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Greenhouse Gases - Science topic

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How much carbons need to remove from the atmosphere and reduce greenhouse gases? How effective is carbon removal positively affected the environment?
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The only effective carbon removal that can be done on the scale necessary is by replanting the native grasses in the billion of hectares of desert northern hemisphere lands..like the Thar desert of India, Sahara, Arabian desert, Gobi, etc. Saudi Arabia is starting that project this year, that you can read about at https://www.ecoseeds.com/saudi-note-final.pdf where 10,000,000,000 trees will be planted to sequester carbon. Ideally, instead of worrying about what is already in the atmosphere, each oil and gas and coal producer, should be selling a Carbon Neutral product like Occidental Petroleum did when it sold 2 million barrels to India last year.
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Greenhouses gases like carbon dioxide, methane,nitrousoxide,CFC,ozone etc. may be reduced by use of hydroelectric,wind energy,biofuel,solar energy ,microalgae etc. to maintain earth temperature not above 1.5 to 2 degree centigrade from the present mean earth tempearture according to IPCC.
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However, I don't like to be a pessimist without ignoring the fact that time presses.
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I want to measure environmental degradation level in a panel data analysis and previous studies have used CO2 emissions, CO2e (CO2 equivalents) emissions , SO2 emissions, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, etc. to measure the same. Suppose, I have considered three countries for the study. Environmental degradation is my dependent variable and my independent variables are the same for all the countries.
Is it possible to use CO2 emissions for Country A, CO2e emissions for Country B and GHG emissions for Country C to measure environmental degradation and use them in the same panel data? Will the results be reliable in that case?
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Yes as above. Normalize the data to the simplest common format, then compare them.
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some literature considers soil erosion as the source of GHG emissions, particularly, CO2 and N2O while others mention soil erosion as a sink for GHG, so I want to be clear on that issue.
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Have a look at this useful RG link.
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Terrestrial soils are the primary sources for greenhouse gas such as nitrous oxide (N2O) (Tian et al., 2020). We commonly measure the soil surface fluxes of this gas, however, I wonder how can we link the ground fluxes of N2O to the net changes of atmospheric concentrations of this gas. For example, how can we build the relationships between the net changes of atmospheric concentrations of N2O to the net emissions of N2O from croplands due to fertilization or to net emissions of N2O from peatlands due to drainage.
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The flux of a given chemical substance and its deposition rate determine the lower boundary conditions of the advection-diffusion-reaction equation that governs atmospheric transport and chemical reactions. By solving this system you will get the desired relationship mentioned in your question. In the majority of realistic situations, it is difficult to obtain an analytical solution and we rely on the numerical solutions provided by atmospheric chemical transport models.
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Synthetic biologists use engineering approaches, including computational models and modular DNA ‘parts’, to rationally engineer living organisms . Advancements in genetic engineering (including CRISPR/Cas systems for efficient gene deletions, insertions, and tran-scriptional control enables modular components to be interconnected to build metabolic pathways and construct biological circuits to control cellular behavior
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Please check following article.
Restoring ecosystems through synthetic biology - DNV.
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Methane (CH4) is nearly 86 times stronger as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO2) (Dean, 2020). Scientists believe roughly one-fifth of the increase in radiative forcing by human-linked greenhouse gases since 1750 is due to CH4 (Nisbet et. al., 2014, Javadinejad et. al, 2019).
How would you connect the findings of Nisbet/Javadinejad and Dean? If you find methane to be more harmful, then how much is it contributing to global climate change? In such case, why the global climate research community and policymakers are prioritizing CO2 reduction over CH4?
**
You may have a look on my thesis to know more about the impact of methane on our environment.
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Prior to 1990 the halogenated coumpounds were a pretty big component of greenhouse gases.
The banning of these have been a success story for the GHG and ozone hole stabilization.
After carbon dioxide methane then nitrous oxides are the most important.
When dealing with the overall warming issue the important thing is the gross emissions jmust substract the sequestrations to get the net continuing effect.
The warming of the environment is driving emissions higher because of the melting of the tundra.
To resolve a runaway greenhouse gas effect on global warming the simply reding of emissions will not be effective beside the reduction of emissions we need to more effective in the sequestration.
Methane needs better focus on the losses from the gas lines and the use of a new generation of methane combustion which can make methan a low carbon resource.
Much methane is related to our global agriculture rice and ruminants and efforts to reduce those are needed.
Nitroous oxides are largely related to fertilizer usage.
The way to address the overall issue is to reduce the emissions sources and accelerate sequestations through our management of agriculture forests and marine resources.
We are able to quantify both emissions and sequestrations and develop invcentives and penalties which will provide a way to address the issues.
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  • About 25% of all the global climate change problems we are observing can be attributed to the food and the choices that we actually make on a daily basis. Different foods and diets have different carbon footprints. Livestock accounts for over 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions, which is that sort equal to transportation (cars, trucks, planes, trains and ships combined).
  • We do not have to be Vegan; we can swap to chicken and fish, obviously. If we can just reduce our red meat intake a little bit, we can help the climate a lot.
  • On another note, just switching to a Mediterranean diet can potentially solve 15% of global warming pollution by 2050.
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Visit kindly the following useful RG link:
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While many businesses are aiming for net-zero goals, do we have sound evidence that net-zero farming is possible or has already been achieved?
Examples, sources.
Thanks
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Also check please the following useful link: https://www.agdaily.com/insights/net-zero-mean-farmers-ranchers/
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What is the best one between these two propositions :
- Exhaust gas recirculation
- Selective catalytic reduction
If there is better propositions?
Thank you,
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Dear Abdellah,
You are Welcome
Regards
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I'm curious about knowing the potential to reduce GHG / increase C sequestration across different cropland uses (for example, dairy, wheat, corn).
Have you heard of reliable and attainable targets for different agricultural commodities and locations?
And to anticipate some answers, I know that it depends on a lot of factors.
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Soil act both as source and sink of GHGs, it's the land use changes turn this balance either way. Soil have a potential of 2500 Gt CO2 sequestration. To know more about C sequestration in croplands refer Professor Ratan Lal's papers.
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While cultivation, Water hyacinth reduces carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. But it produces methane by its roots which increases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
1. Is it negative/positive greenhouse gas emission by water hyacinth while cultivating it???
2. Is it viable to reduce greenhouse gases mainly carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere integrated with biofuel production by water hyacinth???
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Dear Sadman, In broad sense, water hyacinth endangers aquatic ecosystems and stifles organic growth.
The exponential increase of water hyacinth responses in increased carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake at rates of 3.4 - 5.4 g C-CO2 m-2 per day, as noted for tropical lakes.
Rapid growth rates demonstrate its ability to mobilise and retain nutrients in the tissues, as well as metabolize large amounts of CO2 (CO2).
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I am looking for GWPs (in overall kg CO2 -eq.) and CEDs of cradle-to-gate production of (inorganic) raw materials.
For a lot of compounds and metals I found data in Ecoinvent or Nuss& Eckelmann2014. But for just as many I can find reliable information only with a lot of research work or not at all.
E.g. I want to know the GWP and CED of 1 kg B, BeO, MgS, KCl, CoO, Rb... and many more.
Now I know there are several chargable databases like those listed on https://nexus.openlca.org/databases.
Does any one of you have experience in this field and could tell me what would be the fastest and most solid way to complete a list of (inorganic) materials and metals?
Thanks in advance.
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I would like to recommend you the research material from my publications that you could get a comprehensive knowledge on C2G production of raw materials (in constructions):
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Aim is to optimize the fuel and routes used by the Johannesburg Metrobus fleets based on various bus technology according to lowest cost, least greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, environmental footprint, and technical suitability
This will be done by quantifying and ranking the least costs and least greenhouse gases (GHGs), and the lowest environmental footprint of bus technology on each route.
1. Data for each bus technology and route type
1.1. Each bus technology
-Trip length
-Emission profile in different stages
-Operating costs (i.e., fuel cost per bus tech)
-Fuel efficiency.
-Travel time
1.2. Route type
-Fuel refilling station
- Route distance
-Route traffic
-Route depots
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Depends on the methodology.
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Which recommended model should I adopt for my research in Green public transportation: The purpose of the study is to optimize the routes used by the bus fleets based on different bus technologies (i.e. CNG buses, diesel buses, LNG buses and petroleum) in accordance with the least cost and least greenhouse gas (GHG). The available data includes routes distance, cost of fuel, amount of fuel(litres) and type of technology used.
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Dear Bhekani Ntuli,
I would suggest developing a virtual model for your Public Transportation System (PTS) as a kind of "Digital Twin of PTS (DT-PTS)". DT-PTS allows you to propose an Intelligent/Adaptive PTS. Artificial Intelligence plays a very important role in this. The concept of DT-PTS would make it possible to develop intelligent solutions for PTS and use them effectively.
The Idea of DTs is illustrated by my figures at the address:
Here are some sources that can explain my proposal in more detail.
Best regards and much success
Anatol Badach
Andrey Rudskoy, Igor Ilin, Andrey Prokhorov: Digital Twins in the Intelligent Transport Systems, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 54, 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2021.02.152 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235214652100332X
Monika Kosacka-Olejnik, Mariusz Kostrzewski, Magdalena Marczewska, Bogna Mrówczyńska, Paweł Pawlewski: "How Digital Twin Concept Supports Internal Transport Systems? – Literature Review“; Energies, Vol. 14(16), Aug 2021, DOI: 10.3390/en14164919 https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/16/4919
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CO2 is used as raw material for chemical syntheses. It paves the opportunity to mitigate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, it is not mathematically or logically proved yet that carbon capture benefits the environment in terms of resource efficiency. In my opinion, I believe that the life cycle assesment (LCA) would be the most suitable tool to quantify the resource-based benefits due to carbon based methane (CH4) production and to prove the resource efficacy of carbon capture.
I would like the researchers who read this discussion to provide their own ideas on whether LCA is the most suitable tool to identify the carbon capture resource efficacy or are there any methods better than LCA that can be applied on CO2 based methane production.
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"Life cycle assesment (LCA)" could be jointly addressed with the "circular economy (CE)" and the "ecosystem service valuation (ESV)", as an integrated tool to "quantify the resource-based benefits due to carbon based methane (CH4) production". Besides, this integrated approach can better control the excessive use of material, lowering the energy needs for new products, saving natural sources from overexploitation and environmental degradation, managing labour's capital, and proving the resource efficacy of carbon capture.
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Recently, the issue of creating carbon polygons has been discussed on the climate agenda. Sometimes it is connected with political moments. Thus, Russia's "green" image suffers greatly due to the alleged large amount of greenhouse gas emissions by industrial enterprises, while the depositing capacity of local natural communities is underestimated. One of the tasks of carbon polygons is to show the objective state of affairs, to prove that our nature provides carbon sequestration in a larger volume than foreign colleagues believe.
A cross-border carbon tax is planned to be introduced in the European Union from 2023. It is assumed that enterprises exporting products and having a significant carbon footprint will be required to pay tax on their products. The amount of tax will be significant and may make the products of enterprises exporting products uncompetitive.
The creation of carbon polygons is a large, ambitious and serious project at the national level. Landfills should create methodological support for studying the carbon balance, calculate the volume and rate of carbon accumulation in various natural communities and develop technologies for monitoring runoff and greenhouse gas emissions on this methodological basis.
How is this problem solved around the globe?
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This is an interesting topic and requires further study.
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Dear all,
I need some help... I have an incubation experiment with a headspace of 5.6L. Every 30 minutes I take a gas sample of 123 mL to measure Greenhouse gas concentrations. To maintain the pressure I add 123 mL of an O2 + Helium mix. So, how do I correct my gas concentration results for this dilution?
Thank you very much!
Cheers,
Anike
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Dear Anike,
You can imagine the situation if You have stable concentration of any gas in your 5.6L volume V equals at the beginning C0. Each time You take some syringe with sample volume v and put pure air you dilute the concentration according to the equation:
Cn=C0*(V-v)^n/V^n
where n is number of syringes you took from the V. "^n" - means n-th power, like in Excel notation.
So if You want to calculate the C0 than you divide Cn by (V-v)^n/V^n obtaining the equation
C0= Cn*V^n/(V-v)^n
because You measure the concentration before the dilution occurs Your true equation looks like:
C0=Cn*V^(n-1)/[V- v]^(n-1)
Now, if your concentration changes due to the other reason (e.g.respiration) you correct it anyhow with same way as Cn is a function of C0 and is also bring in from of the parenthesis.
I think that is what Paul Milham has meant saying progressive dilution.
You can come up of the equation remembering that mass balance is the essential for your dilution so every time you take the syringe and put air into the volume mass of gas remining in the volume is decreased by concentration before syringe was taken multiplied by volume of syringe m1=m0-C0*v, ,m2=m1-C1*v ….
So the concentration C1=m1/V = (m0-C0*v)/V=(C0*V-C0*v)V=C0*(V-v)V.
As by similar calculation C2=C1*(V-v)/V it means that C2=C0*[(V-v)/V]^2
I hope You got it now.
Greetings,
Jarek
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At present, the measurement of greenhouse gases in aquatic ecosystem is often used in situ measurement and model simulation. I am interested in whether remote sensing can reverse the emission of greenhouse gases in aquatic ecosystem. Is there anyone who does this work? Are there any recommended articles?
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Dear Yadi,
could you be more precise on what exactly you mean by "reverse"? I am not quite sure whether you are looking for new techniques (such as remote sensing) to MEASURE greenhouse gases in aquatic ecosystems or whether you are looking for new ways to REDUCE/MITIGATE emissions from aquatic ecosystems (or potentially even ways to enhance their storage capacity as carbon sinks).
Thanks & best wishes to Beijing,
Julius
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Hello,
I'm searching for some already published articles reporting GHG-Indexes for crops such as Wheat or leguminous forage crops. Possibly under rainfed and Mediterranean climate conditions.
Also, papers that do not directly report the GHG-Index but include both the annual cumulative CO2eq. emissions and crop yield would be OK (e.g., 60 t CO2 eq ha-1 y-1 and 10 t Dry matter ha-1 y-1)
Thank you very much!
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Kindly consult this article:
CARBON FOOTPRINT OF SELECTED CEREAL AND LEGUME CROPS CULTIVATED IN THE OLD BRAHMAPUTRA FLOODPLAIN SOIL
  • December 2014
  • DOI:
  • 10.13140/RG.2.2.31404.05766
  • Thesis for: MS in Soil Science
  • Advisor: Dr. Md Abdul Kader
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Global warming affects many processes in biological ecosystems.
Different species of flora and fauna change their habitats and geographical areas according to climate change and specific geographical environments.
Areas of occurrence of specific species, for example insects in terrestrial areas and fish and arthropods in the seas and oceans, change.
For example bird habitats change, so migrations of some bird species may also be subject to modification. In the situation when forest areas dry out and turn into steppes and deserts, changes in natural habitats and areas of occurrence of species change and concern simultaneously many species of flora and fauna.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What changes in natural ecosystems are caused by the ongoing global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dariusz Prokopowicz still learning from your questions...thanks
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Is there any standard metrics that can be used to compare the environmental impact of various stationary battery and its relationship to greenhouse gas emission?
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Dear Mohd Razman Yahya this is certainly an important echnical question of general interest to many RG members. Unfortunately I'm absolutely not an expert in this field as we work in synthetic inorganic / organometallic chemistry. However, I just came across the following potentially useful link which might help you in your analysis:
Environmental Implications Of Lead-Acid And Lithium-Ion Batteries
Also please see the following relevant literature reference:
Study on the Environmental Risk Assessment of Lead-Acid Batteries
This article is freely available as public full text on RG, so that you can download it as pdf file. I hope that this information is useful for you. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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In addition to CO2, methane is also one of the main greenhouse gases, and in a few dozen years, when the eternal scarifier on the Siberian tundra and other places of the Arctic Circle methane can become an even more significant greenhouse gas.
Besides, the analyzes of cyclical activity of the Sun conducted by cosmologists show that in a few decades the activity of sunspots and more harmful to life and more intense energetically will reach the Earth's wavelengths of visible and invisible spectrum.
The increase in temperature will cause desertification of green areas, drying of biomass and an increase in the scale and amount of emerging fires and volcanic eruptions. these processes will intensify and accelerate the global warming process that is currently under way faster and faster.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Why according to the forecasts of climatologists, the global warming process in the next few decades can significantly accelerate?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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According to a United Nations report published on August 9, 2021, acceleration of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and methane, is being caused by humans: "Global climate change is accelerating and human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases are the overwhelming cause, according to a landmark report released Monday by the United Nations. There is still time to avoid catastrophic warming this century, but only if countries around the world stop burning fossil fuels as quickly as possible, the authors warn."
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Biochar is a stable, carbon-rich form of charcoal that is used as soil amendment which helps in locking up carbon in the soil increases to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Since it is somewhat inert soil microbes cannot decompose. However, large scale use may change the microbial population as the microbes may not find sufficient substrate to live on. It would be good to get the relevant articles on this aspects to gather understanding on the microbial diversity, population and activity as a result its large scale usage in agriculture or environmental purposes. Please provide relevant articles and perspectives. Thank you for reading and for your time.
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There is every likely biochars would increase microbial biomass as an indirect consequential effect , especially in acid soils and in alkaline soils soils as well , provided applied along with booster dose of manures...
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Air-sea gas exchange is a physio-chemical process, primarily controlled by the air-sea difference in gas concentrations and the exchange coefficient, which determines how quickly a molecule of gas can move across the ocean-atmosphere boundary. It takes about one year to equilibrate CO2 in the surface ocean with atmospheric CO2, so it is not unusual to observe large air-sea differences in CO2 concentrations. Most of the differences are caused by variability in the oceans due to biology and ocean circulation. (Source: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/Ocean+Carbon+Uptake)
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I am wondering what have you learned with your participation with the Hellenic Centre of Marine Research, if you are still there.
There are lively discussions at RG and some people are unaware about the importance of limiting the amount of CO2 in the air.
I contributed in the education of younger generations (in Canada) who are very enthusiastic about supporting the elimination of the fossil fuels.
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I'm starting my research for this year and I can't find a way to experimentally determine the solubility of CO2 in a solution of sodium glycinate. Can anyone help?
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Currently, the UN climate summit in Katowice is taking place in Katowice. COP (Conference of the Parties) on climate policy on Earth. UN climate summits, i.e. COP (Conference of the Parties) are global conferences during which climate policy actions are negotiated. Poland twice hosted them - in 2008 in Poznań and in 2013 in Warsaw. In December 2018, the climate summit is held for the first time now in Katowice in Poland.
During this summit, conferences are held, discussions are held on the need to develop a sustainable development policy and the need for development of ecological, renewable energy sources in order to generate a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the future and ultimately reduce the average annual temperature rise on the Earth's surface. From the discussions it follows that it is necessary to develop eco-innovations, new pro-ecological energy sources, development of electromobility of transport means. It is necessary to develop and implement on a large scale renewable energy sources. In addition, it is important to increase the scale of afforestation, as forests and the flora contained in them absorb a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions.
As part of this year's UN Climate Summit, the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24), 14th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 14) and the Conference of the Paris Agreement signatories (CMA 1) are held. About 20,000 people from 190 countries participate in the event, including politicians, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and scientific and business spheres.
Perhaps during this UN climate summit important and specific agreements, declarations and signed agreements on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will be taken. The present lectures show that in recent years the warming process of the Earth's climate has accelerated significantly and therefore, in the black scenario of future climate changes, the temperature on the Earth's surface can rise by 4 ° C to the end of the 21st century. If this happened, then the scale of climate-related cataclysms that are dangerous to humans, including droughts, floods, fires and weather anomalies in many places around the world, will increase many times. The problem is very serious globally and therefore a lot depends on whether international cooperation will develop in order to limit these problems and their negative effects.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: Should you think that international cooperation should increase to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on Earth? In addition, another key question arises: how much of this international cooperation is possible, to what extent will real and effective measures be undertaken on the basis of the discussions and declarations undertaken to reduce greenhouse gases?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Call for Book Chapter
Call for Book Chapters "Book Theme: Microbial Bio-remediation - Sustainable Management of Environmental Contamination"
· 📷Rouf Ahmad Bhat
· 📷Gowhar Hamid Dar
· 📷Monica BUTNARIU
Goal: We are pleased to inform you that we are in the process of editing our forthcoming publication entitled " Microbial Bioremediation - Sustainable Management of Environmental Contamination" to be published by Springer Nature. We would like to take this opportunity to cordially invite you to contribute a chapter on the given below tentative chapter titles or other topics relevant to the theme of the book. Section A: Overview of Environmental Pollution and Microbial Ecology 1. Credibility of Biosensors for Monitoring contamination in different Environments 2. Major groups of microorganisms employed in bioremediation 3. Microbes in Restoration of Ecology and Ecosystem Services Section B: Microbial Solutions for Environmental Management 4. Perspectives of Microbial Inoculation for Environmental Management 5. Microbial inoculums for Groundwater Decontamination 6. Plant-Associated Bacteria in Ecosystems Functioning and Sustainability 7. Microbial metabolisms: Application in environmental decontamination and Management 8. Microbial degradation of Emerging Environmental Contaminants (EECs) Section C: Microbial Degradation Technologies and Remediation 9. Microbial Biotechnology: Energy generation approach from the environmental waste 10. Environmental Microbial Genomics in Sustainable agri-ecosystems 11. Hydrocarbon and oil-spill bioremediation 12. Microbial enzymes and their importance in the environmental decontamination 13. Microbial biotechnology for the production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates 14. Genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation processes 15. Microbial degradation of industrial pollutants from different environments 16. Bioremediation of organic and metal-contaminated environments Submission Deadline: 30th November 2021
Publication charges: Nil
Contact Details
Editors Dr. Rouf Ahmad Bhat (rufi.bhat@gmail.com)) Prof. (Dr.) Monica Butnariu (monicabutnariu@yahoo.com) Dr. Gowhar Hamid Dar (dargowharhamid@gmail.com)
Prof (Dr.) Khalid Rehman Hakeem
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The issue of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is currently one of the most important problems for urgent solutions in connection with the accelerating process of global warming.
The fact that the development of human civilization is largely responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases is an irrefutable fact confirmed by numerous independent research centers.
However, in individual countries, the development of industry is at various stages of development.
In individual countries, sources of greenhouse gas emissions can be presented in a different source structure of these emissions.
In some countries, in large agglomerations, the main source of greenhouse gas emissions is transport based on traditional combustion of fossil fuels, combustion of low-quality mineral and non-mineral minerals in domestic furnaces, and energy based on mineral combustion.
Therefore, I am asking you the following questions:
And how is greenhouse gas emissions in your countries or cities?
What are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions in your country, in the cities where you live?
If you live in cities, is smog a problem?
Is smog the problem in your cities mainly in the winter season or also in other seasons?
Is the greenhouse gas emissions structure in your country significantly different compared to global greenhouse gas emissions data?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
Chart. Global Warming. CO2 emissions of greenhouse gases, a forecast of the increase in the average temperature on Earth. Source: NOAA, NASA.
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Globally, the primary sources of greenhouse gas emissions are electricity and heat (31%), agriculture (11%), transportation (15%), forestry (6%) and manufacturing (12%). Energy production of all types accounts for 72 percent of all emissions.
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How would you rate the environmental protection activities undertaken in your country? Are these actions sufficient?
Are activities undertaken in the field of environmental protection insufficient? If they are insufficient, what do you think should be done in terms of increasing environmental protection efforts?
The problem of environmental protection currently does not apply only to the reductions emitted by industry, automotive industry and developing urban agglomerations of environmental pollution. The problem of environmental protection is increasingly connected with greenhouse gas emissions and gradual increase of temperature at the Earth's surface and related climate changes, increasing scale and frequency of weather anomalies and increasingly occurring climatic cataclysms. It is necessary to develop renewable energy sources and ecological innovations in energy and other areas of green economy development. It is necessary to increase the dimension in sustainable economies as soon as possible in order to slow down the global warming process and reduce the scale of environmental pollution and to increase the scale of projects undertaken to rehabilitate a degraded environment.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
How would you rate the environmental protection activities undertaken in your country?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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It is often poor, and the environment is subjected to daily deterioration due to the large number of factories and other things that have developed at the present time
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Any good dataset/paper on the subject?
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Hi Dr Pierre Tichit . Surely it has a big effect on green house effect because there is a big evolving of CO2 from airplanes . The exact percentages is mentioned by
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Dear Researcher,
It is well-establshed fact that the link between land use and the climate is complex. For example, land cover, as shaped by land-use practices, affects the global concentration of greenhouse gases. While land-use change is an important driver of climate change, as changing climate can lead to changes in land use and land cover. Although, the understanding of the interactions between climate and land-use change is improving, continued scientific investigation is still needed. I request you to kindly share your opinions and evidence from the published research regarding various methods available that help distinguishes and decide whether the disaster occurred due to climate change or land cover change. Thank you!
Yours Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
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In recent time, climate change has played a significant role in disaster, however, climate change agreviates disasters rather than cause them. Land use\land cover on the other hand has been scientifically proven to contribute to disasters
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I started a research on analyzing some 23 indicators which are all somewhat related to influence climate change. The objective of my research is relating all indicators together by considering the correlation from I1 to I2, I1 to I3, I1 ....to In in a tree structure for finding correlations and weight between 2 indicators, giving me at the end of the analysis the possibility to build a mathematical term, followed by an algorithm for allowing a more accurate evaluation of the effect on climate than just looking to the greenhouse gases.
The first indicator is: solar wind versus CO2 towards short and long term climate temperature changes.
With this in mind I would appreciate all kinds of ideas and suggestions to help me proceeding with my research and to learn about different opinions.
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Dear Georges Seil,
No, the activity of the Sun will increase significantly in a few decades. Currently, this activity is lower in the long-term cycle of solar activity. The process of global warming, which has been accelerating for several decades, is primarily the result of the civilization's emission of greenhouse gases. this process will additionally accelerate in a few dozen years, when the activity of the sun increases.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Donald Trump's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement threatens its future. Now, whispers of Brazil's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement is heard. Seems Brazil's withdrawal influenced by the withdrawal of the USA. Under this situation, will other countries also withdraw from the agreement?
In your opinion, how will the withdrawal of these countries affect the future of this agreement?
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With the departure of Donald Trump, new president has entered the Paris climate agreement.
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I have prepared natural fiber reinforced polyolefin composite for which methane emission has to be estimated once it lands to landfill after completing the service life. Is there any article which talks about this or any methodology to estimate the green house gas emission specially methane.
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Thanks all for your valuable inputs.
Prof. Hatsuo, its a short fiber reinforced polyolefin composite. it would be great if you can advise any standard ASTM/ISO or research article dealing such kind of problem.
For landfill, is it the anaerobic degradation that we should look for?
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The problem is when the economically weak, small domestic economy has only traditional energy minerals, such as hard coal or lignite, and there are no developed different forms of renewable energy sources. In such a situation, there is a lack of financial resources for switching energy to renewable energy sources so as to move towards sustainable development according to the philosophy of the new, green economy, in order to limit the emission of greenhouse gases. The warming of the Earth's climate is already a fact and is a serious growing problem. Therefore, renewable energy sources should be developed. Rich countries should support countries characterized by weaker economy, lower incomes and based on traditional energy technologies. It is therefore necessary to strengthen international cooperation in the area of promotion, support and financing of investment projects, thanks to which it will be possible to develop renewable energy sources in the future and aim at sustainable pro-ecological development.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: Why is there still traditional energy based on burning minerals in some countries?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion
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The processes of pro-environmental transformation of the energy sector are already progressing in many countries. Renewable energy sources are developed. However, taking into account the accelerating pace of the global warming process over the last few decades, the processes of pro-ecological transformation of the economy, including the pro-environmental transformation of the energy sector, should proceed much faster.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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How do atmospheric radiative windows relate with greenhouse gases and climate change?
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If Earth's longwave (greenhouse) absorption were gray, the same at all wavelengths, the climate sensitivity to doubled CO2 would be incredibly high (something like 140 K per doubling). IR windows lower the climate sensitivity considerably. Try writing two semigray climate models, one with a fixed absorption coefficient between 4 and 200 microns, and one with the same coefficient everywhere, but 0 between 8 and 12 microns (approximately the situation for Earth). You'll be surprised at the difference.
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The United Nations says we could have just 12 years left to limit a climate change catastrophe. The climate emergency has resulted from humans putting additional greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. These have heated our planet and at current levels are already a true disaster on a global scale. Unless removed, these gases will result in a level of global warming that will be catastrophic for humanity and much of the world's remaining ecosystems. http://www.caceonline.org/what-is-the-climate-emergency.html
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Because the life of people and other living organisms on planet Earth in several dozen years will depend on it. What we do in the next decade may determine how large the scale of the climate crisis, which may already occur at the end of the 21st century, may be.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I am looking for case studies related to "sustainable mining" with a focus on water and environment protection. I am particularly interested in research about improving the water and waste management, potential resource recovery (circular economy), mitigating the environmental impact or reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
I am looking for a study suitable to present as a part of a course about Geoscience for sustainability - could you recommend me anything?
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Hi there, there are a few cases of ecological restoration in New Caledonia, however it might be useful to ask for this paper :
Good luck !
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Earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing faster than climate change models predict. Heat from anthropogenic friction may explain this observation. Conservation of energy dictates that energy used to propel and stop vehicles eventually becomes heat. This previously unacknowledged heat emanates in part from vehicular boundary layer aerodynamics and braking systems. The number of aircraft and ground-based vehicles in use suggests anthropogenic frictional heat may be a significant contributor to global warming. These observations support much wider use of regenerative braking systems.
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Any transformation of energy on planet contributes to all
functioning mechanisms of planet.
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For example, in a livestock production system, a sustainable GHG emission is until xx kg / ha / year.
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Bernardo Villalba there may not be the direct effects and might be many indirect effects on the livestock.....
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In the management of wastes through different means, there are occurrences of greenhouse gas emissions at the site. A sustainable environmental management policy must address the overarching issues of greenhouse gases to offset all climate change worries.
The following are my concerns?
1. What is the trend in the emission of greenhouse gas emission from waste management facilities and its management?
2. What novel research directions exist in this area of study?
3. What forms of GHG gases are the most typical and more problematic?
4. Are there a systematic and holistic chain of approach to the control and eradication of these greenhouse gas sources?
Any other research area need is welcomed. Thanks
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Martins Oyekanmi i do agree with your comments and a very interesting question Charles Anukwonke
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According to a theoretical Greenhouse Gas Effect of 0 with 0ppm CO-equivalents the global temperature were 0°F or -18°C.
Due to the fact, all natural systems tend to show a maximum threshold value instead of infinite growth I wonder if there is a value of CO-equivalents that causes the maximum Greenhouse Gas Effect related to the current Energy output of the sun.
If there is an investigation or estimation on this value, how high is it and how high is the resulting rise in temperature?
Assuming a theoretical scenario with:
Energy Output of Sun = constant
Circulation System of Earth = constant
time = infinite
CO-equivalents = infinite
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Yes i assumed my result also to be a very low estimation. my numbers are widely used for surface radiation and downwelling radiation, also in the first fig in the paper you cited.
My approach was to calculate the ratio of both of them and then assume, that a ratio of 1 was equal to a "100%" GHG-Effect where all the radiation is absorbed and reflected downwards. But I assume I lack alot of understanding where these numbers come from.
You mentioned Venus. Are there similar estimations for W/m² for our neighbour planet? If we have a GHGE of +33°C, then how strong is it on Venus? How much of the 450°C does the GHGE contribute.
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Hi, I'm an MSc student studying Climate Change & Environmental Policy. I'm interested in doing a dissertation surrounding feasibility of deploying CDR/CCUS technologies in the UK.
I am trying to narrow down the scope of my topic as it is too broad to proceed with. Does anyone have any ideas as to what I could narrow my research focus down to? Many thanks in advance.
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Muhammed Munaim , I would recommend focusing on one technology and associated policies that could capture or make carbon circular in nature compared to current market practices.
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I am interested in tracking emission from mangrove ecosystem, while portable gas analyzers existing; the associated costs are high. On the same note, few studies have been undertaken using locally assembled measure toolkit using cheap sensors. Whereas ,I am contemplating following this route, I am not sure it will be robust enough for extensive field assessment. Does anyone have an idea on how to go about it in a cost effective way?.
Thanks
George
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Thanks @Ihab Alfadhel for sharing the research paper
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What improvements to crop varieties can be made to ensure that emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture and horticulture are significantly reduced?
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The update technology is the use of electric tractors in Turkey
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I don´t have much knowledge about rockets and my short internet research didn´t gave me insights. I´m thinking often about how we could use our solarsystem to reduce environmental problems on earth, for example to dispose our rubbish or take the resources from asteroids.
The basis to any of this ideas have to be greenhouse gas free rockets. What is our current situation and what are the outlooks in the future?
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Space launch activity cannot be exempt from environmental impact. The problem is not related only to greenhouse gas emission but it is wider. Every technology has its own issue.
Solid propellants emit HCl and alumina particulate. HCl causes acid rain and, in combination with alumina and UV light, local ozone depletion is obtained. Moreover, small particles stay in the stratosphere and contribute to the radiative forcing of the Earth (balance between incoming and outgoing radiation from the outer space).
Liquid propellants (kerosene/oxygen) emit quite large amount of CO and soot. Also in this case, soot participates to radiative forcing of the Earth.
Liquid propellants (hydrogen/oxygen) emit water vapor and a huge amount of unburnt hydrogen. This H2 mixes in the plume with the atmosphere and causes post-combustion, incrementing local temperature as high as 2500 K. Locally, NOx are produced due to high temperature and, again, ozone is locally depleted.
Hybrid rockets emit soot. They are based on a diffusive flame so they are prone to carbon black formation.
Strictly speaking about greehouse gases, probably hydrogen/oxygen are less impactful. Currently, these effects are quite local but in the future we may consider them. this year we have just overcome the number of 100 launches in one year. Current forecasts are predicting a linear increment of launch rate in the next 20 years.
A clearer picture can be obtained reading the works by Marvin Ross, who is working on space launchers environmental impact since long time.
Here you can find one example.
DOI:10.1002/2013EF000160
Best
Filippo
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" The IEA report looks at changes in greenhouse gas emissions between 2018 and 2019. It finds that energy-using activities increased in 2019, but the emissions did not increase because of a variety of factors including renewable energy, energy efficiency (the second largest contributor), coal-to-gas conversions, nuclear energy, and weather. " As illustrated in the attached graph, how could you explain that weather is a factor with such contribution in keeping the same level of GHG emissions?
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The report states:
"More temperate weather in key parts of the world reduced the need for coal, gas and electricity for heating and cooling, which so energy demand was over 10% lower than would have been expected from economic activity."
It also states:
"This final factor – weather – is critical to properly interpreting what first appears to be an improvement in global energy intensity in 2019. Correcting for the weather, the energy intensity improvement rate in 2019 (1.6%) was almost identical to 2018 (1.5%)."
see page 14 and 15 of the report (https://webstore.iea.org/energy-efficiency-2020)
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Unfortunately, more and more data and research centers scientifically confirms that progressively progressing global warming has become a fact. First and foremost, human activity influences this. The impact of natural factors is significant, however, the progress of civilization, industrial development, greenhouse gas emissions in the past few decades has increased significantly and continues to grow. The biggest problem may be the inability to reverse this process even if all of the industry, energy and transport are now switching to renewable energy sources.
In view of the above, the current question is: Is it possible that man with the help of modern RES energy technology would stop the greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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I am sceptical about the role of whether humans have actually the power to control the greenhouse effect on Earth, since neither RES nor greenhouse gases are humankind creations. Of course -in the context of the future development of (human) civilization- the anthropocentric technologies (in general, no necessarily the RES-technologies), carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions, they can play a decisive role, but these actions are of definite power. The natural elements cycle and the environmental carrying capacity can be proven the most deterministic.
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The environmental policy should be synchronized internationally. There should be greater compliance and transnational cooperation on the implementation of pro-ecological reforms in the energy sector, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and improvement of recycling processes, waste segregation and reclamation degraded by the development of the natural environment areas of the industry. Over-national institutions such as the UN, the World Bank, etc. should gain more importance in the coordination of solving global problems such as the ongoing global warming process.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Should there be a nationally-developed global ecological policy regarding unfavorable changes in the Earth's climate?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
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Dear Dariusz Prokopowicz , a potential nationally-developed global ecological policy must be comprehended in the framework of global governance. As climate change is considered a planetary issue, for logical reasons, mechanisms that enhance international cooperation to address these issues are extreme relevant to pursue possible solutions in terms of mitigation and adaptation.
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Methane is a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting from plethora of environments. There are a lot of literature available regarding the quantity of methane emission and reaching to atmosphere in general perspective. But the data regrading the amount of GHG emission in extreme environments is almost lacking.
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This is also a great review paper on what we know about natural methane
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Greenhouse gases have harmful effects on environment. If these gases are increased increase the temperature of atmosphere which is the cause for melting of ice in the polar region ultimately rises the sea levels. The depletion of ozone layer is another detrimental effect of these gases. However, is there any relation in between these gases and crop production?
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Hello,
I hope the following information is helpful.
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I am looking for overall data and estimates about the net balance of greehouse gas emissions in irrigated lands. Suggestions on estudies and reports with general ranges of net emissions in intensive irrigated lands and in traditional irrigated agro-landscapes would be highly appreciated.
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Thank you, J. C. Tarafdar and Anju Baroth for your helpful responses!
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Hello, everyone! I am working on microalgal-bacterial processes for wastewater treatment and encountering a problem.
It is generally accepted and widely used that bacterial cells can be represented by the chemical formula of C5H7O2N. What is the most accepted microalgal or algal empirical formula, which has been generally used? Is it C5H8.9O1.8N0.6?
Why do microalgae generally have a lower nitrogen content than bacteria just as the plant to animal? possibly bacause of less protein in the microalgae than bacteria. So why?
I would be greatly appreciated if you can answer my question with references.
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Here is another opinion:
In simple terms biosynthesis can be described by the following chemical equations where ammonium and nitrate are the nitrogen sources, respectively: In the above equations, the chemical formula C106H263 O110N16 represents algal biomass. In addition to nutrient availability, algal biomass production also depends on light energy. So the equation above is just showing us the role of algae in wastewater treatment by production biomass
Randrianarison, G., Ashraf, M.A. (2017): Microalgae: a potential plant for energy production, Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes, VOL. 1, NO. 2, 104–120 https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2017.1332853
Best regards
Vit
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I came across many ways of, how can CO2 be removed from the atmosphere. Most of them were traditional ways like planting trees and letting Earth's Cycle remove the CO2 itself. But these traditional ways can take a long time to clear out the extra CO2 from the atmosphere that has been produced over the years. Also, I came across this study about Artificial Trees. I don't know how fast they are but I think they are faster than the traditional methods. So is there any other studies conducted on how to remove CO2 by technological means? And how fast and cost-effective they are?
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Thanks, Alberto, for providing this link. On this web page (http://bit.ly/2xJ3EV6), there are other products, including links to animated movies for the general public.
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Regarding ECBM (Enhanced coal bed methane recovery) technology to contain global warming, CO2 is sequestered by coal seams and consequently recovered CH4 for energy use. But CH4 will be burned as an energy source and emit CO2 back into the atmosphere. I would like to see a demonstration of this. There is a theory that if all recovered CH4 was burned, there would be net storage of CO2, but I would like more references on that.
I have couple of documents like that, but not strong references about it: https://static.berkeleyearth.org/memos/fugitive-methane-and-greenhouse-warming.pdf
If anyone can help me, I'd appreciate it!
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It is a complete cycle for sure, but specifically about ECBM technology it doest seem a very clear improvement. Maybe someone could help better if read my text, but it is missing some good references. IPCC didn't give the information I need:
" Negative CO2 balance
Another point of attention that may question the ECBM conception is whether, with the use of the technology, there would be actually a negative balance of CO2 in the atmosphere. The main economic objective of any CBM or ECBM project is the recovery of CH4. By producing more methane (CH4), this when burnt will emit more CO2 into the atmosphere, which is the exact opposite of the environmental goal.
It is estimated that burning 1 ton of CH4 can produce 2.27 tons of CO2, while burn 1 ton of C (the major constituent of coal) can produce 3.67 tons of CO2. In addition, new modern electric generator technologies transform 60% of the thermal energy produced into electricity while more efficient supercritical coal-fired power plants operate with 43% efficiency. Thus, the net result considering the same energy production, the carbon burned from coal produces 2.8 times more carbon dioxide than the methane burned. Although it is an important greenhouse gas, the methane is considered the “cleanest burning fossil fuel”. When compared with other types of hydrocarbon fuel, the combustion of methane is characterised by the release of less carbon dioxide and more heat (I don’t have serious reference about that – Richard Muller).
Ottiger et al. (2006) and Hansen et al. (2017) suggested that if all recovered CH4 were burned, there would be net storage of CO2, based on the CO2 balance and cycle. There would be a potential for a net reduction of greenhouse effect gas emissions from this storage option. The balance based on these calculations would still keep the technology as a CO2 negative emission solution.
Sampath et al. (2017) report that methane is the fuel that emits the least amount of CO2 per unit of energy released. The Global CCS Institute 2018 also refers to the environmental benefits through the burning of methane (considered by them the cleanest of fossil fuels) to meet energy demand, and not through the burning of carbon-rich fuels such as coal.
According to Sloss (2015), ECBM projects can be carried out before coal mining, sometimes as part of site safety requirements and sometimes as a means of harnessing this gaseous energy before moving to traditional coal mining methods.
CH4 is a powerful greenhouse gas in which its release should be avoided. However, according to Sloss (2015), at ECBM this gas would be collected under control. This would enable a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, together with an improvement in mine safety (US EPA 2015).
This is certainly one of the most important points of attention in the conception of the ECBM project in order not to generate an environmental contradiction."
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This is probably the most important problem to explore and solve in the 21st century.
Unfortunately, many people, including politicians and entrepreneurs managing large industrial corporations ignore the seriousness of this problem. It is necessary to develop research in this area, in the matter of examining the determinants of climate change, global warming, rising average temperature on the Earth, progressing greenhouse effect on Earth. These problems must be publicized in the mass media. While it is not too late, while this unfavorable process can be partially reversed. Or maybe we can not reverse this process anymore? Maybe it's too late? What then, will we be able to protect, at least partially, the biosphere, natural ecosystems due to these adverse climate changes, anomalies and climatic cataclysms, from drought in many areas currently agricultural or possessing a rich biosphere? Research on these topics needs to be developed, publicized, and published. Perhaps, finally, politicians and owners of industrial corporations will change their approach to more pro-ecological. This is probably the most important question for the 21st century: Will we be able to stop adverse climate changes, including the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Possible, with law enforcements.
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I frequently measure benthic fluxes of greenhouse gases, and I'm looking for options to speed up the process of measuring concentrations of GHGs dissolved in water.
Does anyone have experience with the Dissolved Gas Extraction System (DGEU) made by Los Gatos Research (LGR), or similar devices for extracting dissolved gases from water? I'm looking for quick assessments of their effectiveness.
Thanks!
Andrew
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The average temperature of the Earth is rising at nearly twice the rate it was 50 years ago. This rapid warming trend cannot be explained by natural cycles alone, scientists have concluded. The only way to explain the pattern is to include the effect of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by humans. A strong connection between climate change and wildfires are there. Wildfire activity in the United States is changing dangerously, particularly in the west, as conditions become hotter and drier due to climate change. Scientists say, current levels of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere are higher than at any point over the past 800,000 years, and their ability to trap heat is changing our climate in multiple ways.
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Please also see the following RG link.
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Closure of industries on precautionary measures, help to reduce GHG gases and clean environment.
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Yes, greenhouse gas emissions have declined 6% owing to coronavirus lockdowns.
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Measurement of emission of greenhouse gases using colorimetric methods
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Thanks very much for your response
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Global warming is still universal problem with air pollution ,flooding and overheating. world leading countries like USA, Canada, Australia, India, China, Japan and Russia and some others are still polluting air by greenhouse gases even they are trying to stop this problem with running of some project.but in fact they also violate it too. Key portions of the Kyoto Protocol are set to expire at the end of 2012. But many of the world's major greenhouse gas emitters have already set national targets to reduce emissions, and they're forging their own initiatives to meet those goals.
Some are focusing on curbing deforestation and boosting renewable energy sources. Several nations are experimenting with cap-and-trade plans: Regulators set mandatory limits on industrial emissions, but companies that exceed those "caps" can buy permits to emit from companies that have allowances to spare. In some cases, it's not clear that countries are doing much to meet their stated climate goals. What is clear is that the pledges currently on the table aren't legally binding, and they fall far short of what would be required to stabilize the planet's atmosphere.
So, these countries are looking very serious to reduce or stop global warming, then why not the stop emit of green house gases?
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because Human greed can never be satisfied
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I want to do an experiment by fixing individual GHG's one by one. How can I do this in RegCM4.6? I found an option under ICBC Global data input control but it is fixing all the GHG's at the same time. Please help.
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@ Praveen, just have a look into the attached file.
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I'm recycling plastic in eco-bricks and i'm looking for calculating the CH4 fingerprint -> How much methane are we avoiding releasing the environment through ecological bricks?
Does anyone have a formula or conversion factor to transform kg of plastic into kg of methane release?
Thanks in advance.
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thanks for taking the time to respond Bayan Hussien Omar Ali Al-Khashman
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An hectare of intensive rotational pasture have millions of worms. Each worm in a year has been estimated to produce 5 kg of castings with are 26% C and 2% Nitrogen. Can earthworms managed for their optimization result in so significant of a C and N sequestration that they can potential completely counter act our present day emissions and in addition reverse the presentday enrichment in greenhouse gases. Think about the potential of applying the intensive pasture crop system on 5 billion hectares and how that might look like in real terms.
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Interesting
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How should one compare the NOx emissions (where the impact on nature and mankind is mostly local) and green house gase emissions (e.g. CO2) where the Impact is mostly global?
The question is of importance, if for instance a Technology is reducing the CO2 Emission but is increasing the NOx Emission - or vice versa.
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The direct greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). The indirect greenhouse gases are non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) comprised of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO).
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I want to run the economics model for the climate change studies to assess different RCP and SSP scenarios and integrate it with crop models.
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Agree is a very interesting project.
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I will run a lab experiment with sediment, water, and organisms in a closed system to measure greenhouse gases. The goal is to analyze the role of these organisms in methane production, consumption, and diffusion in the ecosystem. However, the challenge here is to maintain the oxygen level at 60% minimum (organisms survival) in the closed system during the whole experiment time.
Please can you give me any suggestions or references?
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Hi Caroline,
Gas loss is no problem for your measurements. An open flow system makes use of a closed recipient with a certain volume V and an in- and output flow rate (F, which is equal at the in- and output sides of your recipient). Hence, no trouble with gas loss. The half-life of external gases present in the recipient immediately after closure is equal to V/F (V: recipient volume and F: Flow rate). When you reach about 3 times the half-life, your methane measurements can be started at the output side of your open flow recipient.
You can read all about this for the approach of ethylene measurements in the paper I added in my previous answer. There is essentially no difference in the measurement approach for methane compared with ethylene.
Hope this clarifies your issue somewhat?
Cheers,
Frank
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is there any way to estimate GHG emission for total oil downstream flow in a country or estimating an oil refinery emission??
is there any statistics on GHG emission in any oil refinery in iran??
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You can perform life cycle analysis to estimate GHG and other environmental impacts of an oil refinery. For Iran you would need to build the inventory through local sources.
Meanwhile, following documents may help you:
1) Regionalized Life Cycle Assessment of Oil Refineries worldwide
10.13140/RG.2.2.35528.78080
2) Life cycle inventories of oil refinery processing and products - ESU-services
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I would like to how can we reduce methane emissions from anaerobic digestion in MSW landfills.
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Zhenming Zhou, Qingxiang Meng, Zhongtang Yu. 2011. Effects of Methanogenic Inhibitors on Methane Production and Abundances of Methanogens and Cellulolytic Bacteria in In Vitro Ruminal Cultures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77 (8) 2634-2639
A.S.K. Chan, T.B. Parkin. 2000. Evaluation of potential inhibitors of methanogenesis and methane oxidation in a landfill cover soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 32 (11–12) 1581-1590
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Hi, I'm a final year building surveying student. I'm looking into the UK net zero carbon emissions target by 2050. More specially exploring non-domestic properties and carbon emissions. Anyone got any ideas in which I can aim my research at? Any help would be great :)