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Grammar - Science topic

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A free site where you can check plagiarism and grammar.
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I have a Turnitin account, if you need to check in a file, I'll help you.
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How can I find a topic that links grammar to literature or links grammar to language analysis, such as
1,Ellipsis in Literature "select text "
2,The Pragmatic Functions of Modal Verbs in Dostoevsky's " The Dream of a Ridiculous Man"
To do a graduation research ,as a student in the English Department.
Can you suggest topics for me .
with many thanks🌼
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Hi there! Stylistics uses linguistics to explore literary texts. For example, is the language used in a specific text / corpus what you'd expect or are there aspects that make you think the author was (unwittinglly) conveying some kind of underlying message?
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I have been thinking about hiring a writing coach to help me get better at planning and scheduling my writing activities, separate from actual conduct of the research. Not for grammar/language purposes, but for actually getting the writing done productively! Has anyone done this? Any recommendations for online coaches?
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Lilianne Dominguez Céspedes Yo te aconsejaría buscar un artículo scientifico que te gusta y luego intentar de "copiar" la estructura con tus proprios datos. Puedes empezar con el abstract / resumen por ejemplo. Si lo miras bien, abstract lleva muchos "chunks" que son frases estereotipadas como "this article investigates..." o "The purpose of this research is to...".
Te aconsejo consultar este enlace: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/purdue_owl.html
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Hello dear reader!
Have you any idea about any good english books/publishers for writing, grammar, language etc. for ages 11-15 that's famous around the globe(uk, us, germany: you get the gist). Secondly, the same request for science books. Any particulars based on conceptual understanding? Which is common within schools around the world?
Thank you in advance,
Best,
Birajita
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Hello, I suggest using the Hewings grammar/vocabulary series, FCE/CAE practice books, and as a source of reference, Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English.
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I have been searching for a platform to run a timed forced grammar judgment test. I have found many that allowed timing for the entire test, however, I have yet to find one that allows timing for the individual questions.
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Thank you again to those who responded to my question.
I actually found a platform that works near perfectly. It is called Riddle. They offer a 14-day free trial with no credit card required. It is worth checking out.
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Since the 1800s, linguistics have been using Reed-Kellogg diagramming to teach about English syntax, but in 1916 we have Ferdinand de Saussure’s “Langue vs. Parole.” In 1954 we have John Gumpers’s and Dell Hymes’s S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G. model for language variation. In 1955 we have George Trager’s and Henry Lee Smith’s –eme and allo- forms (phoneme, allophone, etc.). In 1957 we have Noam Chomsky’s Generative Transformational grammar. In 1959, we have Kenneth Pike’s “Particle, Wave, and Field” grammar. In 1966 we have Charles Fillmore’s Deep Cases. In 1969 we have John Searle’s and J. L. Austin’s “Speech Acts” grammar. In 1980 we have George Lakoff’s “Metaphors we Live By.” In 1989 we have H. P. Grice’s “Conversational Implicatures.” In 2000 we have George Lakoff’s Embodiment. In 2000 we have Victor Raskin’s Script-Model Grammar, Salvatore Attardo’s adaption of Script-Model Grammar to long and sophisticated discourses, and Christian Hempleman’s adaption of Script-Model Grammar to Artificial Intelligence. So what is next in the continuing history of linguistics?
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Michal Mistecky: Excellent link. Thanks.
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Can anyone recommend a journal for submission? I am particularly looking for journals that (i) accept pieces in the 800 to 2000 word range, and (ii) that have no publication fees.
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Wiley also
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I'm looking for an instrument to measure teachers' cognitions about grammar teaching. Any suggestions?
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You may want to have a look at a questionnaire we (Van Rijt, Wijnands & Coppen) used in 2019, for a study published in L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature: . Hope you will find it helpful. Good luck!
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There are different views on teaching grammar to be or not to be. Does teaching grammar need to be taught explicitly for adult L2 learners? If you think so, how ?
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Yes, adults should also be taught grammar explicitly so that they don't make grammatical mistakes when they speak or write. I, as an ESL teacher, teach my undergraduate adult learners grammatical rules of the English language to make them achieve that fluency and accuracy which Mr. Hassan has rightly discussed.
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What are the best scientific proof editing and proof reading services?
I'd came across few articles with very limited scope and extremely humble results, but somehow they managed to publish the work in really good journals (I don't want to put any reference here).
The thing I observed from those articles is their presentation. The data presentation and writing was impressive and the flow of those articles was touching maximum limits. And i think this was the only reason that the article got published.
I'm not native English person, and often have some serious grammatical errors, along with content flow problem. Is there any proof editing service (not proof reading only that check grammar) that may suggest the content flow, sentence structure and other things that make the findings more colorful?
I tested with one service that roughly edit the article but most of the article remain like that, giving me the impression that my language was already good.
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You might find the following articles helpful:
Proofreading and Proof-Editing:
Academic Editing vs. Academic Proofreading:
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In linguistics, literary criticism, and in many other fields of study, the FORM vs. FUNCTION dichotomy is interesting, and fundamental. For instance, in linguistics, this distinction opposes the British and Russian SYSTEMIC-FUNCTIONAL grammars (Jakobson, Halliday, Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, Crystal, etc.) to the American STRUCTURAL-TRANSFORMATIONAL grammars (Chomsky, Gleason, Fries, Pike, Bloomfield, etc.). There has also been a strong semiotic tradition in linguistics (Saussure, Barthes, Derrida, Eco, Sebeok, etc.) that has claimed that language is ENTIRELY systemic, rather than functional. And recently, I have claimed that language is fundamentally temporal/rhythmic, with rhythmic qualities being the foundational of form. This series of related, but distinct grammars, it seems, gets very close to the essence of things, philosophically. Ontologically, things can be rhythmic, and/or formal, and/or functional, and/or systemic, with the most pervasive things, such as language, being ALL of the above, simultaneously. So my question, I guess, is this: What is going on here? What is the best way to deal with this issue? For instance, the great Quirk et al. COMPREHENSIVE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH, alternates chapters, first one on form and then one on function. It also has a large section, later on, that addresses discourse, and so things that are more systematic than formal and functional. It also has an appendix that addresses things like prosody and rhythm, and so flushes out all four of these concerns, but in a kind of disjunct, chaotic, if not incoherent, way. In the end, I think, it seems evident that, on these issues, the authors know not what. But they are trying. Oh well.
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interested
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Hi everyone
Language editing is a major concern for authors who do not have English as their primary language. Problems with grammar, language, and syntax can result in the rejection of manuscripts from international biomedical Journals. The editors and experts often recommend professional editing which can sometimes cost hundreds of dollars. This is not feasible nor affordable for the majority of authors and researchers based in developing countries who do not have sufficient funds or institutional support.
Many online language editing softwares are now available but the better ones have limited functionality for the free version for example Grammarly.
Please share your experience of using online language editing software with their and strengths and shortcomings. I have been Trinka for 4 months now with excellent results and would highly recommend it
It is the world’s first grammar and language enhancement tool is custom-built for academic & technical writing. Its standout features are that it works with the author and goes beyond the grammar and spellcheck to ensure holistic language enhancement.
If you have not tried it yet, Sign up for a free account from this link
Share your experience of other software too
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You can use grammarly
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Whether overt or covert method of teaching English grammar is more effective and why?
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Amalgamation of both will be more effective.
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Grammar has been a debatable issue in language acquisition. However, what are actually the specific reasons why some teachers' perceptions debunk the use and teaching grammar to students?
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There are always circumstances that accompany the teaching process of both L1 and L2. Since learning is a complex cognitive process, many variables affect and associate the whole process of learning. You may wish to consult the literature available on language learning and teaching.
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Respected Sir/Mam
My Manuscript has been accepted. I received the email of the Editor that a certificate of proofreading from Native English Speaker is mandatory to publish your MS. If someone can help to check my MS for English language usage, Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling, i will be very thankful. This will save my money. nazirmkd@gmail.com
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Same issue
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I am looking for software that can suggest grammar and plagiarism related issues offline. The checking should be based on paragraph.
If any scholar have information on link it will be of great help for my upcoming research work.
Thank You in advance for your support.
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Since there is no guarantee that the original content of your manuscript might not be copied and sold to others before it is published by you, I discourage using any free-software-checkers for plagiarism; some of them are betrayers. On the other hand, I don't believe that there is a completely free one!
In any way, if you are insisting to use anti-plagiarism software, offline checker programs are better than online ones. If I were you, I prefer to use my own words instead.
Anyhow, you can see the following site:
Moreover, there is a related discussion thread on this portal:
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البحث عن استخدمات حرف اتش فى النحو اللغة السوحيلية
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Thanks a lot! You are right. But in other areas it is
/jɔ:k/
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Good morning!
I am looking for references in connection with the topic given in the title section. I would like to carry out a research regarding the usage of grammar among ESL students in videogames' multiplayer mode. Can you help me?
Thank you in advance.
Bence Dukavits
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The following systemic review of studies conducted in L2 gamification might help. Check it out.
Poole, F. J., & Clarke-Midura, J. (2020). A systematic review of digital games in second language learning studies. International Journal of Game-Based Learning, 10(3), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijgbl.2020070101
Cheers,
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The students from the least developed country can not afford the expensive plagiarism checker tool. Further, its almost impossible to finance the paid version. Could you suggest/find the best plagiarism checker free software or webpage for student?.
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Thanks a lot to Dr.
Geetika Jain Saxena
for her comments and valuable contribution to this discussion thread.
Kindly, could you and the other RG colleagues see the following warning that is related to this valuable question of Dr. Nabaraj Gautam?
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Hello everyone,
It was my first experience for a research. I plan to explore the differences in grammar teaching in the two kinds of books: one is task-based and one is currently used in a target secondary/elementary school. But I still cannot find the appropriate TB materials for me to base the comparison on. I saw the series ATLAS 1-4 of Nunan (1995) is claimed to be task-based, but I couldn’t find ways to get it in pdf. Could you kindly give me some suggestions on my problem?
Manh thanks!
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In my experience, TBL is difficult to organise into a course/syllabus, but Cutting Edge claims to use a (weak) task-based approach.
Language Leader includes task-based 'Scenarios'
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have used shape grammar methodolgy in analyzing facades of identified buildings in historical texture of Tehran city in Iran. And I have suggested generated facades based on the grammar of existing facades. I want to improve the paper in order to publish the paper for one of the top ranking journals of ISI. I was wondering if anyone is interested to help me to improve the paper.It is also worth mentioning that your name will be mentioned as one of the authors of the paper and the paper is ready and by the guide of an expert it has the potential to be puplished in journal.
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The topic itself sounds interesting but in order to tell if I can be of any help first I need to read your draft and see the figures/images you have probably prepared. If you like you could send me the materials with a message.
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Would you have any suggestions for bibliography on the grammar of the Italian language? Would you have any suggestions for bibliography on the grammaticography of Italian ? I have investigated how the Italian standardization process took place through grammars.
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Thanks, Leslie. I'll look for these suggestions! If you can help me to find them I would be very happy.
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As most will intuitively know, language ability is an umbrella term that comprises various different categories: some people are better at grammar, some at vocabulary and some at spelling. IQ tests sometimes incorporate a verbal portion. What is this based on and does it take into account the many different aspects of language ability?
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Hi, you may consult Wechsler Intelligence Scale, which measures general IQ (performance IQ and verbal IQ). Non-verbal IQ is also contained in Wechsler, as there are different sub-tests related. Besides, verbal memory can be assessed by digit span.
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Would you have any suggestions for bibliography on the grammaticography of Spanish? I have investigated how the Spanish standardization process took place through grammars.
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Thanks. My e-mail addres is araujoleandrosilveira@gmail.com. I hope you find them!
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is it possible free grammar and punctuation checker and corrector?
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I just tried it, Nicholas R Walker . It scored me 14% on grammar and give me a mark of 36% on an excerpt from one of my published papers in philosophy. It couldn't even recognize the use of the verb "may", which it flagged as an error because months should be capitalized.
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I am looking for papers (articles / chapters / presentations) which report on studies that examined the grammatical knowledge/awareness of teachers of English as a foreign/second language (ELT / TESOL) or teachers of English to L1 primary/secondary students. Please note that I am interested in the grammatical knowledge of *practising* teachers -- not trainee teachers.
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In order to correct the grammatical mistakes the EFLU has proposed a course where the people can learn and teach better way.
some scholars are doing research about this and they are in the progress.
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I'm conducting a research to measure the development of EFL students' grammar knowledge by using grammar tests focusing on parts of speech and tenses in the forms of multiple choices, short essays, and error recognition. What is the appropriate term of the measured variable? I really appreciate your responses.
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The use of different terminology may require different type and criteria of test. For example, if you use the term 'mastery' it means the you test comprehensive knowledge of grammar. Then you will come to the intricacy of 'comprehensiveness of the type of grammar' that you may want to test. If you use 'skill', it means you test their ability in using grammar. It will require you to explore their ability in using the grammar in speaking and or writing. If you use the term competence, you will need to the test for both theoretical knowledge and application; both knowledge and skill. So, you need to match the definition of the terminology you use with the type of test that you will make. And then you can avoid using certain term that can mean something else.
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These questions refer to Swain’s Comprehensible Output theory and Schmidt’s Noticing Hypothesis.
Swain’s (1997) comprehensible output theory posits learning partly happens when learners encounter knowledge gaps. Learners become aware of the gaps and modify output accordingly.
Through, Schmidt’s (1990) Noticing Hypothesis, students learn grammatical features once noticing them. The first step involves learners becoming aware of knowledge gaps in grammar and afterward strategizing plans for overcoming those gaps.
Here are my questions.
First, is there any literature that attempts to identify a minimum amount of content for comprehensible input or noticing to occur? I’m assuming the more is better and the exact number depends on student characteristics. That being said, is there any literature on the subject? I would like to reference something tangible.
Second, Swain seems to hedge her definition of the comprehensible output theory by providing example dialogues of Person B telling Person A what is wrong with A's grammar (wording, pragmatics) explicitly. For example:
A: How you doing?
B: No, not “how you doing”? You want to say, How are you doing?
A: Thanks
To reference Swain’s CO theory, should we refer explicitly to interactions containing people talking about error corrections?
I would like to think the theory states that language acquisition occurs regardless of one person correcting another person’s language during a conversation.
I am thinking about using the term “modified CO theory” but not if I don't have to.
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I think both of these hypothesis by Swain and Schmidt are highly correlated with the nature of Call performance.
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We, scholars, are writing a lot. The language of science today is the English, however, for many of us, English is not our mother tongue. Even though we may be fluent in English. I found grammar check programmes/applications useful. Do you have recommendations about such apps? I am using MS Office grammar check (of course) and also I started to use Grammarly. Do you think there are better programmes (apps) or which are you using?
Thank you.
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I prefer to use Grammarly service...
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I am working on this issue in Thailand where grammar has not been welcome by a high number of English learners at all levels.
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Did French influence your native language in any way - its vocabulary, grammar or, maybe, even pronunciation? If so, do you consider this fact positive? Or do you think that your language could have done without this influence?
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My mother tongue is Arabic .. There are other languages taught in schools within the curriculum, including French.In fact it did not affect much in our native language, but there are some simple French vocabulary used in our Arab society, such as greetings and words of thanks, and some cosmetics and other
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Grammar, syntax, and morphology can be seen as autonomous levels of language development from other cognitive domains or language is part of various cognitive nonlinguistic features such as auditory perception, general intelligence, hierarchical structuring abilities? So, language is embedded in more general cognitive abilities?
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Yes, but they consider that (the faculty of) language is syntactically pre-structured, so to say, whereas this part of the activity is plainly neural. Languages disorders come mainly from the (final) motor part of the activity: when biology meets culture, precisely!
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I am about to write a contrastive study about clauses of reasoning in Arabic and English. I can not find enough resources related to the topic in English .. Hope you can advise me of some .. Thank you
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Hello Nafila,
To my knowledge, English grammar books do not provide much insight into reasoning in written English. In addition, some English grammar books are simply too long and the grammar rules are, many times, simply bewildering. If you need a concise book on English grammar, let me suggest: Leo Hamalian, Frederick R. Karl; Everything You Need To Know About Grammar; Fawcett Crest Book published by Ballantine Books; 1978. On the other hand, books on logic do analyze the reasoning that is intrinsic to written and spoke English, see, for example: Irving M. Copi, Carl Cohen, Kenneth McMahon; Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition; Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall; 2011. The study of reasoning has its roots in the study of language since language preceded the formal subject and study of logic.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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Hello everyone, i'm a last year college student and recently i'm about to do my thesis for my bachelor degree. i'm on business management major, with human resources management as my main major.
Recently i've got troubles for finding some Firm/Organization for me to ask them about HR topics/problems. most of them said they cant because of 'firm privacy'.
what i want to ask is, is there any alternative method for me to do my thesis beside of looking forward to some companies and give them questionnaire/interview?
thank you before for, and i really appreciate it if you could help me :)
ps : sorry for my bad grammar because english is not my first language
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  • If the thesis is not connected to local law/procedures/firms, try reaching out to multinational companies or small foreign companies. Justify your research and state your intentions clearly. Maybe specify that you are interested in broad HR statistics. As Zakaria Elkhwesky mentioned, yes, maybe try to include published works in the field of HRM.
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Ah, the mien of the mignonette and milfoil of the spent occasionalism and blessedness of the Emperean boon of exultation and inner most pacification has transmogrified. Let's strive with zeloso to be theophilanthropist along with enormousness and immeasurability in adoration to the cosmos runner and creator after all the compliant benediction, earnest supplication and lamenting Kotow before the invisibly existent maker of the vast expanse of constellation. May we savvy the Neplus ultra and pinnacle of the eonic transpired month. May this blissfully mixed occasion of heightened mirthfulness and gayness be longed earnestly for all that you are in dote with.
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follow indeed
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photos: aldine logo in Hippone Basilique /aldine logo on a italian grammar by Aldus Manutius the Younger, with the logo drawn by Antonio Manutius (it's unclear if he's brother or uncle). I think Antonio Manutius, once becoming Hassan Pacha Veneziano, king of Algiers, re-converted to Christian before dying. The text in the ecusson says "faithful to the new god", typical of converted. Gabriel Piroird was the last archibishop of Constantine. He isn't dead, but retired in France but curiously have a tomb in Algeria. I think in Hassan Pacha Veneziano had hidden books in his tomb. But Eglise Chrétienne d'Afrique is itself a carefully closed tomb. The most incredible thing is I took the shot in Annaba (Algeria) when traveling over there, without knowing who he was and the enormous historical world this logo represents. My Algerian friends insisted for taking me there, even if I told them I wasn't Christian but Buddhist. I took the shot because I love dolphins and anchors and was looking for a tattoo image. Two years later, I discovered that most of the references in marginalia of Topography and General History of Algiers were primarly printed in Aldine pres. whose logo is precisely the one I shot in St-Augustine Basilique. I did the tattoo.
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Nice
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Dear researchers,
I would like to hear and learn from your suggestions based on your general experience, during the course of your doctoral thesis writing.
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Ebenezer - Personally, I don't think that there is a smart and fast strategy for such a task. If you are talking about starting a PhD thesis from scratch and completing it within 4-8 weeks - I can't see that it is possible - unless one intends to fail. Even in the worst-case scenario - PhD students would commence writing (full-time or part-time) 12 months before submission. Most will start well before then - and have been crafting publications i.e. their literature review before then. One has to factor in other limiters - such as supervisors receiving drafts and feeding back periods.
I also note that you state a 40,000 word doctoral thesis. Most 'full' (not PhD by coursework i.e. EdD) PhD theses are usually more around at least double that.
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According to Noam Chomsky, "the Martian language might not be so different from human language after all.”  And, "if a Martian visited Earth, it would think we all speak dialects of the same language, because all terrestrial languages share a common underlying structure” — he must mean "universal grammar."  Others also believe that since the laws of the universe are supposedly the same everywhere, the language alien civilizations use might be fundamentally similar.  Stephen Krashen, on the other hand, wrote "It is possible that alien language will be completely different from human languages." Do you think alien language would be similar to or different from human language?  
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Quite an appealing discussion! Any postulates on the topic can be only speculative until we finally meet an alien race. However, literature, and more specifically, SF, has contributed some invaluable ideas. The Encyclopedia of Fictional and Fantastic Languages by Tim Conley and Stephen Cain gather loads of such examples.
For instance, Ted Chiang's Heptapod A, and Heptapod B. The former, as described in the novella, sounds like "a wet dog shaking the water out of its fur" (119), that is, an unpronounceable sound for human physiology. The latter, in turn, was so different that enabled its speakers to realise time in a non-linear way.
There are also cases like the Kesh language, describe in Ursula Le Guin's Always Coming Home that is more phonetically similar to human languages but quite distinct when it comes to grammar, which also happens because of physiological differences between humans and the aliens.
Most of the cases to point into one direction: if the alien species are physiologically similar to humans, so are their languages; whereas if the aliens' physical buildup is different, so is their language. As Michael W. Marek has mentioned, the unimaginably different culture the alien races might have developed over millennia of existence may cause quasi-untranslatable languages - we can already see similar cases in human languages. That makes total sense, in my opinion.
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Multigram (http://MultiGram.ulb.ac.be) is a multilingual platform based on the comparison between French and other European languages. The structure of the platform could be useful to add other languages in order to make them known to the rest of the world.
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Ah, Ok.
Yes, currently that site needs a bit of work ;)
Sounds like an interesting idea.
But again, is there any way to record the endangered language? All good to have semantic and lexical comparison, but without pronunciation, if all speakers of a language passed on, nobody would know how to pronounce what you're recording :)
(just a few thoughts....)
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Communicative Language approach and task based Teaching . But sometimes with a class of low achievers who prefer repetition I use TPR= Total Physical Respond and GTM = Grammar Translation Method .
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Fully agree with Tyrone Bishop, it is not an easy question to answer. Methods of teaching may vary significantly, depending on the age, level of proficiency, aims and needs of learners. If you teach children, games and activities can help a lot. If you teach business people, the communicative approach can help them develop their speaking skills as, most probably, they need to be able to communicate successfully. If you teach academic students who need to be able to write decent essays and assignments, the task-based approach and some other methods can give them the chance to improve their grammar and writing skills. What works best, in my opinion, is to know your students, their needs, aims and reasons for learning English as L2 and based on that, to tailor their syllabus and materials accordingly, so that you can meet most of their needs and expectations, and you can help them be successful in their learning. Just like there isn't ONE perfect textbook to teach English to everyone, there isn't one perfect method or approach of teaching which works equally well for all the learners.
Hope this helps.
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Some teachers claim that a student should not be corrected in terms of grammar or pronunciation or semantics when he speaks in front of colleagues as the most important thing is that a student should practice language in the first place?
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Too much correction can become a serious deterrent to fluency, let alone motivation. Therefore, correction should be used wisely. However, I do believe correction has a role to play. In this regard, it is not a matter of numbers, like saying a 20 or a 10%; instead, each error should be assessed individually and qualitatively. I would usually correct recurrent mistakes and those that affect communication.
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Any reference or idea shows the effect of UG on oral reluctance in English or any other language classroom please
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Notably, the fact whether UG is accessible to L2 learners or not has very little to do with L2 speaking . Reluctance to use L2 is an important issue which teachers should consider.The language teachers should try to train their students in using language learning strategies, and to achieve this end, they should learn about the students, their interests, motivations, and learning styles. The main goal in post modern era should be to help learners to develop liberatory autonomy so that they are able to set their own directions for attaining the targeted goals.
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Is it possible to generate a 3D plot from models using plotly? I tried to search over the internet, but many examples are based on the infamous volcano dataset that generates a plot from a matrix of points.
My two models are:
y = 0.49867x - 4.78577
y = 76.13084x + 4.81945
If not possible, how can i transform my data into the matrix format such as that in the volcano dataset? For more details, I attach my data file.
I have never used plotly before and i'm unfamiliar with the grammar, but i think i can manage if i can at least format my data into the same format of the volcano dataset.
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You can also consider library(latticeExtra). Here is just a very basic example from my data for a 3D (if you have already created a data.frame from your table you can manipulate using your data):
library(latticeExtra)
set.seed(1)
my_data <- data.frame(MDF)
head(my_data)
p<- cloud(slope_angle ~ profile * sedim_thick, data = my_data)
p
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I wonder how the analyses: grammar sketch can help the speech/language community on whose language the research is done?
Why people write for the 'high impact' research journals? Why they can't make it for the use of the community and consequently for their empowerment?
How to leave the colonial shadow, rather the colonial man, in our research?
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Kjartan Skogly Kversøy Many thanks . Keep enlightening us.
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We all know that NP has two constituents, which is the head noun and the one which is called as attribute. The attribute itself may be filled by various grammatical unit such as adjective, noun, or a relative clause. Relative clause is a clause which modifies a noun. In other words, a relative clause is a grammatical unit which has similar function as apposition which is to give more clear distinction or explanation about something or someone that is stated in the head noun. So, what is the difference between them? Would anyone kindly leave a respond for me? Thank you in advance.
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This paper by Mark De Vries gives a nice overview of the adjunct/complement distinction plus a new idea: https://benjamins.com/catalog/avt.17.21vri/fulltext/avt.17.21vri.pdf
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.Quranic schools are environments of Arabic grammar, which the learner learns.
المدارس القرآنية تعد بيئات للانغماس اللغوي في العربية، مما يساد المتعلم في تعلمها.
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أعتقد أن للتعليم القرآني عموما سواء أكان عبارة عن مدارس نظامية أم في صورة كتاتيب وزوايا وحلقات مسجدية ...إلخ دورا هاما في تعليم العربية وترسيخ ملكتها لدى منتسبي هذا النوع من التعليم، وذلك من خلال البيئة الاصطناعية من الانغماس في النص القرآني سماعا وتكرارا وتدبرا وحفظا ... مما يساعد على عملية الاكتساب للغة وإن لم تكن مقصودة عينا، وهو ما تؤكده النظرية السلوكية في تعليم وتعلّم اللغات، وغيرها من النظريات مثل نظرية تشوكمسكي العقلية ونظرية الفطرة والممارسة لعبد الدنان...إلخ
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I am looking into the matter of grammar while teaching paired skills. Should we give equal share of focus to grammar in the same way we do with reading-writing and speaking-listening?
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In paired skill teaching writing is the most important quotient in learning proper grammar without mistakes. If the teacher focus on developing proper writing skill just like by giving them an unknown topic in which they have to write a paragraph, automatically it will enhance the knowledge of grammar. Again regarding speaking proper English ask the student to read what they have written in their copies and teacher can rectify their mistakes along with the pronunciation.
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The default academic assumption in linguistics is that people speak one language at a time. So when speakers code-switch, so the theory goes, they draw from a competent understanding of more than one language they have in common with another speaker and switch from one grammar to the other at various predictable junctures.
Why not view it, if just for fun, from the perspective that the default is that people use whatever linguistic tools or other communicative devices are at their disposal regardless of how we might categorize what belongs to what language and regardless of competence within a language?
Recently, I listened as my Mexican neighbor, who has very limited English ability, conversed with my USA-born son, who picked up limited Spanish from co-workers over the past decade or so. With each understanding very little of each other's native vocabulary and unable to execute much formal syntax of the respective non-native language, they managed to get the message through. At times, they drew from a sign language that neither speaker had any systematic understanding of.
Does the situation of limited ability in a language describe the norm, or does communication necessarily grow from a competent internalized grammar of more than one language? Is traditional code-switching among competent speakers just an extension of cases where the speakers might be less than competent in any common language?
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The members of one culture do things in special patterned ways for specific culturally shared and understood meanings . I think the position is totally different in different cultures in manner of misunderstands . The same is true for my colleagues Indians , French , Chinese code-switching when they have a secret talk and they don't want others to know. Some times a lot of jokes occur in that areas . As a fun .@
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I am very interested. I tried with the LIS.
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بالطبع كل لغة لها رمزها الخاص بها مع قواعدها. إذا كنت ترى يمكنك العثور على شبكة ASL -LIS -
DGS. لقد قمت صباح هذا اليوم بترجمة الرسالة التي أرسلتها مع قواعد لغتك مع ilgoogle. إذا كنت تريد معرفة المزيد عن القواعد الرقمية
Non so ho tradotto con il google ma ho scoperto che la tua lingua ha una dislocazione nominale a sinistra. Grazie
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I'm just curious if that's been made before.
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You can build a role play rubric including: clarity, right choose of vocabulary items, grammar, fluency, etc.
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I was going to find several title formats, but interestingly, I found that these two title structures already cover most papers.I know that research papers must emphasize the method they used, but I want to know if we can use English grammar to create a more unique and attractive title for our papers?
Some common formats:
a + : + b
- a is noun phrase
- b is the description of a
a + prep + b
- a is do(ing) something
- b is some techniques
- prep is with, by, in, of, on, for...
Welcome to list the interesting titles you've seen : )
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I prefer to create catchy titles as they can attract to read. Many other researchers don't prefer this technique of titling, as they prefer classic titles that tells the rough work done only. Any how, I think titles should contains the problem and technique used to solve. :)
Regards
Samaa
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Answers should differentiate using games form gamification.
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ESL games are an important, almost vital, part of the ESL classroom. finding activities that are fun, engaging, and deeply beneficial gets a lot more challenging.📷Your advanced students are going to get a little bored if you just have them throwing the sticky ball at the board every class. for more involved and stimulating activities that will have ,due to students having so much fun they don’t even realize how much they are learning.
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I am working on intelligent feedback currently. I am seeking for help. I am sure about the strategies for giving feedback but not sure about how to do it.
thanks
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I do not trust computer software to give perfect advice about grammar and vocabulary. Even Microsoft Word is wrong a significant amount of the time.
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In English grammar, dummy elements are those elements that have a grammatical function. However, sime say that they have a semantic function..if you have an idea please help me.
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Some people think there are dummy elements, especially those who look at the result of sentential interpretation (typically formal semanticists), and some people think there aren't, generally those who look at the interpretation of words in context (typically functional semanticist and pragmatic specialists). Both are right because words can be assumed to have some sort of meaning no matter how abstract, yet they do not necessarily steer the meaning of the sentence greatly in some case. The way to demonstrate the former is the good old contrast and compare method. "There" must have some sort of meaning that explains its difference with other abstract pronouns like say "here" and "it" - 'There's a man at the door' isn't quite 'It's a man at the door' or 'Here is a man at the door (who ...)'. Here as elsewhere, it's a matter of perspective, and of the kind of questions you want to ask and answer
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Though grammar translation method (GTM) is considered as a traditional method and syllabus of EFL have been changed to meet CLT approach, GTM is still of use in many schools, Do you think it is still useful and why??
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Hi,
Not sure about GTM per se, but translation itself as a pedagogical resource is gaining interest as a result of the interest in diversity in EFL. See Guy Cook's book "Translation in Language Teaching" (and his more recent work on "own language use"), as well as Wei and Garcia's 2013 book "Translanguaging". I've also written about this -
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Some teachers do not bother much about spelling mistakes, punctuation or the consistency of tense in writing an essay. Priority is always given to development of ideas into paragraphs.
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Thank you very much Abdullah for your excellent answer. All elements of writing an essay are complementary to one another. Punctuation, grammar and good organization of ideas create a unified essay.
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there seems to be certain definite similarities in certain words and the logic in which hindi and mandarin flow. besides the tongue moves similarly too in some cases. so may be hindi speakers have an advantage ..?
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I don't think so. There is no one language that is easier or harder than the other. It is a common misconception that people believe that Mandarin is a difficult language to learn. All languages are the same but it is related to the motivation of the learner when learning a language. E.g.: A worker from India working in China will learn Mandarin quickly because in order to get a job, s/he must know how to communicate with the people.
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A unified theory of language and grammar might suggest that there is a base level of innate grammar that belongs to the structures of mind such as notions of agency, causality and intentionality. So that all sentences have a subject which causes an action with or without intentionality. Grammatical language works like this because rational mind works like this.
However layered on top of this we might have more functional grammar such as 'he' 'she' 'we' 'one' 'you' which can change according to social register and category such a gender. Verb grammar can change socially also in that verb endings and tenses are shaped socially rather than set in the mind but the notion of tense itself may well be set in the mind in terms of the passage of time. Could we then say that at base Grammar with a capital 'G' is mind base whereas functional grammar (small 'g' ) at the surface is socially shaped? Therefore the nativist and constructivist perspectives can be combined and layered? What do you think? Please advise on this research related question? Thankyou. Dave
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Constructionist approaches to language recognize and emphasize the role of innate cognitive capacities in enabling, facilitating, and constraining language learning through exposure to and experience with usage in social interaction. However, such innate cognitive capacities, which include shared attention, pattern detection, inference of intention in context, sensitivity to frequency, etc. together with other learning constraints are domain-general and and non-linguistic in that they are not dedicated to grammatical structures (Tomosello 2003; Goldberg 2006).
The innate view of grammar has over the years been changing its mind about exactly what is innate. The latest incarnation of Generative Grammar (e.g. Hauser, Chomsky, and Fitch 2002) suggests that the only innate elements dedicated to language are (1) the ability to generate recursive structures; (2) a capacity that connects recursive structures to physical linguistic acts and general cognitive processes.
It may be helpful to think about the debate between Goldberg (2013) and Adger (2013) on this issue:
Adger, D. (2013). Constructions and Grammatical Explanation: Comments on Goldberg. Mind & Language, 28(4), 466-478.
Goldberg, A. (2013). Explanation and Constructions: Response to Adger. Mind & Language,28(4), 479-491.
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"Adjective-noun order as representational structure: Native-language grammar influences perception of similarity and recognition memory " ( )
this is the article, which I am doing a college work and the only missing point that we have difficulty is how we can apply it in a real life example. Could someone help?
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What kind of real-life proble?
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The Virtual Writing Tutor grammar checker is my attempt to help to serve the needs of English Second Language learners around the world that are not well-served by the big commercial grammar checkers. Suggestions from the community will help me determine what features to work on next. Have your say!
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- register: various levels of formality for different texts and genres - general, vs. legal, academic etc.
- linking words/phrases (more & less formal, depending on a given text)
- punctuation (as the rules for different languages are not the same)
- differences bet. British English, American English
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Hello, I'm gathering data about sign language grammar of each country and I'm finding very interesting results, however I need more data to confirm this.
I created a survey with examples that exist on multiple sign language books in order to verify and validate them with deaf sign language users.
Right now we got information about countries partnered with our project, but even with those more information would be welcome, specially International Sign Language.
Here is a link to the survey: https://goo.gl/forms/OZ8HYlSUSXZXDTqp1
To fill the survey you need a google account, thank you.
Here is a link to the last publication of the project:
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That is the next step, International Sign Language already exists, but it is only used in formal conferences. The deaf experts told me that deaf people do not like to use it, and they prefer their natural language and they are proud of it.
Right now on the paper I wrote the architecture of ACE is being used in schools and experts to learn multiple sign language data, such as sign and context. Meanwhile as I travel to multiple countries I'm learning the grammar of each sign language and validate it with the deaf experts.
All this data will allow me to build an automatic translator for sign languages and oral languages text, this can be the bridge to teach kids a new language. From natural language that we been gathering data from, to a international sign language that is not natural. International sign languages are not natural because they often have contexts that are not natural to their specific home ambient, however the context still exists and can be explained or interpreted by a machine that has this information that we been collecting with my context standard that I purposed (not just random words, but rather a context code that is linked to other contexts).
I also learned that while there are many rules for sign language, there are not much different from one another, while word order changes and there are some linguistic exceptions, they can be translated with the tool I'm creating.
With all this I believe that their natural language can be persevered and this can help them to extend to learn another language, International sign language which they can use as they see fit.
Another note that is important is to keep the information well structured, so that it is possible to keep track of language evolution, which is special important for international sign language context and the creation of new international signs.
But one step at a time, I must first gather data from grammar sign language in order to build a language grammar architecture and the translator.
In the next paper I will write I plan to show the results I gathered and the translator grammar tool. Then the next step is to prove this concept by using serious games with educational content translated by the grammar tool I created.
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Can we consider language a complex adaptive system?
If so, how can we model it, and how can we test a model like this?
We tried a model considering it as a system composed of four subsystems/events (Lexicon, Discourse, Semantics and Grammar) in a two-mode network (we proposed eleven hypotheses for this). Speakers are the elements interacting through the events. Comments, critics, and suggestions are welcomed for discussion, in special considering possibilities of data to test the model.
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Dear Michael Lusk, H.Calloway and Sven Beecken.
When we were thinking about a model to simulate language, we were inclined to use only three events (Lexicon, Grammar and Semantics), considering that Discourse would be the signalling process of the Complex Adaptive System – CAS. In this case, we would have three events on one side and the Actors (speakers) on the other. However, we understood that discourse is a fundamental component of the system because, in fact, this is the event responsible for the “adaptive” word at “CAS”, that is, with no discourse, no evolution. For this reason, to have not a frozen language, not a “static language” (does it exist?), discourse is one of the four that affects, all the time, any other event: grammar/lexicon/semantics (anyway, in our model, the four events are in the same level – there is not a superior “event”).
Yet, for this reason, language needs at least two speakers. If there is just one, like Sven described, there´s still a language, but not any more as a CAS. The first three hypotheses of our tentative model presents just this. Another hypothesis (number 9) says that the links (communication) can have different bandwidths, in a way that the influence and intensity from one event to the others can vary all the time but are always present.
I agree it's a difficult computation, so we're trying the simplest rules to deal with and then seeing what the interacting elements could show us. Surely this discussion is helping a lot the advancement of our work - to refine our model - or even discard it. Thanks again for your contributions!
Mauro Faccioni
----the hypotheses cited:
Hypothesis 1. Language is a complex system comprising a two-mode network, where the mode of events consists of four subsystems (Lexicon, Semantics, Discourse and Grammar) and the mode of actors is made up of the speakers of this language.
Hypothesis 2. Language is a two-mode network completely connected and dense.
Hypothesis 3. Language has exactly four distinct events and a minimum of two actors (speakers).
Hypothesis 9. Language is a complex system wherein the links could have variable values, or widths.
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I have a diglossic situation, in which the main different between L and H seems to be in the realm of grammar (also vocabulary, but less so). Can you recommend any specific literature on that, especially contemporary theories? I have already covered most of the general literature on diglossia.
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Depending on the the grammatical structures you'd like to focus on, the answers will vary. However, here is a good resource on dimensions of register:
Dimensions of Register Variation: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison by Douglas Biber https://goo.gl/LaVxip
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I am going to do a research on improving students' grammatical competence through the use of Grammar Consciousness-raising Tasks (GCRT) in a vocational high school. I want to implement these tasks within a Task-based Instruction framework. I have considered to use Willis' framework (Pre-task, Task Cycle, Language Focus) and steps in designing the tasks proposed by Ellis which has been modified by some researchers (Attending Task, Noticing Task, Analysis Task, Checking Task, Production Task) but then I face a difficulty in dividing these tasks into the framework, especially on the part of Task Cycle and Language Focus, because GCRT are tasks that are focusing on forms. So, based on the problem, should I ...
1. implement the tasks proposed by Ellis in Pre-task, Task Cycle, and Language Focus with full considerations?
2. implement the tasks proposed by Ellis in Willis' framework but omitting the Language Focus part?
3. just use tasks proposed by Ellis because they ARE basically also considered as a framework to Task-based Instruction (which is specially designed for GCRT)?
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You may give students an authentic text and ask them to highlight all of the grammatical structures in the text for discussion afterwards.
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I'm doing an initial work on restandardization evaluation trying to explore to what extent the new Catalan spelling and grammar (2016) can be evaluated as terminology planning and language policy and planning are, mainly because this evaluation is needed and it has not been undertaken systematically. It is founded on the basic assumption that terminology planning evaluation (TPE) and language policy and planning evaluation (LPPE) can be applied to the Catalan restandardization evaluation. So the general question addressed is to what extent this restandardization can be evaluated according to the models for TPE (Fathi Terminology Planning Evaluation: The Case of Persian Language. [PhD. thesis UPF 2017]) and LPPE (Gazzola 2014 The Evaluation of Language Regimes: Theory and Application to Multilingual Patent Organisations). After presenting Haugen’s (1983) model of standardization with complementary concepts of Cooper (1989) and Cerruti, Crocco & Marzo (2017a), this model is analiyzed from Fathi’s (2017) and from Gazzola’s (2014) perspectives, with examples of what has been done in the official Catalan standardization. The principal original contributions of my work are this analysis of Haugen’s model from Fathi’s and Gazzola’s evaluation models and the general positive verification of the hypothesis, which makes new research lines to arise for the future.
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Thank you very much.
Regards,
Joan
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I ve written a paper abt it, not done yet. Im working on gestures in classroom. I found only a small group of researchers/scholars has worked on it ( Langacker).
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What is your definition of "gesture"? For example, can you only make a gesture with a human body part: a nod of the head, a wink of an eye, a gaze.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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The manuscript deals on changes across time of some body traits of Bearded Tits (Panurus biarmicus) under climatic variations given at local scale to try elucidate the proximate causes of its quasi-extinction at small Western Mediterranean wetlands.
I need to take look of the style and grammar of the text and if it is possible to make suggestion to improve it.
The name of reviewer would be enclosed in the section of acknowledgements if he/she wants.
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Dear Dr Assia Bouhoudan,
Thank you very much for give me the web page.
Best regards
Ignacio
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I am not only asking about physical attributes (e.g. their speed of speaking, their tone of voice, speed of response to questions etc., though studies about those are very much welcome). I would like to know if such studies also evaluated the content of their speech, such as their grammar, sentence structures, word choices, word association etc.--in other words, how the content of their speech differs from those not suffering from those diseases.
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Thank you for the papers Dr. Hofmeister. I'll give them a read.
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Are there any researchers interested in the constitution of oral corpora in spoken Arabic in different parts of the Arab world? The data collected could be of interest to researchers working on different objects (morphology, syntax, semantics, semantics, pragmatic, didactics, language contact, grammar, koinization relationships, etc.).
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Salut Laura ! Merci de ta réponse. Je monte un petit réseau sur la collecte de données en arabe parlé, et je serais ravi que tu en fasses partie. Je te tiens au courant. Peux-tu m'envoyer des liens ou des documents sur les corpus en question, l'idée n'est pas de refaire ce qui a été fait...
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Recently, I have communicated a manuscript to a peer reviewed journal. The manuscript was copy edited by a professional copy editor from US, whose service I have taken on previous several occasions. The comment form one of the reviewer, I got is "The English in the present manuscript is not of publication quality and require major improvement. Please carefully proof-read spell check to eliminate grammatical errors". I and my colleagues could not find any grammatical errors. The revised manuscript from the copy-editor came with some minor changes. I am clueless.
My question is - do the reviewers some time give biased statement on English grammar, for an author from a non-english speaking country? Though, the affiliation of an author is not shared to the reviewer by the journal, but he can know the country from the material method of acknowledgement section. How I can handle this reviewer's comment?
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As a native speaker, there are indicators that the writer is not a native speaker, even if the overall language use is excellent. When I per review and comment on grammar, I always give a handful of examples. But you may be right that "needs proofreading" is a convenient comment, if the reviewer cannot think of much else to say.
In your reply to the reviewer, you might say something like:
"Experienced scholarly writers who are who are native speakers have edited this manuscript and are confident about the grammar. We have proofread the manuscript again, but because the reviewer gave no examples, we are unclear about what changes are requested."
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What is more formal and grammatical correct:
to say 'any comment' or 'any comments'?
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Both are grammatically correct. Typically 'any' goes with non-count nouns or plural count nouns (i.e., 'any comments'), although there are exceptions.
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for reference service
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I don't know the web pages, but I have participated inEFL workshop provided by British Council in Croatia, and it was great. I highly recommend it.
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If all languages have the same underlying grammar (Universal Grammar), this implies that it is an innate human disposition. Chomsky suggests that is the reason why humans learn languages so easily as children. But surely we learn lots of things more easily when we are young such as learning to play a musical instrument?
How can Chomsky's notion of Universal Grammar be tested empirically to distinguish it from so many other things that we learn more easily when we are younger? What makes then the language function a part of psychology rather than something to be learned amongst all the other things we learn? Thank you for your ideas with this. Dave
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I think the empirical data for Chomsky's theory were mainly drawn from European languages. There were many exceptions to his generalizations even when universal grammar was widely accepted. I don't see any need for testing Chomsky's theory empirically now because that has already been done and the field has already moved ahead with new approaches like usage- based linguistics which is discrediting universal grammar (on the basis of empirical evidence as they say) and assuming better acceptance in explaining how we learn languages. Though we still don't know the fate of this new approach, I think the testing field for empirical analysis for any such theory would still remain the various corpora of data we're increasingly acquiring about the thousands of languages we have all around the world.
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Hello,
I'm trying to deepen my knowledge on NLP, mainly on Probabilistic CYK algorithm. First, I will train a probabilistic context-free grammar (PCFG) on a syntactically annotated corpus.
So, I've some concerns to address:
1)From a computational point of view, which is the most tractable approach: the probabilistic or the non-probabilistic CYK algorithm? Why?
2) We know that the introduction of the <unknown> terminal is useful for dealing with unseen words when parsing new sentences. Now, imagine that there is no word occurring once. Other than simply increasing the threshold on the number of occurrences, can we come up with another alternative of introducing the <unknown> pseudo-word where all words in the training data are candidate to the replacement?
3) How does the trained PCFG (Probabilistic context free grammar) can be used to perform language modeling?. Do you think the grammar that we'll train will be able to do a sufficiently qualitative modeling of the English language? What is the issue?
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Alain, probabilistic parsers are in general more expensive computationally than non probabilistic ones (the ones that are based on symbolic grammars only). The reason being you need to do more computations for the probabilities. The advantage is that you handle ambiguities more elegantly and also you have a good margin of maneuver to handle unknown words. In the latter case, I think the decision is empirical. You should try different configurations and see the outcome given your data. Besides, there is a good literature on how to handle unknown words during parsing. Please refer to the links below.
I hope this helps
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Hi Everyone,
My question is as follows:
Taking into account that, it is well known there are many languages spoken around the world and each of them has several disadvantages on writing, conjugation, spelling, pronunciation, ..
The demand for a language independent of the speaker culture is crucial. Nowadays we can exploit the benefits of high performance computing system in favor of developing of a smart lexicon, simple rules of a new solid, easy-to-understand, easy-to-learn and easy-to-speak human language.
Do you know any project about this?
Jaafar,
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Dear Joachim,
Lisp is a programming language. It's seems that you have misunderstood my question. What's I'm looking for is if exist any project that uses HPC system to create a unified human language (spoken by people ) with less disadvantages on writing, ...
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Hello, I am a researcher in UC Berkeley. As an experimentalist, from day to day, I just suffered from lots of things in my research, for example, I sometimes found there not sufficient components for my experiment setup, so I have to order and wait for the shipping.
But more importantly, in my research career, I found writing a paper is time consuming in making nice graphs and checking grammar problems. The first time writing cover letter is also a rough experience, not too much guidance from the advisor as he is super busy. Also, the way how journal review papers just consumes a lot of time, which is where I am stuck.
So just curious what are your painful moments? which of them are really low-efficient in your opinion?
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Where do I start...? :) One big frustration is that the majority of conferences and journals don't have a feedback mechanism for reviews. That is, you have no way to defend your paper to reviewers who misunderstood it. Another frustration is that there are periods when you will have to keep working in absence of proper funding. Another is the very slow return of investment, it may take many years before a piece of work receives recognition. Another is the difficulty to find like-minded enthusiastic people to collaborate with unless you are lucky to work in a large research group. On the other hand, it is like any other job, you need to have strength and be persistent in your effort.
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Tom Wolfe’s 2016 article in Harper’s, The Origins of Speech, mentions Chomsky's idea of a language organ as explaining the emergence of language. Are there arguments based on principle, linguistics, mathematics, physics, physiology and science in general that the idea of a language organ is wrong? Are there arguments in support?
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In support of Gabriele Scheler, it is well established that different languages are stored by different neurons in the cerebral cortex as demonstrated by electrical brain stimulation (Ojemann 1983,1991).
Ojemann, G.A., 1983. Brain organization for language from the perspective of electrical stimulation mapping.  Behavioral Brain Sciences 6, 189-230.
Ojemann, G.A., 1991. Cortical organization of language.  Journal of Neuroscience 11, 2281-2287.
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Just consider Secondary school.
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I am not sure at what level are you aiming to teach, but it is always recommended in academic writing to teach English grammar in a context. I believe this rule applies to other levels. This brief paper from the Trinity College discusses some approaches regarding teaching grammar in a context using inductive and deductive methods. There are other articles in the literature that you may read.
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hello there!
i want to know how can i teach grammar in Spanish as a Foreing Language in level B2 but in a didactic way. please if you have some articles or some authors please let me know.
Thanks
Hola todos!
quisiera saber como puedo enseñar gramática en Español como Lengua Extranjera (ELE) para el nivel B2 pero de una forma didáctica,por favor si tienen artículos o autores, hacérmelos llegar
Gracias y buen dia
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