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Groundwater Pollution - Science topic

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The packed bed column (H = 2m) is filled with alternate soil (coarse) and sand samples. I want to study the residence time of my target compound but before that I require a tracer to monitor the flow for calculating the HRT. What are the suitable tracers available that are cost effective as well as inert (should not interact and adsorb on soil and sand)?
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What can we use as a non-reactive tracer for soil ground water for monitoring different reactions like denitrification?
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The US Government Comparative Toxicogenomics database shows that Fluoride can inhibit Human immunity to viruses and pneumonia. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE), 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase 1 (OAS1) and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) are included as susceptible epigenetic targets of the poison.
Wuhan is an area with high Fluoride exposure from atmospheric and groundwater pollution.
Are there more studies linking virus outbreaks or mutations with Fluoride?
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I recently received advice from a researcher in India stating that 9 of the 10 most severely COVID19 affected areas also suffer from endemic Fluorosis.
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Long exposure to airborne silica (e.g. people engaged in stone crushing work) causes acute health problems. Groundwaters in many areas are found to be with elevated concentration of dissolved silica. Are these waters suitable for drinking?
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Asit Kumar Batabyal K. Shahzad Baig Bachir Achour this article refers to relation between silica in ground water with the chronic kidney disease which causes kidney failure. this is a very significant issue which needs more investigation.
(study by nizam institute of medical sciences)
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Dear researchers your kind concern needed. I am working on groundwater pollution, however, I have to calculate the non-carcinogenic Human Health Risk Assessment of Nitrate and other parameters. In that regard, I need your valuable suggestion, and if anyone can send me a solved example file then I will be much thankful.
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NATURAL RESOURCES CORNELL COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
- Nitrate: Health Effects in Drinking Water
by
Margaret McCasland, Nancy M. Trautmann, and Keith S. Porter Center for Environmental Research
Nitrate is one of the most common groundwater contaminants in rural areas. It is regulated in drinking water primarily because excess levels can cause methemoglobinemia, or "blue baby" disease. Although nitrate levels that affect infants do not pose a direct threat to older children and adults, they do indicate the possible presence of other more serious residential or agricultural contaminants, such as bacteria or pesticides.
Nitrate in groundwater originates primarily from fertilizers, septic systems, and manure storage or spreading operations. Fertilizer nitrogen that is not taken up by plants, volatilized, or carried away by surface runoff leaches to the groundwater in the form of nitrate. This not only makes the nitrogen unavailable to crops, but also can elevate the concentration in groundwater above the levels acceptable for drinking water quality. Nitrogen from manure similarly can be lost from fields, barnyards, or storage locations. Septic systems also can elevate groundwater nitrate concentrations because they remove only half of the nitrogen in wastewater, leaving the remaining half to percolate to groundwater.
This bulletin focuses on the health effects of nitrate in drinking water, and another bulletin in this series (Fact sheet 400.04, Groundwater: What It Is and How to Protect It), addresses ways of protecting the quality of groundwater supplies.
What Is Nitrate?
Nitrate is an inorganic compound that occurs under a variety of conditions in the environment, both naturally and synthetically. Nitrate is composed of one atom of nitrogen (N) and three atoms of oxygen (O); the chemical symbol for nitrate is NO3. Nitrite (NO2) can be formed from nitrate by a chemical process called reduction. Nitrate does not normally cause health problems unless it is reduced to nitrite.
Nitrate in drinking water is measured either in terms of the amount of nitrogen present or in terms of both nitrogen and oxygen. The federal standard for nitrate in drinking water is 10 milligrams per liter (10 mg/l) nitrate-N, or 45 mg/l nitrate-NO3. when the oxygen is measured as well as the nitrogen. Unless otherwise specified, nitrate levels usually refer only to the amount of nitrogen present, and the usual standard, therefore, is 10 mg/l.
Short-term exposure to drinking water with a nitrate level at or just above the health standard of 10 mg/l nitrate-N is a potential health problem primarily for infants. Babies consume large quantities of water relative to their body weight, especially if water is used to mix powdered or concentrated formulas or juices. Also, their immature digestive systems are more likely than adult digestive tracts to allow the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. In particular, the presence of nitrite in the digestive tract of newborns can lead to a disease called methemoglobinemia.
Infant Feeding Practices to Minimize Intake of Nitrate and Nitrite
  1. Breast feeding. Little if any nitrate gets into breast milk, unless the mother is consuming very large quantities of nitrate. Also, bacterial contamination is not a problem when breast milk is consumed directly.
  2. Bottle feeding. Use already diluted liquid formulas or use low-nitrate water to dilute concentrated liquid or powdered formulas. Also, mixed formulas should be kept under refrigeration and used promptly to minimize bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite.
  3. Vegetables. Since many vegetables are high in nitrate, their consumption should be limited until an infant is 4-6 months old and their digestive tract has sufficiently matured. Your physician can help you decide when to add new foods. Vegetables should always be prepared while fresh and refrigerated promptly after cooking to minimize bacterial activity.
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See attached a document on 'A Global Assessment of Nitrate Contamination in Groundwater' You can also read:
Katharina Wick,a Christine Heumesser,b,∗ and Erwin Groundwater nitrate contamination: Factors and indicators. J Environ Manage. 2012 Nov 30; 111(3): 178–186.
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Nitrate (NO3) is considered to be one of the major groundwater pollutants worldwide.
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Please have a look at this useful RG link.
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Pollution potential mapping,
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Well,
The method is originally based on a set of indicators that has multiple details, each of them gives specific weight for the purpose of reaching the most accurate measure by which to compare and identify potential and vulnerable areas for pollution. Therefore, the process of taking the average of weights does not achieve the desired goal in the process of differentiation between hydrogeological provinces.
Regards
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DRASTIC based models are the most used around the world, however, such models estimate a fixed time value when predicting vulnerability in the aquifer.
* We know that groundwater pollution will have a seasonal behavior
* We know that climate can have a direct (time variant) impact on the net recharge
Can we incorporate such changes and make DRASTIC time sensitive?
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I just solved the mystery and I am finding a good journal to submit, do you guys know any valuable one?
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What is the most economical and efficient method of analyzing surface and underground water quality?
Especially nitrate, thermotolerant coliforms, Total Dissolved Solids TDS.
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I think that the EPA National Service Center for Environmental Publications: nepis.epa.gov is a good choice on economic methods
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Will the development of robotics and smart technology solve the problem of dramatically increasing pollution of the natural environment, including pollution of rivers, lakes, seas and oceans?
To the natural environment of rivers, lakes, seas and oceans, increasingly large amounts of industrial wastes and various types of waste are getting into the environment, including non-degradable plastic wastes. There are more and more stains on the assessors, piles of garbage, mainly plastic, which are not biodegradable and pollute the natural environment of flora and fauna of marine and oceanic ecosystems. As a result, the global, international problem of pollution of the seas and oceans is growing, which should be solved systematically at the supra-national level.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Will the development of robotics and smart technology solve the problem of dramatically increasing pollution of the natural environment, including pollution of rivers, lakes, seas and oceans?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Carsten Weerth and IMADEDDIN MOH'D ALBABA both of you are agreed
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I am interesting in groundwater monitoring wells optimization, I am studying the groundwater pollution monitoring wells optimize methods.
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Many thanks for letting me know. Can you please e-mail me on my personal account (sandeepravish_6150036@nitkkr.ac.in).
Thanks in advance
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I want to investigate the pollution from chemical pesticide use on the environment, which is one of the factors I consider to be groundwater pollution, please share if you have any information
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Considering ground water pollution is a best idea, because 50% population using as souce of drinking water. Mainly type of pesticeds, their site of application and moreover the concentration used were considerable. To determine the contamination of water supplies, the source of water is also an important factor.
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Are we receiving necessary information for amply assessing the groundwater pollution potential?
OR
Are we biased towards the hydro-geological settings (that potentially decides the transport of pollutants)
than
the socioeconomic conditions and the anthropogenic activities (that potentially release the pollutants)?
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Well,
thanks for discussion Dr Suresh Kumar Govindarajan , the first part about geogenic source was examined in details in the following articles,
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i need research papers both published and unpublished
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Hello researchers
I would like to know the most reliable methods for determining the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution (GOD-DRASTIC-SINTACS ...
Greeting
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Groundwater vulnerability is a central concept in pollution risk assessment, yet its estimation has been largely a matter of expert judgment.. There is report of a method for the direct calculation of vulnerabilty from monitoing well observations of pesticide concentrations. The method has two major advantages ; it is independent of compounds being examined, and it has a direct probabilistic interpretation making it ideal for risk assessment . The methodology was applied to data from grondwater monitoring program in the midwestern United States. For more details consult https://www.agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com ;;; Water Resources Research, Vol. 39, No.12, 1345
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s-nZVI may be more suitable for organic pollutants than inorganic pollutants.
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Also good at heavy metal removement
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Ground water Vulnerability means ground water quality starts deteriorating and contaminated severely up to certain extent beyond the potable standard. 
Also, groundwater vulnerability to pollution be defined, in agreement with the conclusions and recommendations of the International Conference on Vulnerability of Soil and Groundwater to Pollutants, as the sensitivity of groundwater quality to an imposed contaminant load, which is determined by the intrinsic characteristics of the aquifer. Thus defined vulnerability is distinct from pollution risk, which depends not only on vulnerability but also on the existence of significant pollutant loading entering the subsurface environment.
It is possible to have high aquifer vulnerability but no risk of pollution, if there is no significant pollutant loading or to have high pollution risk in spite of low vulnerability, if the pollutant loading is exceptional.
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Dear @ Modi, there is no ideal method for every case of study. The choice of a method depends on many elements such as the aquifer type, dimensions, lithology, other intrinsic conditions, available data... which are elements that vary from an aquifer to another.
For this, many investigations tried to compare several methods for a specific case to conclude which method is the most suitable for that specific case.
In many years, we have been working on that comparative studies in Spain, Morocco and Tunisia and we conclude that a geophysical method close to AVI is the most suitable in our cases for many reasons.
Please find more explications on this link:
Good luck
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Groundwater pollution by nutrients is one of the problems in the world. A lot of research have been done about the influence of nitrates on water quality, but understanding how the chemistry phosphate in groundwater is influenced by lithology is important.
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There is a wealth of research on analyzing reactive solute transport in the subsurface in the soil science and contaminant hydrogeology literature. One place to start would be to look through the papers listed on http://www.u.arizona.edu/~brusseau/journals.htm. I have attached a couple of examples using models available for free from https://www.pc-progress.com/en/Default.aspx?stanmod.
Best,
KC
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Electrical resistivity method
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Of course yes ,the constituents of these chemicals shall leached with irrigation water and pollute underground water .
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We are researching he causal links between drinking high TDS underground well water and health issues in indigenous communities.
There is a lot of Chronic Kidney disease, Heart Disease, Diabetes, etc.  The mortality rates are very high.
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I agree with Dr. Tausif, that the health hazard due to high TDS is related to the presence contaminants dissolved in groundwater. Natural mineral contaminants like Arsenic or man made like fertilizers; pesticides; etc., in the groundwater lead to chronic effects like cancer, liver or kidney problems, or reproductive difficulties. 
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Is bioremediation of fluoride an good option?
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I am affraid that PhD Thesis recommended by Mr. Mushtaq Ahmad has nothing to do with bioremediation of fluoride even if it is stated in the abstract. The method studied fluoride sorption by hydrous ferric oxide as a way of defluoridation. The further study was aimed to investigation of bacteriogenic iron oxides. Not to direct bioremediation of fluoride. It means that the main aim of the recommended work above was aimed to biological formation of iron oxides which where used as a sorption material for fluoride, NOT TO BIOREMEDIATION OF FLUORIDE.
Best regards
Vit 
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Fluoride is major contaminant in groundwater.
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You need to synthesize selective binders such as calixpyrroles or other pyrrole derivatives for fluoride ion binding and load them on to solid nanomaterials for example magnetic nanoparticles etc. If you search on google you may get many such articles. 
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Simulition of the advection and dispersion of various types of pollutants, including thermal pollution in deep and shallow water.
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Dear Mr. Amteghy and Prof. Achour, thank you very much for the information.
Best regards.
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Hi Tianming, there are some good answers here. May I also suggest that you develop a conceptual model for your system of interest. This should encompass the time/historic dimension -  incorporating residence time indicators. Baseline for any aquifer will obviously be a range, and a comparison of the history of the system e.g. deposition/abstraction etc. with geographical variation (imposed by the geochemical environments) you may be able to refine this range to your local condition. There is no simple panacea but the data that will be useful will include historical, climatic, spatial, anthropic influences (industrial/agricultural/atmospheric) combined with statistical and modelling (conceptual and/or geochemical) techniques. The book by Edmunds & Shand (Natural groundwater Quality) covers much of this and was the precursor to the excellent Bridge project mentioned above.
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Can i use tap water instead of distilled water solution (solution of a toxic chemical) in a pot experiment of a plant in order to observe the variation of a particular chemical on that plant or soil? Is it ok if i mention the EC and TDS of that tap water and taking these variables of tap water as constant value?
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Whilst Mohamed is correct,in that it is usually better to use distilled water I would add the following.:
If it is not possible to use distilled water because your production rate is too slow it is important to ensure that you have control plants watered with tap water only without your additions of "toxins" .If using tapwater allows you to be able to do more replicates this may be preferable than limiting your number of replicates.
Distilled water itself is different from rain water. The ideal is  often to use harvested rainwater on both treatments and controls.
Watering with tapwater is a common practice for horticultural crops.
Thus your decision is not straightforward and will always be a compromise and should be based on the specifics of the experiment.
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NN
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Where can  I get the blank image of Wilcox diagram. Please put a link or the image of diagram.
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I know the fact that the arsenic can be oxidized and then removed with co-precipitation with dissolved iron but how about the tubewell of iron material? or actually any material, can a tubewell material or structure when drawing the groundwater help in influencing the arsenic content in anyway? 
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Arsenic in the water can exist in two forms, trivalent arsenic, known as As3 +, and pentavalent arsenic, known as As5 +. Both of these forms can be removed by appropriate purification methods -. Adsorption, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, etc. Another effective method of removing arsenic ions from water based on the ability of the iron oxide nanoparticles (rust) interact with arsenic ions, which are then removed by magnetic treatment.
Fe3+ + AsO4 3- =  FeAsO4 insoluble
There are special units for removal of arsenic ions for this technology.The magnetic iron powder we remove the oil. See the file.
Best regards/
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How the speciation and genesis of fluoride, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron etc .can be explained from the Eh-pH Stability diagrams?
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This book can help you, also you can used and modify other experimental condition with a program name Medusa, for pourbaix diagrams.
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Ion-exchange is one of the important geochemical processes responsible for the composition of groundwater. The ion-exchange process can be identified by the computation of 'Chloro-Alkaline Indices (CAI-1 and CAI-2)'.
What are the other tools by which it can  be confirmed that ion-exchange process has played role in the groundwater chemistry?
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Dear Dr. Mike Jones -  You have sent a very good report titled 'The natural (baseline) quality of groundwater in England and Wales'. It will be useful in studies related to groundwater, its chemistry, evolution etc. I will read the complete report. Many thanks
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People living in Jaffna are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc) in Chunnagam and Valigamam areas. Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in Jaffna and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas.
This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living in the areas. No satisfactory action has been taken yet by authorities. Hence, there is an imminent need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue.
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Dear Sir.
Конечно, это правильная мера. В проекте на бурение  после цементации затрубного пространства верхней колоны труб целесообразно предусмотреть проверку герметичности.
Угрозу второму водоносному горизонту представляют скважины, которые бурятся стихийно населением с использованием примитивных средств, когда не предусматривается изоляция верхнего горизонта (одна труба). С этим можно бороться только широким распространением информации о зря потраченных средствах на такие скважины. 
Good luck
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My PhD research focus on the groundwater quality associated with reclaimed water infiltration processes. For this purpose, water analyses are carried on treated wastewater, and on groundwater samples. Two of the objectives of the study are: (1) to undertake analysis of groundwater flows and hydrogeochemical interaction between treated wastewater and the groundwater during infiltration, using metals as tracers and isotopic signature of d18O, d2H, d13C, and d15N and d18O in nitrates.
I have a vast of literature, but i will appreciate more accurate references, including the ones for aquifer sediments analysis.
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Hello,
I know that there is a squeezing technique to sample pore water of mudrocks. But this technique is very sophisticated and potentially time consuming. My question if it is possible to evaluate the pore water chemistry of mudrocks from a chemical analysis of water sampled from boreholes?
The water samples would be from a depth of about 20-25 m. Is it possible to assume that the groundwater is in equilibrium with the pore water inside the hydraulic active pores of the mudrock and that the groundwater is representative for the composition of the pore water?
Unfortunately I can't rule out that there is a hydraulic connectivity to a quartenary aquifer.
Best Regards
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There are other techniques involving pumping with nitrogen. This requires you to seal the sample longitudinally, I believe this should be along the general flow direction. there wll be sealed in parts of the pore volume but you get the effective pore volume. Pumping nitrogen in one side and collecting water or everything, then remember to account for N2 and the pore volume it displaced. Nitrogen is small enough to displace pretty much everything, and can be modeled using something akin to the Buckley -Leverett Solution. This will destroy your sample in a way, since it's difficult to displace the nitrogen. Vacuum techniques are one way to get close to removing it. 
Other considerations are anisotropic conditions, although shallow sample wells will allow you to characterize that.  A Petroleum Engineering professor,  Dr Jafarpour at USC is working on characterizing subsurface conditions with limited data, but I've not worked with him so I don't know it well.
If you only wish to chemically characterize your pore water then displace it with other water and model the diffusing effects. This is relatively simple to model, using the error function, to determine the mixing of your components and your input water.
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generally CaCl2 is added to maintain a constant ionic strength of soil (media) during the adsorption and column experiment, why this is important ?
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Yes, you want to avoid mineral precipitation and dissolution. Also, changes in ionic strength can alter electrostatic charge of clays and some other minerals, which can cause changes in hydraulic conductivity of the soil during the soil column transport experiment.
In general, it is nice to change only 1 variable at a time so that you can observe the impact of that variable. For column experiments, you are injecting a tracer (e.g., pharmaceutical) at a constant concentration in the influent end and observing the tracer concentration at the effluent end of the column. I would try to not change any other variables. Attached is another paper that may be of use.
Hope this helps!
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Hi All
I would like to get more information about groundwater components standard in Queensland, Australia or for all Australia, if anyone can help me with sending table that summary the groundwater components or even text. 
Warm regards
Osama
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Queensland groundwater data can be obtained from
There are similar sites for all states in Australia. Most of the sites will only allow you to download information for individual bores, though the Victorian page will allow you to submit a list of bores.
There is a national groundwater database with bore locations, logs and in some areas information on aquifer properties:
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Some chlorinated anilines are known to bond to soil.  How can I tell if a novel structure is likely to do this?  The information is to be used in modeling groundwater contamination.
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Dear William,
2,4,6-Trichloroaniline is one of the well-known chloroaniline derivatives that binds to soil. The following two links contain an important information regarding the presence of this compound in the soil and environment:
Hoping these two links will provide you some important data for building your model.
Rafik
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People living in Jaffna are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc) in Chunnagam and Valigamam areas. Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in Jaffna and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas.
This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living in the areas. No satisfactory action has been taken yet by authorities. Hence, there is an imminent need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue.
Can any body give a sustainable solution fore this burning issue in Northern Sri Lanka?
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 Dear Dr. Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar,
Yes, it is possible by installing costly treatment units consisting of special filters or air strippers. At low cost level through use of carbon filter or a reverse osmosis filter.
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Hi,
Actually I am trying to find the amount of water exchange between coastal aquifer and a lake. Unfortunately, the only data that I have is, time series related to ground water level in several wells around the lake and the time series of water level in lake itself. As a classical approach to the problem I cannot use Darcy's law because of lack of information like hydraulic conductivity around the lake. So, I am trying to define such interaction with the following procedure:
  1.  Analyzing the correlation (In time and space) between groundwater time series and lake water level time series.
  2. Selecting the highly correlated wells.
  3. drawing the contour maps of iso-height ground water level around the lake.
  4. taking the difference between lake water level time series and ground water time series at each time step to define the potential inflow/outflow time series from lake to the aquifer. (i.e. the values of this time series will be the difference between head of ground water around the water level in the lake, so according to fluid mechanics it will try to have the same water level in both side thus, this time series will have positive and negative values)
  5. using this new time series as the potential water depth can be transfered from aquifer or to the aquifer.
  6. using this time series in a regression model with other variables to define coefficients. (i.e. I probably use a dynamic regression or a mixed stochastic model to model the two sided effect of lake and groundwater)
note: please define that the lake water is extremely salty!!!
I want to know if this procedure is logic and acceptable for you? and if not, what do you suggest instead.
P.S. It is a part of my Ph.D. thesis and I attached a schematic picture but it is not the case, you can follow other topics related to other variables in attached link which is directly connected to my thesis weblog.
please let me know if you have done similar research, I will definitely cite your articles and papers if it would be useful for me.
Thankfully
Babak
Thank you all
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Both as  teaching and research exercises we have collected data from numerous surfacial piezometer/bore wells all in our rather sandy coastal plane but usually many kilometers from the ocean.  One error we have made repeatedly is using and monitoring too many wells.  The lake levels are always important and mostly because they always have a good connection to the aquifer close to the lake and (essentially one) well-done lake height (to accuracies of mm) accounts for literally 1000s of variously affected bore holes and countless measurements with dipping devices.  Of course, you need a good model of the resistance to flow around and below the lake bed, but spend time on it!  Don't allow your measuring staffs to settle, the animals to do their thing, etc.  My most sucessful effort is a full model at Capel (my MARDAW paper) that uses combined lake/borehole data.  Have a look at what you can do, with a multiple regression and (maybe) 10 years of data.
     Anyway, don't let your people measure heights to cms.  Near a lake, a mm is important; measuring it must be a priority.
    Of course, you need to know the details of the ocean and at least near lakes and the salinity to get fresh water equivalents, or you can not see small changes.  But don't rely on sloppy and generally flawed borehole measurements alone.
     You should also allow that pumping tests be used, in the bores and the lake with a design to the tests that 'helps', using drawdown and recovery, perhaps with a variation of a Theis type test.  The environment does this all the time, with rain, overflows or whatever.  You need data of quality with observations over a period of time.
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For groundwater monitoring, US EPA recommended to use Shewhart control charts, but USGS said Mann-Kendall trend test was the way to go. Could anyone share some thoughts on which one would be the better choice under following circumstance:
1) industrial site;
2) no background info available;
3) limited data set;
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Shewhart control chart can be use for controling and monitring process i.e. quality characteristics. and then when you can apply your case under three circumstance.
What do you expect from using control chart,
it depens on what kind of your data used variable or attribute, you will choose the suitable control chart, and then construct control chat for variable or attribute.
The CL, UL and LU Results will be availble.
Whereas, Mann-Kendall trend test is non-parametice statistics test, i.e. parameters are not avialble, and the set of data is small.
again, what do you expect form Mann-Kendall trend test,
the result of this test shows only whether the the result of this data significant or not.
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Is it possible to remove the contaminated oil from ground water used for agriculture and drinking ?
People are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc). Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas.
This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living. need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue.
Can any body give a sustainable solution fore this burning issue.
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Dear following publication can help you to  know about the contaminants control from the ground water. This topic is interested and researcher have deep interest in this field. Clean water is rare and emerging technologies need to control this concern issue. below articles may not sustainable answer for this concern issue but helpful to understand it deeply. thanks
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I am interested in the process of decision-making for contaminated site remediation and the acceptance of risk-based approaches - especially in Australia, but happy to look at really good case studies elsewhere.
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Hi Joyti,
Having worked in RBLM for hydrocarbons, Arsenic in real field soils, my recommendation is -implementing RBLM should be underpinned by site specific scientific evidences. 
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How do I start and go ahead on above problem for packing soil column? high clay content - swelling issue. 
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You can use a chromatographic column of 20 mm diameter and 30 cm height packed with the clay rich soil equipped with fittings and piping connected to a peristaltic pump to control flow of water.
Luis Cumbal
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It could be helpful for my Ph.D
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Cr (VI) is migrated via dissolved phase.  Some of the Cr(VI) come from the results of oxidation of Cr(III) in natural environment or man-made materials.
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Thanks in advance for your inputs.
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leaching of nitrate from various organic wastes /  sewage may also contribute to nitrous oxide
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Any publications related to water contamination or reduction by oil Palming?
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Denitrifying woodchip bioreactors are commonly used practice, installed at edge of the agricultural field to remove the nitrate load in tile drain water. Our findings showed that bioreactors successfully remove Selenium content in tile drain water. Other than bioreactor, anyone involve in research in Selenium removal?
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It is first important to understand that plants have the capability for accumulation of nutrients, whether they eventually get "killed" by the same nutrients they accumulate. However, a quick one is this; you may just try a hands-on experiment at the back of the house. Fill in a bowl with samples of the polluted water and then float quite a number of local aquatic species (this is usually called "phytoscreening") . observe their growth in a month or more. some notable parameters to aid in selecting the best plant for a bioreactor as Priyavrat Thareja earlier mentioned, would be luxuriant growth as well as hyperaccumulation in the plant biomass. the plant that does this wins. A good example is with the floater, "water hyacinth". Some submergent species of the genus Cyperus or any sedge might be helpful. they are generally "tough". I hope this helps. Just trying to be as simple and practicable as possible. 
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Groundwater from water well in South South Nigeria has high iron content.and obnoxious odour. We have made effort to remove the iron constituent to permissible limit. However, the odour is still a challenge. What adsorbent can can remove odour from potable water?
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The fact that you have high iron and odor indicates that the aquifer is probably a chemical reducing environment.  A couple of random thoughts.  The odor is probably associated with sulfur.  If there is organic material in the aquifer for some reason, the reducing environment may cause the formation of organic chemicals with a sulfur on them.  These cause odor.  Hydrogen sulfide also causes odor.  Hydrogen sulfide will, over tie, cause problems with your birm.  It is a Manganese Oxide coated media and continuous exposure to hydrogen sulfide may damage it.  If the problem is H2S you should consider some chlorine ahead of the firm.  This will oxidize both the H2S and the Fe(2).  This will take care of both your odor and your potential firm damage issues.  However, if the problem is mercaptans, you may still have odor and then you will have to consider either GAC or a stronger oxidant.
This is response based on little information and lots of assumptions.  Good luck with your solution.
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There are several hydrological and hydrodynamic models. I usually model nutrients transport using watershed models. Does a two-dimensional physically based nonpoint source model simulate mercury and nuclear waste?
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We all know that lot of money is being utilized to control pollution in rivers in our country. But results are big. Zero even after years. Now please suggest your way for sustainable clean river. Thanks.
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Already many industrial estates shifted to one place which can facilitate to treat the effluents before discharging to the river. Effluent treatment should be compulsory to all industries. Sewage treatment system should function more efficiently. Government/corporations should take it seriously an should stop discharging partially treated   water in the canals or river basin. By removing the silt in the river and the river mouth the treated or untreated wastes can be disposed into the ocean which has its capacity to assimilate.
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I want to find some material for deodorization of soil which polluted by TBM.
I found some material like NaClO or H2O2 or KMnO4 but this material may react with soil and it is hard to estimate the results for example if we have Fe ion in soil H2O2 rapidly decompose and don't reach the deeper region
the most important part for me is to find the reactions that may happen and its kinetic because I wanna to simulate this presses and its necessary to know all reactions constants
a good remediation agent for me is
1. enough selectivity for reaction with TBM (as possible)
2. minimum side or intermediate product like gases
3. well known reaction
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As you know, tert butyl mercaptan is volatile with relatively low Kow and aqueous solubility around 2000 mg/L. One would expect it to be susceptible to oxidation. You could determine the amount of oxidant needed by doing a total oxidant demand test of the soil as outlined in 2003 paper by Haselow et al. (Remediation,Autumn, 2003, pp 5-16).  
To remove it from soil, the most effective (and least costly method) would likely be air sparge and soil vapor extraction and I would start by doing that since it will reduce the oxidant demand of the soil (if you later wanted to amend with a chemical oxidant for example). Although the theoretical analysis of potential reactions is important, bench tests of soil samples from the site (using different oxidants) and a field pilot test will be the most effective way to solve your problem and will also provide insight into the theoretical reaction pathways.
To treat the off gas of an air sparge SVE you may want to consider a flame oxidation unit,  UV /ozone or other activated radical-based process. Researchers have also had success with sorption to activated carbon.
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Are there a direct relation between increasing the TOC concentration in a polluted spring water and decreasing the Nitrate concentration in the same time?
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 I agree but would add that the high TOC is necessary to denude the dissolved oxygen so that the facultative anaerobes switch to using nitrate as the electron acceptor.
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Is there any methods to remove the contaminated waste lubricating oils from groundwater? If there is, how long will it take to completely remove the oil from the water which uses for drinking?
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Just to add that if you want to remediate hydrocarbons in groundwater it is essential to remove the free product by a physical separation process such as skimming the oil from a recovery well ( with or without drawdown of the water table) before using a chemical or biological method to remediate the dissolved and residual hydrocarbons.
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How can we check the physical and chemical properties of drinking water?
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It depends on what you are looking for.  If you are trying to make sure it is safe you may want to start with EPA's standards.  http://water.epa.gov/scitech/drinkingwater/labcert/methods_index.cfm
You can obviosly do much more basic test but depends on the complexity and detail of your analysis.
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I have read lot of lit. with ref. to biological indicators and preliminary analysis shows that algae are the best indicators. However, there are various groups of organisms which show varied reponses to pollution. The question is how to judge the capability of particular group as indicator. Also why to use use biological indicators when there are sophisticated sensors available. 
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Any highly sensitive species or highly non sensitive species to the toxicants may be use as bio indicator species. However, Bioindicator species must have fulfil the following characteristics features :
1. Easy to rare under lab. condition.
2. Short life span
3. Repeated generation
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My field is groundwater hydrogeochemisty. I know the protocol for ground water sampling. But I have doubt about Uranium analysis in groundwater samples. Is there any special (specified) protocol we want follow for U analysis in groundwater? 
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Dear Shanmuga, in county Saxony of Germany we have long term experience with groundwater sampling for uranium analysis. Each step is regulated in routines. Please detail in which step (pumping procedures, preparation of the sampling bottles, sample transport, chemical analysis ...) you are interested, and I will send them to you. The rwgulations are in German language, but I would translate the important parts. Best regards, Petra
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People living in Jaffna are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc.) in Chunnagam and Valigamam areas. Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in Jaffna and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas. This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living in the areas. No satisfactory action has been taken yet by authorities. Hence, there is an imminent need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue. Can anybody give a sustainable solution for this burning issue in Northern Sri Lanka?
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The polluted aquifer is hard to clean, need long time to remove by physical and chemical methods.  the first action is trying to stop people drinking the groundwater, the seconf action is screening the range of migration oil by install the simple monitoring wells ASAP, then control the oil leakage and pump back the oil in wells and aquifer as possible you can. after the condition is stable, thinking the next step to treat the aquifer by biological or chemical methods. 
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People living in Jaffna are facing a grave threat in accessing clean drinking water due to groundwater pollution caused by oil leakage. In recent days, oil waste is clearly observed in drinking-water sources (wells etc) in Chunnagam and Valigamam areas. Wells are the prime and mostly the sole source of water in Jaffna and this contamination is severely affecting the livelihood in those areas.
This issue has resulted in scarcity for clean drinking water for the people living in the areas. No satisfactory action has been taken yet by authorities. Hence, there is an imminent need to create awareness of the issue to a wider audience in order to accelerate the phase at which actions are taken to solve the issue.
Can any body give a sustainable solution fore this burning issue in Northern Sri Lanka?
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First option
You have to use solar energy to evaporate oil or water from the solution. This depends on the boiling point of the oil and how you control the temperature of the solution to facilitate the evaporation. Thereafter, you have to use a filtering to remove any other dissolved unwanted heavy metals. If you go for direct filtering, capillary pathways will be clogged with the oil. That is why you need to evaporate first.
Second option
Try to find a solvent which dissolve oil and float over the water, then you can separate the water by syphoning it.  
Third option
Create a artificial six inch thick mud layer on the ground width and length must be 100 m. Then let the oil mix water to come in and collect the filtered water from underneath. You can use a polythene sheet underneath of the mud layer to collect the drained water. You have to maintain a small angle between the inlet and the outlet. If you keep very high slope surface water flow will get accumulated on top of the outlet side. This could be a slow process. If it is a artificial wetland would be much better. 
Forth option
Get at least five hundred kilned mud bricks and get the powder. Fill this brick powder in to a cement tank and let the oil mixed water to com in form the top and collect the filtered water.  Thickness of the filter medium has to adjust according to an experiment. Please let me know at least one work.
Fifth Option
It is an experiment. Take a cylinder diameter must be at least 15 cm and height should be 90 cm. Bottom of the cylinder must be perforated to drain water. You can create this cylinder by using a PVC pipe and a end cap. Then fill 30 cm of wood ash and top of it fill with 15 cm of charcoal made from coconut shell. On top of that two layers fill 15 cm of fine sand (sea sand is OK). Now pour oil mixed water to it and observe the drained water quality. If this work build a large one.  
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Does anybody has experience with sampling soil water with Decagon pore water samplers? Which samplers are the best, if I have to analyze TN, TOC, NO3, NO2, NH4, SO4 from soil water?
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Marija,
I have used SoilMoisture Equipment lysimeters, too, with success:  http://www.soilmoisture.com/prod_details.asp?prod_id=967&cat_id=16
The large size of this lysimeter was convenient as it would yield 1L of water and I had many bottles to fill for different lab analyses.  I sampled for the constituents you mention, and felt the results were good.  One thing to keep in mind is dissolved versus particulates.  The ceramic cup undoubtedly must filter out some particulates (you can get specs on ceramic pore size), so you don't get a true "whole" water sample, if that's important.  Seems like it could be for TN, TOC, NH4.
As Tracy indicated, it's a good idea to be aware of the packing material.  I used silica flour to pack the lysimeters, and I wondered if there could be some effects, e.g. silica concentrations were highest for the initial sample and generally had a downward trend over time (although I didn't investigate these effects further). I did use Teflon tubing.
Best regards,
Andy
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Are there references on this subject?
I could not find any reason or references about this subject. Thank you
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Dear Sir,Mostafa Esmaeili-Vardanjani you can see the article Chloride/Bromide and Chloride/ Fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water by Avner Vengosh and Irena Pankrator and their references
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I need to create a groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW for the Southern Aquifer of Mauritius. I have reached the stage where I need to add boreholes/wells on my base map and a Hydrology Data Book is locally available for Mauritius where the Eastings and Northings of the boreholes are listed in a Local Coordinates system pertaining to Mauritius only.
However, I have used the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates system for georeferencing the base map and creating the model grid.  
Can you advise on how I should proceed with the input of coordinates for the wells/boreholes on the map?
Is it necessary that the wells are positioned accurately on the base map?
N.B: You can find attached the document which lists the local coordinates of the wells/boreholes/coreholes in Mauritius. 
Thank you.
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As previous answers, you should convert coordinates into model's system.Then, since you have a lot of wells, I advise you to import a txt or dat file rather than put each single well by clicking on model's grid. It's pretty faster. I use Groundwater Vistas instead of Visual MODFLOW, and I can import txt and dat files (or shapefile when working with GIS system); it should be the same with Visual Modflow.
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Dear all,
I am doing my final year undergraduate degree project based on "Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to contamination in the vicinity of a landfill in Mauritius".  I am planning to develop numerical model for groundwater flow and contaminant transport in order to carry out predictive simulations for advective-dispersive transport of leachate within the subsurface.
Can you advise me on which software is suitable between ArcGIS and Visual MODFLOW Classic for this purpose?
Also, the landfill is characterised by a double liner system made of clay and geosynthetics.  From technical journals, it has been acknowledged that these liners deteriorate with time.  Is it worthwhile to carry out this groundwater vulnerability assessment?  Can you provide me with your views on this type of assessment?
Thank you.
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We study the feasibility of the project and identify the elements using ArcGIS for developing the DTM and the river system, MODFLOW® for hydrogeological study and COMSOL® for modeling containment. (Fluid-structure interaction)
This is the only work in the laboratory in this field.
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Are there poisonous leachates, and how they are treated?
Is there a policy in the European Union, the United States, or other parts of the world that focuses on pollution from cemeteries?
Is there a methodology applied in any part of the world to protect groundwater from this kind of infection?
What is the rate of decay of corpses?
(Questions asked from an engineering point of view.
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Cemeteries planning must incorporate environmental criteria against the pollution of groundwater. The environmental control techniques used in landfills can be useful in cemeteries. Some authors raised cemeteries as a special kind of landfill. Nevertheless, ethical aspects of applying the vairous technics must be considered. A communication from EC indicates that, for ethic reasons, human corpses cannot be defined as waste. In accordance, EU waste legislation doesn´t apply to cemeteries.
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I want to conduct research on the ways in which the air pollutants pollute ground water resources. Various methods are available but I don't know which one is the best method to be used for this purpose.
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HI Hamed Gharibi; Following link may be useful to you dear.
Thanks
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Tooth pastes are rich in fluorides, which end in water sinks and then into waste water pipes, and if a leakage took place, it can flow into groundwater layers.
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Hi Mohammad Al Farajat; Yes it can be but only tooth pastes are not only sources for polluting sewage waters. In Asian countries fluoride in tooth paste is not very common yet. As in many parts of our country India fluoride i drinking ground waters are already high and creating fluorosis. But of course it can be.  Regards
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I want to simulate the interaction of an aquifer and Urmia salt lake in Iran. What type of software may be appropriate for these purposes? SEAWAT, SUTRA, HYDRUS, etc? I would like to hear all your suggestions.
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You can make use of MODFLOW. Alternatively, you can make use of model described in following paper, wherein the interaction between stream and Flat bay located in Andaman Island is modeled:
 B.K. Yadav and Ashok K. Keshari (2007) A coupled mathematical water and salt balance model of Flat bay. Asian J. Water, Environment and Pollution, vol. 4(2), 49-55.
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How we can know that increasing Potassium, Chloride and Bromide concentration can be an indicator about leakage from waste water into groundwater.
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Increases in these could also indicate pollution from farm animals or mixing with a neighbor reservoir. Beware that bromide indicates seawater intrusion in the reservoir.
More specific indicators for wastewater I have seen used for shallow groundwater are e.g. boron and the drug carbamazepine.
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Can anybody tell me mechanism of dioxin movement in soil and groundwater even though dioxin is immobile contaminant.
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Hello!  Perhaps the following publications might be found useful:
FRANCISA, F. M., CARRO PEREZ, M. E., GLATSTEIN, D. A., and MONTORO, M. A.:  Contaminant Transport and Fluid Flow in Soils.   In:  Horizons in Earth Science Research;Benjamin VERESS and Jozsi SZIGETHY, Eds., Nova Science Publishers,Inc., Volume 6, Chapter 3:  2012; pp. 97 – 131.
N. B.:   Section 4.1.2  entitled “Organic Pollutants” on page 115 might be of considerable interest.  A copy of this document is currently be found on “Google Scholar” under the Chapter title.
 
Colloid Facilitated Transport of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the Groundwater at Ma Da Area, Vietnam (HOFMANN and WENDELBORN, 2007)
 
Fate and Transport of 1278-TCDD, 1378-TCDD, and 1478-TCDD in Soil-Water Systems (FAN et al., 2006)
 
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I am looking for a portable test kit to measure nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) in groundwater. I found a spectrophotometer but it is very expensive and I have less than 1000 euros to make the purchase. Can anyone help me with information about any company?. Thank you very much.
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How about some used Hach spectrometer, like this, http://www.ebay.com/itm/HACH-DR-2010-PORTABLE-DATA-LOGGING-SPECTROPHOTOMETER-P-N-49300-60-/151332254611?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item233c1af393. My group has purchased a second-hand Hach spectrometer and it works okay for analyzing COD, TN, ammonia and nitrate in wastewater.
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Core samples contain a mix of soil, zeolite, bentonite, organoclay and modified bentonite (with different ratios). These samples have been collected from a contaminated site as it works as barrier for groundwater remediation.
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Maybe for this purpose simple traditional methods may be used.
Loss of ignition to determine organic matter content, granulometric analysis to determine fraction of sand and silt/clay, density fractionation to determine content of light fraction.
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Some shallow water boreholes penetrated in clean sands that are close to a dumpsite were observed to have some black precipitous sediments.
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The first step would be to either look at relatively long term groundwater quality monitoring data covering upstream and downstream of the dump-site to get a sense of the influence of the leachate infiltration to subsurface and groundwater. The upstreamm or background water quality data would be important for comparison. If this type of data is not available (usually the case if it is just a dumpsite and nt a sanitary landfill with monitoring network) you may want to perform a preliminary sampling looking for relevant quality constituents. In case of MSW land disposal, you can look for BOD, COD, TOC and particularly chloride would be a good indicator since it is conservative and you might expect a few thousands of ppm chloride in leachate. You will also have to look at the leachate quality as well. Heavy metals typically have very low concentration in MSW leachate, not quite a concern and often not a good indicator of MSW leachate infiltration.
Secondly, if you have basic information on the properties of subsurface soil and depth of groundwater and alike, you can perform a simple mathematical modeling or stochastic modeling using approaches developed by US EPA in EPACMTP model. You can have a look at it and see if you can employ that kind of modeling.
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Will the bioavialability of arsenic increase with the increase of nitrate in soil?
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In most soils, arsenic is present sorbed to iron oxides. It is released to solution when that iron oxide dissolves under reducing conditions in the soil, or in reducing micro-environments in the soil. Nitrate suppresses that reduction, and so it suppresses release of arsenic to solution.
To complicate matters, the other reservoir of arsenic in soils is in the small amounts of pyrite they may contain. Pyrite can be oxidized by nitrate. The released arsenic may end up in solution, or it may resorb either partially or totally to the iron oxide that results from pyrite oxidation. As you see, its simple. Finally, different soils may have different amounts of iron oxide and pyrite.
So, to answer your question for your soils, go in the field and do a field experiment.
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At the West Bank /Palestine there are many wadis carry waste water at upstream area and there are a lot of springs at downstream use the water for domestic purposes. What would you recommend us to use if we want to follow these problems and use models for pollutant transport between the upstream and downstream?
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There are many models for this purpose and choosing the proper case depends on the characteristics of your modeling area together with the type of contaminants. However, I think you can use MT3DMS+MODFLOW through Visual MODFLOW software (Schlumberger Water Services "SWS", www.swstechnology.com, www.water.slb.com) which has no limitation on the size or scale of the simulated domain and you can use it freely for one month after installing on your PC.
Anyhow, it is necessary that you have the concentration data of the pollutants of your concern, in addition to information about the subsurface area of your modeling domain, e.g. stratigraphic units of the soil, water levels, boundary conditions, etc.
Hope this helps.
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Sometimes I get confused as to the source of HCO3 in non calcareous aquifers. In most literature, they say it is derived when CO2 dissolves in water. This then forms HCO3 which is a pH buffer. Hence groundwater with high HCO3 concentrations has a relatively high pH
CO2 + H20 <----> H2CO3 <-------> HCO3 + H+
But in some literature it is also stated that when CO2 mixes with water, it forms carbonic acid which decreases the pH of groundwater.
Is the CO2 dissolving in water responsible for the creation of both carbonic acid and bi-carbonate or bicarbonate is derived form another source?
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Good question. CO2 is present in rain from equilibrium with the atmosphere. As soon as the rain contacts the ground, reactions between the acidic H2CO3 and minerals will consume the acid portion (H+) leaving the HCO3 in solution (i.e. K-feldspar + H+ = clay and ions). As the groundwater moves through the aquifer more reaction will lower the H2CO3 content and increase the HCO3 and CO3 content. Note that the total C content does not change in this reaction if the aquifer is closed (not in contact with the atmosphere). This weathering reaction also increases the pH by lowering the H+ concentration. I recommend Drever's book for a better discussion. In addition, dissolution of carbonate minerals and conversion of organic matter to CO2 will increase the inorganic C content. In the case of organic matter you will increase the CO2 content and contribute to further weathering. Dissolution of carbonate minerals can be pH neutral, that is CaCO3 = Ca and CO3, but this reaction has a small equilibrium constant and contributes little overall inorganic C. Note is the system is open the equilibrium will produce a pH of about 8.4 (seawater). Higher pH values in groundwater indicate closed systems which may reach pH values of about 9. Finally, there are saline lakes where pH can reach as high as 10 due to evaporation.
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Na+ ions increases when seawater intrusion occurs along the coastal areas, and what is the best way to remove the Na+ in groundwater?
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Sea water intrusion is a broad phenomena. In groundwater, ions are present in pair form like NaCl,and Na HCO3.etc. In intruded water NaCl is >75%. Therefore attempt should be made to remove NaCl from saline water. There are number of techniques for the desalination..
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At present I am pursuing my phd, the area under study was found to have manganese ores. I analyzed the samples of ground water and surface water (river water) for heavy metals such as Ti Mn,Ba and more. It was found that all the metals below detection limits. I wish to know to what extent the results are relaible.
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And also you may concentrate your samples before analysis, at least ten times.
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We are using HVG along with AAS
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thanks shailendra, at present we at CGWB are analysing Arsenic in ground water by FAAS using Hydride vapour generation technique, by which Arsenic hydride(AsH3) is injected in a quartz cell fitted on the Flame burner of AAS,the results are in ppb level.
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In agricultural areas, groundwater nitrate levels can be much higher than the drinking water standard, e.g. North China Plain. It seems that a holistic approach is required to solve this problem. What is the best practice to remediate and prevent such pollutants or pollution?
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Well, based on my experiences working in the field, reducing excessive nitrate requires mutliple solutions ranging from good farm management strategies, innovative farm irrigation schemes, careful design of farms in relation to land geomorphology & geology, to educating the farmers to use biofertilizers instead of synthetic fertilizers. In addition, a selective planting strategy of plant species that can mop up these nutrients will also be useful if constructed wetlands form part of this nitrate reduction strategy: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235873867_A_SELECTION_OF_PLANTS_FOR_GREENING_OF_WATERWAYS_AND_WATERBODIES_IN_THE_TROPICS?ev=prf_pub