Science topic

Government Regulation - Science topic

Government Regulation is an exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
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A. Global semiconductor chip shortage
B. Government regulation of internal combustion engine powered vehicles
C. Disruption from digital start-ups
D. Trade tensions between USA & China
E. Lasting economic impact left from Covid-19
F. Other (please comment)
I am collecting research for an Engineering Management (MSc) dissertation.
Any responses are greatly appreciated.
Thank you,
Joseph Dodd
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On the basis of delays in product deliveries, clearly the first point. As regard the economic investment, the second one.
Fredriksson, G., Roth, A., Tagliapietra, S., & Veugelers, R. (2018). Is the European automotive industry ready for the global electric vehicle revolution? (No. 2018/26). Bruegel Policy Contribution.
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Smith's idea of the “invisible hand” is the basis of the belief that large-scale government intervention and regulation of the economy is neither needed nor helpful. Smith put forward the notion of the invisible hand to argue that free individuals acting in a free economy, and making decisions that are primarily intended for their own self-interest, will, in fact, take actions that benefit society as a whole, even though such beneficial results were not the specific focus or purpose of those actions.
The central idea is that by means of the “invisible hand” purely self-interested actions and exchanges produce a large, unintended public good.
Quotations, Adam Smith,
The Wealth Of Nations, Book IV, Chapter V, Digression on the Corn Trade, p. 540, para. b 43.
…THE INVISIBLE HAND…
[rich people] consume little more than the poor, and in spite of their natural selfishness and rapacity…they divide with the poor the produce of all their improvements. They are led by an invisible hand to make nearly the same distribution of the necessaries of life, which would have been made, had the earth been divided into equal portions among all its inhabitants, and thus without intending it, without knowing it, advance the interest of the society, and afford means to the multiplication of the species.
The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Part IV, Chapter I, pp.184-5, para. 10.
Every individual... neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it... he intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. ---End quotations
Smith goes on to argue that intentional intervention by government regulation, although intended to protect the common good or benefit society as a whole, in practice is usually less effective and beneficial than is a freely operating market. In many cases, it is actually harmful to the people in general, because it denies them the benefits of the free market. This is especially true if the intervention produces a sort of political feeding frenzy of political favor to special interests.
The general prosperity and economic growth resulting from expanded international trade is part of the evidence for Smith thesis. However, though it is plausible to believe that something like Smith's “invisible hand” provides for the public good by way of growing prosperity in the initial stages of economic growth, it is considerably less plausible that liberalization and expanding markets or expansion of international trade will always produce a public good commensurate with the harm they cause.
This is not a purely economic argument. Instead it suggests a political evaluation. Economic expansions are also known to produce considerable economic dislocations, people go unemployed and entire industries wander away; not all participants benefit equally.
More basically, by shifting and creating wealth both within and between political societies, extensive economic expansions also cause political dislocations that require political adjustments.
The basic problem is that the shifts in economic interests brought about by rapid and extensive economic expansions proceed much more quickly than the slow and laborious, deliberative and political processes required for making needed adjustments and introducing regulations as may be required --to meliorate untoward effects.
In consequence, political societies tend to be thrown into deep political problems and conflicts tending toward factional infighting, in the attempt to control the political process in the interest of various, older or newly established economic interests. The continued pursuit of self-interest then produces something like “crony capitalism” (an age of the “robber-barons”) and social-political strife; and, at the worst, the result is uncontrolled conflict both within and between organized political societies.
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This is a hard question to attempt to answer in a short space. There is an assumption in Smith's thinking (and in Marx's) that economics is primary in shaping a society and its values. If the invisible hand is enlightened self-interest, then where does the enlightenment come from? In practice it tends to come from the cultural values of the society, which are a function of things such as religion and traditions. It is true, on the other hand, that humans (and other animals) form groups to achieve more than an individual (secure food, security for example), and that there is benefit to each individual in belonging to the group. But such groups will only behave well in general to members of the same group. Thus there is still no enlightenment necessarily.
But does the lack of an invisible hand without enlightened minds mean that societies should interfere in economic developments? My personal view is that liberalism, in the sense that a society allows all of its members to be creative and innovative, is most likely to lead to economic success because there are minimal barriers to productivity and a likely increase in the methods of production. There are however existential threats to humankind and (for example over population, climate change) which do need economic and social intervention.
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While there are many sophisticated plagiarism detection programs worldwide to protect the integrity of research, "Balloon Professors" are very difficult to detect.  They produce high-quality papers, they might serve as members of editorial boards of quality journals, they might have impressive track records BUT THEY HAVE CONTRIBUTED ABSOLUTELY NOTHING. They survive on their students' work... How can the research community filter Balloon Professors?
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Very good question, indeed.
I share with you the idea that the phenomenon of "Balloon Professors" does exist but there are various cheating schemes in addition to what you mentioned . As expected, the perpetrators will try hard to keep it as a closely guarded secret due to the betrayal nature of their activities. Since they are negatively "smart", an intelligent mechanism ought to be followed to uncover what they have concealed.
I have reiterated this suggestion , at Research Gate, to the international academia circles:
All "full professors" must be subjected to oral & written exams with regard to what they have published. The questions may include general basic topics as well since "ignorance" may be also detected. The exams will be better prepared by external committees.
Since these professors get "fat" salaries, consume university resources, and are presented as " crème de la crème " then they are required to accept these exams in order to separate "truth" from "fiction". The results of the exams will lead to the decision of either letting (X) stay with the high academic title or relegating (Y) to a deserved inferior rank.
As a "retired" scholar, I may be advised to keep quiet but I think that silence is a crime when there is falsehood in academic institutions on global scale.
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I am currently investigating the effect of government regulations on Airbnb's key performance indicators (supply, demand, ADR and market share). Therefore I analyze three aspects:
1) three months before and three months after regulations;
2) comparison with the same period a year earlier; and,
3) change in type of supply (as most regulations relate to entire homes).
Now, I doubt if I am required to use statistical evidence (SPSS outcomes) to come to my conclusions or if tables/obervations in data are sufficient to come to a conclusion. Also, I am not sure which test is the most appropriate.
I thank you for any comment or advice.
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This is an event study but you will still need to run an adequate statistical analysis. This is NOT a qualitative study. You should first operationalize the variables of interest and then choose the appropriate analysis.
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With permission of the tribes, would it be advised for the federal government to regulate Indian education-- perhaps by aiding in supplies, teachers, or help improving the curriculum. Each change will be first with permission from the native americans.
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Here's a policy case for this years education topic that you may like based on ur question
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when am determining the role of government regulations in a certain supply chain management 
what parameters sholud i look at?
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You might be interested in these papers:
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I am focusing on the Textile, Apparel, and Footwear industries but looking for studies into the impact and costs government has had via legislation and regulation on the competitiveness, effectiveness, and globalization of any industry
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Try Economic Research Service at USDA.  In the past, they have done modeling of world agriculture and the impact of trade liberalization.
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Someone mentioned to me that Uruguay has land use legislation that takes into account the capability of soils to render certain services. Apparently, this legislation places restrictions on what can be done with prime agricultural land, for example. At the core of this legislation is a very innovative, older piece of legislation that links property taxes to the potential of soils, not to their use.
I am wondering if similar land use legislations exist in other countries. I have heard that Denmark has something along the same lines. Are these the only two countries that have done something in this area?
It would be nice to document such legislations in detail, to encourage other countries to follow suit... So if you have documents that relate to soil-protective legislations in other countries, feel free to send them to me . Thanks!!!
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Hi Philippe,
In France like in most countries national law requires to protect land use for environmental reasons but do not take into account agricultural values.  At the next level, making land use plans is a competence of local governments.
Poland has restrictions related to the agricultural value of soils, aiming to avoid the consumption of high quality soils for urbanization.  A good specialist is Anna Bielska, university of technology Warsaw: a.bielska@gik.pw.edu.pl
Kind regards
Anna Geppert
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One of the factors that have relevant influence on manufacturing companies competitiveness is the compliance with government regulations. The issue is to find out figures dealing with. I am exploring this issue on advanced composite manufactures allocated into industrialized countries trying to carry out proper compilations among them.
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I need  suitable examples to contrast top down management with system approach framework applied through government regulation on environment.
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The below mentioned two links will give you more on this 
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As a progressive move, the Malaysian government has made the implementation of Outcome Based Education (OBE) compulsory in the country’s Higher Education Institutions thus requiring a major shift in the teaching paradigm. 
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Although I can speak only for the U.S. government, I can imagine that most governmental interventions create nothing but disasters for the teachers in classrooms.  When the NCLB foolishness began with all the high-stakes testing, the departure of teachers was huge, as Douglas points out.  But the impact of NCLB continues into college core curriculum with freshmen and sophomores.  Far too often, principals "pass" weak students just to keep the federal figures looking good; too often these students wind up failing even in small junior colleges.  Some students, who manage to score the "magic 20" on the ACT, get into four-year universities, where they are totally unprepared.  The ACT organization tells us that a 20 represents a 50/50 possibility that a student may survive the freshman year.  Most do not survive and our university alone loses $2 million per year on dropouts. Now even our universities are beginning to dictate what percentage of students can be failed (or withdraw) per semester. This is a different form of intervention--the university directly rather than the government itself. 
Outcome-Based Education has been in place in different states across the U.S. for several decades.  It is not any more effective than any other direct, intervention by the government, whether federal, state, or local. The presence of intrinsic motivation may help teachers remain in place--but even the best motivated teacher grows weary of being told she/he must teach EXACTLY this or that guidelines, sub-paragraph 2(a), ad infinitum. Right now many of our K-12 educators are trying to figure out how to teach with this Common Core Curriculum, supposedly designed to prepare our students for a globalized world.  Well, I can pretty much guarantee from what we are seeing so far that the kids I see may be prepared--so long as they don't have to calculate anything.  They may be able to reason out a fun game to play about ratio and proportion, but don't ask them to set up a proportion and figure out how to calculate it.  "Word problems" confound them and most high-stakes testing from high school through graduate school involves word problems, reasoning, and calculating based on the underlying math principles, which our kids don't recognize because nobody bothered "to connect the dots."  I personally know teachers close to retirement who are leaving as early as possible because they hate this curriculum and are already seeing poor testing consequences from students who have been taught this new core for several years already. Kids are failing chemistry frequently because they can't perform the math needed to balance chemical equations.
Their reading and reasoning skills are generally terrible and that includes reading social/behavioral sciences, arts and humanities--just about anything except social media and celebrity gossip.  Even the best pre-med students score significantly lower on the Verbal Reasoning portion of the MCAT admission exam.  And the new test for this spring is significantly more difficult, longer, and involves more complex reasoning in the verbal reasoning section plus an entirely new section of social/behavioral sciences, chiefly principles and theories. This new test comes at just the time that arts & humanities are being cut, reduced, or funded at low levels both in K-12 and in colleges.  Usually the first cuts made to K-12 involve art, music, not football or basketball (and I love football!). But we know that children involved in the arts tend to have higher grades in class work, testing, and GPA scores as well.
Good educators are intrinsically motivated, or many would not put up with even decent (not necessarily good)  school systems, but helping students to gain that intrinsic motivation is another matter entirely.  All too often, even at college level, we still are forced to resort to extrinsic motivation for many of our freshmen and sophomores, who are unaccustomed to the rigors of academia without the "extra credit" or "bonus points" or "excuses" for late papers, missed tests, etc.
I'm not sure what is running this "high-stakes" testing idea.  I know a lot of people and organizations are making millions from this push.  But it can't improve student performance because these tests are not designed for such results.  Most of these tests (ACT, GRE, GMAT, etc) are predictor exams, not knowledge exams that test specific items like teacher-made tests usually do. A 20 on the ACT for one student doesn't mean he/she won't pass the first year; a 27 doesn't mean a student will pass the first year either.  These tests can't measure motivation, drive, study habits, family and university support (mentoring, tutoring).  Using these tests so extensively when they tell us so little seems rather a waste of time and money.
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For economic agents seeking extraterritorial profit the main goal is not the economic development of their country. To achieve their goals corporations hire guest workers and seek locations, which offer cheaper labor, land, etc. (e.g. in China and other Asian countries). The result - the population of developed countries loses professional qualifications and switch to activities not related to the production of vital commodities.
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Dear Vladimir. Thanks for your comment. I do also hope that the idea of government responsibility in the protection of the country's natural resources is share by others.
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Emerging research indicates that exposure to many different materials in our food supply and our environment can impact nutritional status and weight gain. Given the high costs associated with obesity, and the relationship between individual choice and wellness, should the government 'regulate' our consumption to reduce obesity by limiting exposure to a high fat, high sugar diet that includes known obesogens?
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Consumers have to navigate the conflicting messages of Big Food marketing and misinformation everyday. How can they be sure that they are making the best individual choices for their well-being? It's not like public health experts have the resources to counteract the Food Industry's billion-dollar marketing budget to provide balance. Regulation is needed to protect consumers, in my opinion.
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How can the government fund or provide jobs for the population to prevent slums from occurring?
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I fully agree with Sribas that it important to begin with a thorough assessment of existing informal areas and where the deficits in services and infrastructure are greatest. This is only the beginning, however, as the main challenge is how to provide essential government services in areas where the government lacks land to put them on, retrofitting of sewerage is extremely expensive, and the funds available are woefully out of line with the huge accumulated services deficit. Of course, if governments would stop subsidizing grandiose compound housing schemes for the upper-middle-class, there would be more funding to meet the needs of the poor.