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Green Chemistry - Science topic

Green Chemistry are green Methodologies in Organic Synthesis
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I am sincerely
I really need you help and experience in order to understand if the results of my PCR experiments are bias or not. I have performed qPCR regarding the following genes, ALP. OSC, EGF, TGF, MPP1.
I always run my triplicates in three independed runs in order to be sure that the results will be convalidated at each run. The strange thing that I came across is that at each triplicate run 1 or 2 values of my fold change where extremely high. I obtained fold changes for the EGF gene that were among 2 fold change, 13, 26, and 123 fold change. Is this normal??? It is the very first time that I come across of such a huge fold change and I do not know how to explain it. I have performed my PCR using the same concentration of cDNA up to 500ng for all the samples using Syber Green chemistry.
I am sincerely alarmed if I can trust these results and extract my conclusions regarding my experiments.
Could you please illuminate me????
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Yes sir.
The housekeeping gene that I used is the GAPDH and it come out between the 15th and the 17th cicle. I always use triplicates and the same conditions for all my experiments. I use the following formula in order to normalize my genes.
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Dear science community!
I need your help, please!
I`m totally disapointed and at a loss!
In 2020 (at the end of October) there were the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (ICoSiET 2020). Me and my colegues took part in these conference. As the result (like a result of any other conference) the thesis collection should have been published (at the 4th quarter of the 2020)). Unfortanately, these collection still haven`t publised (despite the fact that 2021 is already at its end).
So, I wonder, if there are anybody, who know something about this situation? Maby there are any of those who also waiting for their thesis?
We have wrote lots of messages to the organizators and the head of the university (in which this conference took place) but they stoped to respond us.
I think this situation shows disrespect for the conference participants. And I believe that such situations should be inlighted in our community!
Thank you, for your attention!
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Using the link as indicated by Shoffan Saifullah , the good news is now that your paper is finally published https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/1212/1/012013 The thing is that “IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering” is ' suffering' from their own success and are recently even discontinued (see enclosed file) in Scopus.
The reason is most likely the enormous increase in number of accepted and published papers over the last few years which can be seen by clicking on “Scopus content coverage” here https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/19700200831
I think that the people behind IOP now try to ‘spread’ the papers over more than one year so that the number of papers published annually goes down again towards more acceptable/realistic numbers (at least in terms of inclusion criteria for Scopus).
So, at the very best this is a desperate attempt of the publisher to correct their suspicious behavior (by publishing too many papers in a year which raises questions on how to maintain scientific standards/quality control). This victimize researchers like you who learn the hard way how a publisher is trying to get their act together (again).
Best regards.
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Together with some dear colleagues we are working on a new project. what do you think about the relationship between green chemistry and circular economy models applied to the clothing industry?
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I have tried to cure the CNSL resin with a Hot air oven of 180 degrees Celsius. Still, I am not getting the proper solidification of the resin, the specimen which is kept in a Hot air oven is in a spongy state. I want to know the process/ steps/ procedure for curing the CNSL resin?
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Cashew Nut Shell Liquid - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
https://www.sciencedirect.com › topics › engineering › ca...
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As a byproduct I obtatin glycerol from transesterification reaction. I currently expecting to developed a handsanitizer from crude glycerol. My question is how I can develope a handsanitizer from crude glycerol?
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Kindly see also the following useful link: https://www.wired.com/story/how-to-make-hand-sanitizer/
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I am trying to remove phosphate from wastewater sample and also recover them. Is there any material that only absorb phosphate from water? Therefore, which natural material should be appropriate to use as absorbent?
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Tamjid Us Sakib depends on the type of technology selection and project
microlage is preferred in case of biological and if you have space and time with low cost investment however if you go via chemical route there are many like activated carbon, haaluminum sulphate or few other sales can also be used
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I want to do a post-doctorate in green chemistry. So for that please suggest to me the country or researcher who works on Green Chemistry. If anybody suggests it to me, I will try to do it. Waiting for the reply.
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I think Chen is not aware of Prof.Martyn Poliakoff, University of Nottingham, UK, who is one of the pioneers in Green Chemistry
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Plants have depended on microbial assistance since they first edged out of the water onto dry land, about 450 million years ago. They lassoed photosynthetic cyanobacteria and turned them into cellular machines known as chloroplasts, which harvest the sun’s energy. Today, plants are still supported by hundreds of thousands—perhaps millions—of different species of bacteria, fungi, even viruses. In fact, the rhizosphere, the area around a plant’s roots, is considered one of the most ecologically diverse regions on the planet.
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Absolutely correct , not only next generation green revolution , but total sustainable development of agro-ecosystem is likely to be steered by web world of microbes , including the current issue of climate change , solving worlds biggest problem through worlds tiniest particle. ..keep talking ..The introduction of OMICS has further decoded the mystical world of microbes to no limit ...
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American Chemical Society (ACS) has provided a solvent selection tool for chemistry reactions from the perspective of Green Chemistry. Have you any idea how to operate the tool or any informative video? Here is the link to the tool. https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry/research-innovation/tools-for-green-chemistry/solvent-tool.html
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Please fo thru this for proper usage information
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For the synthesis of castor based polyester polyol having below specification:
1. Viscocity: 6000 MPas
2. OHV: 80 to 100 mgkoh/gm
3. Color gardner: 5 max
4. Odour: Ghee (buttery) like
5. Imparting flexibility
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Dr. Barot,
You can try Tall oil based dimer acids.
Also try incorporating plasticizers for enhanced results.
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I am using enzymatic desizing process. after that Using Sodium Percarbonate for scouring and bleaching. Cotton fabric is gets white but still tegawa rating is poor.
I am Looking for suggestion for easy method of desizing. Share your opinion.
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Enzymatic desizing can achieve effectively all types of starches from textiles and at workable temp. range.
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Which field is better for master's program?
1) Interfacial and surface chemistry: biosensing, electrochemistry, electronics
2) Materials and polymer chemistry: clean energy
3) Physical chemistry: superresolution microscopy, laser spectroscopy, biophysics
4) Catalytic processes: green chemistry
Actually I am keen on all 4 options and do not know which one to choose.( I have to choose one of them.)
Please share with me if you have information about these fields. I will be happy to know your point of view.
Comparison in terms of: the demand and needs of the community, the application, the novelty of the field and other factors that you think are important to consider.
Thanks.
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I would choose materials with unique properties.
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I am looking for bio-based Succinic acid pricing information and would also like to know a few companies interested in buying-selling it.
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In a few reference books of environmental engineering is mentioned that maximum acceptable concentration of nitrate is 10 mg/L as N. What's the meaning of "as N" in this unit of measurement? What's the usage of it?
Thanks for your assistance
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Hello Mr. Hajipour
"N" refers to a molecular nitrogen presents in a defined concentration of a molecule or ion. You can find it out by multiplying the molecular weight ratios.
In your example if N in the form of nitrate (NO3^-) is 10 mg, then the concentration of nitrate molecule will be 10 mg N*(62 mgNO3/mmolN)/(14 mgN/mmolN), i.e. 44.28 mg NO3^-.
Same concept is valid for any other atoms and molecules.
Regards
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I have a project to synthesis quinazolinone from benzoxazine with aniline. What solvent should i use if synthesize it with microwave.
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Best solvent to synthesis quinazolinone derivative with microwave you can try DMF
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I would like to use environmentally benign solvents for dissolution of PMMA to make thin films and coatings.
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The best environmentally benign/green solvents to dissolve PMM are the ionic liquids.
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The European Parliament has approved a ban on single-use plastics by 2021. Currently there is a growing concern about the environmental and health issues caused by plastic and micro (nano) plastics wastes. This ban approved by the European Parliament means a scientific and economical challenge for both plastic industry and society in general, so I would like to discuss some points about it with the RG community.
Which could be the best replacement materials / products or perspective to adopt on the single-use plastics issue, which nowadays are everywhere in the daily life? Are we scientifically / technically prepared for these changes? I also would like to know if there are new proposals to deal with this challenges, and of course, deal with the existing contamination of plastics and micro (nano) plastics.
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A ban on single use plastics came in to effect in Kenya. Though a big reduction was observed, there are still clothes, bread and other items which are still in use.
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There are hundreds of research articles published on the green synthesis of nanoparticles of various metals and metal oxides nanoparticles using plant extract (where mostly the extract of leaves are used) and they reported that plant extract is in rich of phytochemicals which act as reducing, stabilizing/capping agent for the synthesis of Nanoparticles but still its not cleared that exactly which phytochemical or which class of phytochemicals is responsible for reducing and which for stabilizing/capping? And also if they are used separately after isolated would they gave the same result or each class depend on one another??
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Most often the phytochemicals are - gallic acid, tannic acid, epigallocatechin gallate etc. As these are polyphenols - they are antioxidants (so they can reduce metal ions). From my experience - after isolation from plant extract polyphenols also can reduce ions to nanoparticles. I suppose that morphology of them (size, shape) may be different, because the other compounds in extract can act e.g. as stabilizers. Also - in natural plant extract the exact amount of reduction agents is not known, unless extract is standarized, what can also affect the resulting material.
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I am testing a new material as adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution, I got the below results, do I need to go further with higher concentrations even the removal percentage started to decrease? and wich adsorption capacity I can report for my material?
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Both are important. However, from a practical point of view, the most important is %removal, also called adsorption efficiency. In environmental protection, it doesn't matter whether q (qe, qm) is 1, 10, or 100 mg/g, but whether the %removal for given Co is close to 100%.
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I have used NaOH solution to control the pH of the system for the fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs following the green chemistry approach. When I take edx spectrum of Fe3O4 NPs I observed a huge peak of Na (Sodium) in it. I would like to ask how these positive ionic impurities can affect my final product. As my NPs are quasi-spherical in structure and dark brown in color. As in FT-IR, I did not observe clear peaks related to Na (Sodium).
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Adjust the pH with amonia solution instead of NaOH
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How to separate two water-soluble compounds like sugar and salt/ionic liquids, what is the effective method to separate them?
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I think, answer given by Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh is right.
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Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Peter Dunn (Editor), Andrew Wells (Editor), Michael T. Williams (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32418-7
Hardcover
388 pages
March 2010
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Green Chemistry is pollution free chemistry. In the Pharmaceutical Industry drugs and intermediates should be produced using pollution free processes with low energy consumption. Usually production using enzymes comes under green chemistry.If the reaction route involves the generation of the obnoxious gases should be prevented using alternative non-hazardous route.Many times phase transfer catalyst are used.The atom economy is also important where 100% conversions are achieved and there is no generation of the side reaction products.Many times the mixture of chiral compounds are produced hence
enantio-selective synthesis is preferred enhancing the % of useful compound..
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what are the new green routes to create sustainable energy solutions??
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Energy. Green tech involves the conservation of energy. Solar, wind, and hydroelectric sustainable examples of energy come under green technology safer for the environment and no. generation of waste by-products. Use of Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Storage, & Geothermal Energy are some more examples of green technology.
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We are working on the synthesis of organic compounds using ionic liquids  are these ionic liquids are green solvents  ? How to remove the ionic liquid efficiently when the reaction is complete ?
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I tend to disagree, that ionic liquids are toxic as such. There are more possible ionic liquids than there are people on this planet. And just as people, they are different. There are toxic ones, there are also completely harmless ones, just as well there are some that are corrosive and others, which serve as corrosion inhibitors.
And that is the beauty of it, you can always find one, that can suit the properties profile that you are looking for.
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Actually as a beginner in this field i need to known about what the tips or problems that a researcher exposed to it during the green chemistry of nanoparticles using the neutral sources?
for me i learn some thing if i worked in certain sources were mentioned in an article i can followed the article protocol but if the neutral source is a novel i must do optimization steps which depend on pH, Temperature, concentration of salts, concentration of extracts and illumination.
please tell me and other beginner researchers about the tips to learn more and more
Thank you in an advance.
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Many times certain plant extracts plant extracts are used for the synthesis
of nano-particles . The components present in the plant extract may act as the oxidizing / reducing species during the synthesis of nano-particles.
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We all are familiar that ionic liquids (ILs) posses relatively lower vapor pressure and several other fascinating properties that make them "green and sustainable chemicals and solvents" for variety of chemical transformations. I want to know that whether the synthesis of these compounds (Ionic Liquids) is also cost effective or not relative to synthesis of normal heterocyclic compounds ?? Please  
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Between heterocyclics and ionic liquids, heterocyclics are synthesized more cost-effectively .This is because ionic liquids are more polar and to get them in pure state & solubility problem spectral analysis is some what tedious .
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I am working on biodiesel production by using the crude palm oil or rubber seed oil, our product colour is dark brown. I want to improve the colour from dark brown to colourless. Is it possible ?
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  • The color of a biodiesel depends on its feedstock (oil), and the oil is a mixture of various fatty acids such as lauric acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, etc.
  • Biodiesel is a mixture of Fatty Acid Methyl (or Ethyl) Esters; referred as FAMEs (or FAEEs). Therefore the color of a biodiesel depends on oil from which it is derived.
  • Example: Coconut oil mainly consists 50-55% lauric acid (light yellow with fatty odor), 16-19% myristic acid (light yellow with sweet odor), 7-10% caprylic acid(colorless to pineapple color), and 5-8%capric acid (colorless). Therefore the color of coconut biodiesel is bright whitish or slightly yellowish.
  • Similarly, the palm oil (derived from fruit) mainly consists of 38-42%palmitic acid(colorless), 21-25%linoleic acid(pale to dark yellow) and 20-24% oleic acid (yellow to amber). Therefore, the color of a palm (fruit) oil varies from yellow to dark yellow. After thorough washing all biodiesel appears as crystal-clear (bright) liquids.
  • The conclusion is "the color of a biodiesel mainly depends on its fatty acid composition of the raw oil from which it is derived.
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Dear colleagues, I need specialists’ suggestions who deal with the extraction of polyphenols.
I am wondering whether there is a green and cost-efficient extraction technique of ferulic acid from wheat and rye bran?
Based on my results and the data obtained by other researchers I know that ferulic acid is the main phenolic acids representative found in cereals. However, this hydroxycinnamic acid derivative is extremely integrated into cell-walls of plant material and classified as non-extractable polyphenol. The recovery of ferulic acid makes up 1%.
I did several experiments with different bran samples using conventional extractions; however, the results leave something to be desired.
I also conducted hydrolysis of my samples with NaOH and HCl, the recovery is much better, though this approach led to the destruction of acid, base, and thermolabile compounds.
Thank you very much for your valuable suggestions and comments on this matter!
Yours sincerely,
Vitali
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According to my experience, The use of Ultrasound-assisted extraction as an extraction method and the methanol + KOH (5%) as an extracting solvent may give a satisfy result.
All the best.
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I have prepared miRNA cDNA using Taqman advanced miRNA cDNA synthesis kit and used them with Taqman qPCR Assay. Now i want to assess expression level of more miRNAs in same samples using SYBR green chemistry. so is there any chance that it can be done using SYBR green with the same cDNA??
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I also faced exactly the same problem a two year before what Vikas mentioned that cDNA synthesized using Thermo advanced cDNA kit can be used for SYBr gree based RT-PCR.
And I had a worst experience with Thermo advance cDNA kit, totally failed and lost 6 months to figure it out. Even I contact their technical experts with original qRT-PCR data and protocol. But they simply ignored the matter. They saying use Taqman PCR. So suggestion was invest more money. I discarded their that third class product and blasted them in emails. They even not bother to refund our money when products failed to work and then stop communication.
I shifted whole my miRNA study using Qiagen cDNA kit, miRNA primers. They are best and provide all details with the products. Their miRscript RT kit II is wonderful, there we can use total RNA isolated using Trizol and go miRNA cDNA synthesis. and that cDNA works very fine with SYBr. Today if anyone ask sure I can say Qiagen products are best for miRNA study.
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6th Vienna young Scientists Symposium, TU Wien (Vienna University of Technology), Austria
June 25-26, 2020
Consisting of four mini-symposia, the symposium has an overall theme of "Technology, Science, and Design for a Sustainable World". The themes of the mini-symposia are:
• Innovative Materials and Green Chemistry
• Energy and Resource Engineering
• Sustainable Buildings, Cities and Infrastructures
• Environmental Analysis and Modeling
Abstract submission deadline: March 15, 2020
"The purpose of the innovative platform Vienna young Scientists Symposium (VSS) is to enhance the interdisciplinary professional exchange between members of the TU Wien." "All scientific staff and students of TU Vienna are cordially invited to participate in this event as speakers."
More information at: https://vss.tuwien.ac.at/home/EN/
#VSS2020 #TUWien #scientists #symposium #technology #science #design #sustainableworld #sustainability #innovation #materialsscience #greenchemistry #energy #resourceefficiency #sustainablearchitecture #sustainablebuilding #sustainablecities #sustainableinfrastructure #architecture #urbanplanning #urbandesign #civilengineering #climatechange #research #environmentalanalysis #environmentalmodeling
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I would like to participate but the call for abstract page clearly stated 'All scientific staff and students of TU Vienna are cordially invited to participate in this event'. There is no sign for inviting external participants, could you clarify?
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When I synthesise ester derivatives from pyridin-4-ol why do they turn to keto-enol tautomerism, do both hydroxy and NH parts react wth acid?
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formation the Inter-molecular hydrogen bonding both in solution and solid state favours the pyridone form
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I mean is the Green Chemistry not harmful to environment?
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Yes of course
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Green chemistry ,and green organic food is proved healthy,but many peoples dont recognize and take these topic for serious .Most disease.irrited colon and cancer come from inorganic and cholesterol diets,so all research goes to organic food and plant and vegetables But why many peoples dont take this as serious?.
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Following
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Hello ,
We need to do ddPCR (Eva green chemistry) for a primer pair that yields a 429 bp amplicon. It is a single band on gel. I understand that there are reason for restriction amplicon size in real time PCR. Is there any such restriction for ddPCR. If yes please let me know the reasons.
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Between 60-200 bp. Larger amplicons will have a lower amplification efficiency and will have a brighter fluorescence amplitude when using EvaGreen. However, This can be a problem with longer amplicons because there is more variability in fluorescence with larger amplicons, so it can be harder for the system to determine whether the droplet is positive or negative.
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Is there any method (green one) to produce SrCO3@NiO nanocomposites?
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Recommend Mohammad Kooti answer
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I have used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX-EDS) to analyse the elemental composition of my catalyst, I am wondering is there any accurate analysis (other than XPS) to determine the composition of elements (specially trace elements) in my sample ?
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XPS
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Actually I have three different Questions
1. who gave the first concept of green chemistry?
2. who was the first to give concept of green nanotechnology or the first to work on?
3. who was the first person to synthesize metal nanoparticles using green method?
Note: kindly also provide the literature containing above answers...!
Thanks alot!
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Sadanand Pandey
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In CO2 photoreduction, in order to determine the order of reaction, it is important to know concentration change with time. how do we do that? i found a titration method using standard NaOH solution. this method can be used to know the initial concentration, but not the concentration in the middle of experiment. Is there any reference for a better/ accurate way to determine CO2 concentration. thank you
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I need to prepare CuO NPs using green chemistry. How can I know if a certain plant has not been used for CuO NPs synthesis. Is there any data base site or we should simply search in google.
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The simple is just search in google or google scholar
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Dear researchers,
The surfactants are extracted from the nature are more useful. Can any one introduce an available cheap (herbal) surfactant to produce water/oil emulsion?
Thank you so much.
Regards
Foroogh
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Companies peddling "natural" surfactants are deceiving the consumer. If you read the ingredients, you'll usually see phrases such as "naturally derived" or "plant source derived". Well, EVERYTHING is naturally derived. Oil (fossil) is natural.
Consider this statement:
"Sulfosuccinate is produced by reacting coconut-oil derived ethoxylated lauryl alcohol with sulfosuccinic acid which is made from maleic anhydride followed by addition of sodium bisulfite."
"Coconut-oil derived" - must be healthy and safe, right. Well, what's the industrial chemical process to synthesize the alcohol? Where does sodium bisulfite come from? Not from a tree.
Maleic anhydride? Made from benzene (highly carcinogenic and comes from oil).
There are very few naturally occurring surfactants (i.e., not derived) that come anywhere close to being useful for cleaning.
If someone is selling a "natural" surfactant and it is inexpensive, most likely it uses industrial ingredients.
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Dear all,
Please enlist me the most appropriate solvents for dissolving metal oxide nanoparticles synthesized through green chemistry routes? Thanks
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Then we need to know which metal oxides. Most will dissolve in HCl (to give the chloride and metal ions) or in NaOH for some amphoteric oxides such as alumina. You will no longer have nanomaterials.
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We will be highly thankful if scientist community help us to enhance the stability of our fabricated nickel nanoparticles using green chemistry approach. Please suggest which type of specific substances will be helpful for increasing the stability of Nickel nanoparticles.
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Dear Dr. Suryabala,
Thank you so much for your kind answer concerning the nickel nanoparticles stability.
Thanking you,
With best regards,
Akhilesh Kumar Singh
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In a bid to avoid environmentally hazardous effluent discharges from the pulping process, benign solvents are best used. Ionic solvents present the best options at the moment consequently the search for ionic/green solvents for pulping of waste material such as rice husk.
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Is that possible in water ?
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I want to know, if I prepared polymer-supported photocatalyst, Amberlite resin or Dowex resin would be better (This would be according to the chemical structure, pore size, surface area or the used substrate)?
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Karakka Kal Abdul Khader I could not find this paper.
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Thermochemical treatment of biomass produces bio-oil which is more oxygenated and is quite unstable. How can it be converted to simpler aromatics?
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Can anyone suggest online site for downloading chemistry text book and presentations for free? now a days most of the site ask money for getting e book. If possible please give the link for those site...
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@sci-hub.tw/
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It is known that the complexation of a quaternary ammonium salt with a metal salt or hydrogen bond donor (HBD) resulting in DES formation. The charge delocalization occurring through hydrogen bonding between for example a halide ion and the hydrogen-donor moiety is responsible for the decrease in the melting point of the mixture relative to the melting points of the individual components. However the DES is not form between TEAI and Glycerol at 80 C and in varying molar ratios i.e., 1:2, 1.4, 1:6 and 1:8. I would like to know the reason why DES is not formed in this case.
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The (usual 2 components as in your case) DES components do not interact through covalent or ionic bonds but via intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonding), inducing molecular alterations at the lattice units lowering the mp.
Since DES of glycerol /tetrabutylammonium bromide (and chloride) are fairly common (in various proportions) the Iodide ion (size and properties) may have some interference in those forces/latice ordering...Also, I do not know -(I am not an expert at DES preparation, but just using some of them)- DES including Iodide ions in their formulation (at least with glycerol based ones).
Hope it helps
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I need to advanced method and very easy to prepare chitosan nanoparticles by green chemistry.
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I agree with Dr Pavan. G,
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DES are often seen as green solvents, however, their chemistry and mechanism is still scarcely available. How do they posses lower melting and freezing tendencies in-comparisons to their original constituents? And what are their potential applications in industry?
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As far as the lower melting and freezing tendencies of DESs are conecerned, DESs contain large, nonsymmetric ions that have low lattice energy and hence low melting points. They are usually obtained by the complexation of a quaternary ammonium salt with a metal salt or hydrogen bond donor (HBD). The charge delocalization occurring through hydrogen bonding between for example a halide ion and the hydrogen-donor moiety is responsible for the decrease in the melting point of the mixture relative to the melting points of the individual components. I find this article of ACS helpful on this issue: Thanks
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What are the recent advancements to dissolve hydrogen in water?
I couldn't find any recent (2014-2015) articles on dissolving hydrogen in water. It would be great if someone could help me in this regard.
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As long as you have low mixing, a sufficiently high water column and volume (to provide buffer against liquid/gas phase contact) and a membrane/module which can inject the gas (smaller pores work better; "pore-free" silicone is also effective), and you can control the gas input pressure/flow, you should be able to inject high amounts before the liquid phase becomes fully saturated and bubbles start to form. The Henry's constant and mass transfer characteristics (which would severely limit the amount of H2 you could inject (i.e. 1.6mg/L) if the liquid phase is open to atmosphere) are then not limiting in this case. In a similar vein, if you have high H2 partial pressures in the gas phase and your reactor is well-sealed, you can dissolve more as well.
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I want to couple furfuryl alcohol and Succinic anhydride. They often use DMAP as catalyst, but I'm searching for an alternative.
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I need to know why the use of ILs are consider as green chemistry?by examples,
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It is Greener than organic solvents
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Hi all,
I've been having trouble increasing the efficiency of a couple of primers using a standard curve.
- The standard curve is built with log10 dilutions of plasmid into which the amplicon was cloned.
- The program is as follows: 2min 95C - 40 cycles of [15s 95C - 15s 58C - 20s 72C] - final stage for melt curve.
- Gradient PCR shows that optimal temperatures are between 56C and 62C.
- Different combinations of primer concentrations showed that the lowest Ct was achieved by 500 nM of each primer.
- I'm using a new kit for SYBR Green chemistry.
- Most of the time, the R2 of the standard curve is 0.95-0.99.
- Melt curve is clean, with only one peak for the amplicon.
BUT NEVERTHELESS, THE EFFICIENCY IS AROUND 70-90% (depending of the conditions assayed) but never higher.
### LESS IMPORTANTLY, BECAUSE I'M ONLY WORRYING ABOUT THIS RECENTLY: Substraction baseline is set manually between 3 and 10 cycles (a couple of cycles before the start of the 1st amplification). Threshold is set manually of the DeltaRn vs Log Cycles, around the middle between the plateau and the noise.
##Do you think that is the fact that I'm using separate annealing and extension temperatures, instead of a single step at 60C?
##Could be a problem solved by increasing the concentration of Mg2+?
***What am I missing here?***
I repeated this so many times... And always gives me "non-decent" efficiencies (70-90%).
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You have done right. Actually I forgot to mention that apart from linearized plasmid, properly purified, quantified and diluted amplicon can serve as very good standards. The only issue with linear standards is their stability. However you can make fresh linear standards and use them within a week or so without any significant variation.
Best wishes
SD
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How can I stop water molecules that are generated during a course of an Organic Synthesis to stop interfering and forming further by products. I dont want to use molecular sieves. I want to use green chemistry options..
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Say - have you thought of using a Dean-Stark trap? :-)
Seriously, Gabriel's suggestion (pentane) does work, provided that the reactants are sufficiently soluble, and the activation energy of the reaction doesn't make heating necessary. Phase separation, alone, can drive a dehydration reaction to completion, and it could be sufficient to minimize water-induced side reactions as well. (The aqueous phase acts as the "drying agent" for the pentane solution.)
Hexane should work just as well; I think, if you keep it at room temperature.
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CALL for PAPERS!!
A Thematic Special Issue titled as "Green Chemistry Practice for Sustainable Future" has been designed for the Elsevier Scopus-Indexed well-established Journal (Rasayan Journal of Chemistry) under my guest editor-ship! Call for articles has now been launched from the journal editor-in-chief. Pl. visit the link for details: 
Being guest editor of this specially designed hot issue, I do welcome your supports and submissions. Thanks and regards, Goutam Brahmachari (Guest editor). For any inquiry, pl. feel free to write at brahmg2001@gmail.com / goutam.brahmachari@visva-bharati.ac.in
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Pl. click on the links as I shared for detailed information to have. Thank you. Happy New Year. Goutam
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Can you considered the science of nanomaterials in green chemistry
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not totally
some nanomaterials can be integrated into green chemistry
a lot of developed nonomaterials are toxic
and just by definition all the chemistry reactions take place on the nano scale
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Thanks.
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Might it be related to size and water filtration?
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Substitution of free formaldehyde with substances capable of
releasing formaldehyde in-situ is possible
• Trioxane
• Urotropine
• Melamine resins
 BUT: necessity of either catalysts or higher temperatures to
decompose those substances in order to release formaldehyde?
Is there any substances to replace formaldehyde?
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oxizolidine
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Can somebody suggest the small experiment regarding green chemistry and environmental pollution?
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I suggest small  experiment regarding green chemistry and environmental pollution, However you need micro-oven in which you can carry out the reactions without solvent in short time involving the condensatioin.Ultrasonigation can be done however you need sonigator. Photochemical reactions  are  ecofriendly like pinacol formation from aryl diketone. 
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I am performing GMO analysis in plant samples. I am getting positive amplification in non-template control (water). I am using molecular grade water, sterile and filter tips. I have even ordered new set of kit for detection of GMO, but still the problem remains. I have changed everything from tips to PCR consumable to water, but still the problem exist. I am using SYBR green based kit, the CT value of NTC is around 23-25, I have reduced the primer concentrations to avoid the chances of primer-dimer, checked melt curve and primer-dimer is not the problem. 
I am cleaning pipettes with bleach regularly, also I am using separate work place and pipettes for preparation of master mixes, addition of DNA and PCR. Moreover, many times I could not see any amplification in positive control but NTC shows very prominent amplification. Please suggest what can I do to solve this issue. 
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While unlikely, it is possible that your primers are capable of self-amplification due to the formation of homo- or heterodimers. You may want to check for such interactions using tools such as IDT's OligoAnalyzer or OligoCalc.
If it is actually contamination, melt curve analysis, or running the resulting products out on a gel might help you determine if the amplified product matches the expected length of any of your model organisms to try and track down where the contamination is coming from.
You may want to order new primers and set up a pre-PCR and post-PCR work area to avoid any chance of the reagents becoming contaminated with the ultra-high concentration PCR products (on a molar basis PCR products are billions of times more concentrated than organismal DNA).
Good luck, these sorts of contamination/false positive results are very annoying. I've gone so far as to re-order primers to re-dilute them in freshly ordered molbio-grade water to troubleshoot these sorts of things.
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The attainment of sustainability requires adherence to some important aspects like human welfare, natural resource management, economic development, food and energy security and environmental sustainability. How Green Chemistry can address these concerns for a sustainable future of the planet Earth.
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The entire idea behind Green Chemistry is to be sustainable.  If it is called Green and it has no sustainability to the work then it is just a title and not really green..  I am a green building consultant and I see this in the green movement in building.  Every builder is now saying they are green yet they can not even define what is meant by the term.
This is unfortunate but the way of a capitalistic society.  If there is money to be made in the claim then the companies will claim what ever gets them to more profit.
We need to stop talking about how "Green" things are and start talking about how much better it is to be sustainable.  The term Green has been abused so much that most people think it is not real anymore.  I for the most part in my chemical research and in my green consulting talk about not just green but doing the right thing for our children and making a better decision today for a better tomorrow.  
I tell people that I refuse to make a decision today that in any way will jeopardize the lives of my children or make them clean up something that I have promoted.
Green is a movement to do better for the future and future generations and to stop being self centered and asses.  I am not perfect but if we all will just do what is possible we could change the world over night.
Green chemistry has to be the way we move to the future.  It must be more them just the word it must be real.
George   
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Scion has a cutting-edge research on extractives from trees. My area of interest is the economics of the different extraction methods, green field investment and bolt-on solution comparisons, and identifying the key parameters.
I am looking for benchmarks and collaboration.
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Hi Robert,
I am also working in a close field. would be good to collaborate
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Hello , I would like to ask for your help please. I do my research on the synthesis of mesoporous materials and their application with the adsorption of pollutants (pesticides) but after several experiments carried out in the laboratory on this subject, I found that mesoporous materials do not adsorb pesticides The more polar ones such as methomyl and cymoxanil for example while all my work is based on this, someone can propose me a grouping or a precursor which can be useful for the functionalization of the mesoporous materials of the MSU family with  to these Chemical ances, please it is  urgent, thank you in advance. my greetings
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it seems like everyone uses carbon to adsorb pesticides so try a hexamethyl disilazane functionalization. It reacts readily with most oxide surfaces and is hydrophobic. Be warned that it is a hazardus precursor, and you will need to read up on safe handling.
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after extraction of cellulose from natural sources, I need to find an easy way for convert this cellulosic pulp into nano-cellulose material
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With appropriate conversion and extraction technologies, cellulose can be converted to nanocelluloses like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). CNC and CNF can be prepared from cellulosis-based materials including wood pulp, recycled paper and paperboard, cotton fibres, bamboo, sugarcane bagasse, flax, hemp, and other agro-biomass. CNC can be produced by chemical through acid hydrolysis or oxidation or biological/enzymatic treatment to cleave the amorphous regions of the cellulose fibers. Acid hydrolysis using concentrated sulfuric acid is the predominant and most efficient chemical method to produce CNC. On the other hand, CNF can be prepared by using mechanical methods. Of course pre-treatment (chemical, mechanical, biological pre-treatments) before processing could help.
More information can be found in literature
Hope this will help 
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Dear Research Partners, How are you all so far? I have some questions for you please: Can a coffee husk based activated carbon be used for de colorization or de-pigmentation of herbal extracts in liquid form?....Is the process of preparing activated carbon from coffee husk an expensive process? Is there any paper or patent you know on the preparation of activated carbon from coffee husk for the same de pigmentation purpose? Hoping to hear from you ... Thanks very much
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Activated carbon is a versatile adsorbent, hence, it can be used for decolorization purpose. Generally, preparation of AC is inexpensive, therefore it is one of the most used adsorbent for removal of different pollutants. However, the choice of your activation source may play a major role in terms of cost effectiveness. Here, is a simple procedure for obtaining activated carbon. First dry the husk, put it in a close contained n carbonized in an muffel furnace at 800 degree Celsius for 2-3 hours (you may vary the temperature of your choice from 400-1000 as per your requirement), ground the carbon into a fine powder (you can use planetary ball mill to obtain fine uniform particle size). After, which you can activate the carbon either with oxidizing or reducing agent. For instance, if you are using Nitric acid as your activating agent, then added the fine carbon powder (10-15 g) in a beaker, and add 0.01 M Nitric acid solution into the beaker slowly until the carbon is fully submerged and stirred it for 2 hours. Filter, wash with DW to remove excess of acid and dry the product, keep it in an air container for further analysis.  
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reaction of phenol with arylboronic acid using copper (I) as catalyst  to produce 2-phenoxyphenol
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yes,characterised with  GC/MS and PNMR.
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I will be very grateful for any publication on the effect of acetic acid on agricultural wastes components.
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Interesting question...
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phosphorus acid H3PO3
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About the purification of phosphorous acid (H3PO3), cf.: United States Patents 2,857,246 (Oct. 21, 1958) and 4,834,960 (May 30, 1989); and also European Patent 0 289 839 B1 (Sept. 25, 1991).
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Hi everyone. Im a BS Chemistry student here in the Philippines. Could anyone help me in my thesis. So what do you think of microencapsulated scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate as a catalyst for organic synthesis? What type of reaction would work best using this catalyst? Thank you so much. Im waiting for your positive response. Thanks again
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Did anyone get back to you?
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possible reaction mechanism?
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There are different reactive sides in the two reactions
the it is difficult to precise the reactions products
But I think that they can produce 1,2,3-triazoe and thiazolone respectively 
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Mechanism ?
Reference?
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The Schiff base can react with cyanogen bromide to form an imminium ion. The imminium ion reacts with another equivalent of cyanogen bromide to make a 6 membered ring and the brominated product is hydrolyzed to a cyclic diurea. 
The pdf  shows the mechanism with R groups on the Schiff base so it is a general answer. 
The reaction with CS2 is similar. It reacts with the Schiff base to give an imminium ion, which reacts with a second molecule of CS2 to make a 6 membered heterocycle. The thioketone groups are hydrolysed by KOH to carbonyls.
This reference is about BrCN and its reactions with nitrogen including imines. JOC 1949, p605
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 Hello fellow researchers, I see a lot of articles in using adsorbents for water treatment processes, I wanna ask which method is more applicable in research and industry?! Adsorbents, membrane, photo catalyst or biological approaches?
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Biological treatment concerns wastewater and it is the cheapest treatment.Other mentioned treatments may be for water or wastewater.The appropriate treatment depends on the Effluent Standards after disposal to the river or other water resources.
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Both water and bioethanol distilled at 90-100 oC and not able to separate out. I will try fractional distillation and desiccants to remove the water. Is there any other effective method to separate bioethanol from water?
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@Abdul Majeed Khan. You can separate Ethanol benzene by exploiting its pressure sensitive behavior. You can try pressure swing distillation for this azeotrope.
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What will happen if our air is less CO2? is it good or bad?
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In my opinion... NO
read the following:
March 2017
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Since many synthesis procedures utilize high purity ethanol, methanol, etc... as the solvent in synthesis procedures such as the Stober process, I assume there should be a couple of recovery methods for the alcohol. What kind of different methods are out there? I'm looking for both lab scale and commercial scale methods. Thanks!
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Hi,
After the reaction is complete, normally every chemist performs vacuum evaporation to remove solvent. This is the step where you can recover your solvent in pure form. Before subjecting your mixture to rotary evaporator, clean the condenser and collecting flask properly. Thereafter, if your reaction mixture contains only one solvent i.e. Ethanol, then you would get pure ethanol in collecting flask. It can be reused. But if your reaction mixture is having mixture of solvents then the collecting flask would have different solvents. So, in this case you need to perform fractional distillation.
Thanks 
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Please, use this link to view the opportunity to join our research group and feel free to contact me for additional details.
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Yes, a wide variety of possibilities are available, including cermet materials, ceramics or carbón-based membranes. However, I wrote this question for paying attention in Pd-based membranes because we offered a predoctorate job possibility focused in this topic for young researchers .
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i tried reaction with simple benzyl chloride, benzaldehyde, PPh3 & NaOH as base in THF at RT. but i failed to get new spot. the starting materials remained as such.
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Could you give some more detail about the reaction.  The above would mean that you put all of the reagents together at once.  If that is the case, that is why your reaction isn't working.  It would go better if you make benzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride first, make the ylide and then add benzaldehyde.
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bcoz pH affects the size of the nanoparticles.
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Dear Humayun Akhter
You can use Hydrazine hydrate. Hydrazine is a greener reducing agent and maintain pH high of the solution.
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Avoiding propene gas under friedel-craft's reaction of phenol.
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 Dear Mishra,
What is your actual answer for my question??