the shape of one of my samples changes because of heating.
this result is strange because the color changed in the vacuum furnace without any gas inside.
The first image is all samples after heating.
The second image is under one of the samples that have close contact with Zironica powder
(The white part is the Zironica powder that remained on the samples)
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The problem with heat treatment of titanium alloys is that this material oxidizes even at very low oxygen partial pressures. Even the best vacuum furnaces fail to prevent oxidation of elements such as titanium, aluminum, zirconium and vanadium, as you have seen. Oxidation of zirconium and aluminum always produces white oxides (your white powder that adheres to the samples). Titanium can form both white and blue oxide layers (blue oxide is formed at a low oxygen partial pressure), while vanadium forms yellow and brown oxides. All of these colors are present on your samples, which indicates a fairly intense oxidation of the samples in your vacuum oven.
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Hello colleagues.
I am analyzing some phase transitions during heat treatment of calcium phosphate materials. Although I am having trouble to fit the data properly. I am using profex, and I an allowing some variation on the lattices parameters because the heat expansion. I have never done Rietveld refinement in HT-XRD data before, so I am wondering if there's anyway that I can set the temperature of the cif file data to consider it when fitting the data.
Thank you!
Best regards from Brazil.
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Hello Kim Doyeon !
I am so sorry, I've just read your reply!
Thank you very much for your inputs, I finally fixed the problem!
Kind regards,
João.
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How have people set up loading/boundary conditions for a quenching heat treatment model simulation? Do you apply loads or boundary conditions? Do you use an interface condition such as surface film condition and apply a film coeff (your HTC value)? I havn't been able to find any papers that really explicitly lay out how the setup is done.
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The heating temperature before quenching can be set in the Load module as predefined field. for the HTC, we can use the surface film condition-f(T) in the interaction module。
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High-S, especially resulfurized steels are discouraged from Boriding. What can a 0.1% Sulfur (and 0.5% Mn in ~0.1%C steel with Minor Cr, W, Ni alloys, all below 0.5%) do harm to boriding layer? Is it forming soft phases? Low-melting eutectic? brittle but mechanically weak phase? Or a combination thereof?
Can any separate chemical agents be treated on steel surface to make it fit for boronizing?
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Toughness also increases with addition of sulphur.
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I have performed solution heat treatment at 1050 C for 1 hrs followed by water quenching. A layer (black) is formed. How I can remove the layer as I have to perform chemical etching on the sample and until that the layer is removed chemical etching cannot be performed over the sample. Kindly provide your valuable suggestions....My material is 17-4 PH stainless steel.
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Hi all,
I want to know how two carbide material will sandwich with each other. Let me make my question more elaborative. Let say, X2C and Y2C carbide materials are there, now I want to make X2C-CY2 (X2C2Y2) out of them. Is there any specific process to do the same like any chemical reaction with solvent (with heat treatment also) or any other procedure?
Any small suggestion is highly appreciable.
Thanks in advance.
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Thanks again. yea, this a question not a discussion, next time I will be aware of that.
I want to prepare metal carbide composite. I have Cobalt metal carbide Co2C and Co3C and now I want to make the composite like Co2C-CCo3 i.e. want to make a common carbon bond. Or might be a common carbon layer one side will be Co2C and other side will be Co3C. Is there any reaction or procedure to make it?
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Thickness and diameter shrinkage percentage of the Al2O3 sample (after sintering):
Diameter 20%
Thickness 18%
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thanks for your important question
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I have found out that in some research journals, people have reported solution heat treatment of 17-4 PH stainless steel at 1040 C for 30 min and quenching in air ( Air cooling) whether some of them reported heating at 1040 for 1 hr than water quenched. Kindly answer me which process to be adopted to perform solution heat treatment in case of 17-4 PH stainless steel ??
Do I really have to go for 1hr of solution heat treatment or 30 min will be enough along with which type of quenching is required ( water or Air quenching) ??
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The recommended heat-treatment of 17-4 PH stainless steel is as follows: Solution treatment is performed at 1040 °C for 1 h followed by water quenching. subsequently, aging could be conducted at low temperatures followed by air cooling to enhance precipitation and the relevant mechanical properties.
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I am working on study of oxidation behavior of two binary alloys Mg-0.8Nd, Mg-0.2Zr & ternary alloy Mg-0.8Nd-0.2Zr in 1M salt solution. The heat treatment yielded positive results for binary alloys but for ternary alloy the corrosion rate is abruptly increasing compared to as cast form. I believe this might be the case of insipient melting. Unfortunately I couldn't get a defined microstructure. I did normal grinding with SIC grit size from 64microns to 5 microns in decreasing steps then polished with 3 micron, 1 micron diamond suspension and finally oxide polishing then washed with ethanol using ultrasonicate. The observed microstructure is attached below for insights. I hope to get some inputs and would like to know where did I go wrong.
Thanks a lot !
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I think it is more useful to go through the enclosed article by the George Vander Voort, titled" Metallography of Magnesium and its Alloys" for better understanding since as it is a cleared that the "magnesium and its alloys, regardless of the processing procedures employed, are among the most difficult metallic specimens to prepare for microstructural examination also It is worth to concentrate on the displayed art in figure 2a and b and related texts.
Best regards
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I am working on analysing oxidation behaviour of magnesium alloys containing neodymium and zirconium for bio medical applications. The objective is to study the effect of super saturated solid solution treatement on oxidation behaviour. The samples are heat treated at 525°C for 10 hours in resistance furnace to obtain homogenous solid solution. Unfortunately I don't have enough resources to analyse the samples under SEM and do EDS analysis. I believe it is possible to graphically obtain the phase diagrams, phases involved and information related to composition and volume of these phases at specific temperature and compositions by using thermocalc software.
I have the demo version of the software does which not include magnesium database
I hope to have some information about intermetallic phases as the sample is heat treated to the above mentioned temperature and amounts of these phases.
Also if possible can a Schiel solidification simulation provide some information about presence of some phases in microstructure after the heat treatment or graphical information about temperature vs mole fraction of solid.
I believe the intended data can be obtained by using precipitation module TC-Prisma in the software then plot time temperature precipitation diagram for that phase and study size distribution and composition of that phase.
Looking forward to some inputs.
Thanks a lot !
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The thermodynamic assessment of the Mg–Nd binary system using random solution models for the liquid phase and the comparison with the available experimental data (Fig 3 in [1]) reveal three possible intermetallic compound, Mg41Nd5, Mg3Nd, and MgNd. However, these compounds are stable at temperature lower than 550°C except for Mg3Nd the temperature is lower than 670°C as its melting temperature is higher.
The Mg-Zr phase diagram (Fig1in [2]) suggests that the maximum solubility of zirconium in Mg matrix is 0.5 wt% at 654°C. At this temperature, a peritectic reaction occurred where α-zirconium reacts with liquid and forms a α-magnesium phase. However the peritectic reaction at 654°C and so the grain refinement of magnesium, are possible at additions less than the solubility limit of 0.5 wt% zirconium.This means that Mg-0.2Zr alloy samples when running heat treatment course at 525°C for 10 hours to obtain homogenous solid solution will not affected the alloy microstructure, at least in terms of grain size.
The solubility of α-Zr in the Mg-Nd intermetallics (Mg41Nd5, Mg3Nd, and MgNd) was determined to be negligible at 500 °C and so, No ternary compound Mg-Nd-Zr was found [3]. Now the emerged question is to what extent the increase of temperature to 525°C will change the solubility α-Zr in the Mg-Nd intermetallics? In my opinion, the change is negligible.
I hope above input is helpful.
Best regards
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I have seen some journals mentioned stress relieving heat treatment for Al12Si alloy but the procedure is same as annealing/normalizing
Can anyone explain the procedure for stress relieving heat treatment and the difference between those?
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Stress relieving can be considered as a category of annealing. In the stress relieving the work piece is heat treated at a lower temperature (below recrystallization or transformation temperature) and its sole purpose is to eliminate the internal residual stress generated by previous forming operations. No phase or microstructural change occurs in this process, only stresses are eliminated.
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I studied journals on SLM (Selective Laser Melting) produced Al12Si components
In that many authors used Solution heat treatment/ annealing.
but for AlSi10Mg they used T6 heat treatment
why can't we use the same T6 for Al12Si?
Your answers help me a lot
Thanks in Advance
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Thank you for answering
What I understand from the above two answers is
by looking phase diagram, at AA temperature (150-1800 C), the solubility of Si in Aluminum gets zero but in Al10SiMg because of Mg content Si is not precipitated and forms Mg2Si
Correct me if I am wrong
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We prepared Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy by investment centrifugal casting. The elongation we obtained is relatively low but yield strength and ultimate tensile strength are high enough as desired.
Several ways we have done to improve/optimize mechanical properties especially elongation such as heat treatment process, gating system design, process parameter adjustment etc. However, elongation is still low, below 8%. How to improve elongation for minimum 8%? Is it possible for investment centrifugal casting method?
Thank you very much.
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Dear Idham Damisih,
To improve the elongation it is necessary to grind the structure. By centrifugal casting a fine surface structure can be achieved. In depth, the structural grains grow together due to the cooling rate.
If the cooling rate can be increased, the structure will also improve. Then it is necessary to carry out ternic processes to reduce internal stresses. Doug approach to improving and crushing the structure is by plastic hot deformation (rolling, stamping or pressing).
I wish you success!
Emil Yankov
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any information please?
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Your Question's not very clear, heat treatment for 10 min @ 80 C will kill al vegetative cells but spore survive, so it grows when sub cultured. Assuming that you know that the genus Bacillus is spore former. Hope this clear to you.
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Does anybody have any information about the composition of brazing alloy and heat treatment cycle of wide gap brazing of MAR-M247 superalloy?
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Dear Dr. Farhad Moravvej ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following documents:
-CORRELATION BETWEEN MICROSTRUCTURE ANDMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFUSION BRAZED MAR-M 247
W. Miglietti - Mattek – Csir Pretoria, South Africa
Presented at the International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and ExpositionCincinnati, Ohio May 24-27, 1993This paper has been accepted for publication in the Transactions of the ASME (1993)
-International Application Published Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (2002)
and
-WIDE GAP BRAZE REPAIRS OF NICKEL SUPERALLOY GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS by Cheryl Hawk
-High Cycle Fatigue Data Transferability of MAR-M 247 Superalloy from Separately Cast Specimens to Real Gas Turbine Blade
Miroslav Šmíd, Vít Horník, Ludvík Kunz, Karel Hrbáček, and Pavel Hutař
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1460
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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There are two similar formulas mentioned in articles to calculate the volume fraction of the retained austenite in Q&P heat treatment.
Which formula is more reliable?
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Thank you for your response Ramkumar R.
Actually, we analyzed our samples with both XRD and EBSD to calculate the volume fraction of austenite, but there is an unusual difference between those results, and I wonder why! so I am doubt about our way of calculating by XRD result
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Is it advisable to calculate Dislocation Density, delta=1/D2 from Williamson Smallman relation of thin foils (e.g., nickel, copper etc.) if geometric parameters (e.g., stress, strain, avg. domain size, energy density) are already known from Williamson-Hall (W-H) data?
Is Williamson Smallman relation applicable for thin foils or crystallites (e.g., sputter deposited thin films or chemically synthesized nano-particles etc.)?
Please provide your insight.
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Variations in the height of the specimen in its holder, whether increasing or decreasing, cause XRD peaks to change from their original location.
Important and useful pathways are connected to the XRD Curve:
Scherrer’s equation:
Particle Size, D = (0.9 x λ)/ (d cosθ)
λ = 1.54060 Å (in the case of CuKa1) so, 0.9 x λ = 1.38654
Θ = 2θ/2 (in the example = 20/2)
d = the full width at half maximum intensity of the peak (in Rad) – you can calculate it using Origin software.
To convert from angle to rad
Rad = (22 x angle) / (7 x 180) = angle x 0.01746
Example: if d = 0.5 angle (θ)
= (22 x 0.5)/ (7x 180) = 0.00873 rad
Then
Delta=1/D^2
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which heat treatment is suitable for aluminium 7075 metal matrix composites.and also may i know the steps/ procedure of the heat treatment ?
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Dear all,
Sorry for my poor English, I have a question want to know.
Recently, I was doing a experiment about TEM image analysis. But this image was very irregular compared to other ones. I added 2 images for explaining my question. Both samples I use is AA6061 alloy, the only different part is there is one sample(fig. 4-1.2M-1) which has been applied on current.
fig. 2-1.2M-4 is normal one, it has a lot of planes I can do some research, but another one(fig. 4-1.2M-1) has only 1 plane.
These 2 sample both underwent heat treatment.
fig. 2-1.2M-4: current stressing after annealing
fig. 4-1.2M-1: only annealing
I am wondering that if dislocations or residual stresses had be eliminated or the orientation had re-arranged in the annealed sample?
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The images you uploaded are calculated FFT images from your real space TEM images. For me it looks like following: the sample in 2-1.2 was oriented close to a low index zone axis, and therefore you get this quite nice pattern. As you said, there are lots of lattice planes visible and you can measure and index them.
In Fig 4-1.2, you only see one lattice plane. This is due to the orientation of the sample in the TEM. Try to tilt it to get to a zone axis. Then you should see more planes, since the sample seems to be crystalline.
What kind of sample do you have? (material, preparation for TEM,...)
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Suppose the Heat treatment holding temperature, holding time and cooling rate are known. The alloy is chiefly a low alloy steel with P~0.04%, C and S ~0.1% each, and Mn, Cr, Ni and W~ 0.5% each. If I use sigmoid diffusion equation and a arrhenius-type diffusion coefficient , the what would be the average grain size, say after annealing or normalizing?
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I have deposited double layer, first Fe and then Ni (both around 100 nm thick) on Si substrate. Then I will do heat treatments to expect formation of alloy of Ni and Fe (i.e., Permalloy). Which technique would tell me, how much percentage of Ni, Fe and NiFe alloy is there in my sample?
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XRF -X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and OES - optical emission spectroscopy.
XRF is non-destructive technique.
but, OES is a more sensitive technique than XRF (to lighter elements)
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The structure is asked of As-Cast Condition, and after annealing and (then) after normalizing. No elements other than those mentioned are assumed to be existant, the rest of the unmentioned composition is contributed by Fe (Iron).The caveat is, there is no access to simulation.
Specific points to be asked are-
  1. What would be phases present in equilibrium at room temperature? Would there be both stable FCC and BCC phases co-existant? What would be stable structure before solidification from liquid starts?
  2. Is there any mathematical approximating formula that would provide approximate widening/narrowing down of FCC or BCC field with alloying?
  3. What would likely be composition range of Mixed Carbo-nitro-sulfides (CNS) that are going to be precipitated at equilibrium, from melting point down to room temperature? How to likely estimate the dissolution temperature of mixed CNS's other than looking at individual pseudo-binary phase diagram of Fe with carbide/nitride/sulfide of Mn, Cr, Ni and W ? What are going to be possible intermetallic compounds (other than mixed CNS) in this composition range? How to predict?
  4. What would be approximate distribution of the alloying element in the inclusions, intermetallic, and metallic phases, at least as a first order approximation?
  5. How the alloying elements, and hence the inclusions and intermetallics (other than their dissolution) affect the annealing and normalizing time as well as grain morphology of the initially as-cast structure, and then heat-treated structure? Is there any approximate mathematical formula to find out change of heat-treatment parameters with complex alloying?
  6. How would I estimate strength of the alloy other than classic weighing of ferrite-pearlite strength (+ hall-petch relations for precipitates and grain sizes), and how would I find formula for solid-solution strengthening of metallic and nonmetallic phases? What would be temperature dependence of the strength?
If not possible to answer all at once, then please provide at least partial reference to research articles. Note the Research work is going to be a rapid one. Please refer to (https://www.researchgate.net/project/Prediction-of-Structure-and-Properties-of-Ferrous-alloys-and-subsequent-heat-treatment) for details.
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There are so many questions that it is difficult to answer at once.
First of all, I'll give you some helpful keywords.
1. In the case of carbon steel other than stainless steel, it is difficult for the FCC phase to exist at room temperature without enough nickel or manganese.
2. Each phases stabilizing elements are studied well for FCC Austenite and BCC Ferrite. Please open the follow.
3. Nitro-carbide often coexists, but in general carbon steel, nitride and carbide exist separately. In this carbon steel, W is a strong carbide-forming element, so it is possible to first form tungsten carbide at high temperatures during solidification. And if Al is present, it is expected that AlN will form, then followed by the formation of chromium carbide. At a lower temperature, iron carbide Fe3C will form with remaining carbon after forming (W, Cr)23C6.
Sulfides may exist as WS2 or FeS, which are formed independently at lower temperatures than tungsten carbide and iron carbide.
4. In the Fe-C Diagram, the volume of the matrix phase and intermetallic compound can be approximately predicted by the lever rule. However, the actual ratio is depended on cooling rate. Because it is not an equilibrium solidification.
5. The cooling rate affects the segregation of elements and phase transformation. Therefore, depending on the cooling conditions after casting, and in severe cases, depending on the shape of the casting, different structures may be obtained. If the casting is high alloyed, has the higher differences.
6. I would like to recommend reviewing two papers. Lei Wang Et al., Prediction of mechanical behavior of ferrite-pearlite steel, J. Iron and Steel Research, 2017 and W.C. Leslie, The Physical Metallurgy of Steels, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981. See the graph at p.217.
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Hi,
I have a porous NiTi (Nitinol) sample, after heat treatment a blue oxide layer was formed on it.
I try to remove it by electropolishing it in 79% acetic acid and 21% percholeric acid but it was useless.
Do you know any other method to get rid of that bluish oxide layer?
Thank you so much
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The oxide layer on nitinol should easily dissolve in dilute (5-10%) hydrofluoric acid (you cannot keep the metal in acid for too long, otherwise not only the oxide will dissolve, but also the titanium from the alloy!). Instead of dilute hydrofluoric acid, you can use concentrated (37%) hydrochloric acid or hot (60-80°C) 40% sulfuric acid.
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I am currently working on the austenitization and inter-critical annealing process of low carbon steels at roughly 650 °C - 1000 °C. I have no prior experience with hot salt baths. I am getting used to working with the bath and taking the necessary safety measurements (face shield and respirator mask). As long as I measured, there is a little temperature (+4/-4) gradient in different regions of the bath. The bath consists of BaCl2 based salt. The pot was made of 304 L stainless steel. It has a wall thickness of 5 mm and the volume is about 15 L.
I would highly appreciate it if you kindly gave me some tips and recommendations.
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For synthesis of sLDH nanoparticles, we want to use a protocol in which the particles are synthesized under 100 degrees hydrothermal temperature for 4 to 8 hours. Some of the precursors include Mg(NO3)2, Al(NO3)3 and NaOH.
Current protocol prescribes the use of a Teflon-lined autoclave for heat treatment. Would it be possible to use a normal vertical autoclave with the standard 250mL laboratory bottles?
Under normal procedures, the cap is left with a bit of space, but from experience, we know that closing the cap of these smaller bottles is not a problem when autoclaving.
I have two additional questions to this:
-When using a teflon lined autoclave in an oven: will the temperature inside the autoclave be much higher than the oven temperature due to the increase in pressure?
-Can a teflon lined autoclave be placed in a "normal" autoclave?
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I have found that closing the cap of a glass bottle inside the autoclave, will not allow for high-pressure inside the autoclave. Pressure will not be transferred to the inner environment of the bottle, only temperature. Therefore this method will not provide good conditions for the synthesis. Opening the cap will not allow for good reflux conditions.
For the second question, if we can place a teflon-lined autoclave inside a normal autoclave, I suppose the answer is yes, reasoned with the same logic as above. However, I would like to see some agreement to this, as I can also see the enormous potential for disaster.
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Besides the minimizing the energy of welding and accelerating the cooling rate, are there any procedures to prevent grain growth of heat affected zone (HAZ)? 
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post heat treatment is the simplest method to restructure the grain growth in heat affected zone
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Super austenitic stainless steel castings showed liquation crack after liquid penetrant testing post heat treatment. How to reduce this in thick walled castings.
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Check the grain size of the casting - large grains give more cracking. Need to find a balance between slow cooling and grain size.
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I'm interested in a selective oxidation in an austenitic stainess steel so that Chromia rather then ferrous oxide is formed on top of my metal. I know I should have a value of pO2 around 10^-17atm. Is possible to obtain such a low value with a Nitrogen gas based atmosphere?
Thanks for yours help
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You do not need such a low partial pressure of oxygen, and it is technically impossible to obtain it (10-17 atm = 10-12 Pa!). Iron stops oxidizing even at a partial pressure of a few Pascals, and at a pressure of 10-4 Pa, chromium also stops oxidizing.
For iron to stop oxidizing in a nitrogen atmosphere, nitrogen with a purity of 3.0 (99.9%) is sufficient. In such a gas, your steel will acquire a green color after the furnace. If you take nitrogen with a purity of 5.0 (99.999%), then stainless steel will remain shiny after heating in an oven.
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We are currently working on a project regarding the heat treatment of low-quality gemstones. We need to fill different gas mixtures into the tube furnace. Therefore we seek a method to mix two non-reactive gases to specific ratios.
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Thank you, Sir.
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I am working on sulfide-based solid electrolytes. Due to the high sensitivity of precursors to air and moisture, all the synthesis step has to be done in an argon atmosphere. My question is, whether ball milling followed by pelletisation of the sample ( after heat treatment) should also be carried out in an argon atmosphere?.
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You have synthesized solid electrolytes in the presence of argon. Dispersion in a mill followed by granulation is a continuation of the chemical process. Small particles of the substance are more active in the reaction than normal particles, so you need to continue grinding and granulating in argon.
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Hi all
I would like to study the microstructure evolution of semi-solid tin-lead alloy for an extruded sample during the isothermal heat-treatment process.
Is there any difference if I heat up the sample from room temperature to the targeted semi-solid temperature followed by water quenching before being held for a certain isothermal holding time or if I put the sample in the furnace which is already reached to the semi-solid temperature?
Do these processes introduce a different microstructure?
Thanks
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Dear Abdullah Why you have selected this study "the microstructural development during the isothermal heat treatment for these alloys: 1- 40%Sn-60%Pb 2- 85%Sn-15%Pb I mean the aim of your work. because these alloys low temperature solder alloys, it is not final product to improve by semisolid heat treatment.
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For now, i am dealing with specimen Mg alloy AZ31...immersed it in 3.5% NaCl...for time being, the corrosion rate of polished condition faster than the grinding condition..how does it comes? Previous researchers strongly said that grinding conditions tend to corrode faster than polished surface condition...
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I have a counter question? I do see that corrosion is enhanced after polishing in my SS 316L sample. Is there a way to store the sample so it can resist corrosion ? Would storing it in acetone help?
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We have coated the activated carbon slurry (AC/PVDF; 90/10 in NMP solvent) on copper foil via the solution casting method. After further heat treatment, its physical appearance was looking good but while cutting the disc for coin cell preparation, the activated carbon got shattered and the whole coating was becoming powdery? How can we address this problem?
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You need to carefully control to maximize the adsorption of PVDF. Otherwise, the pores must be completely filled.
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is there any way to do hardening or case hardening of stainless steel 316L?
I searched the net and got information about some german company having BORINOX process, but didn't find anything more.
can someone suggest a hardening heat treatment process for SS316L material?
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Due to austenite stabilizer elements, austenitic stainless steel are not age hardenable, nor you can not quench them to produce martensite phase. The common way of strengthening of these alloys is thermomechanical processing, providing martensite transformation and fine grain structure. Or you can apply heat treatment treatment processes like carborizing to nitriding. However, if corrosion properties are important you may need evaluate corrosion behavior changes in processed alloy. For instant, it is well known that martensite formation degrade corrosion behavior of these alloys.
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Hello,
For a medical application, we need ultrasonic waves to pass through a steel applicator (glue the piezoelectric ceramic to it), so it is necessary to minimize the amount of attenuation in the environment. Does anyone have experience in this field?
Thanks a lot
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Dear Dr. Ali Hashami ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting papers:
-Effect of heat treatment on an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel evaluated by the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient
Abbas Moghanizadeh and Abolfazl Farzi, Esfarayen
Materials Testing, 58, 5 (2016)
-Monitoring Heat Treatments in Steels by a Non Destructive Ultrasonic Method
Linton Carvajal, Alfredo Artigas, Alberto Monsalve, Elizabeth Arévalo
Mat. Res., vol.20 supl.2 (2017)
-Application of Ultrasonic Inspection for Microstructure Analysis of Stainless Steel Grade 304L
Kittichai Sojiphan, Phongsathon Wangsupangkul, Tanapat Chailampangsuksakul
Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet. (2019)
-Comparison of Linear and Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameters in Characterizing Grain Size and Mechanical Properties of 304L Stainless Steel
Sungho Choi, Juyoung Ryu, Jae-Seung Kim and Kyung-Young Jhang