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Research Articles and other information please. Thank you.
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Paul K Canavan When describing anything to someone who is blind, use a clear word image. Color, texture, form, and landmarks are all examples of features to include. DO address them by touching their arm or using their name. This communicates to them that you are speaking to them and not to everyone else in the room.
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Hello everyone,
I am a researcher in haptics and telepresence. In this regard, I am hoping to find Simulink-MATLAB model of any 3dof haptic device (phantom Omni, premium, Novint Falcon etc.). Can any one have or know someone who have used those models in their work. Alternatively, does anyone have OpenHaptics toolkit (of sensAble technologies) for running PhanTorque or PhanSim toolkit.
TIA
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If your matlab/simulink package has 3D animation toolbox then you can start playing around with the built in example model: vrmanipul_global.slx
Here is another model available for download on mathworks.com
Good luck.
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I have designed 16 different mid-air haptic icons, and in an identification study I had participants guess what metaphors from a list each of the icons represented. This gave a percentage of the the participants success in identifying the correct metaphors through the haptic icon. I now want to know if there is a correlation between the type of icons and the participants' identification scores. Icons can be classified on a continuum between representational and abstract, with semi-abstract lying in between. In order to classify my icon designs on this continuum, 3 raters gave each of the icons a score between 1 to 5 relating to the continuum (i.e. 1 = abstract, 3 = semi-abstract, 5 = representational).
My question twofold:
- Can I accept the mode rating between the 3 raters as "true" (percentage agreement 66%) or do I need to find consensus agreement by revisiting the definitions with the raters?
- Also to take chance into account, how should I calculate the Kappa value (in SPSS) and what value would be acceptable?
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Rhianon Allen Thanks for your answer!, that has helped massively. To clarify, 3 raters rated 16 icons (stimuli) on a 5-point ordinal scale.
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Hi all,
This is my first time posting to Research Gate, I often look through posts for similar research questions I have of my own. I am in a Research Methods grad course and I am suppose to create a statistical hypothesis and choose a testing method for my study. I have developed this problem statement and research questions:
Problem Statement
The problem to be addressed is, how to effectively deliver take-over-requests (TOR) to get the quickest response time from a driver.
Research Questions
Overarching research questions to this problem statement is:
1) What type of take over request (TOR) is warrants the most efficient response time by driver?
2) How do response times between elderly drivers and young drivers differ?
3) Do elderly drivers respond better to certain stimuluses?
I want to test multiple TOR methods such as: Visual/audio, audio/haptic, audio, haptic and visual against two categorical age groups (young and old drivers), with my dependent variable being time.
Does a Two-way ANOVA sound appropriate for this? I've asked two different professors, one gave me a cryptic, you can't do that, type answer...and another one gave me an answer that i'm still uncertain of. Please let me know if i'm headed in the correct direction with this of if there is a better way.
Thank you.
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I'm not sure why the first professor stated that a two-way ANOVA won't work. Based on your description, it seems you have two categorical independent variables (i.e. factors) and a continuous dependent variable. A two-way ANOVA is appropriate with this design.
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I am currently studying the perception of audio-tactile envelope asynchronous perception.
For this research, it is important for me to know the audio and tactile just noticeable difference for amplitude decrease (volume drop). But, I could not find any literature talking about this specific subject.
The most related research I could find are several studies on the audio-tactile gap discrimination, oriented to measure our perception resolution :
Why there aren't any studies that measure the amplitude decrease JNDs ?
Or the Equal-loudness countours for audio and haptics can be used to infer the amplitude decrease JNDs ?
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Hi Alonso,
I think there is a conceptual issue underlying your question. A difference threshold is an area around a given value of a parameter, e.g. sound pressure level, in which a change of this value cannot be reliably detected. This means there is no such thing as a decreasing JND. JNDs are like the derivatives of a (continuous) mathematical function. To understand this, please study the example given on the upper left of this page:
So it' is not the difficulty of conducting experiments with sounds that is the problem here. Such experiments have been made a hundred years ago as can be seen from the references in the attached article.
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But when i just increased the controller gains by a fold of 100 the system was seem to be controlled. The system was measured with a difference of (0.002 milliseconds)
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You may have to adjust the integral along with those gains because the integral may be too fast for the type of calculation.
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I have a phantom_omni haptic and want to render a deformable shape for this i define a plane of vertexes and when curser collide to shape, vertexes near the collision point moved down and it more or less deform. but the question is , this method is too slow and force feed back and rendering frequency come down , so what method do you suggest me to solve this problem?
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Use some graphics tricks to improve the graphics and haptics rendering rate. For example, you can a dense mesh nearer to the tool, and other places sparse mesh will do. The trick depends on your application.
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I am currently working on my Masterthesis and i am about to make some tests about vibration. I have searched many biological and psycho-physical Articles. But i didn't find any data when it comes to vibration thresholds. I know they are hard to measure, but is there any data, in order to have a guideline?
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There are many technological challenges in Haptics research. Among them, what is the most important grand ch technical challenge in Haptics research.
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Dear Manivannan,
In my knowledge here are the last research works in this field, i suggest you to see links in topic.
-Wearable Haptic Systems for the Fingertip and the Hand - HAL-Inria
-Haptics to improve task performance in people with disabilities
-Development of an Assistive Robotic System with ... - Springer Link
-Assistive technologies for people with disabilities - European Parliament
-From science to technology: Orientation and mobility in blind children ...
-Haptic experience design - Oliver Schneider
- Cross-Cutting Challenges | Haptics Symposium 2018
Best regards
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The common factor of the three communications is the ultra-low latency requirement, but there are different definitions for them according to their applications. So, can we use the real-time communications as a general name for the them or not?
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The "real-time" aspect generally relates to the speed at which you can close the control loop. Depending on the application, this leads to different constraints and also different interpretations of the term "real time". E.g. for haptic control, generally, you'd need 10Hz for obtaining a good operator "feeling", whereas for video transmission, you'd probably need 25Hz.
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Recently, New Media & Society (http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/nmsa/19/10) has published a special edition on haptic media. One of the articles deals with materialisation of data and the possibility of printing 3D printers.
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For your reference:
Peng, J., Li, L. and Squelch, A. Hybrid Surgery Cutting using Snapping Algorithm, Volume Deformation and Haptic Interaction. Journal of Man, Machine and Technology, Volume 2, Number 1, June 2013. doi : 10.4156/jmmt.vol2.issue1.4. 2013.
Nugraha, A., Ling Li; Squelch, A. and Sun, L. Visualizing and Interpreting Volumetric Datasets Using Volume Haptics, in International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering (CiSE), 11-13 December, Wuhan, China. 2009.
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CNNs are arguably best for image classification.  But how far is its efficiency for tactile data classification? Need to classify tacile data from BioTac sensors without using vision. Are there better deep learning methods?
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The bast approach for tactile data classification could be a DRNN Deep Recurrent Neural Network.
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We are currently investigating the best solutions for measuring the haptic properties of a product
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If you want to go into hedonistic properties of a product, you will probably want to look at some of the newer sensing technologies that also incorporate human reference data. Most of these are, however, closed source IP of manufacturers. Two companies to look at:
- SynTouch LLC (manufacturer of the biotact sensor)
- Battenberg Robotics (robotic solution for car interiors, only limited backing by psychophysical data in my opinion).
Furthermore, there are a couple of approaches using sensor fusion to identify surfaces, for example the work of Matti Strese (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Matti_Strese) or a different approach by Katherine Kuchenbecker (MPI Intelligent Systems), both presented at the last IEEE WorldHaptics Conference.
As all other say - further information would probably need more information about the things you want to do... ;)
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There are too many haptic descriptors (which depends on the product). The idea is to have a set of generic descriptors usable for any product...
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Dear Jean Luc Maire,
I suggest for you a links and attached files in topics.
-Motion control of impedance-type haptic devices - ACM Digital Library
-Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: Readiness of V2V ... - NHTSA
-A haptic wristwatch for eyes-free interactions - ACM Digital Library
Best regards 
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Haptic feeling is measured by acceleration. However, how the Human being take the acceleration? I am wondering how long period effective acceleration really matters. Thank you!
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I thought the question related to how long of a period of time the acceleration must be maintained, for it to be effective.
I've not answered, because I think "it depends." If you want to emulate absence of gravity, that would be tough to do indeed, for more than just a few seconds.
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I have almost completed studying through your dissertation, and would like to ask a few questions, if that is okay? In the sections about Tactos, you describe participants achieving better (more accurate) results when they "live" the zoom scale. In your research since then, do you continue to see that living the mutual scale results in greater accuracy?
I ask because lately I am noting that the mind seems to estimate best when it feels “self-relevancy” to the volume of space it is trying to estimate (when we project ourselves as a part of the predicted effects). Do you think this might be true? If so, do you think that it is important to "immerse" a user in the interface paradigm rather than just form an abstract connection?
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Isn't the "zoomed scale" thing the only, historically valid interactive process available? Inference decisions are based on zooming "out" , and also ad infinitum, right?
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In therapeutic haptic devices where a controller guards the repetitions of the patient, it happens that the patient does not learn and rehabiliate properly because the task is executed by the controller finally, which is known as the slackness problem. What would be the correct stability concept to consider in controllers such that the patient is still challenged ??
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Consider robust control where you can fix constraints within certain limits and uncertainties. Consider fuzzy control as well. Both have well funded theory.
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Is there any special criteria to evaluate soft tissue models implemented using mass spring system when the user movements is given from the haptic device.  
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Thanks Christian yes I need the parameter identification techniques for the tissue model.
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We know that laparoscopic systems with haptic feedback have more advantage than something else. so, Do they have mass production? In which countries?
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The New European Surgical Academy is working in this type of robotic device.
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We are pleased to release the "haptic based guidance database" that consists of data from 25 naive pairs of human participants in human-human guiding demonstrations using a hard rein, and 10 naive participants in a robotic guidance scenario to test the control policies identified from human-human demonstrations.
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Please, I am interested. I would appreciate if you could send it to me. Thanks,
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I'm interested in the performance of psychometric procedures to assess perception properties (haptics in my case). I do this with Monte Carlo simulations based on psychometric functions.
Does anybody know a reference how the psychometric function of an experienced observer differs from the psychometric function of naive, i.e. inexperienced observers?
Hints are very welcome, best regards, ch
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Has there been any works on Haptic codes in architecture? Can there be a concept of Haptic form?How do we haptically percieve environment and architecture and how do we code it into aesthetics?
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Saeedeh Zeinali completed a master thesis in Eastern Mediterranean university about hapticity.
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If yes, which ion beam implantation techniques are used on intraocular lenses?
Could ion beam implantation be carried out on polypropylene haptics?
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
BNT-BKT-BT. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/BNT-BKT-BT#view=54f68badd3df3ee77c8b4638 [accessed May 7, 2015].
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I try to compare data about haptic perception with physical data about human tissues. I want to understand how the tissue thickness' variability could decrease reliability of osteopathic palpation. I found some values of muscle compliance and haptic perception in Howell's work about "virtual haptic back".
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I expected a more constructive answer.
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I want to model the user hand in a VR haptic system control. So to be more realistic and convenient, I try to consider different uncertainties caused by different users usage! But I am trying to find new models for this aim. Some new models are different from classical models like linear 2nd order models with uncertainty.
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Thanks Filippo :-)
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Does anyone know if there are any papers studying the effects on presence of Visuo-Haptic systems? That is, the mixture of virtual graphics and haptic devices that provide feedback for the virtual objects being interacted with.
Most papers I have been able to find focused on desktop-based system where the user is sitting and interacting with a haptic device. Is anyone aware of any similar study where tangible feedback or haptic devices are used in conjunction with "more traditional" completely virtual reality fully immersive environments?
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We have a recent paper on the use of vision, sound and haptics for collaboration in immersive environments.
"Measuring the Collaboration Degree in Immersive 3D Collaborative Virtual Environments".
Hope it can help you.
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Can others here share their knowledge of current research that pursues the use of illusion (MVF therapy as in Ramachandran, proprioceptive VR illusion as in Ehrsson/Blanke) to specifically target positive anticipation, and the growth of esteem and self-efficacy? This is the focus of my current research, to fashion anticipative relief between therapeutic (paraplegic) sessions. Any thoughts appreciated.
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Thank you Catherine, I hadn't seen the augmented approach. This will be useful as well, thanks.
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In visual and auditory (basic-perceptual) paradigms, degradation of stimuli is common. In vision, there are blurring or contrast change available; in audition there are, e.g., high and low pass filters. Does anyone know if there are paradigms available that allow to degrade haptic stimuli? In the sense that these degradations make the task harder or easier?
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I'm guessing a bit at what your after but based on the examples you give I cant see why you might not use the same approaches as one uses in vision and audition assuming your talking about touch. If so you could use a tactile stimulator consisting of a matrix of piezoelectric actuators. One such device I've seen described is the STReSS2 distributed tactile stimulator (see: http://www.cim.mcgill.ca/~haptic/pub/QW-ET-AL-CHI-06.pdf)
In this case it should be possible to vary the signal to noise ratio to manipulate difficulty. For example if the target is a moving stimulus across the fingertip one could vary the difficulty of detection by varying the number of actuators giving a consistent motion signal to the number out of sych with the motion target.
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From the thermoreceptors to thermoTRP channels, the literature typically specify their responding range/characterastics in terms of temperature. I guess it is because the researchers typically used "temperature stimuli", that is, thermal stimuli that are specified in terms of temperature, as the experimental stimuli. However, I wonder whether the thermoreceptors or the thermosensory neurons really respond to "temperature" or if it is possible that they actually respond to the the "heat" that flow through them.
Consider what happens physically when a temperature change is applied to the skin surface. The thermoreceptors are located below the skin surface. When a temperature change is applied to the skin surface, the temperature difference between the skin surface and the skin layer at which the thermoreceptors located creates heat flow. Thus, for the thermoreceptors, they not only encounter a temperature change but also a newly created heat flow.
If we look at the neural responses, a sudden change in skin temperature, e.g. a temperature step, typically causes a transient overshoot in discharge frequency followed by adaptation to the new static frequency. Consider the heat transfer winthin the skin, the rate of temperature and thus the heat flow are maximum at the moment of stimulus application and reach a steady state value afterwards. So to me, the neural responses seem to correspond well with the the heat flow.
I wonder if researchers familiar with this topic can give their comments.
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Temperature is the measure of heat transfer. Thermoreceptors measure the transfer of heat energy. The response from these receptors is dependent on the animal model, tissue type, and even the location within the cell. Each receptor has a set point of steady state value based intrinsic and extrinsic factors, ie. the receptor is activated based on stimuli in its environment and the activation of the receptor sets the "tone" of the environment. Receptors are proteins/ amino acids, which themselves are made of elements bonded together. Bond formation is heat dependent, so there are limits to the functional capability of thermoreceptors.
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I would like to perform haptic tasks with blind individuals in a fMRI scanner. Are there any good tasks that are easily implemented in this setting?
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"Haptic" is about touch and social interaction, so have a look at this paper on social touch, where they found that the *primary* somatosensory cortex responds differently when an heterosexual male believes to be caressed by a man rather than from a female.
The paper's title is: "Primary somatosensory cortex discriminates affective significance in social touch", Gazzola et al, PNAS, 2012.
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Mounia, thank you for sharing the InGrid concept and references. What I found most meaningful was the wording here: “We believe that the embodied experience depends on the permanence (temporary or not) of the object in the embodied space and the changes that can bring within sensorimotor contingencies. This can be obtained by having a completely immerged user in the space of interaction. By analogy, interactive tabletops can be experienced as an extension of the body because not only the users are immerged in the sensorimotor space but also through the space of shared and private knowledge. The sensorimotor contingencies of interactive tabletops represent the space of actions and sensations that can be defined by extracting the sensorimotor invariants in both peripersonal and extrapersonal spaces” (p. 4).
Are you envisioning this technology for the early classroom? It seems it would be such a potential way to break through very young conceptual boundaries between where the functional self ends and the group-enabled self begins (in the Piagetian sense). Two things very much stand out: one is your mention of pericutaneous space (how the sense of self extends through the tools and interfaces we use to their boundaries and a bit beyond), and the other was body ownership (functional permanence and what one might call identity-separability). Can you affirm my guess that you see these facilitating mechanisms as a means to extend proprioception and subsequent efficacy, and that any break in reinforcing modalities (space, vision, tactile feedback, control locus) severs this illusion? If so I am much in agreement and this was brought home to me during my research on illusion therapy (please see Henrik Ehrsson’s research and Ramachandran’s synaethesia connection as well).
As individuals, we urgently need meaningful confirmations that everything is okay, that we can effect positive changes for ourselves and our surrounds like anticipation of personal growth and retained control. The self does not end at luminal sensation, but at estimates of personal reach. It seems to me, belief for us is not just “passive change-response" (one for one) but "hopeful, step-responses" similar to the metaphor of keeping our belief in the air like a balloon. It is not easy if we lose attention on our goal to sustain our belief, but it gets easier as we add "more hands in the air" in this attempt (additional modalities as you indicate – touch, sound, what you so aptly call immergence). For those that remember the movie (Somewhere in Time), like Chris Reeve’s seeing the penny from the future, it takes only one disconsonant proof to undo a stream of very hopeful, consonant affirmations – such that now confirmation frequency becomes confirmation urgency instead - to anxiously regain lost belief. For children and therapy, it is not difficult to see how helpful the InGrid and similar designs might be in bridging the peripersonal space of childhood to the socially-buttressed extended space needed to succeed in life (to contribute individually and see the collectively beneficial goal).
Reference
Ziat, M., Fancher, J., Kilpela, K, Fridstrom, J., & Clark, J. J. (2013, April-May). InGrid: Rethinking the Embodied Space. Paper to be presented at ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Paris, France.
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Thanks so much Mounia for your reply and the additional video link. It is greatly helpful to see InGrid in use like this. Your mention of the pericutaneous space being composed of tools that have become proprioceptively mapped as limb extensions (spatially predicted and affecting "reach velocity") reminded me of some links I enjoyed exploring. Here they are in case you too might find them interesting (unless you have already). The one missing dimension of limb extension via tools seems to be the tactile confirmation along the entire span (even if the kinesthetic is there) which seems apparent in Flor et al. -- perhaps ranged by the skin cells themselves? What do you think? I would much appreciate your thoughts on this, and/or how you might be adding touch to the InGrid design as well. Again, thank you for your kind replies.
Flor, H., Denke, C., Schaefer, M., Grüsser, S. (2001). Effect of sensory discrimination training on cortical reorganisation and phantom limb pain. The Lancet, 357(9270), 1763-1764. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04890-X.
Franz, E. A., & Ramachandran, V. S. (1998). Bimanual coupling in amputees with phantom limbs. Nature Neuroscience, 1(6), 443-444. doi:10.1038/2161.
Schmalzl, L., Thomke, E., Ragnö, C., Nilseryd, M., Stockselius, A., & Ehrsson, H. (2011). Pulling telescoped phantoms out of the stump: Manipulating the perceived position of phantom limbs using a full-body illusion. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5(121), 1-12. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00121.
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Could you share some specifics on how this device will function? I am familiar with micromotor stimulation (there is a vest I believe with these mounted on the back for blind navigation) but I am curious about the subcutaneous stimulation (how it is achieved).
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Thank you Mounia, I look forward to hearing more about these haptic technologies.
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Your article references the subjective experience of the passage of time, the kappa temporal/spatial dilation effect, and the user interface wait interval model (progress bar). Auditory models of this also seem to be extant and much of time perception study seems even to have originated with other modalities such as sound continuity/discontinuity sense (from Ch. XV, “Perception of Time” in James’ Principles). May I ask, are there haptic equivalents for either the kappa effect or the user progress bar visual? Do we see this subjective timescale appreciation in human touch as well?
Your article also states, “We believe that the perception of time depends on the nature of the stimulus (filled or empty) rather than on the speed of motion or on the distance covered by the stimulus” (Ziat & Saoud, 2013, p. 3-4). I too believe this to be very close to the perception of time - the concept of a timescale seems to originate from the human need to conceive semantic intervals within which we might discover meaning (something Chomsky termed elegantly as “discrete infinities” in Rieber, 2010). But do you think perhaps this need and this sense is not visuospatial or auditory since it can take on any modality? We sort of superpose our attentional frequency atop the presentational frequency of events in time – the latter does not change, but our perception of it feels dilated or constricted relative to our affective estimate of the interval’s relevancy and meaningfulness to us. Whether the gaps are filled or empty (continuous/discontinuous) seems less critical than how we perceive the interval (is it distracting from or deferring fulfillment, or is it aiding determination of our arrival at fulfillment). I have come to believe that our anticipation of undiscovered self-relevancy (which affects the rate of our focal frequency) within the temporal interval governs the apparent velocity of any transit of that interval – what do you think?
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Thank you very much friend Jagadeesh. I agree that we are bounded by the dimensions with which we reason, and time is one such dimension. Lately, so many insights from yourself (cellular signal propagation - I hope to post questions on your articles this week, as I have been studying them), Mounia (haptic zoom and inferential timescales), and time perception in general (from James to Zimbardo and some wonderful articles in Scientific American in "A Question of Time" available on Kindle, etc) have boosted confidence that our cognition is fully founded on temporal inference. It seems why we seem doubtful even when we are most certain - because if we use bounded time to delineate meaning, we obtain certainty by distancing ourselves from doubt, not reducing proximity toward certainty). It seems to be in articles on spatial coupling within proprioception, and is maybe the foundation of equilibrioception too - consciousness may be closer to elemental physics than we give it credit for. Your work and Mounia's work are so helpful for me. What if we should let our concepts of dimensional reason drop away (space, color, etc) as we approach the idea of sensory zoom, spatial estimation, and conscious affectation? Then what we have left is solely time, subdivided by frequency in the mind, eliciting a feeling of numbing consciousness. A favorite article of mine is by E. Roy John, and his thoughts seem more plausible each day. What we see as space may be things just out of reach in time, deferred from our grasp and affect, and our minds may mainly be amazing factor-intercept prediction machines? That would be something. Timing may really be "everything".
Reference
John, E. R. (2003). A Theory of Consciousness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(6), 244-250. doi:10.1046/j.0963-7214.2003.01271.x.
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“Ce qui manquerait le plus à cette nouvelle modalité perceptive est ce que les philosophes nomment qualia (Bach-y-Rita, 1996), c’est-à-dire les qualités des choses perçues. Malgré l’ensemble des possibilités permises par les dispositifs de substitution sensorielle, il leur est souvent reproché de ne procurer aucune émotion. Un aveugle, « regardant » sa femme grâce au TVSS, resta désappointée devant l’absence d’émotion ressentie” (Ziat, 2006, p. 64).
(“A blind man ‘looking’ at his wife thanks to the TVSS, remained disappointed at the absence of emotion he felt”).
I am so thankful you shared this in your dissertation Mounia. It has been a tenet and wish for me for several years now, to pursue cognitive psychology partially for the purpose of researching haptic transmission as a means to connect humans via touch. Your statement says so much Mounia: sight without touch is missing most of the meaning. We do not perceive to simply detect visual information about things, we perceive to confirm our hopes and feelings about what things might possess, relative to who and what we are to one another. Elaborating visual potential is often an attempt to sublimate our lost sense of touch.
The main tenet of haptic transmission is that current video/audio transmission doesn’t intrinsically contain or convey any emotion. Unlike touch, vision and sound are not exchanged - they are transduced and subsequently inferred (eyes don’t emit light and ears don’t talk). But only touch can mutually transmit feelings of warmth, adoration, fear, urgency (deep pressure) and affective identity. In the absence of the transmission of touch, we are transmitting only “facts” about people, not their feelings. The rest must be deduced from a mutual familiarity with interpreting visual expressions like gestures, tone of voice, eye aversion, latencies, etc.
Touch is so much closer to the exchange of information within thought than any other sense, because it is the only sense that is bidirectional without alteration or transduction. Whatever we transmit is what we also feel or would receive. The other senses are really for confirmation not transmission – but we have come to rely on the supporting modalities, as the concept of becoming civilized has distanced us from being human – vulnerable - to one another. In some ways, we are isolating ourselves from one another via technology and the need to do things “faster,” more efficiently. Affection takes time to express. We do not seem to have time for it anymore.
But if we take the next natural step and connect primarily via touch (reinforced by vision and sound), then parents overseas can reach children at home, and those who cannot receive or express by any other means can find hope again within the meaning expressed by comforting haptic connection. Maybe we can get back this missing dimension of distance communication – the experience of emotional attachment/reassurance itself. May I ask, Mounia – is this something of interest to you as well?
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Thank you both for these wonderful additional illuminations on this topic.
Sachchidanand, I am very glad you identify with sublimation and its potential role in often using a plurality of inadequate substitutes to try and make up for a single urgent need. And thank you Mounia for connecting this to developmental association. One of my favorite articles on this is about a goose which any of us can discover an instant, empathetic link with (Fischer-Mamblona, 2000). Having missed that all important developmental experience to know how to respond to inner tugs of attachment urgency and fear of isolation, this poor creature found itself outside the communicative world of nonverbal expression necessary to acquire fundamental affective needs. By human therapeutic analogy, I think perhaps we might find in the example of Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller, the true potential for haptic communication of any kind. As Mounia expressed, whether for substitution of lost sensory processes, or to augment the modalities available for urgent confirmation, touch offers a path to stronger emotional attachments and lifelong growth. Please see this short video of this amazing heroic pair:
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Mounia, thank you so much for additional enlightenment on the history and future of haptics. The need for a developmentally attained association between the peripheral sense and its affective arousal is such an excellent example of the need to extend this type of research. This helped me recall the Sullivan/Keller pairing, which for all intents is an affective coupling between persons using haptic substitution (temporarily), to transcend the missing sensory boundaries (developmentally). I also much appreciate that you shared your understanding of the need for engagement and recalibration of modalities depending on context (the scuba example). I do agree, without some means to interpose the sense of self between incoming afferent stimuli and efferent potentials, there is no way to elevate self-esteem, no proof for self-efficacy to arise, and no way to valuate the self relative to other things affectively. We need to "perceive" emotion – and we can only do that if what we perceive stimulates emotion within us. Perception is only a detached set of neuronal vibrations unless we feel we are a key stakeholder in those vibrations, and with their effort to become meaningful. The haptic zoom is a great example of how human touch adapts to any environmental scale (even the digital world).
Also, I very much appreciated your phrase “We often conclude our conversation or letters with 'Stay in touch' to reinforce the will of physical proximity” Sachchidanand. It instantly brought to mind Viktor Frankl’s wonderful “Will to Meaning” belief system (Frankl, 2006). Touch is just that: the mutual will to discover meaning - despite obstacles - by sharing something inseparably affective. We wish this for others just as we wish it for ourselves.
References
Allison, S. T., & Goethals, G. R. (2012). The heroic companionship of Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan. Available at: http://blog.richmond.edu/heroes/2012/10/11/the-heroic-companionship-of-helen-keller-and-anne-sullivan/
Fischer-Mamblona, H. (2000). On the evolution of attachment-disordered behaviour. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 8-21. doi:10.1080/146167300361291
Frankl, V. E. (2006). Man’s search for meaning. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
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We have developed libraries that allow the user to manipulate the viewport (virtual camera) and/or 3D objects with use of haptic devices (one or two Phantom Omni devices, depending on configuration). Now, we would like to test the set-up on some "haptic beginners" to assess the efficiency, ergonomics and the learning curve.
We have prepared a "put a peg in the hole" exercise and are going to test the accuracy and trial execution time.
What other exercises would you suggest? Do you know any standard procedures of such assessments?
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Hmm. Try to gamify the experience. I would suggest:
- for starters, as suggested, a simple 3D orientation game will do (like a dice manipulation)
- 3D labyrinth game; user has to move through 3D space and rescue his avatar
- shuffle pong game
Whichever game you will choose, try to reward the user/gamer with a sense of progress and achievement (achievement badges, scores) and try to adapt the difficulty level to the user's progress. In this way you can motivate the users to use your system longer and even be happy about it.