Heat Treatment - Science topic
Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching.
Questions related to Heat Treatment
hello everyone. In accordance with the Ti-Cu phase diagram, welding these two metals, forms brittle IMCs like Ti2Cu and TiCu. does anybody know if there is any post-heat treatment cycle to remove or at least decrease these IMCs?
thank you for your favor.
i want to take wear test in my polymer spcimen so i want to fabricate my conterface material medical grade 316L stainless steel. but i did not get clear idea from liteatures so kindly help me how to fabricate 316L counter face...
1.what heat treatment need
2.heat treatment temperture
i hope you have positive response
i want to use abaqus to simulate the heat treatment with a furnace. so i build the blocks and furance.i use the abaqus cavity radiation to simulate the heating processing in furance.
when i do a data check,the abaqus always prompts : "Error in job cavityradiation: The sum of 15170 viewfactor matrix rows are less than one, indicating an open cavity; however, no ambient temperature has been defined. The facets with small row sums belong to elements identified in element set ErrElemVFSmallSumStep1Inc0. If this is a closed cavity this error may indicate a need to refine your mesh. You may choose to increase the value of VTOL to allow your analysis to run without refining the mesh. However the accuracy of the results may be significantly affected so this is not recommended unless you are sure that VTOL value you set is acceptable for your model.
Job cavityradiation: Abaqus/Standard aborted due to errors."
can you tell why? and what should i do to solve the problem? thank you very much
In the martensitic stainless steel solidification process, delta ferrite is the first phase nucleating from the liquid. Sometimes this phase remains in the matrix after completing solidification. In order to improve the mechanical properties of these steel, heat treatment process is necessary. In my project, I have observed a significant amount of delta ferrite in the matrix of martensitic stainless steel in the as-welded condition. After tempering (tempering temperature was below As), the amount of this phase reduced significantly. Surprisingly, despite the tempered martensite formation, hardness increased! I think the reason can be attributed to delta ferrite decomposition. I assume that delta ferrite decomposed to carbides during the first stage of tempering and then transformed into austenite at the end of heating cycle. This austenite later transformed into fresh martensite upon air cooling; as a result, the hardness increased and delta ferrite decreased. It is worthy noted that FE-SEM investigations showed the formation of fresh martensite from the bulk of delta ferrite.
Is this assumption true and does it have a chance of happening?
I'm planning to implement controlled cooling method for forged parts instead of normalizing process. I need to know how to design metallic box and implementation method.
Kindly share your valuable feedbacks.
I am going to make thin film involving a TiO2 nanocomposite But i had some questions that a RG search couldn't help me with. I wanted to pick between tritonx-100 or PEG
1) I have no idea how much of the powder or triton will i use to make the paste, and should I use PEG or triton?
2) I can't find the recommended temperature for heat treatment after the thin film is made
I am planning to measuring residual stress using Nanoindentation.
And I need the stress-free sample for reference.
The sample that I want to measure is AlSi10Mg , makes Additive Manufacturing.
so, how to make stree-free sample?
heat treatment? , how can i decide to proper heat treatment temperature?
Electric Discharge Machining?
I have a question and would appreciate it very much if you could guide me.
I have started preliminary work on fabrication of nanofiltration using polysulfone as the support and the polyamide as the top layer. The polyamide layer is made by interfacial polymerization of piperazine and TMC. The SEM micrographs of the membranes clearly show the formation of the polyamide layer. However, the membrane does not show any rejections of MgSO4. I have tested different operation conditions (pressure, flow rate) and have also modified the fabrication by heat treatment and longer dipping time. However, no rejection is observed. I cannot understand what the problem is. Thank you very much.
I want to perform an untargeted lc-ms analysis of bacterial metabolite. Generally, we break down the cell of this bacteria by dissolving the pellet with methanol and then give heat treatment for 30 minutes at 55 degrees celsius to extract carotenoid.
But as heat treatment may destroy heat-labile metabolites, that is why I want to go for probe sonication. I have taken stationary phase culture and dissolved the culture in PBS buffer. Then I have done the sonication process (40% amplitude with 30 sec on/off for 20 minutes).
PBS buffer composition (100 ml, 1X PBS, pH- 7.4)
NaCl- 0.8 gm
KCl- 0.02 gm
Na2HPO4- 0.144 gm
KH2PO4- 0.0245 gm
What procedure should I follow to break the cell so that metabolites remain intact?
I am doing subzero heat treatment after quenching for en24 steel. And after subzero heat treatment am tempering it for 450c. So is it ok to go for 6 hours for subzero heat treatment or do we have to go for 24 hours only?
While doing heat treatment to SLM parts, Do we need to perform heat treatment along with the build plate or after removing parts (using wire cut EDM) from the build plate?
My main concern is to study the effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties and residual stresses
Can anyone explain this? (It will be helpful to my work if you provide an answer with the journal also)
Recently， I am working on a study about PWHT. I curious on when did PWHT first appear? How did PWHT develop with history time ? Which research institutions have made outstanding contributions in this regard?
hope to update the knowledge of PWHT, looking foward for your reply.
Thanks in advance.
PWHT (post weld heat treatment) is widely used to eliminate welding residual stress, but how to evaluate the effectiveness? what are the commonly used methods to measure welding residual stress in a component in or to be in service? Any standards?
Trying to optimize mechanical properties of cast steel through heat treatment and would like to find any theoretical methods to generate a hypothesis defining final mechanical properties.
Whereas strength is proportional to density in metal case.
As from literature it was seen that aluminium alloy Al5083 can only be strengthened by work hardening and micro-alloying. Similarly, I want to know what are the only possible processes through which AZ91 can be strengthened.
Moreover, If you suggest the process with the any limitations it would add supplementary to my work.
With the development of large size heavy section pressure vessel, local post wed heat treatment（PWHT） instead of furnace PWHT must be used. Absloutely, there are differences between furnace PWHT and local PWHT. For example, the structural constraints， the temperature distribution field will be significantly different. Obviously，The effect of PWHT will also be different. So, my questions are :What's the essential difference between furnace post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and local PWHT?How does this difference affect the release of residual stress and the change of microstructure and properties？
Modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) are two parameters in heat-treated woods. In the following paper, the Authors used time, temperature, and relative humidity or wood species parameters for determining the MOR and MOE by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs).
Are there mathematical equations and formulas for determining MOR and MOE with time, temperature, and relative humidity in standard codes and other papers?
why we can not do direct aging heat treatment after homogenizing heat treatment on Fe-Ni superalloys? what is the purpose of (Solid) solution treatment which is different then aging?
I have coated conductive glass with TiO2 using dip coating, the precursor I used was titanium butoxide, and I prepared 0.1 M solution with this precursor ( Propanol as solvent), the main problem is that even under various heat treatment ranges ( from 400 C for 2h to - 500 C for 24 h )I can not get anatase and the Raman spectra show the spectrum of the substrate only like there is no coating or no crystallinity. But the layer can be seen under SEM and the thickness is less than 100 nm.
Is there any suggestion on how to obtain anatase? Changing the precursor can help?
PS: I can not increase the annealing temperature to more than 500 C, because of the substrate.
Can we synthesis SeO2 (powder) Just by heat treatment of Se (powder) in Oxygen environment? And if yes at what temperature and for how much time it should be treated?
to make ybco thin films by FF-MOD method during the process of formation of ybco on the substrate in the furnace we use wet O2 atmosphere from room temperature to 850⁰c , could someone please explain me why ?
Thanks in advance.
I've been using the same 1" tube furnace to carbonize my polymer nanofibers. I follow a typical protocol where I first stabilize the sample in a box furnace (in air) at 280 C then use the tube furnace under 60 sccm UHP N2 at 1000 C (ramp 5 C/min) for 1 hour. This gave me no problem before and only recently I started seeing 2 things:
1) no sample is left after carbonization. There are sometimes some white flakes left in the crucible, but my sample is supposed to be black after carbonization.
2) the outlet end of the tube is contaminated with some white material, I'm not sure what. The sample I start with is brown color.
I have a suspicion this started happening when we installed a metal gasket with rubber O-rings on both ends of the tube. Before, we just had a rubber stopper with glass tube going through to supply the gas. However, I'm not sure how that could remove all of my samples and contaminate the tube with white stuff.
Anyone have any insights on what could have happened?? Thank you!!
I would like to simulate the microstructural evolution of a super alloy during and after heat treatments and thermomechanical treatments using the JMAK model. And I am looking for some free software that can help me.
During pasteurization, proteins present in suspension in liquid egg whites are impacted by pH, the temperature of pasteurization, and tithe me the product is held hot. I am looking for a simple, portable test/equipment to measure the amount of opaqueness of the liquid egg whites after the heat treatment.
How to modify whey protein and/or casein functional property so that they form crosslink at ambient temperature or without heat treatment in solution/colloidal state.
Deformed steel structures can be repaired with heat straitening technique. However, column straitening is a difficult task as deformation will lead to eccentricity and during heat straitening one has to ensure that
this is not aggravated further . At times columns are heavy structural members with bending at two places which poses another threat. This requires extremely careful planning to avoid failure during heat treatment. As a result most of the time these are uneconomically replaced. Do we have any new trend in restoration of bended/deformed columns.
I need to deposit the anatase TiO2 layer on ITO and FTO glasses, considering the experimental parameters, I found the optimum heat treatment temperature for 450 C. However, the substrate can not bear higher than 200 C. Is it possible to decrease crystallization temperature by playing with experimental parameters? which parameter is more effective in decreasing crystallization temperature?
PS. I used Titanium butoxide as a precursor and propanol as a solvent.
when Ti/Nb etc strong carbide formers are added to steel to prevent Cr- carbide precipitation (SENSITIZING), especially in case of Stainless steels, why these steels are more prone to high- temperature grain growth? True that GB precipitates of Cr-Carbides would no longer act to pin grain boundary, but would not fine precipitates of Ti/Nb carbides also act somewhat to retard grain growth ? and why is that Nb-Stainless steels (980-1065 C)need narrower solution annealing range than Ti-Stainless steel (955-1065 C)?
For example, see this link
is it necessity to homogenize cast ingot of wrought superalloys (such as Hastelloy X, haynes 25 etc.)? if hot forging or hot rolling were done without homogenizing heat treatment what is happen?
I did carbonization of PAN Electrospun nanofiber at 900 C under the flow of nitrogen but SEM images of Carbonized samples are showing bead formation and fiber reduction from 700 nm to 150 nm. what could be the reason behind the formation of beads after heat treatment is it possible such a huge reduction in fiber diameter
I have magnetic beads coated with polystyrene material ( Invitrogen Dynabeads, cat 65011). When running these beads on the flow cytometer two SSC populations appear. Ideally, if we are using beads we must see a small concentrated population. I would like to mention that my experiment involves the vortexing of beads and heat treatments.
I want to use dried fungi biomass but I have no idea how can I kill fungi spores with less damaging fungi biomass. I was thinking about putting broth media which I cultured fungi in into the water bath for 75°C 40min and dry in with a freeze dryer. Does it gonna work?
I have some samples and I need to do heat treatment on them to release the residual stress after 3d printing and make better the ductility for the tensile test.
I heated them in a vacuum furnace with the 750-degree celsius for 2 hours.
As the container was graphite, we put a thin layer of Zironica powder under them. but the result was awful. as I am not familiar with metallurgy and this process too much, anybody can give me some advice and guidance on why it happened to my samples?
It seems, under the samples that are in the contact with the powder, has the blue color(dark blue), and another area is the yellowish color like gold and it seems, the shape of one of my samples changes because of heating.
this result is strange because the color changed in the vacuum furnace without any gas inside.
The first image is all samples after heating.
The second image is under one of the samples that have close contact with Zironica powder
(The white part is the Zironica powder that remained on the samples)
I am analyzing some phase transitions during heat treatment of calcium phosphate materials. Although I am having trouble to fit the data properly. I am using profex, and I an allowing some variation on the lattices parameters because the heat expansion. I have never done Rietveld refinement in HT-XRD data before, so I am wondering if there's anyway that I can set the temperature of the cif file data to consider it when fitting the data.
Best regards from Brazil.
How have people set up loading/boundary conditions for a quenching heat treatment model simulation? Do you apply loads or boundary conditions? Do you use an interface condition such as surface film condition and apply a film coeff (your HTC value)? I havn't been able to find any papers that really explicitly lay out how the setup is done.
High-S, especially resulfurized steels are discouraged from Boriding. What can a 0.1% Sulfur (and 0.5% Mn in ~0.1%C steel with Minor Cr, W, Ni alloys, all below 0.5%) do harm to boriding layer? Is it forming soft phases? Low-melting eutectic? brittle but mechanically weak phase? Or a combination thereof?
Can any separate chemical agents be treated on steel surface to make it fit for boronizing?
I have performed solution heat treatment at 1050 C for 1 hrs followed by water quenching. A layer (black) is formed. How I can remove the layer as I have to perform chemical etching on the sample and until that the layer is removed chemical etching cannot be performed over the sample. Kindly provide your valuable suggestions....My material is 17-4 PH stainless steel.
I want to know how two carbide material will sandwich with each other. Let me make my question more elaborative. Let say, X2C and Y2C carbide materials are there, now I want to make X2C-CY2 (X2C2Y2) out of them. Is there any specific process to do the same like any chemical reaction with solvent (with heat treatment also) or any other procedure?
Any small suggestion is highly appreciable.
Thanks in advance.
Thickness and diameter shrinkage percentage of the Al2O3 sample (after sintering):
I have found out that in some research journals, people have reported solution heat treatment of 17-4 PH stainless steel at 1040 C for 30 min and quenching in air ( Air cooling) whether some of them reported heating at 1040 for 1 hr than water quenched. Kindly answer me which process to be adopted to perform solution heat treatment in case of 17-4 PH stainless steel ??
Do I really have to go for 1hr of solution heat treatment or 30 min will be enough along with which type of quenching is required ( water or Air quenching) ??
I am working on study of oxidation behavior of two binary alloys Mg-0.8Nd, Mg-0.2Zr & ternary alloy Mg-0.8Nd-0.2Zr in 1M salt solution. The heat treatment yielded positive results for binary alloys but for ternary alloy the corrosion rate is abruptly increasing compared to as cast form. I believe this might be the case of insipient melting. Unfortunately I couldn't get a defined microstructure. I did normal grinding with SIC grit size from 64microns to 5 microns in decreasing steps then polished with 3 micron, 1 micron diamond suspension and finally oxide polishing then washed with ethanol using ultrasonicate. The observed microstructure is attached below for insights. I hope to get some inputs and would like to know where did I go wrong.
Thanks a lot !
I am working on analysing oxidation behaviour of magnesium alloys containing neodymium and zirconium for bio medical applications. The objective is to study the effect of super saturated solid solution treatement on oxidation behaviour. The samples are heat treated at 525°C for 10 hours in resistance furnace to obtain homogenous solid solution. Unfortunately I don't have enough resources to analyse the samples under SEM and do EDS analysis. I believe it is possible to graphically obtain the phase diagrams, phases involved and information related to composition and volume of these phases at specific temperature and compositions by using thermocalc software.
I have the demo version of the software does which not include magnesium database
I hope to have some information about intermetallic phases as the sample is heat treated to the above mentioned temperature and amounts of these phases.
Also if possible can a Schiel solidification simulation provide some information about presence of some phases in microstructure after the heat treatment or graphical information about temperature vs mole fraction of solid.
I believe the intended data can be obtained by using precipitation module TC-Prisma in the software then plot time temperature precipitation diagram for that phase and study size distribution and composition of that phase.
Looking forward to some inputs.
Thanks a lot !
I have seen some journals mentioned stress relieving heat treatment for Al12Si alloy but the procedure is same as annealing/normalizing
Can anyone explain the procedure for stress relieving heat treatment and the difference between those?
I studied journals on SLM (Selective Laser Melting) produced Al12Si components
In that many authors used Solution heat treatment/ annealing.
but for AlSi10Mg they used T6 heat treatment
why can't we use the same T6 for Al12Si?
Your answers help me a lot
Thanks in Advance
We prepared Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy by investment centrifugal casting. The elongation we obtained is relatively low but yield strength and ultimate tensile strength are high enough as desired.
Several ways we have done to improve/optimize mechanical properties especially elongation such as heat treatment process, gating system design, process parameter adjustment etc. However, elongation is still low, below 8%. How to improve elongation for minimum 8%? Is it possible for investment centrifugal casting method?
Thank you very much.
Does anybody have any information about the composition of brazing alloy and heat treatment cycle of wide gap brazing of MAR-M247 superalloy?
There are two similar formulas mentioned in articles to calculate the volume fraction of the retained austenite in Q&P heat treatment.
Which formula is more reliable?
Is it advisable to calculate Dislocation Density, delta=1/D2 from Williamson Smallman relation of thin foils (e.g., nickel, copper etc.) if geometric parameters (e.g., stress, strain, avg. domain size, energy density) are already known from Williamson-Hall (W-H) data?
Is Williamson Smallman relation applicable for thin foils or crystallites (e.g., sputter deposited thin films or chemically synthesized nano-particles etc.)?
Please provide your insight.
which heat treatment is suitable for aluminium 7075 metal matrix composites.and also may i know the steps/ procedure of the heat treatment ?
Sorry for my poor English, I have a question want to know.
Recently, I was doing a experiment about TEM image analysis. But this image was very irregular compared to other ones. I added 2 images for explaining my question. Both samples I use is AA6061 alloy, the only different part is there is one sample(fig. 4-1.2M-1) which has been applied on current.
fig. 2-1.2M-4 is normal one, it has a lot of planes I can do some research, but another one(fig. 4-1.2M-1) has only 1 plane.
These 2 sample both underwent heat treatment.
fig. 2-1.2M-4: current stressing after annealing
fig. 4-1.2M-1: only annealing
I am wondering that if dislocations or residual stresses had be eliminated or the orientation had re-arranged in the annealed sample?
Suppose the Heat treatment holding temperature, holding time and cooling rate are known. The alloy is chiefly a low alloy steel with P~0.04%, C and S ~0.1% each, and Mn, Cr, Ni and W~ 0.5% each. If I use sigmoid diffusion equation and a arrhenius-type diffusion coefficient , the what would be the average grain size, say after annealing or normalizing?
I have deposited double layer, first Fe and then Ni (both around 100 nm thick) on Si substrate. Then I will do heat treatments to expect formation of alloy of Ni and Fe (i.e., Permalloy). Which technique would tell me, how much percentage of Ni, Fe and NiFe alloy is there in my sample?
The structure is asked of As-Cast Condition, and after annealing and (then) after normalizing. No elements other than those mentioned are assumed to be existant, the rest of the unmentioned composition is contributed by Fe (Iron).The caveat is, there is no access to simulation.
Specific points to be asked are-
- What would be phases present in equilibrium at room temperature? Would there be both stable FCC and BCC phases co-existant? What would be stable structure before solidification from liquid starts?
- Is there any mathematical approximating formula that would provide approximate widening/narrowing down of FCC or BCC field with alloying?
- What would likely be composition range of Mixed Carbo-nitro-sulfides (CNS) that are going to be precipitated at equilibrium, from melting point down to room temperature? How to likely estimate the dissolution temperature of mixed CNS's other than looking at individual pseudo-binary phase diagram of Fe with carbide/nitride/sulfide of Mn, Cr, Ni and W ? What are going to be possible intermetallic compounds (other than mixed CNS) in this composition range? How to predict?
- What would be approximate distribution of the alloying element in the inclusions, intermetallic, and metallic phases, at least as a first order approximation?
- How the alloying elements, and hence the inclusions and intermetallics (other than their dissolution) affect the annealing and normalizing time as well as grain morphology of the initially as-cast structure, and then heat-treated structure? Is there any approximate mathematical formula to find out change of heat-treatment parameters with complex alloying?
- How would I estimate strength of the alloy other than classic weighing of ferrite-pearlite strength (+ hall-petch relations for precipitates and grain sizes), and how would I find formula for solid-solution strengthening of metallic and nonmetallic phases? What would be temperature dependence of the strength?
If not possible to answer all at once, then please provide at least partial reference to research articles. Note the Research work is going to be a rapid one. Please refer to (https://www.researchgate.net/project/Prediction-of-Structure-and-Properties-of-Ferrous-alloys-and-subsequent-heat-treatment) for details.
I have a porous NiTi (Nitinol) sample, after heat treatment a blue oxide layer was formed on it.
I try to remove it by electropolishing it in 79% acetic acid and 21% percholeric acid but it was useless.
Do you know any other method to get rid of that bluish oxide layer?
Thank you so much
I am currently working on the austenitization and inter-critical annealing process of low carbon steels at roughly 650 °C - 1000 °C. I have no prior experience with hot salt baths. I am getting used to working with the bath and taking the necessary safety measurements (face shield and respirator mask). As long as I measured, there is a little temperature (+4/-4) gradient in different regions of the bath. The bath consists of BaCl2 based salt. The pot was made of 304 L stainless steel. It has a wall thickness of 5 mm and the volume is about 15 L.
I would highly appreciate it if you kindly gave me some tips and recommendations.
For synthesis of sLDH nanoparticles, we want to use a protocol in which the particles are synthesized under 100 degrees hydrothermal temperature for 4 to 8 hours. Some of the precursors include Mg(NO3)2, Al(NO3)3 and NaOH.
Current protocol prescribes the use of a Teflon-lined autoclave for heat treatment. Would it be possible to use a normal vertical autoclave with the standard 250mL laboratory bottles?
Under normal procedures, the cap is left with a bit of space, but from experience, we know that closing the cap of these smaller bottles is not a problem when autoclaving.
I have two additional questions to this:
-When using a teflon lined autoclave in an oven: will the temperature inside the autoclave be much higher than the oven temperature due to the increase in pressure?
-Can a teflon lined autoclave be placed in a "normal" autoclave?
Besides the minimizing the energy of welding and accelerating the cooling rate, are there any procedures to prevent grain growth of heat affected zone (HAZ)?
Super austenitic stainless steel castings showed liquation crack after liquid penetrant testing post heat treatment. How to reduce this in thick walled castings.
I'm interested in a selective oxidation in an austenitic stainess steel so that Chromia rather then ferrous oxide is formed on top of my metal. I know I should have a value of pO2 around 10^-17atm. Is possible to obtain such a low value with a Nitrogen gas based atmosphere?
Thanks for yours help
We are currently working on a project regarding the heat treatment of low-quality gemstones. We need to fill different gas mixtures into the tube furnace. Therefore we seek a method to mix two non-reactive gases to specific ratios.
I am working on sulfide-based solid electrolytes. Due to the high sensitivity of precursors to air and moisture, all the synthesis step has to be done in an argon atmosphere. My question is, whether ball milling followed by pelletisation of the sample ( after heat treatment) should also be carried out in an argon atmosphere?.
I would like to study the microstructure evolution of semi-solid tin-lead alloy for an extruded sample during the isothermal heat-treatment process.
Is there any difference if I heat up the sample from room temperature to the targeted semi-solid temperature followed by water quenching before being held for a certain isothermal holding time or if I put the sample in the furnace which is already reached to the semi-solid temperature?
Do these processes introduce a different microstructure?
For now, i am dealing with specimen Mg alloy AZ31...immersed it in 3.5% NaCl...for time being, the corrosion rate of polished condition faster than the grinding condition..how does it comes? Previous researchers strongly said that grinding conditions tend to corrode faster than polished surface condition...
We have coated the activated carbon slurry (AC/PVDF; 90/10 in NMP solvent) on copper foil via the solution casting method. After further heat treatment, its physical appearance was looking good but while cutting the disc for coin cell preparation, the activated carbon got shattered and the whole coating was becoming powdery? How can we address this problem?
is there any way to do hardening or case hardening of stainless steel 316L?
I searched the net and got information about some german company having BORINOX process, but didn't find anything more.
can someone suggest a hardening heat treatment process for SS316L material?
For a medical application, we need ultrasonic waves to pass through a steel applicator (glue the piezoelectric ceramic to it), so it is necessary to minimize the amount of attenuation in the environment. Does anyone have experience in this field?
Thanks a lot