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Indoor radon and its decay products are the primary sources of the population's exposure to background ionizing radiation. Radon decay products are one of the leading causes of lung cancer, with a higher lung cancer risk for smokers due to the synergistic effects of radon decay products and cigarette smoking. A total of 459 year-long radon measurem...
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By tracking the feature displacement between satellite images spaced approximately one year apart, surface runoff has been shown to have a long-term impact on the average ice flow of a land-terminating sector of Greenland. In this study, we revisit the multi-year trends in ice flow by assessing more carefully the impact of seasonal fluctuation in v...
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One of the last remaining Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) glaciers featuring a floating tongue – the Petermann Glacier Ice Shelf (PGIS) is seasonally shielded by the formation of sea ice arches in the Nares Strait. However, continued decline of the Arctic sea ice extent and thickness suggest that arch formation is likely to become anomalous, necessitati...
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Future sea-level rise projections are characterized by both quantifiable uncertainty and unquantifiable, structural uncertainty. Thorough scientific assessment of sea-level rise projections requires analysis of both dimensions of uncertainty. Probabilistic sea-level rise projections evaluate the quantifiable dimension of uncertainty; comparison of...
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The role of icebergs in narrow fjords hosting marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland is poorly understood, even though iceberg melt results in a substantial freshwater flux that can exceed the subglacial discharge. Furthermore, the melting of deep-keeled icebergs modifies the vertical stratification of the fjord and, as such, can impact ice–ocean...
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The climatic effects of aerosols derived from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) (e.g., methanesulfonic acid [MSA]) have long been of concern, particularly in the rapidly warming Arctic Ocean. Melting sea ice and increase in primary productivity can result in increased DMS emissions and MSA. However, the processes affecting MSA are complex. In addition to loca...
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In Scandinavia, plurilingualism has been embraced as an important goal in language curricula. However, research shows that teachers struggle to understand what plurilingualism is and how it can be implemented. To address this lack of clarity, we analysed the curricula for the three main language subjects of schooling in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden...
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Mass change inferences from GRACE and GRACE-FO typically involve, first, the preparation of spherical harmonic (SH) datasets on global gravity field changes and, second, their subsequent analysis that leads to mass change estimates. This study addresses the second step, which builds on SH input datasets that comprise the monthly gravity field solut...
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The timescales of the flow and retreat of Greenland's and Antarctica's outlet glaciers and their potential instabilities are arguably the largest uncertainty in future sea-level projections. Here we derive a scaling relation that allows the comparison of the timescales of observed complex ice flow fields with geometric similarity. The scaling relat...
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Stable water isotopes in polar ice cores are widely used to reconstruct past temperature variations over several orbital climatic cycles. One way to calibrate the isotope-temperature relationship is to apply the present-day spatial relationship as a surrogate for the temporal one. However, this method leads to large uncertainties because several fa...
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The global atmospheric water transport from the net evaporation to the net precipitation regions has been traced using Lagrangian trajectories. A matrix has been constructed by selecting various group of trajectories based on their surface starting (net evaporation) and ending (net precipitation) positions to show the connectivity of the 3-D atmosp...
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The dense mixture of iceberg of various sizes and sea ice observed in many of Greenland's fjords, called ice mélange (sikussak in Greenlandic), has been shown to have a significant impact on the dynamics of several Greenland tidewater glaciers, mainly through the seasonal support it provides to the glacier terminus in winter. However, a clear under...
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CAGE20-8 cruise onboard RV “Kronprins Haakon” aimed to survey the natural seepage of methane along the NE Greenland margin. Based on multibeam echosounder surveys, water column mapping for gas flares, and shallow seismic, gravity coring and multicoring were conducted. Due to heavy ice conditions, the vessel did not reach the shelf, however, survey...
Preprint
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This study determined population genetic structure measures, compared these measures across species with different biological traits; and created efficient, reproducible, reusable programming modules that are publicly available for future research. Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I gene sequences from Diptera (true fly) species from Greenland and Cana...
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Turbulent heat fluxes, that is, the sensible heat flux and latent heat flux, are important sources/sinks of energy for surface melt over glaciers and ice sheets. Therefore, credible simulations of for example, future Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss need an accurate description of these fluxes. However, the parameterization of surface turbulent heat f...
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The subglacial hydrological system affects the motion of ice sheets, the ocean circulation by freshwater discharge, as well as marginal lakes and rivers. For modelling this system a porous medium model has been developed, representing a confined-unconfined aquifer system (CUAS) with evolving transmissivity. To allow for realistic simulations, we de...
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The ecological impact of environmental changes at high latitudes (e.g., increasing temperature, and decreased sea ice cover) on low-trophic species, such as bowhead whales, are poorly understood. Key to understanding the vulnerability of zooplanktivorous predators to climatic shifts in prey is knowing whether they can make behavioural or distributi...
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It is thought that Paleo-Inuit were the first people that settled the American Arctic about 5000 BP (before the present) from a migration that crossed Beringia from Northeast Asia. It is theorized that this group initially migrated to the North Slopes of Alaska and subsequently expanded eastward, eventually reaching Greenland. A second circumpolar...
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Light-absorbing particles (LAPs) deposited on snow can significantly reduce surface albedo and contribute to positive radiative forcing. This study firstly estimated and attributed the spatio-temporal variability in the radiative forcing (RF) of LAPs in snow over the northern hemisphere during the snow-covered period 2003–2018 by employing Moderate...
Preprint
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Melting of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) in response to anthropogenic global warming poses a severe threat in terms of global sea level rise of more than 7~m for its complete loss (Allan et al., 2021), but also in terms of North Atlantic freshening that in turn destabilises the Atlantic Overturning Circulation (Boers, 2021). Modelling and paleocli...
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Several large‐scale components of the climate system may undergo a rapid transition as critical conditions are exceeded. These tipping elements are also dynamically coupled, allowing for a global domino effect under global warming. Here we focus on such cascading events involving the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), the West Antarctica Ice Sheet (WAIS) a...
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Air temperature inversions, a situation in which atmospheric temperature increases with height, are key components of the Arctic planetary boundary layer. The present study investigates the spatial and temporal variations of temperature inversions over different surface types (rock, gravel, snow, ice) along the Mittivakkat valley (southeast Greenla...
Preprint
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The Greenland ice sheet is a major contributor to current and projected sea level rise in the warming climate. However, uncertainties in Greenland’s contribution to future sea level rise remain, partly due to challenges in constraining the role of ice dynamics. One process that has the potential to indirectly affect the mass budget of the ice sheet...
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Divergence in the face of high dispersal capabilities is a documented but poorly understood phenomenon. The white‐tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) has a large geographic dispersal capability and should theoretically be able to maintain genetic homogeneity across its dispersal range. However, following analysis of the genomic variation of white‐t...
Preprint
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It is highly uncertain how the humidity flux between the snow surface and the atmosphere contributes to the surface mass balance (SMB) of the interior Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Due to sparse observations, evaluations of the simulated humidity flux are limited. Model-based estimates of the humidity flux contribution to the SMB are, therefore, unco...
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Glacier seismology is a valuable tool for investigating ice flow dynamics, but sufficient data acquisition in remote and exposed glaciated terrain remains challenging. For data acquisition on a highly crevassed and remote outlet glacier in Greenland we developed self-sufficient and easily deployable seismic stations, "SG-boxes". The SG-boxes contai...
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Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) has been shown in climate models to reduce some impacts of global warming in the Arctic, including the loss of sea ice, permafrost thaw, and reduction of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass; SAI at high latitudes could preferentially target these impacts. In this study, we use the Community Earth System Model to si...
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The Greenland Ice Sheet has a central role in the global climate system owing to its size, radiative effects and freshwater storage, and as a potential tipping point¹. Weather stations show that the coastal regions are warming², but the imprint of global warming in the central part of the ice sheet is unclear, owing to missing long-term observation...
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The Jenkinson–Collison weather typing scheme (JC-WT) is an automated method used to classify regional sea-level pressure into a reduced number of typical recurrent patterns. Originally developed for the British Isles in the early 1970’s on the basis of expert knowledge, the method since then has seen many applications. Encouraged by the premise tha...
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Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) are wild ruminants that inhabit the Greenland tundra. They are part of the diet of many Greenlanders, being important sources of protein and micronutrients such as iron. The objective of this study is to analyse the element profiles of three tissues from these species: skeletal...
Preprint
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Arctic sea ice outflow to the Atlantic Ocean is essential to Arctic sea ice mass loss and the hydrographical and ecological environments in the Barents and Greenland Seas (BGS). In the context of the extremely positive Arctic Oscillation (AO) in January–March 2020, the impacts and feedback mechanisms on a seasonal scale of anomalies in Arctic sea i...
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Impurities in polar ice play a critical role in ice flow, deformation, and the integrity of the ice core record. Especially cloudy bands, visible layers with high impurity concentrations are prominent features in ice from the last glacial. Their physical and chemical properties are poorly understood, highlighting the need to analyse them in more de...
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The industrial processing of fish for food purposes also generates a considerable number of by-products such as viscera, bones, scales, and skin. From a value-added perspective, fish by-products can act also as raw materials, especially because of their collagen content (particularly in fish skin). Interestingly, the potential of marine collagen fo...
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The dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet are affected by surface meltwater reaching the base of the ice, altering ice contact with the bedrock. Lack of understanding of this evolution hampers the ability to predict the effects of increasing temperatures on the Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance. Here we present a unique high-resolution study of ice ve...
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From the morning of June 23rd to the morning of July 7th 2013, the Department of Geology of the University of Tromsø, Norway, arranged a scientific cruise aimed at investigating the western Northern Norwegian margin and the central Nordic seas and east Greenland margin| on R/V “Helmer Hanssen”. Investigated areas were (in order of visiting sites on...
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Petermann Glacier is a major outlet glacier of northern Greenland that drains a marine‐based basin vulnerable to destabilization from enhanced oceanic and atmospheric forcings. Using satellite radar interferometry data from the Sentinel‐1a/b missions, we observe a seasonal glacier acceleration of 15% in the summer, from 1,250 to 1,500 m/yr near the...
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The geophysical effects are the main factor that causes the nonlinear motion of the station, and a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the GRACE seasonal load deformation and the GPS station coordinates is helpful to study the physical mechanism that causes the nonlinear motion of the station. Aiming at the continuous GPS coordinate...
Preprint
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Subglacial lakes form beneath ice sheets and ice caps if water is available, and if bedrock and surface topography are able to retain the water. On a regional scale, the lakes modulate the timing and rate of freshwater flow through the subglacial system to the ocean by acting as reservoirs. More than one hundred hydrologically active subglacial lak...
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The expansion of adult education has been presented as an effective strategy to solve the issues in adult employment. The aim of the present research is to analyse the field work carried out in Nuuk (Greenland) on the development of adult learners' 21 st century skills in Greenland underpinning the elaboration of implications for adult education in...
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Along with Arctic warming, climate models project a strong increase in Arctic precipitation in the 21st century as well as an increase in the ratio of liquid to total precipitation. In the precipitation-rich region of south-east Greenland, precipitation changes could locally have significant impacts on runoff. However, climate data are sparse in th...
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The weighted mean temperature (Tm) is an important parameter to convert the tropospheric zenith wet delay (ZWD) extracted from the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal into precipitable water vapor (PWV). The computation of Tm requires vertical or ground meteorological parameters. However, most GNSS stations in Greenland lack in situ me...
Preprint
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1. Researchers generally ascribe demographic drivers in a single or few sub-populations and presume they are representative. With this information, practitioners implement blanket conservation measures across metapopulations to reverse declines. However, such approaches may not be appropriate in circumstances where sub-populations are spatiotempora...
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We assess the contribution of flow over the Northeast Greenland Shelf (NEGS) to the total freshwater transport (FWT) through the Fram Strait. We analyze available observations since 2013 consisting of hydrographic sections, new mooring data, and surface‐geostrophic velocity and ERA5 winds. We provide first seasonal estimates of the FWT over the ent...
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Plain Language Summary Sulfate aerosols are particles in the atmosphere that have a net cooling effect on the climate. One of the most uncertain aspects of climate modeling is the abundance of sulfate aerosols during the preindustrial era. Without knowing the amount of sulfate aerosols during the preindustrial, it is difficult to estimate how much...
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Seasonal terminus-position variability of Greenland's marine-terminating outlet glaciers is superimposed on multidecadal trends of glacier retreat. To characterize this seasonal variability, we manually digitized terminus positions for 219 marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland from January 2015 through December 2021 using Sentinel-1 synthetic ap...
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Rationale: Analysis of stable isotopes in tissue and excreta may provide information about animal diets and their nutritional state. As body condition may have a major influence on reproduction, linking stable isotope values to animal demographic rates may help unravel the drivers behind animal population dynamics. Methods: We performed sequenti...
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Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are an important driver of surface mass balance over today's Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Using paleoclimate simulations with the Community Earth System Model, we find ARs also had a key influence on the extensive ice sheets of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). ARs provide up to 53% of total precipitation along the mar...
Preprint
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The investigation of cryogenic cave minerals (CCMs) has developed in recent decades to be a particularly valuable proxy for palaeo-permafrost reconstruction. Due to difficulties, however, in obtaining reliable chronologies with the so-called “fine” form of these minerals, such studies have thus far utilised the “coarse” form. In this study, we succ...
Preprint
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The collection of in situ data is generally a costly process, with the Arctic being no exception. Indeed, there has been a perception that the Arctic lacks for in situ sampling; however, after many years of concerted effort and international collaboration, the Arctic is now rather well sampled with many cruise expeditions every year. For example, t...
Chapter
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The Bølling–Allerød (B-A), the terrestrial counterpart of Dansgaard–Oeschger 1, is the first abrupt northern hemisphere climate warming episode of the last deglaciation. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this event: all involve the strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) prior or during the Heinrich St...
Chapter
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The Younger Dryas (YD) stadial is the last extreme cold event detected in the northern hemisphere during the last deglaciation. Many theories have been proposed to explain the causes of this event. Currently, the most accepted one is that the increased meltwater discharges into the North Atlantic or Arctic Sea produced a series of changes in ocean...
Chapter
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This chapter explores the recruitment and turnover of a particular type of immigrant workers, namely, school teachers in Greenland. The central research question is: What are the motivational bases for recruitment and turnover of school teachers, comparing the West and East coast of Greenland? A wider discussion is whether particular motivational f...
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Iceberg calving accounts for up to half of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), with their size distributions providing insights into glacier calving dynamics and impacting fjord environments through their melting and subsequent freshwater release. Iceberg area and volume data for the GrIS are currently limited to a handful of fjord locat...
Chapter
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This chapter briefly describes the long-term climate evolution, as well as, the superimposed abrupt climate shifts that have punctuated the Last Deglaciation, that is, the pre-Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Heinrich Stadial 1, the Bølling–Allerød Interstadial and the Younger Dryas Stadial. A short description of the impact of these abrupt changes in th...
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Of the 24 Greenland interstadials in the Last Glacial-interglacial cycle (LGIC) only five are conventionally recognised in Britain. This paper aims to improve understanding of the LGIC in Britain from a site at Arclid, Cheshire. Sediments were characterised and luminescence used to establish a chronology. This found that the Chelford Sand Formation...
Chapter
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The Greenland education system has had an impressive growth over the past 50 years. But how are things with the quality and content of the primary school? The role of national government versus local government in countering the quality of learning is examined. What types of objectives are being set, what is being monitored and for what purpose? Th...
Chapter
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Research on and knowledge about the Greenlandic school system is primarily based on quantitative, evaluative measures, such as grade point statistics. Though the aforementioned research is centred around schooling there is a lack of pedagogical research on schooling based on the voices of students and knowledge about what happens inside classrooms....
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Northeast Greenland is the place where the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) experienced the largest areal changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the age constraints of the last deglaciation are in some areas sparse. In this study, we use forty-seven new ¹⁰Be cosmogenic exposure ages to constrain the deglaciation of the present-day ice-free area...