Science topic

HIV/AIDS - Science topic

Human immunodeficiency virus infection / Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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The states (S) are V -vulnerable people as S1, S2 Rate of people with HIV diagnosis, S3 rate of people with AIDS diagnosis, S4 Rate of deaths from HIV/AIDS virus
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One of my own algorithms does that. It is called Discrete Probability Detector (DPD). DPD transforms any sequence of symbols into a transition matrix. Please look at the project:
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I'm trying to look at CML among HIV/AIDS patients (or the reverse), any recent literature out there?Thanks
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It is a rare condition
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Dear scientists,
Health workers in my country preach that preventive measures of HIV/AIDS such as use of condoms, abstaining, testing and circumicision. Is circumicision scientific tested as a preventive measure of HIV?
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I Coauthored an article titled: "DETERMINANTS CONTRIBUTING TO ADHERENCE WITH ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMEN OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN BABCOCK UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL".
For those in health field, especially people with keen interest on HIV/AIDS, kindly check it out
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It is a discussion sir, not a question. If you have any comment or review after reading the article, please feel free to comment. Thanks
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The pandemic has revealed how much the rest of the world has been left behind in terms of pharmaceutical/healthcare research. What models can you offer for kick-starting vibrant local financing of drug development in developing countries?
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Dear Dr. Anyam!
I consider your question to be a highly important one, so I did search for YOU resources you might value:
1) Meganck, R.M., Baric, R.S. Developing therapeutic approaches for twenty-first-century emerging infectious viral diseases. Nat Med 27, 401–410 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01282-0 Free access:
2) Verguet, S., Hailu, A., Eregata, G.T. et al. Toward universal health coverage in the post-COVID-19 era. Nat Med 27, 380–387 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01268-y Free access: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-021-01268-y
3) Fontecha, G., Sánchez, A.L. What Will Happen to Biomedical Research in Low-and-Middle Income Countries in the PostCOVID-19 World?. Curr Trop Med Rep 8, 1–5 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40475-020-00223-0 Free access:
Article Dear Author
4) Anser, M.K., Khan, M.A., Zaman, K. et al. Financial development during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of coronavirus testing and functional labs. Financ Innov 7, 9 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-021-00226-4 Free access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Science family, I’m looking for a supervisor, I’m very passionate about publishing work on HIV/ AIDS, public health studies. What the best way to approach professionals?
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If you are not in a master’s or doctoral program now, then it’s important that you apply to be in one. You might find a supervisor before you enroll in a program or after. Once you are enrolled in a program, it might be easier to make connections with professors with whom you might work, and ideally get funding to do so. Even so, I agree with Sachin Suknunan and Magnolia Cardona that it’s good to be proactive in seeking a supervisor before you even apply, given all of the possible choices of experts in your area of interest and given your geographic restrictions. Then, apply to the institution(s) where those people work. If you develop a rapport with potential mentors before/while you are applying, they may be able to help you in the admissions process, and may even have grant funding to help support you.
In any case, when you are sending queries to potential mentors, I suggest that you tailor your inquiries to show that you have researched their specific areas of expertise, and to show how your interests are a great match with theirs. Tie in your interest in HIV/AIDS with the actual work that they are doing.
I often get queries from students saying they want to work with me and then mentioning topics that are not in line with work that I do. To me, that suggests that they are sending the same query to many people, and that their aim is to find just any opportunity without doing the work to decide who and what might best fit their goals. I am far more likely to respond to someone whose query indicates that he or she knows my work and sincerely wants to work with me because there is a great match between us.
I wish you the best!
Brooke Hallowell
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Dear Scientists,
People who have lived with HIV for a long period of time. It seems dying of cancer now days. Are it Antiroviral drugs causing cancer? In 1990s, they were dying of typhoid because their immunity got destroyed. We are fighting HIV now cancer comes in. I was inquiring on issue since it is concerned with life. Thanks Bruce
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Thank you Dr. Ochomo for your contribution.
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I have the opportunity to present a poster at the Africa HIV/AIDS conference in Rwanda but without scholarship. The conference holds in December. Thank you.
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I can guess from your name you're from West Africa. You could have applied for a West African Research Grant sponsored by West African Research Association at Boston University
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Looking for some interesting papers on this topic. As of yet I've only found a few papers that discuss this.. is this an under researched area maybe?
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There are several reasons can lead to non-adherence among HIV patients including side effects of antiretroviral, poor quality life, and psychological distress is one of them. You may go through the following thesis for more understanding about the relations between adherence to HIV medications and psychological distress
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High active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can save life of a lot of HIV/AIDS patients. It is the standard of care for HIV infection.
However, HAART has serious side effects and drug-resistance for HIV. It needs HAART intervention adherence, life-long and there is no cure.
In order to better serve HIV infected patients, we argue which is more effective? Early treatment (as soon as HIV diagnostics) or later treatment (patient CD4 is greatly declining)?
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An excellent explanation of the rationale for early and continuous treatment is given at http://hivmanagement.ashm.org.au/index.php/therapeutics-and-monitoring/antiretroviral-therapy (from paragraph 3). Essentially, this is associated with better clinical outcomes across various measures, as well as prevention of sexual transmission if viral suppression is achieved. Prevention of transmission ("undetectable = untransmittable", see https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/featurestories/2018/july/undetectable-untransmittable) assists the public health response and efforts to end the HIV epidemic (for example, UNAIDS targets). Apparently the most recent therapies have fewer side effects, and taking them consistently as prescribed reduces the risk of drug resistance (https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/21/56/drug-resistance).
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Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the dreadful opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. The standard of care is giving amphotericin B and flucytosine initially then with fluconazole. However, in our set-up amphotericin B and flucytosine are hardly available. Hence fluconazole alone is used for treating it. Nevertheless, we lack data/information on how effective it is.
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In cryctococcus meningits the treatment is, as you say Amphotericin B plus Flucytosin, then Fluconazole
Am somehow sceptical that Fluconazole as exclusive treatment is sufficient. No chance to get Amphotericin B and Flucytosin?
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It is said that "prevention is better than cure!" Can we make HIV/AIDS a Compulsory subject? That is to make it examinable so that we make this cross-cutting issue known to everyone for the good of nation building of its human resources.
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Age appropriate information must be divulged to every student without any discrimination. Simple jingles based basic idea of the disease should be imparted. Primary rather primordial prevention is the need of hour. It is our duty to give accurate, reliable, appropriate, adequate and timely information to one and all. In my opinion, as early as we start disseminating the information better it will be...!!
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OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of surgical outcome in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
DESIGN: Retrospective (or Prospective where possible) survey of medical records of surgical patients.
SETTING: Several clinics, hospitals, and private medical practices; multi-country settings.
PATIENTS: A calculated estimated total of about 500 patients 13 years of age or older with HIV infection who received medical and/ surgical care in the last five years till date to be enrolled.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Any history of diseases in the 1987 case definition for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and during the 24-month period preceding enrollment (baseline period), the occurrence of other major diseases, or surgical outcome, hospitalizations, and results of CD4+ lymphocyte counts.
CONCLUSIONS: The study will ultimately explore the spectrum of surgical outcome in the selected HIV population and also determine the possible overall effect of HIV and AIDS on surgical practice.
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Yes I'm interested share your mail
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The key points of the focus groups were as follows: Experiences/issues with the HIV diagnosis, treatment and medication; Challenges of living with HIV, e.g., health services and community life; Stigma and segregation of people living with HIV.
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I think the current burden depends really on the contexts. It is obvious that the challenges living with HIV in rural sub-Saharan Africa will be different from living in London with the disease. So health systems, healthcare delivery, social determinants, persisting issues of stigma and social exclusion, employment related issues, access to medicine, regular monitoring of CD4 count etc. This will really depend on the location of the individual.
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I am working on Natural product Chemistry and I am interested to test my natural products against HIV/AIDS. The best and easy choice would be to do some in vitro testing first. That's why I am interested to get some info. Looking forward to get your kind response please.
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Thank you so much Nordirali and Imadeddin for your help.
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up-to-date information about HIV/AIDS: definition, causes, mode of transmission, signs, symptoms and prevention and control
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You might be interested in this article on HIV, Stigma and discrimination in Ireland - Foreman, M. & Ni Rathaille, N., Not just another long term chronic illness - Social Work and HIV in Ireland, Practice: Social Work in Action, 28, 12, 2016, 97 - 114 . You can download a copy via this link http://hdl.handle.net/2262/75536. I wrote it with Neans Ní Rathaille, the Senior Medical Social Worker in Ireland's largest HIV clinic. It's based on research we conducted with people living with HIV as well as with social workers and HIV counsellors.
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Does anyone know a questionnaire of quality of life for people with HIV / AIDS validated in Greek?
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I was looking conduct a cross cultural study on co-morbid neuropsychological conditions in patients with HIV/AID for my PhD. Hence for I was looking some on going study and researchers with whom I can collaborate my research and latter on draw a compression of both the data.
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Thanks for showing your interest in this project and for sending articles, these articles are really helpful.
Regards !!
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Is CRISPR/Cas9 more efficient genome editing approach when compared with ZFN and TALEN technology for HIV/AIDS research and clinical studies?
Is use CRISPR/Cas9 better than RNAi strategy in fighting against HIV/AIDS?
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Hi Mohsen,
you can make you own idea about potential use of CRISPR/Cas9 towards a cure for HIV by starting with this recent review article; DOI link below.
Good luck!
Nicolas
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It is well known that low "current" CD4 count is correlated with decreased life expectancy among HIV infected people not on ART. It is also well known that CD4 counts vary hugely within the population of HIV negative people. The question is: is the life expectancy (~ natural disease progression) upon acquiring HIV infection the same for someone who had 1200 or 600 CD4 cells prior to infection?
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A disease that means it was caused by once genetic default by either onco- protein or viral- onco protein. .At first, the DNA/RNA confirmation is very important. The treatment arm should be consider on last symptom.
The last symptom that means a RNA virus /its viral protein or RNA cell-proteins in our cells are randomly (location based) virulent and would be affected to the DNA stranded "proteins". So, subsequently the last symptom will pave way the confirmation either RNA or DNA symptoms.
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There are so many diseases in the world such as cancer, HIV AIDS, ulcer and many more. How did they come into the world?
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Dear Obed
thanks for your question.
in this paper you can find good answers to your question:
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Early HIV drugs may not stop virus.
HIV "reservoirs" may form earlier than expected.
(Example of the "Mississippi girl.")
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If HIV gets into the bloodstream from a needle stick directly into a vien or artery, then there might be just one or ten or 100 virions in the blood at the time of the event. But if HIV gets into the bloodstream from a mucosal surface and then replicates in germinal centers and lymph nodes for days or weeks before entering the blood it is a very different situation. But anyway, post-exposure prophylaxis can work in many cases, but not all cases. Some drugs leave the bloodstream and enter different tissues at different rates than other drugs.
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May somebody explain to me whether Recombinase Brec1 can eliminate HIV viruses from the body of humanized mice entirely? What is the main mechanism?
I am looking for any correct answer, please don't hesitate to contact me.
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Dear ,
I hope you are fine.this is to ask you if there is any research done so far on ''clinical.humanistic and economic outcome of admitted HIV patients.'' also comment on feasibility and measurement parameters to be used.thanks in advance!
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What are the models to understand community readiness in public health? What are the theoretical assumptions? 
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Hi Gorky. These articles might interest you:
Edwards, R. W., Jumper-Thurman, P., Plested, B. A., Oetting, E. R., & Swanson, L. (2000). Community readiness: Research to practice. Journal of community psychology, 28(3), 291-307.
Thurman, P. J., Plested, B. A., Edwards, R. W., Foley, R., & Burnside, M. (2003). Community readiness: The journey to community healing. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 35(1), 27-31.
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Besides WHO staging of HIV, T-staging is also used in clinical practice.  I am interested to known criteria used for T-staging system and how it is correlated with WHO clinical staging system.
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The specific objectives are;
To determine whether an electronic smartphone application can
be used by primigravid women to:
Accelerate the psychosocial integration and acceptance of the newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS;
Minimise physical, psychosocial and spiritual suffering;
Increase ART adherence;
Decrease maternal morbidity related to HIV/AIDS
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You can also USSD to automate them. My candidate is looking for an app for the patients to have on their own mobiles which will be more interactive. Thanks for your response.
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Our paper has highlighted the Nigerian experience, however we shall be glad to learn about the level of effectiveness of RBM strategies among pregnant persons living positively in other countries where malaria is endemic.
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  • Mr. F Ahmad, shall be grateful for your help if you could share your experience. Thank you.
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South African TTP cohorts are up to 80% HIV-TTP with co-morbidity event rates (other than HIV) of up to 83.33/100. ADAMSTS-13 assays (FRETS-VWF77 methods) are equivocal in co-existing sepsis.
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ok send me your relevant data  
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Why in HIV/AIDS CD4:CD8 ratio is considered? Why not CD8:CD4 ratio? 
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The CD4:CD8 ratio is useful since it determines the recovery of the Helper T cells (the main target of HIV) over the Cytotoxic T cells. An early recovery, >1, represents a qualitative gain in the functionality of the immune system, see C Mussini et al. in Lancet HIV.
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In the attached article, I wish to explore how we can use a Social Marketing Framework, to recast the MSM (Key Populations) discourse in Kenya (and much of SSA), but am not sure how to progress to develop it into a quality paper. How would you advise I move on from here?
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Thank you all so much. Your advise was so helpful - finally got published - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00224499.2016.1255702?journalCode=hjsr20. Thanks!
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Namibia is one of the countries in sub-Sahara Africa with high HIV/AIDS prevalance, HIV/AIDS consumes most of the health expenditure which is currently mainly funded by donors, and the donors are withdrawing for the government to take full financing. I am thinking of an intervention on the youths in schools, if effective to be extended to communities. The intervention is continuous screening and testing of HIV in youths, by knowing their status can empower them to take full responsibility on protection against HIV and also those diagnosed can be supported and properly managed early. A main limitation to this can be fear of stigmatization but yet creating awareness with this intervention can also help fight stigma in HIV.
i would like your ideas in how i can do a cost analysis for this intervention and its feasibility as a cost-effective study/intervention.
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The first thing you must do (if you haven't done so already) is find a recent systematic review of of the efficacy of HIV testing and counseling (HTC)  in preventing HIV and STIs in youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Ideally, the review should also assess evidence quality. If there is no quite recent review, you may need to conduct your own. After you know the relative risk of incident infection in youth receiving HTC, compared to those who don't, you will have a basis for your cost-effectiveness analysis. Without knowing this, you cannot do a cost-effectiveness analysis.
Our review (conducted in 2011 to inform WHO's 2013 adolescent HTC guidelines) found mostly very low quality, very indirect evidence that such interventions are efficacious. However, several years have passed and new, more directly-applicable research may have been done since that time.
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Is there any way I can assist in this project at all I live in the HIV capital of the United States Jacksonville Florida one of my best friend's is the HIV nurse at the jail that's all she does is HIV inmates. I would love to be able to be in on this project so that it would contribute to my PhD.
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 There are tremendous researchers that were conducted and ongoing researches on HIV. One of the focus of the rigorous HIV researches targets to eradicate and/or prevent HIV from the face of the globe. For this serious purpose we all need to explore what had been already done and find what shall be done in the future with you, me, and others. Since I am two weeks break, I am trying to explore such research gaps. When I become to know HIV health issues for new studies I will share to you and I believe you will do the same.
Thank you very much
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I am looking for case reports and or primary research in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in the HIV patients. Is there anyone doing research on this topic? 
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I am sending you the citations of two references I found on PubMed. Unfortunately was not able to get the full text.
1.Crişan A, Tudorache V, Nicoară E, Laza R. [AIDS patient with pneumocystosis
and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis]. Pneumologia. 2009 Apr-Jun;58(2):121-4.
Romanian. PubMed PMID: 19637766.
2: Nachajon RV, Rutstein RM, Rudy BJ, Collins MH. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
in an HIV-infected child. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1997 Oct;24(4):292-5. PubMed PMID:
9368264.
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A 60-year-old man was on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with Dolutegravir plus rilpivirine. He was either on chronic therapy with furosemide, aldactone, bisoprolole, enalapril, metphormine for co-morbidity (diabetes, hypertension, ischemic cardiopathy).
His creatinine level  increased from 1.5 mg/dl (eGFR=48) to 4.2 mg/dl (eGFR=15).
Is necessary to change ART?  Do you stop DLT?
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Dear Dr. De Socio
let me suggest an answer citing Maggi P. et al In "Novel antiretroviral drugs and renal function monitoring of HIV patients" (PMID: 25102336):
Rilpivirine, cobicistat, and dolutegravir reduce the tubular secretion of creatinine, inducing a decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to creatinine. Rilpivirine and dolutegravir block the uptake of creatinine from the blood, inhibiting organic cation transporter 2, and cobicistat interacts with the efflux inhibiting multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1. This effect can then be considered a "reset" of the estimated glomerular filtration rate according to creatinine. However, clinicians should carefully monitor renal function in order to identify possible alterations suggestive of a true renal functional impairment".
Moreover there are some evidences of interactions between DLT and metformin (plasma levels of metformin could be significantly increased) so they should not be co-administrated.
Thus in my opinion ART should be modified according to previous  pharmacoresistance  tests (e.g. PI/r + NRTI such as ABC alone?). 
Best wishes,
Cinzia Puzzolante
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Four wives became subsequently infected after several years with their Husband been Positive  for 9 years ,They all want children and cannot afford IVF in developing country where they reside,they were all faithful to HIM ,unfortunately despite husbands Retro-viral medications ,they all are positive subsequently 2,4,6,9 years later respectively  ,this circle of infection can it be stopped by Prophylaxis before ,during and after intercourse?. 
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Thank you , The Drugs cost are covered through the Public Medical care and International Support, Free of Charge , However , they tend to be Bug-down with Protocol because of Underlying protection of Interest in-terms of cost.
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Lately, I have attended debates in which this question has been raised and the responses have been varied. What is your opinion?
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While I agree with my earlier position that a combination of both methods are necessary, I will beg to disagree that qualitative methods alone cannot give you the right information. Why researchers in recent times are agitating for both quantitative and qualitative methods in development and gender research is that, quantitative tend to give you only figurative information which may not necessarily mean what the figures reflect in true situation. This is always as a result of design error. You are interested in looking at rural development, what constitute rural development? most beginners in the field find it difficult to really tel you what they mean by rural development, but an experienced researcher will give your measurable parameters or indicators to measure rural development, these are the data that you must collect in order to measure rural development. how do you measure rural development? is it the no of carrugated iron roofs, is it hospitals, health centers, security, motorable roads, portable drinking water, presence of police station, banks etc, after this, you can now know how to gather the information and the type of information to collect.
For Quantitative research, it is difficult to translate most of the information into analytical form, most often, researchers have to listen to hear say and as humans, Hurtton's effect sets in, in this situation, objectivity is near absence. another is that emotion normally sets in, by right researchers should be empathetic and not sympathetic, this is another disadvantage of qualitative research design. The best bait is to use a combination of both designs.
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AIDS is still a serious health problem. Multi pronged strategies are applied to prevent & control this infection. But it seems that more stress is given on the treatment aspect. What are your views?
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The first set of TALC slides on basic virology and transmission, in a summarised version attached. It was all about story-telling to raise HIV / AIDS awareness...
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What challenges face mobile health interventions targeting HIV/AIDS populations using SMS and smart phone applications, to improve medication and/or appointment adherence (EX. stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS, religious and cultural, gender differences...).
Feel free to expound on your answer and provide personal research experience and cite literature. Thank you in advance!
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This is a very important question and very nice points from Shabani.
I would add that in Mozambique we managed to see a small improvement of adherence to medicine and a slight 12 months retention among patients newly ART initiated on urban sites. However, somewhere at month 9-11 month the effect vanish very rapidly. It seems people got tired of receiving such messages and we received complains about SMS.
As Shabani said, besides the SMS content, things like electricity (is the health facility with power to feed the SMS system?) and network outages are critical to send SMS; Local expertise to keep the system running; Literacy (we sent text SMS), played key role.
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I would like to identity/establish where there are any existing European surveys (either multiple countries are single countries within Europe) on community health workers providing sexual health services for MSM regarding HIV/AIDS, STIs, and viral hepatitis. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.
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Dear Rafael
Thank you for taking the time to answer this, i really appreciate it. I will take a look at your research group.
All best wishes
Nigel
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I am having trouble in understanding the aim of HAART treatment in HIV patients.
Some papers mention that the viral load should be <50 copies/ml while others state that is should be <50 copies/mm^3.
How is this possible, since the units of measure are not the same.
I would appreciate any help.
Examples of references are:
1) Introducing HIV/AIDS Education Into the Electrical Engineering Curriculum at the University of Pretoria. (and all the references therein)
2)The Struggle for Access to Treatment for HIV/AIDS in India
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In simple explanation, HIV RNA copies is a measure of the virus itself, while CD4 count targets the T lymphocytes population.A reduction in HIV RNA copies population is an indication of suppression of viral replication while an increase in CD4 count population is an indication of improvement of immune system.CD4 count is for T lymphocyte while HIV RNA copies is for the virus itself.
Hope this also helps you.Best regards.
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What is the MW of gp41, the replicative helicase from T4 phage? What are the MW of other proteins of T4 phage replisome complex?
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Thanks Parismita Kalita...
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Most girls upon reaching teenage stage default ART, become rebelious to their guardians and sometimes end up running away from home. This end up putting them in great danger, e.g. losing their lives through opportunistic infections, or they end up developing drug resistence.
The main aim of the research is to get informaion that will help guardians with HIV positive adolescents from birth, and the adolescents themselves on how to deal with the issues that arise upon reaching teenage stage, and how to better adhere to medication, without the fear of stigmaization or being gossipped about.
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Adolescence is a phase of many emotional and hormonal changes  and rebelliousness  is common . However , when this starts affecting a drug regime , in this case , ART , the situation becomes a little more  complex and has to be handled sensitively .
The fear factors of stigma and gossip can be dealt with  , by first sensitising  the  local community  and  giving them ownership   . Role plays , street plays , poster education should be done  to spread awareness . 
In parallel , counselling of the girls should be done  and they should be told  kindly but firmly that the drugs are meant for their benefit . Parents also should be given emotional and socio-economic support  . 
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Is there a possibility of using synthetic biology technique in drug discovery for HIV virus/AIDs? How cheap can the technique solve the problem?
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theoretical/conceptual framework. 
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A survey of 11th to 12th  students with questionnaire may give some information.
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PROQOL-HIV questionnaire is  one of the current standard questionnaire used to assess Health-Related Quality of Life in People Living With HIV/AIDS.
So any body who can help me in getting or inform me the structure and as well as the soft copy of this document.
Thank You!
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I don't know if HIV-1-ⅢB virus is a threat to researchers.Should we be very careful when do related researches.Thank you.
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I will suggest the interested readers to go through page 223 of "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories" 5th Edition - HHS publication no. (CDC) 21-1112 downoladable from CDC website. 
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Many peoples in our district East Godavari and in Agency area having no awareness on Aids and HIV. So that we are planning to aware the children and people from their School level. Itself so we are selecting some Z.P School and A.P.S.W. R Schools and we go for awareness programs and camps to educate the children. And we are also planning to make an HIV Anti- group. We select some children and conduct some competitions, seminars and workshops and aware them against HIV and Aids.
We are requesting you for the fund needed for our plan and requesting for the addresses of any other organizations who are supporting us.
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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Commonwealth Foundation
Elton John AIDS Foundation
European Union
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
Hewlett Foundation
International HIV/AIDS Alliance
Government of the Netherlands
The Abbott Fund
US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
UK Department for International Development (DFID)
UNAIDS
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
United Nations Development Programme
World Health Organization
NACO, 9th Floor, Chanderlok Bldg., 36 Janpath,
New Delhi-110001 Tel: 23325337
Rajiv Gandhi Foundation
Rajendra Prasad Road
New Delhi - 110 001, India
Tel.: +91 11 2375 5117
Fax: +91 11 2375 5119
The Foundation supports HIV training programs for health professionals working with NGOs to treat the underprivileged throughout India. It also supports education, prevention and direct services programs for PLWHA as well as capacity-building grants for CBOs working in this area.
Vasavya Mahila Mandali
Benz Circle, Vijayawada - 520 010
Andhra Pradesh, India
Tel.: +91 86 6247 0966
Fax: +91 86 6247 3056
Vasavya is an intermediary for international and national
funders and governments. It supports home and community-based HIV/AIDS care and prevention programs.
MAMTA MAMTA
Health
Institute for Mother and Child
B-5, Greater Kailash Enclave-II
New Delhi, India 110048
Tel.: +91 11 2922 0210
Fax: +91 11 2922 0575
MAMTA is an intermediary for international and national funders and governments. It supports HIV/AIDS programs focusing on direct care, advocacy, and training throughout the country.
Palmyrah Workers Development Society (PWDS PWDS PWDS )
Crystal Street, Marthandam – 629165
Kanyakumari District
Tamil Nadu, India
Tel.: +91 46 5127 0241
Fax: +91 46 5127 0138
PWDS is an intermediary for international and national funders and governments. It supports CBOs and NGOs working with AIDS orphans as well as organizations providing community-based care and support programs for PLWHA.
LEPRA
Society
Post Box No. 1518
West Marredpally, Secunderabad
Andhra Pradesh, India
Tel.: +91 040 2780 2139
Fax: +91 040 2780 1391
LEPRA is an intermediary for international and national funders and governments. It supports a wide range of HIV/AIDS projects from direct care to advocacy to education and vocational programs throughout the country.
TEST Foundation
4, Sathalvar Street
Mugappair West
Chennai, India 600037
Tel.: +91 044 2624 4100
Fax: +91 044-2625 0315
TEST is both an operating foundation, running its own programs including home-based care and a hospice for AIDS patients, and a grantmaking
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Experimental evidences suggests that HIV infection is not transmitted via arthropods including mosquitoes. However, one paper investigated possible transmission of HIV-1 by African soft tick, ornithodoros moubata. This vector has the potentiality for mechanical transmission of HIV viruses (which otherwise do not survive in arthropods) under field conditions. But this is an old research and any new insights on this topic?
Is this a cause for alarm? As far as we know, HIV is not transmitted by bites of ticks, mites or mosquitoes and there are no evidences to suggest that retroviruses are transmitted by arthropods. 
Evaluation of mechanical transmission of HIV by the African soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata.
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There is no indication they biologically transmit the virus.  No molecular or immunological studies found any virus binding sites in the midgut for example of mosquitoes.
Insects are really not very good vectors of almost any virus (with a few exceptions).  The shear number of viruses out there is astronomical and insects are not shown or even implicated in most.  The only exception are the arboviruses and to be truthful if you look at the biology of these viruses you will find that even susceptible vectors are really not that good at transmitting most of them.  The viruses end up getting blocked by midgut or salivary gland barriers or there just are not enough in a blood meal to even infect a vector.
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We are requesting you for the fund needed for our plan and requesting for the addresses of any other organizations who are supporting us.
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Dear Ayyanna,
1) You may also consider HIV Research Trust (http://www.hivresearchtrust.org.uk/), for your early/mid-career HIV physicians, nurses, scientists and other health care professionals.
2) EDCTP also has some opportunities, especially if you have African collaborators (http://www.edctp.org/funding-opportunities/calls/).
3) The Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) of the International AIDS Society (IAS) is another opportunity aimed at optimizing clinical management and delivery of services to infants, children and adolescents affected by HIV in resource-limited settings through advocacy and research promotion. 
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Data in the last 24months would also be good enough.
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Thanks Nouhoum.
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Have been documenting an international series of infectious-like events in which deaths and medical admissions simultaneously rise in what can be best described as a rectangular wave effect. Have written a review attempting to link CMV to these suspected outbreaks. Any thoughts or suggestions would be welcome along with potential research which could be relevant. Many thanks for your valuable time. Kind Regards Rod
P.S. even if CMV is not the direct agent I would be highly surprised if it were not taking opportunistic advantage as it does in HIV/AIDS
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I think that this link may be useful for you.
Pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus infection and ...
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de G Gerna - ‎2004 - ‎Cité 93 fois - ‎Autres articles
In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), disseminated infection, and end-organ disease, autopsy findings show ...
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We try to isolate CD56neg NK cells from HIV patients, but the presence of this NK cell subset seems to be correlated with the viral load so I wondered from which viral load you can assure the presence of CD56neg NK cells
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Please review the following:
Persistence of pathological distribution of NK cells in HIV-infected patients with prolonged use of HAART and a sustained immune response. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 26;10(3):e0121019.
 Frias M(1), Rivero-Juarez A(1), Gordon A(1), Camacho A(1), Cantisan S(1),
Cuenca-Lopez F(1), Torre-Cisneros J(1), Peña J(2), Rivero A(1).
OBJECTIVE: A prospective analysis of the distribution of NK subsets and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30/NKp46) in HIV patients with long-term HAART use and sustained virological and immunological response.
METHODS: The main inclusion criteria were: at least 3 years' receipt of HAART; current CD4+ count ≥ 500 cells/mm3; undetectable viral load for at least 24 months; no hepatotropic virus co-infection. Percentages of CD56dim, CD56bright NK cells and CD56neg CD16+ cells were obtained. Expression of the NCRs, NKp30 and NKp46 was analysed in CD56+ cells. Thirty-nine infected patients and sixteen healthy donors were included in the study.
RESULTS: The percentages of total CD56+ and CD56dim NK cells were significantly lower in HIV-infected patients than in healthy donors (70.4 vs. 50.3 and 80.9 vs. 66.1 respectively). The percentage of total CD56+ NK cells expressing NCR receptors was lower in HIV patients than in healthy donors (NKp30: 25.20 vs. 58.63; NKp46: 24.8 vs. 50.59). This was also observed for CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells. Length of time with undetectable HIV viral load was identified as an independent factor associated with higher expression of NKp30 and NKp46. 
CONCLUSION: Despite the prolonged and effective use of HAART, HIV-infected patients do not fully reconstitute the distribution of NK cells. Length of time with an undetectable viral load was related to greater recovery of Kp30/NKp46 receptors.
Human NK cell response to pathogens. Semin Immunol. 2014 Apr;26(2):152-60.
 Della Chiesa M(1), Marcenaro E(1), Sivori S(1), Carlomagno S(1), Pesce S(1),
Moretta A(2).
 NK cells represent important effectors of the innate immunity in the protection
of an individual from microbes. During an NK-mediated anti-microbial response,
the final fate (survival or death) of a potential infected target cell depends
primarily on the type and the number of receptor/ligand interactions occurring at
the effector/target immune synapse. The identification of an array of receptors
involved in NK cell triggering has been crucial for a better understanding of the
NK cell biology. In this context, NCR play a predominant role in NK cell
activation during the process of natural cytotoxicity. Regarding the NK-mediated
pathogen recognition and NK cell activation, an emerging concept is represented
by the involvement of TLRs and activating KIRs. NK cells express certain TLRs in
common with other innate cell types. This would mean that specific TLR ligands
are able to promote the simultaneous and synergistic stimulation of these innate
cells, providing a coordinated mechanism for regulating the initiation and
amplification of immune responses. Evidences have been accumulated indicating
that viral infections may have a significant impact on NK cell maturation,
promoting the expansion of phenotypically and functionally aberrant NK cell
subpopulations. For example, during chronic HIV-infection, an abnormal expansion
of a dysfunctional CD56neg NK cell subset has been detected that may explain, at
least in part, the defective NK cell-mediated antiviral activity. An analogous
imbalance of NK cell subsets has been detected in patients receiving HSCT to cure
high risk leukemias and experiencing HCMV infection/reactivation. Remarkably, NK
cells developing after CMV reactivation may contain "memory-like" or "long-lived"
NK cells that could exert a potent anti-leukemia effect.
Healthy Neonates Possess a CD56-Negative NK Cell Population with Reduced
Anti-Viral Activity. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 21;8(6):e67700.
 Jacobson A(1), Bell F, Lejarcegui N, Mitchell C, Frenkel L, Horton H.
 BACKGROUND: Neonatal Natural Killer (NK) cells show functional impairment and expansion of a CD56 negative population of uncertain significance.
METHODS: NK cells were isolated from cord blood and from adult donors. NK subpopulations were identified as positive or negative for the expression of CD56 and characterized for expression of granzyme B and surface markers by multi-parameter flow cytometry. Cell function was assessed by viral suppression and cytokine production using autologous lymphocytes infected with HIV. Activating (NKp30, NKp46) and inhibitory (Siglec-7) markers in healthy infants and adults were compared with viremic HIV-infected adults.
RESULTS: Cord blood contained increased frequencies of CD56 negative (CD56neg) NK cells with reduced expression of granzyme B and reduced production of IFNγ and the CC-class chemokines RANTES, MIP1α and MIP1β upon stimulation. Both CD56pos and CD56neg NK subpopulations showed impaired viral suppression in cord blood, with impairment most marked in the CD56neg subset. CD56neg NK cells from cord blood and HIV-infected adults shared decreased inhibitory and activating receptor expression when compared with CD56pos cells.
CONCLUSIONS: CD56neg NK cells are increased in number in normal infants and these effectors show reduced anti-viral activity. Like the expanded CD56neg population described in HIV-infected adults, these NK cells demonstrate functional impairments which may reflect inadequate development or activation.
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The intended trial is to be conducted on Jobelyn, our novel product that has shown very promising potentials in addressing Poverty Related Diseases (PRDs) like HIV by optimizing the efficacy of existing therapeutics when used as adjuvant treatment. 
The grant which is offered by European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) and has its link below requires Consortia comprising a minimum of three different legal entities to apply. Two of the legal entities must be established in two different European Participating States(2) of the EDCTP Association.
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Have you attempted to make contact with any of these research centers?
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Hey All,
So I've been looking through the literature regarding the induction of type 1 interferon during acute HIV-1 infection. Clearly IFNa is induced during acute infection, but is IFNb? I haven't been able to find a paper with a definitive answer, or a study which hasn't used cell culture supernatant as a source of IFN in their work.
Following that, does anyone have any ideas as to how I would go about stimulating a cell line in vitro using recombinant protein for both IFNa and b in terms of incubation time and concentrations? Or is this something that needs extensive optimisation?
Thanks for all your help in advance!!!
Nate
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We use IFNa2a in our study described in the attached paper at 2500 U/ml for 24h on fresh human monocytes but I've seen both IFNalpha and beta used anywhere between 10 to 10000 u/ml.  In the end, it depends on the sensitivity of the cell type used and your endpoint or readout.
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How illness affects the immune system.
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Contact Valerian Delega, Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, in Norfolk VA (USA).  He's an expert on aspects of your topic.
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Please include experiences on how to obtain ethical approval and informed consent for research among sexual minorities (LGBTI) in a country where the practices are illegal. Thank you
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The key is to outreach the population. In Guatemala, we're building an experience to increase coverage in MSM. Is important to mention that in Guatemala isn't an unfreandly legal system for LGBTI, however stigma is a major concern in our context.
The close work with a community based organization, and promotion through social network as Facebook, Twitter; and "gay apps" such as Grindr and Manhunt; are an important strategy to contact MSM. 
Also, Mpowerment model 
Here are some publications that may help you:
Goldenberg T, McDougal JS, Sullivan SP, Stekler DJ, Stephenson R. Preferences for a Mobile HIV Prevention App for Men Who Have Sex With Men. JMIR mHealth uHealth [Internet].
Young SD, Szekeres G, Coates T. The Relationship between Online Social Networking and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM). PLoS One. 2013;8(5):15–8.
Usher D, Frye V, Shinnick J, Greene E, Baez E, Benitez J, et al. Recruitment by a Geospatial Networking Application for Research and Practice: The New York City Experience. JAIDS J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr [Internet]. 2014;67(5).
Suthar AB, Ford N, Bachanas PJ, Wong VJ, Rajan JS, Saltzman AK, et al. Towards Universal Voluntary HIV Testing and Counselling: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Community-Based Approaches. PLoS Med. 2013;10(8).
Kegeles SM, Hays RB, Coates TJ. The Mpowerment project: A community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(8 I):1129–36.
Kahn JG, Kegeles SM, Hays R, Beltzer N. Cost-Effectiveness of the Mpowerment Project, a Community-Level Intervention for Young Gay Men. JAIDS J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr [Internet]. 2001;27(5)
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I saw last week a pregnant girl, 17 week of gestation. She is 38 years old and she is a new HIV diagnosis. Her CD4 were 576, HIVRNA <1000 cp/ml. I've started immediately ARV therapy with a combination on tenofovir/emtricitabine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Two days later she told me she started vomiting many times during the days and I decided to stop lopinavir/r. What do you think could be the best option in substitution the PI: another PI like Atazanavir/r 300/100 (with half dose of ritonavir in confront of lopinavir) or, changing completely class and avoiding ritonavir, Raltegravir bid?
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The best options at this stage would be to either continue with a PI (such as darunavir) or switch to efavirenz. The British HIV Association still advocates one of these two options even in early pregnancy. I suspect Raltegravir or even Dolutegravir would be good options but there is not much information at the moment to promote their use in pregnancy.
I would personally try boosted darunavir and see how she goes.
I am attaching link to the British guidance on HIV treatment in pregnancy (2014 update):
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As we know HIV/AIDS is a disease of high risk behavior. Behavior of person is multifactorial. Care is more critical than the cure. No one model is effective for behavior change. But how can we choose better model for HIV/ AIDS?
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The risk reduction model looks appropriate to behavioral change in HIV/AIDS, for the model integrates human behavior: valuing being healthy, understanding the actions to be taken to remain healthy, developing self efficacy and self esteem. The model promotes individuals to assess their behavioral practices that make them vulnerable to HIV infection, understanding the severity of the disease, and knowledge on prevention and transmission of the disease. The model is designed to help target people to understand the severity of the illness; the practice to healthy way of life; and the path to be followed for behavior change such as abandoning practices that expose them to the infection through  change in life style. The target people should be able to see a better, healthy and enjoyable life as they transform to the new life practices that do not expose them to HIV infection. Since knowledge of HIV/AIDS is conditioned in the new practices, agents of change have to reinforce the new mode of life. Health educators, teachers, families, communities, religious and other players and their respective institutions  are agents in the creation of knowledge and reinforcement of knowledge based practices in HIV prevention.
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I am developing a strategic approach to work within the HIV/AIDS community. I am particularly interested in recent research regarding best practices for outreach and engagement with individuals who have dropped out of care or who cycle in and out of care. Many thanks!
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Thank you all. Paul, I will look into contacting Dr. Travers. I have been conducting focus groups with folks living with HIV whose viral loads are suppressed and have had interesting conversations regarding engagement, retention in care and dropping out of care. Thank you for your connection.
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Little is known about the consultation nurse's role and the cares in HIV patients. There are big differences between high and low income countries. I´m trying to copile information about it. I haven't been able to find any guideline for the nurse in the most important databases. Should nurse iniciate and monitor ART? Or just monitor? 
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Attached implications of my study:
Nurses, who represent 65% of human resources in the Bolivian health system structure, must actively participate in the design of culturally adapted prevention programmes and health education interventions. In this regard, governmental health authorities, NGOs and international organisations should be actively engaged and aware of our study’s results, particularly highlighting the importance of local agents to promote their capacitation as well as the empowerment of indigenous populations. Nursing could develop programmes and interventions based on the transcultural care theory, preserving healthy cultural practices, negotiating the adaptation of others and remodelling those which support risk behaviours. Without an in-depth knowledge of this population’s cultural framework, any attempt at an intervention runs the risk of being done in vain.
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I am interesting in finding prevalence/incidence rates of specific opportunistic infections of young age groups (not adult) from before and after the start of the AIDS epidemic (~1980). 
In particular I am looking for trends in: Tuberculosis, Cryptosporidium, and Non-Typhi Salmonella. 
Does anyone know if such data exists and where I can find it? I would want to look in an area where HIV/AIDS is widespread, so somewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa would be ideal (or the whole region). 
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Hi Oliver,
the time individual computers started being used in a whitespread fashion (and, thus: 'easy data collecting' emerged) stretches from the beginning 90'ies in the industrialized world and a bit later in African countries. Hence, before that decade, there was virtually nothing  in this respect, at least not in a representative fashion and/or the amount you are intending to obtain here. Sorry to say, the only slim chance would be to contact the respective officers at WHO.
good luck for your endeavour!
Sibylle
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To all interested parties,
My name is Nelson Karp, MD and I am an HIV/Aids researcher who works on the development of drugs and vaccines for patients.
I have numerous published patents:http://www.endhivtoday.org/united-states.html
We are at a point in our research that funding is required for the USPTO applications and to further both the research and the submission of the patents to potential drug manufacturers.
This is an area in which I have no expertise and am hoping to find some information and/or someone who has experience in this field.
Thank you.
Feel free to contact me anytime 
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Nelson - a somewhat broad question -  but one that can be answered 'in parts' - so you may get quite a few responses in this thread. I would 'start' by suggesting that, despite your lack of experience in grant writing, you are best to consider the nature and scope of your team initially. It may well not be a good idea to put yourself forward as Chief Investigator (CI) or Principle Investigator (PI). Grant proposal reviewers need to assess the ability of the investigators in the research team to undertake the research. Therefore, proposals require some information about the research team (e.g. name, qualifications, employment position) as a minimum. In some instances (e.g. NHMRC grants), a short biography (research track record) and publications list are necessary for each investigator. All authors on the research team should provide intellectual capital to the research project in a 'ranked order'; that is, they must actively participate in the project and contribute to the generation of knowledge. Following some unfortunate episodes of ‘honorary authorship’ to persons in authority who provided no academic input to the research and related publications, there are now guidelines on authorship, sponsorship and accountability, issued by, among others, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (Halperin et al. 2005), and Universities Australia http://www.universitiesaustralia.edu.au/. These types of resources may well assist in working through the grant process
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Dear all,
is there an international standard to set a questioner for KAP assessment on HIV/AIDS? If so, would you please send me a sample or already made questioner.
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HIV KQ 45 is a validated HIV knowledge scale and HIV KQ 18 is a shortened version. For attitude AIDS Attitude Scale (AAS) is a validated scale.
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Working on an HIV/AIDS cure, need to know. THANKS millions, heard about the
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Dear Hentrich,
it is hard to find published medical research to answer your question. Whether or not an injection at pH 0.05 would be lethal depends on several factors and variables. Firstly, the amount of fluid/substance you plan to inject. Secondly, the mode of administration; subcutaneous, intravenously, i.m, and so on. Furthermore, the chemical composition and active ingredients in the substance will also play a role in this matter, as will the clinical condition of each patient be equally important.
Hope this was helpful, and best of luck in your research.
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due to accelerating roll-out of ARV , HIV/AIDS services are integrated into PHC in order to increase the access of ARV by people living with HIV. however there is ongoing shortage of material and human resource
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You can, may be draw examples from the Indian model, although not completely integrated in its true sense currently. The National AIDS Control program nevertheless has worked progressively towards integration and now envisages to integrate the AIDS program completely in to the national health mission. Integration as I understand occurs at various levels and for various program components of the AIDS program. If your question is about the prevention and treatment component of HIV/AIDS then the answer would be yes it can be integrated one hundred percent. For example, testing for HIV can occur at any general laboratory, in most cases it would not require specialised training or equipment that is not manageable by a certified general laboratory technician. Now the larger problem I assume could be when we talk of the treatment component. If PLHIV have access to ARV medications provided by the government then it could be challenging, in terms of the capacities of the medical officers to provide standardized care based on the guidelines and also the laboratory support for periodic CD4 testing. Our experience in India is that integration is a slow drawn process especially for a concentrated epidemic such as ours. And, most off it depends on the existing public health infrastructure.
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I am conducting a qualitative study on HIV/AIDS medication adherence and compliance and seek contributions on how to gather relevant information.
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From your question, you indicate that adherence to HIV and AIDS medicines in Nigeria is high and there are some factors that have been shown to contribute to that, i believe you want to establish which factors may be adapted into strategies for sustained high adherence.
Since you want to conduct a qualitative research, interview with the patients, health care providers, managers, caregivers and community organization representatives (such as support groups and home based care groups)  may be the way to go. You could use semi-structured questionnaires and focused group discussions and your questions should include some of the factors identified to result in high adherence and seek from the participants what they should be done. In your interviews you should have representation in terms of gender, age and if possible, duration on therapy. 
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Dear all,
kindly give your valuable suggestion as i am going to design patient Education Material with Holistic Approach. for HIV-AIDS Patients.
Thanks in Advance
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Our experiences shows that more inter active is more effective .Side effects of ART and how to cope with it is very important for patients' adherence, other important based on our study is family stigma that should be targeted by IEC approaches.
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Should prednisolone be used in the management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients with HIV/AIDS?
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Personally, I think it is case dependent. First, it has to be determined whether its an unmasking or paradoxical IRIS. Starting steroids in under-controlled infections can be detrimental. 
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Burkitt lymphoma occurs in HIV positive patients with variable number of CD4-cells.
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A student once asked me that question, very interesting indeed. The whole point of the "AIDS defining illness/condition" I believe is to assist in the clinical diagnosis of AIDS and to be able to predict a prognosis. There are more than 800 AIDS related conditions, the CDC and WHO came up with a list of AIDS defining illnesses which is composed of the most common clinical conditions that are associated with AIDS.  Of course these can also occur in non AIDS cases, but their appearance merits further investigation and ruling out of AIDS as a causative factor.
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 A cellular protease cleaves gp160 to generate gp41 and gp120, But I also keep on seeing the gp140,.adn also gp150,. is there any structural difference between them and gp120?
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HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein is synthesized as a precursor glycoprotein, gp160, and is then processed into gp120 and gp41. As Mohamed has mentioned, these are lab designed variants used for a successful vaccine development and for various neutralizing assays. gp140 is created by deleting trans-membrane and cytoplasmic domain namely gp140L, which contained the complete membrane-proximal external region (MPER), and gp140S, which lacks the distal half of MPER. Moreover, it has also been observed the neutralization sensitivity of gp120, gp140, and gp41 are distinct. Hope it clarifies your doubt.
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Doing a systematic literature review on risk associated with MSMs and PEP.
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Look at this site belonging to Sigma Research - London School of Tropical Medicine
http://www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/gay or just search PEP on their site.
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I am working on stimulation of PBMCs isolated from HIV positive individuals using 10%FBS RPMI and HIV gag p24 (1µg/ml) for three days to investigate some inhibitory receptors (Like PD-1) immunocenescence (CD57) and immunoactivation (CD28) markers on the surface of T cells by flow cytometry. I have seeded 300,000 cells in each well of 24-well cell culture plate and I have not harvested more than 1 million cells pulling up five wells after 3 days. I would like to know if three days is not too much to culture and then how can I generally increase the number of cells.
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Try IL-7 for 2-3 days and Il-7/IL-15 from DAY 3 onwards if you want to drive out the cells a little more. I find IL-2 works but can also cause cellular death in this short time period. IL-7 works for me.
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I would like to have your point of view.
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I have recently published a paper that might be of interest. It focuses on how issues of medication side effects and compliance are raised as topics and dealt with in conversations between staff and patients in a Therapeutic Community. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24053481
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Current recommendations support initiating cART with three drugs. Late diagnosis of HIV infection is frequent, in this setting some clinicians prefer to start with 4 drugs. Combinations of more than three drugs to initiate treatment in this population of patients is debated.
What's your opinion?
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I found interesting the conclusions of a recent paper in J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (2014;66:140–147) : Intensified 5-drug cART initiated during early infection fails to significantly further impact virologic or immunologic responses beyond those achieved with standard 3-drug PI based cART.
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In addition to the SF-36, I would like to know if there are any unique test to these types of patients.
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