Science topic

Global Studies - Science topic

Global Studies are connecting researchers working on globalization processes
Questions related to Global Studies
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Dear distinguished colleague,
Recently we have started comparative global research that we have started recently on 'Students' perception on the Russia-Ukraine war 2022' (link to the website: http://www.covidsoclab.org/russia-ukraine-war-2022/), covering various economic and social effects of this war. The global comparative analysis helps us formulate the most useful recommendations for policymakers.
If you are interested in participating (as a contact person and a potential co-author of a joint paper, do let me know to give you further guidelines – see also research guidelines on the webpage: http://www.covidsoclab.org/russia-ukraine-war-2022/research-guidelines/). Your main task at this stage would be to motivate students from your institution (or wider in the country) to complete the online questionnaire by 30 April 2022 at the latest (here is only a preview link: https://1ka.arnes.si/a/60ee60a0&preview=on). When we have the results, we will analyse and compare them (between countries included in our study - then is a plan to prepare academic article(s) relating to different (e.g., economic and social aspects) of the Russia-Ukraine war 2022 together with the analysed results of our questionnaire survey). You will also receive data from your country/institution in order to deploy it in further research. The detailed dissemination plan will be finalised later according to the interests of international partners.
If your time is limited and do not allow you to fully join at this moment, we would kindly ask you if you could motivate and share a link with your students to fill out the questionnaire (please, do see a message and a link for students below) and we will be happy to provide you with the data/result/report for your institution.
Please, do not hesitate to contact me in case of any further queries.
Prof. dr. Aleksander Aristovnik
CovidSocLab
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Interested to participate in the survey on perception on the Russia-Ukraine war 2022.
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A joint global study requires 7-5 scientists (expert researchers) in soil and water from 5 continents. If you are interested, contact us.
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With greetings, Dear Mossi Bigirimana
In fact, one of the most important components of the present age is renewable water and soil.
But the purpose of this research is multidisciplinary. But we want to jointly carry out this important research, which is related to our practice in different countries. The good thing about this joint research project is whether, in the end, our agricultural practice in the world is in line with renewable soil and water. My main specialty is multidisciplinary. If you have the ability, accept the offer, so that I can send you the title of the research.
"Best regards."
Seyyed akbar Sadaty, The first strategic multidisciplinary researcher in water and soil. Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. (COPDSIRAN)
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Hello
My name is Shitanshu Kamani and I am a Master of International Business student at Queen's University and The University of Mannheim. As part of my program, I am writing my master's dissertation with the intention of contributing to the field of female entrepreneurship.
My topic is "Influence of culture on internationalization among female entrepreneurs" and I am carrying out a global study trying to assess this relationship. It would really help me and this field if I'm able to collect valuable insights from female founders/entrepreneurs.
Please do let me know if you require any further information.
Thank you,
Shitanshu
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The letter feels revolutionary. But, actually, it’s not. Thousands of business leaders, many of them women, have been doing this for a while. Not everybody has been putting shareholder value first and pushing for growth at all costs. But hardly anybody has been paying attention to these renegades.
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What are the roles of political and economic institutions while studying the affect of human development on economic growth?
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The basic concept of social and political institutions is to help help facilitate masses and take care of population. Institutions are made to provide health, education and other basic needs of life.
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I am going to use a validated questionnaire to conduct a global study. This instrument has already been validated and translated into different languages. So, if I decided to use this questionnaire, can I still do a modification to some of the instruments questions to test my hypotheses?
Thanks
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Good effort!
Once you adjust the question, you affect the validity of the meager, immediately. Also, your hypothesis should not depend on what scale is available. If your hypothesis is nov, then pursue a novel agenda (exploratory study) where you can create your own survey and begin from there. If you decide to use the ready made scale, try testing for invariance, after the modification.
Good luck
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With the massive advancement in robotic system and biomimetics, many people fear that the use of robots in undertaking duties in institutions especially the industries may eventually widen the gap of unemployment on a global scale. Can robots execute assigned tasks better than humans? What are the merits and demerits of each other? What are your projections of the future?
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Dear Prof. Yeray,
Thank you so much for your insightful comment and the article that says it all. I appreciate it so much. All the best.
Dickson Adom
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The academic environment is as encompassing as the globe. What yardsticks can we use to determine a successful academic in the world of today.
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I think a successful scientist is the one who is a good mentor to students and her/his office door is always open for consultation and giving advise. This is my understanding of success even after 20 years of teaching and publishing many papers.
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"When the Japanese began the Pacific war at the end of 1941, he joined the Defence Department of the Government of Burma. He subsequently became a member of the Intelligence Corps of the Indian Army."
Also relevant to you guys in a more general sense:
"Selwyn was intensely interested in environmental and urban geology, and may have been one of the earliest environmental geologists in modem England. He eagerly sought out each new excavation and outcrop in the city of Leeds, meticulously describing its stratigraphy, structure, and palaeontology. He added immensely to the fund of knowledge of the Leeds region, and was commended by the Institute of Geological Sciences (specifically, by Dr. A. W. Woodland, August 30, 1967) for his meticulous, careful and outstanding work."
I remember his rushing off to new exposures when tipped off by Leeds City Council. No GPR of course.
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Very interesting, thanks indeed
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I am looking for data contribution and collaboration. If you have some data, you can be involved in this exciting project:
Project goal: We aim to develop a comprehensible model to estimate soil organic carbon changes under perennial crops. Both food and bioenergy crop. Global study.
Methods: Meta-analysis, Inferential Statistics, Environmental Modeling, Advanced Statistical Modeling, Climate Modelling
Project information is here:
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Thanks, Heather! 
Unfortunately, I am not including grasslands. In this case, we are focusing only on perennial food or bioenergy crops. But I will check the methods of your paper, they are very interesting! and I may need to carry our a similar approach in the future (nice paper!).
Regards,
Alicia
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The various religious sects across the globe have powerful teachings that can be explored for promoting the modern quest for environmental sustainability education and awareness creation.
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Dear Marek, I am grateful for your timely advice and practical direction for my project. Thank you
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Each of us has theoretical and / or practical knowledge on Sustainable Development Goals.
In 2015, more than 190 world leaders committed to 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to help us end extreme poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and fix climate change. We each have a role to play if we're going to achieve these goals of a more prosperous, equitable and sustainable world.
Yes, of course, all of us have knowlages about the Sustainable Development Goals, what can we do for each goal and these goals will be achieved, according to the forecast?
Your contributions will be helped between us, thanks a lot in andvance!
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Dear prof.  Bashkim and all respected researchers
In addition to your rational comments , I want to add some more issues:
Programmes such as school feeding, cash transfer and health care provide some 
form of income security andaccess to better nutrition, health care, education and
decent employment to people living in challenging and often hazardous environments.
The sustainable use and management of terrestrial ecosystems, forests, mountains,
 land and soils.
Agriculture has a major role to play in responding to climate change. While
temperature rises pose areal threat to global food production, investments
in all sectors of agriculture can simultaneously supportclimate change adaptation
and mitigation while improving rural people’s livelihoods.
Best regards, parisa Ziarati
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The United Arab Emirates is planning to tow icebergs from Antarctica to its coast to solve its issues with drinking water. How it can adversely impact on Environmental and Ecological balance.
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A United Arab Emirates Company Wants to tow Icebergs From Antarctica to Combat Drought. This concept is not new as in the mid-1800s, small icebergs were towed from Antarctica to Chile for use in breweries, and another entrepreneur suggested towing icebergs to India. By the mid-1900s, oceanographer John Isaacs proposed iceberg towing as a less energy-intensive alternative to desalination.  However, it has many challenges like, wind one challenge is determining the best route to take. Currents the wind can change direction, making it difficult to move an unwieldy and massive chunk of ice. If a ship guides an iceberg relatively quickly–half a meter per second–it would take a month to cover 1,000 kilometers (currents and storms could slow it down). The trip from Antartica to the coast of Fujairah, over 10,000 kilometers, could take a year or more. Along the way, the iceberg risks melting or breaking, while the ships that tow it operate at huge expense.
Impact
Anytime we do anything, it has environmental consequences. The ship or vessels can  cause environmental harm in various way . Emission of substances to the local air and ocean, possible incidents including sinkings and groundings, ship operations unsuitable for polar conditions and the inappropriate behavior of crew ashore are the most prominent impacts. Shipping brings impacts like noise, collisions, and potential risks from oil spills; these impacts are experienced most directly by the whales that share these Arctic waters – including narwhals, beluga and bowhead whales.
Towing ice berg will cause change in water temperature and we all are aware of fact that Changes in temperature affect aquatic life. Temperature determines which organisms will thrive and which will diminish in numbers and size. For each organism there is a thermal death point. Also there is a range of temperature of that produces optimal abundance. The effects of temperature upon life of a cold blooded or poikilotherm are profound. So towing of iceberg will seriously impact the surrounded water species as the towing speed will be slow due to its size. Similarly if they are going to use plastic to wrap it , then it will add the problem of Marine litter.
No doubt, towing the ice bergs will attract more ships thus the Arctic will see more ship traffic; that much is certain. The question is what measures, precautions, regulations, and best practices will be in place to address environment and safety concerns, so as to maximize the benefits of development for northern peoples who rely on healthy Arctic ecosystems. I think in this time when climate change is significantly impacted the arctic, we humans should not go for this idea. Indeed, the world is going to need a lot of freshwater in the coming years to quench the thirst of our growing population; it’s high time that we figured out more creative and effective ways to face this imminent challenge. This idea is insane and in my opinion not environmental friendly. The Arctic is Global Common, and  before going further on this towing idea, we should have a strict EIA first. 
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Conflict/Peacebuilding/Peace process
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Your question is extremely broad, challenging, important, and can be approached from many angles. Operationalization of the processes, including dynamics of peace processes, state-building and nation-building, involve e.g. economic and political processes, range from peace to war to terrorism to natural conditions, revolution, counter terrorism, involve political instability, economic instability, financial instability, stability of elections, corruption, the free rider dilemma, democracy vs autocracy vs…, the time dimension, etc. For your broad focus, all these phenomena are connected and may come into play. Scanning the 28 publications below may enable you to narrow your research question. Possibly you may identify some that match your focus. The references therein may aid you further and give ideas. With best wishes.
1.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1996), “Hegemonic Decline and International Leadership,” Politics and Society 24, 3, 273-295.
2.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1997), “Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy,” Journal of World-Systems Research 3, 1, 35-93, http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jwsr.1997.118.
3.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1999), “The Impact of Actor Heterogeneity on the Provision of International Public Goods,” International Interactions 25, 1, 1-34.
4.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (2002), “Containing Contagious Financial Crises: The Political Economy of Joint Intervention into the Asian Crisis,” Public Choice 111, 3-4, 209-236.
5.      Hausken, K., Martin, C.W., and Pluemper, T. (2004), “Government Spending and Taxation in Democracies and Autocracies,” Constitutional Political Economy 15, 239-259.
6.      Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2005), “The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment,” International Journal of Modern Physics C, 16, 11, 1701-1732.
7.      Hausken, K. (2006), “The Stability of Anarchy and Breakdown of Production,” Defence and Peace Economics 17, 6, 589-603.
8.      Hausken, K. (2008), “Exchange, Raiding, and the Shadow of the Future,” Defence and Peace Economics 19, 2, 89-106.
9.      Hausken, K. (2008), “Whether to Attack a Terrorist’s Resource Stock Today or Tomorrow,” Games and Economic Behavior 64, 2, 548–564.
10.  Hausken, K. and Knutsen, J.F. (2010), “An Enabling Mechanism for the Creation, Adjustment, and Dissolution of States and Governmental Units,” Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Vol. 4, 2010-32. doi:10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2010-32, http://dx.doi.org/10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2010-32.
11.  Bier, V. and Hausken, K. (2011), “Endogenizing the Sticks and Carrots: Modeling Possible Perverse Effects of Counterterrorism Measures,” Annals of Operations Research 186, 1, 39-59.
12.  Hausken, K. and Zhuang, J. (2011), “Governments’ and Terrorists’ Defense and Attack in a T-period Game,” Decision Analysis 8, 1, 46-70.
13.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Determinants of Election Outcomes: New evidence from Africa,” African Development Review 26, 4, 610-630.
14.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Political Economy of Service Delivery: Monitoring versus Contestation,” The Developing Economies 52, 1, 68-84.
15.  Ncube, M., Anyanwu, J.C. and Hausken, K. (2014), "Inequality, Economic Growth and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)," African Development Review 26, 3, 435-453.
16.  Hausken, K., Banuri, S., Gupta, D., and Abbink, K. (2015), “Al Qaeda at the Bar: Coordinating Ideologues and Mercenaries in Terrorist Organizations,” Public Choice 164, 1, 57-73.
17.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Government Protection Against Terrorism and Crime,” Global Crime 16, 2, 59-80.
18.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Logic of an Unholy Alliance,” International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 52, 2, 141-166.
19.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2015), “Production, Economic Growth and Conflict in Risky Elections,” Journal of African Elections 14, 2, 34-49.
20.  Welburn, J.W. and Hausken, K. (2015), “A Game Theoretic Model of Economic Crises,” Applied Mathematics and Computation 266, 738-762.
21.  Hausken, K. (2016), “Cost-Benefit Analysis of War,” International Journal of Conflict Management 27, 4, 454-469.
22.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2016), “Determining the Ideological Orientation of Terrorist Organizations: The Effects of Government Repression and Organized Crime,” International Journal of Public Policy 12, 1/2, 71-97.
23.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2016), “How Elections are Impacted by Production, Economic Growth and Conflict,” International Game Theory Review 18, 1, 1550015, 29 pages, doi: 10.1142/S0219198915500152.
24.  Hausken, K. (2017), “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Terrorist Attacks,” Defence and Peace Economics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2016.1158440 Forthcoming.
25.  Hausken, K. (2017), “Government Protection against Terrorists Funded by Benefactors and Crime: An Economic Model,” International Journal of Conflict and Violence Forthcoming.
26.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Incumbent Policy, Benefits Provision, Triggering and Spread of Revolutionary Uprisings,” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal 12, 1, 54-63.
27.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Policy Makers, the International Community and the Population in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases: Case Study on HIV/AIDS,” Health Economics Review 7:5, 1-12, http://rdcu.be/oMEY.
28.  Welburn, J.W. and Hausken, K. (2017), “Game Theoretic Modeling of Economic Systems and the European Debt Crisis,” Computational Economics 49, 2, 177-226.
For global governance, these, and the references therein, may be useful:
29.  Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1996), “Hegemonic Decline and International Leadership,” Politics and Society 24, 3, 273-295.
30.  Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1997), “Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy,” Journal of World-Systems Research 3, 1, 35-93, http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jwsr.1997.118.
31.  Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1999), “The Impact of Actor Heterogeneity on the Provision of International Public Goods,” International Interactions 25, 1, 1-34.
32.  Hausken, K., Martin, C.W., and Pluemper, T. (2004), “Government Spending and Taxation in Democracies and Autocracies,” Constitutional Political Economy 15, 239-259.
33.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Determinants of Election Outcomes: New evidence from Africa,” African Development Review 26, 4, 610-630.
34.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Political Economy of Service Delivery: Monitoring versus Contestation,” The Developing Economies 52, 1, 68-84.
35.  Ncube, M., Anyanwu, J.C. and Hausken, K. (2014), "Inequality, Economic Growth and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)," African Development Review 26, 3, 435-453.
36.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2015), “Production, Economic Growth and Conflict in Risky Elections,” Journal of African Elections 14, 2, 34-49.
37.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2016), “How Elections are Impacted by Production, Economic Growth and Conflict,” International Game Theory Review 18, 1, 1550015, 29 pages, doi: 10.1142/S0219198915500152.
38.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Incumbent Policy, Benefits Provision, Triggering and Spread of Revolutionary Uprisings,” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal 12, 1, 54-63.
39.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Policy Makers, the International Community and the Population in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases: Case Study on HIV/AIDS,” Health Economics Review 7:5, 1-12, http://rdcu.be/oMEY.
For production and conflict, these may be useful:
40.  Hausken, K. (2005), “Production and Conflict Models Versus Rent Seeking Models,” Public Choice 123, 1, 59-93.
41.  Hausken, K. (2005), “The Battle of the Sexes when the Future is Important,” Economics Letters 87, 1, 89-93.
42.  Hausken, K. (2007), “Reputation, Incomplete Information, and Differences in Patience in Repeated Games with Multiple Equilibria,” Economics Letters 97, 2, 138-144.
43.  Hausken, K. (2007), “Stubbornness, Power, and Equilibrium Selection in Repeated Games with Multiple Equilibria,” Theory and Decision 62, 2, 135-160.
44.  Hausken, K. (2007), “The Impact of the Future in Games with Multiple Equilibria,” Economics Letters 96, 2, 183-188.
45.  Hausken, K. (2009), “Risk Limits, Conflict, and Equilibrium Selection in Games with Multiple Equilibria,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 1, 1/2, 54-65.
46.  Hausken, K. (2010), “Risk, Price, and Reimbursement,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 2, 1/2, 85 - 97.
47.  Hausken, K. (2010), “Risk, Production, and Conflict when Utilities are As if Certain,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 2, 3/4, 228-251.
48.  Hausken, K. (2011), “An Equilibrium Model of Advertising, Production, and Exchange,” International Journal of Economics and Business Research 3, 4, 407-442.
49.  Hausken, K. (2011), “Production, Safety, Exchange, and Risk,” International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management 2, 4, 346-350.
50.  Hausken, K. (2011), “Production, Safety, Fighting, and Risk,” International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management 2, 4, 324-329.
51.  Hausken, K. (2012), “Production versus Safety in a Risky Competitive Industry,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 4, 1/2, 92-107.
For negotiation, self-interest, altruism, principal-agent, etc., these may be useful:
52.  Hausken, K. (1997), “Game-theoretic and Behavioral Negotiation Theory,” Group Decision and Negotiation 6, 6, 509-527.
53.  Hausken, K. (1996), “Ethics and Efficiency in Organizations,” International Journal of Social Economics 23, 9, 15-40.
54.  Hausken, K. (1996), “Self-Interest and Sympathy in Economic Behavior,” International Journal of Social Economics 23, 7, 4-24.
55.  Bhimani, A., Hausken, K., and Ncube, M. (2010), “Agent Takeover Risk of Principal in Outsourcing Relationships,” Global Business and Economics Review 12, 4, 329-340.
56.  Bhimani, A., Hausken, K., and Ncube, M. (2012), “Acquisition and Collaboration as Determinants of Organizational Structure,” International Journal of Integrated Supply Management 7, 1/2/3, 3-37.
Incorporating crime, these may be useful:
57.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2005), “The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment,” International Journal of Modern Physics C, 16, 11, 1701-1732.
58.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Government Protection against Terrorism and Crime,” Global Crime 16, 2, 59-80.
59.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Logic of an Unholy Alliance,” International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 52, 2, 141-166.
60.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2016), “Determining the Ideological Orientation of Terrorist Organizations: The Effects of Government Repression and Organized Crime,” International Journal of Public Policy 12, 1/2, 71-97.
61.  Hausken, K. (2017), “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Terrorist Attacks,” Defence and Peace Economics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2016.1158440, Forthcoming.
62.  Bier, V. and Hausken, K. (2011), “Endogenizing the Sticks and Carrots: Modeling Possible Perverse Effects of Counterterrorism Measures,” Annals of Operations Research 186, 1, 39-59.
63.  Hausken, K. (2012), “Terrorism Risks, Civil Liberties, and Privacy Concerns,” International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 8, 4, 293-305.
Incorporating terrorism, these may be useful:
64.  Bier, V. and Hausken, K. (2011), “Endogenizing the Sticks and Carrots: Modeling Possible Perverse Effects of Counterterrorism Measures,” Annals of Operations Research 186, 1, 39-59.
65.  Hausken, K. (2012), “Terrorism Risks, Civil Liberties, and Privacy Concerns,” International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 8, 4, 293-305.
66.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Government Protection against Terrorism and Crime,” Global Crime 16, 2, 59-80.
67.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Logic of an Unholy Alliance,” International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 52, 2, 141-166.
68.  Hausken, K. (2017), “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Terrorist Attacks,” Defence and Peace Economics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2016.1158440, Forthcoming.
69.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2016), “Determining the Ideological Orientation of Terrorist Organizations: The Effects of Government Repression and Organized Crime,” International Journal of Public Policy 12, 1/2, 71-97.
Incorporating war, these may be useful:
70.  The Lanchester war models have outcomes that depend on the initial conditions, and information is complete, see e.g.:
71.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2000), “The Microfoundations of the Lanchester War Equations,” Military Operations Research 5, 3, 79-99.
72.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2002), “Stochastic Conditional and Unconditional Warfare,” European Journal of Operational Research 140, 1, 61-87.
73.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2005), “Approximations and Empirics for Stochastic War Equations,” Naval Research Logistics 52, 682-700.
74.  Hausken, K. (2016), “Cost-Benefit Analysis of War,” International Journal of Conflict Management 27, 4, 454-469.
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FDI promotion, promotion policies, good practice, success stories in developing countries.
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Hello 
Olivier Naray
please check the attachments which are given elow
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The fact that young people have multiple forms of agency has become important in human geography and beyond.
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Agency includes the varying manner in which populations (in this case young people) pursue their goals in different places.
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In the world today, in highly developed nations as well as less developed, we see people retreating to simplicity of fundamentalism. Could this be a reaction to the complexity of the 21st century world with its accelerated science and technology? Part of the situation might be because of the increasing wealth-gap. However, that too may be seen as a result of technological advancement. Because, with every new advance, there is the opportunity for exploitation (we've seen it in the industrial revolution and more recently in robotization).
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Now we have a new feature, not foreseen by Marx, Steven. Man - machine conflict. Mentioned by You fundamentalism is the part of this problem, reaction of ordinary traditional man to nowadays machinary.
Putin and Trump solve nothing. They are instruments of states-machines. To my mind uncontrolled development of machines becomes dangerous and must be stopped. It may be done by education, turning to the real human's problems, also to religion. No religion support any fundamentalism and terrorism. They are products of ignorance, bad thinking and other material factors.
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I need some concrete and constructive comments. You are cordially welcome to share your opinion. Your cooperation would be highly appreciated.
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Dear Md. Awal Hossain Mollah.
IMHO, your question is quite interesting, makes me also eagerly waited for another scholars' opinions :-)
However, please find as attached a humble concept that might shed some light for the time being.
Happy researching.
hairuddin
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I am interested in tracing a link between democracy and the development of public libraries in the UK and elsewhere. I have good material on the US and South Africa.
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Thanks Emmanuel.
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Dear John, 
I'm following up on your article request on the Subregional Cooperation in Southeast Asia. I had a quick look at your profile and saw you are doing work on climate change adaption in Vietnam and have authored an USAID report on integrating climate science and local knowledge. I'm currently in Vietnam for 2 projects in the Mekong Delta funded by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Global Challenges Research Fund. Both projects have similar aims. Are you working on these topics long-term? It might be interesting to get in touch to see if there are opportunities for cooperation.  
Best wishes,
Oliver
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Is there any colleague, from Carthage University, interested to join our team of Sustainable City. He must be Associate or Full Professor. Contact: abdesselemahmoud@yahoo.fr
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I am raising a workshop of raising awareness on global problems and the participation of the countries, overcoat the developed countries, to solve them; as work for a subject and to execute it later to some hihg schools of my city.
Thanks.
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In my experience, an interesting source of information could be the UNCHS Habitat Report regarding the Global Urban Observatory. I will update other more specific references ASAP.
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The idea is to read the papers and to comment them in class. Which papers would you advice to read? Thank you very much.
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You can also provide this article to your students:
"The impact of human capital on economic growth: a review"
by Rob A. Wilson, Geoff Briscoe
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Hi Tanya
On the question of standardization and adaptive changes within a changing Europe, how does your process deal with the possibility of relative changes in stakeholder political will?
Thank you.
Robert
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 When a large group is in a big transition, there would be socio-psychological fluctuations that acts alike umbrella to expand or constrain the other sub- divisions of life and living perspectives of economic, social, judicial, and political thoughts & activities. Based on the primary need of a human-kind, food, shelter, caring, an individual could be controlled by variety of donations, media, education, for most.   
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Please, someone can share a desagregated database of
GLOBAL PEACE INDEX?
Please, someone can share a desagregated database of GLOBAL PEACE INDEX (from Vision of Humanity) for the following period: 2000-2014? I appreciate your support.
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Thanks for your response. Best.
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The growing trends in unemployment in South Africa and their interconnections to increases in inequality
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This is indeed a concern everywhere. However I do not know why people  everywhere continue to feel that it is possible to reduce or even eliminate inequalities in a world where social stratification is entrenched: upper, middle and lower social classes. Let us remember that the implications of this is an unequal distribution of power, authority and influence and those who have more of any of these would use it for self-preservation and the maintenance of a system that serves their interests. While I am not advocating a shift towards communism it seems as though the world is caught between a rock and a hard place give that democracy is designed to serve the needs of all people. This system however finds itself coexisting in the same society with capitalism which is not people-oriented but profit-oriented . In such societies they 'pull'in opposite directions. Capitalism wins out and inequalities are created and never the twain shall meet. Is a solution possible? Yes...we can begin by developing a fairer measure of development.   
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Dental research is of paramount importance in order to improve mankind's ability to preserve and conserve humanity's oral health.India being a nation of more than a billion people has both the challenge to keep dentistry affordable and reachable and the opportunity to contribute immensely to global research in a meaningful manner.
The number of colleges that our country has along with the thousands of postgraduate students actively doing their dissertations makes it a fertile ground for us to translate this into a research powerhouse. But is that it, Why is dental research still not getting its due importance here and what can be done to bring it out from the shadows into the limelight.
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Acknowledging the factors mentioned in the earlier comments, I would also add another factor here that is collaborative research. I say this because I was personally conducting research on dental implants at the Material Testing Laboratory, Departments of Material Science, IIT Bombay, a few years ago. The aim of the research among other things was to improve the mechanical strength of the dental implants to lend them longevity as well as making them cheaper by using newer materials. We were fortunate to be partnered by the local dental colleges in and around Mumbai; although, we had to struggle with a lot of dentists due to their inertia to participate in such research. They were not really enthused about the project primarily due to lack of mental bandwidth that a practising doctor can offer and also because research in India is unstructured. 
I would, therefore, say that more structured collaborative research is required which would not only enrich the field but ultimately benefit the patients too. 
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How feasible today is a project to democratise global communication from below?
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Put simply, communication is the process by which information is conveyed through a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviors. In actual fact, it is the process through which relationships are instituted, sustained, altered, or ended by increases or reductions in meaning.
So, unlike conventional public relations or corporate communication, global communication must be considered a process of strategic, imbedded interventions initiated by individuals, communities, and organizations and designed to advance the public good. Needless to say, this is easier said than done; indeed, it is impossible if global communication is not considered a systemic issue, meaning, something linked to political economy and what institutions (or forces) and processes shape that. Nonetheless, some progress may be achieved if strategic communications consider the what, why, where, and how of comprehensive engagement at international, national, sector, and thematic as well as project levels. Based on what values they espouse, principles of continuity, credibility, dialogue, integration, precision, results-orientation, ubiquity, and understanding can underpin a (very necessary) measure of success.
Communications for Development Outcomes, available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266476992_Communications_for_Development_Outcomes, may be of related interest.
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I am particularly interested to see if anyone has examined changes to the Hurst coefficient in streamflow projections under various climate change projections.
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Thanks Randall. I am familiar with the work the Scripps group (Cayan, etc.) has done, and I will check back to look at some of their recent publications. I am also very familiar with your work, so I appreciate the advice. Looking forward to diving into this topic more thoroughly. 
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Dear all, I am currently searching for literature that looks at how states "multitask" in the sense of how they deal with similar problems at various locations of governance, i.e. national/regional/global. I am familiar with the literatur on institutiona interplay, i.e. how governance problems are dealt with at several institutions at the same time. I am unaware of literature that looks at what has been called "vertical interplay" and how states actually make decisions in this regard. Thank you!
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Check out the literature revolving around Organizational Theory, more specifically the organizational process model, and foreign-policy-making. A lot of that touches down upon "multi-tasking" and could indeed be called vertical interplay. I used this literature to create an argument for multi-tasking in national/regional/global drug policy-making. 
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I often see publications and articles saying that South-South Cooperation (SSC) is a partnership among equals, or a least that is how it should be.
But I am interested to know if it really is? Does any one have something interesting that questions this or even disproves that SSC is not always a developmental paradigm between equals?
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South–South cooperation is something of an umbrella term that describes the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries. (To my mind, even if cooperative agreements are commonly framed as a means to enhance strategic resources, the more important rationale is always the intent to learn.) This said, asymmetries between parties do (naturally) exist, which of course explains why they partner in the first place. Knowledge-related asymmetries, for example, fall in three categories: (i) information, (ii) knowledge, and (iii) learning. Capabilities in each will have a different effect on the individual performance of partners, the realization of objectives, and the stability of the cooperative agreement. And so, yes, South–South cooperative agreements should not be sold as if they were partnerships of equals. Therefore, the least that partners should do is to be conscious of that so they may, proactively, work together to resolve variegated differences and enhance overall effectiveness.
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Are there theories that can be used to argue the feasibility of having a comprehensive global governance of migration. Please your responses will be appreciated.
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This is not exactly my field of study, however,  the cosmopolitan theory has investigated this topic. Hoping they could be usefull, I suggest you some readings:
  1. Marchi, Sergio. "Global Governance: Migration's Next Frontier." Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 16.3 (2010): 323-329.
  2. Betts, Alexander. "Global Migration Governance." Global Economic Governance (GEG) Working Paper, WP 43 (2008).
  3. Messner, Dirk, and Franz Nuscheler. "Global Governance." Herausforderungen an die deutsche Politik an der Schwelle zum 21 (1996).
  4. Archibugi, Daniele. The global commonwealth of citizens: toward cosmopolitan democracy. Vol. 6. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.
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I'm applying some of Jacques Rancière’s concepts to (cross-border) anti-sweatshop campaigns, and I'm wondering if anyone else has done this before. I'm aware that his work is sometimes used to look at social struggles concerning undocumented migrants, but I'm not aware of any study applying Rancière’s to anti-sweatshop struggles (or other trans-national campaigns). Suggestions are welcome. 
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I don't think it has been done empirically (not in the organization and management field at least) but it would be very useful to use Ranciere to reanalyse work that has been done on anti-sweatshop protest using theatre such as that by David Boje. There's very little use of him theoretically either - some in ethics, a liitle in aesthetics - as his approach to politics is rather challenging for MOS.
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Dear @Colleagues,
The relation between the environment and human rights has led to considerable interest in the subject of ‘environmental rights’ – which raises the possibility of formulating claims relating to the environment, in terms of human rights. As well as the case law concerned with certain human rights, we therefore find environmental treaties with provisions on freedom of information and similar guarantees and, at the most general level, a discussion of the advantages of adding a broad ‘right to the environment’ to the list of traditional human rights. This question discusses the value of environmental right, in order to know what is the environmental right, why do we use, as one of the rights we have, who can have rights, issues of determinacy and consistency, who bears the corresponding obligations, the content of rights, the relationship between different rights, and legal rights and moral rights.
Thank you very much for opinion in advance!
Regards,
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Environment of earth belongs to each living organism but man has encroached on rights of all other animals and have been exploiting earth water air sea and all that makes environment including trees. Multinationals and corporates and industrialization and urbanization are main sources of environmental destruction to the benefit of a few individuals. If all the ground water resources are encroached by some groups or bodies the environmental rights are infringed. Unless development is sustainable and water is recharged and not mined from the soil forests are replanted and not devastated the soil is replenished and not devastated the the environment will not longer be habitable and man along with other species will disappear. People haver the right to know what are their environmental rights and how to protect them. 
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I am trying to obtain a better understanding of the modern history of gold mining (and the mining sector more broadly), and how it intersects with trends in the global political economy. In particular, I am interested in understanding the situation in developing countries in the post-WW2 period (e.g. Indonesia, DRC, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Tanzania, Ghana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, ...). 
Thanks!
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My research focuses on the recent history of the (small-scale) gold mining sector in Tanzania. There is a little section on this in "Just picking up stones: Gender and technology in a small-scale gold mining site."
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I’m trying to establish a list of cities/metropolitan regions, across the globe, with the highest percentage of “temporary populations” (including categories such as temporary workers, expatriates on fixed-term contracts and foreign students, but excluding immigrants who have settled). Dubai would be a good example. Who can point me to appropriate data sources or has first-hand information?
Keywords: world cities, global cities, gateway cities, temporary migration, mobility, transient population
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Dear Noel. You should consider the case of Tijuana (Mexico)-San Ysidro/San Diego (USA). The highest multipurpose (mainly workers and commercial trade,) temporary people flow around world (pedestrian, vehicle). Those flows are legal (visa) crossings and are registered by customs of both countries.
 Best regards!
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In  trying to explain diffusion of power as against transition of power Nye made emphasis on smart power so what's the difference?
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Some conceptual clarification is relevant. "Smart power" does also comprehend more traditional forms of hard power such as military and economic power. Economic instruments (power) are not "soft power". Even though there has been considerable "conceptual stretching" over the last few years, Joseph Nye (who conceptually developed the concept) has been resilient in clarifying this issue and in a more recent article (2006, "Think Again: Soft Power" Foreign Policy) arguing: "Economic Strength Is Soft Power. No. In a recent article on options for dealing with Iran, Peter Brookes of the Heritage Foundation refers to soft power options such as economic sanctions. But there is nothing soft about sanctions if you are on the receiving end. They are clearly intended to coerce and are thus a form of hard power." While economic strength can be converted into hard or soft power, Nye highlights the difficult distinction: "You can coerce countries with sanctions or woo them with wealth. As Walter Russell Mead has argued, economic power is sticky power; it seduces as much as it compels. There's no doubt that a successful economy is an important source of attraction. Sometimes in real-world situations, it is difficult to distinguish what part of an economic relationship is comprised of hard and soft power. European leaders describe other countries desire to accede to the European Union (EU) as a sign of Europe's soft power. Turkey today is making changes in its human rights policies and domestic law to adjust to EU standards. How much of this change is driven by the economic inducement of market access, and how much by the attractiveness of Europe's successful economic and political system? Its clear that some Turks are replying more to the hard power of inducement, whereas others are attracted to the European model of human rights and economic freedom."
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The grave global problems that face civilization now threaten to worsen in the future (e.g., global warming, water shortages, overpopulation, top soil depletion, renewable energy sources, income disparity, political polarity, etc.). The compartmentalization of the disciplines will not render a solution to anything. It has to be a multidisciplinary, systems approach to make any progress. What approaches can you recommend that would be applicable to solve at least some of these problems?
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I perceive the issue you raised from the lines and prism of modern constitutionalism and broadly constitutional studies, in this insight I think that the most serious challenge and decisive threat to the modernity are the nullification of the outcomes of the so-called enlightenment era, the undermining one of the central pillar of the enlightenment pattern and narrative - rationality. The recent events in the world, particularly Paris attacks and continuation of the struggle between rationalists and dogmatists or fundamentalists confirmed this thesis or approach. Thus, as enlightenment philosophers and thinkers put it correctly Sapare Aude is the most desirable motto of our age. The struggle for rationality is dynamic and as Arab Spring and other global events indicated never ended phenomenon.
As the 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights states, “[n]o free government, or the blessings of liberty, can be preserved to any people, but by a firm adherence to
justice, moderation, temperance, frugality, and virtue, and by frequent recurrence to fundamental principles.” This was topical not only in the 18th century but remains as such today as well.
All the best,
Karlo Godoladze
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Which publications would you recommend for a comparative analysis of climate change with nexus historical emissions and energy poverty under developing countries perspectives? And which technologies can be useful to help decarbonization of global economy?
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 This paper seem quite useful and interesting.  I hope that it helps.
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In 2011 the US Intelligence Chief said that Russia and China seem to be a greater threat for the US than Iran and North Korea. What if these countries put together forces, especially on the basis of the current conflicts and international tension.
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Not a specialist on nuclear armament and missile technology but I have some clue on the competing hegemonic policies of present powers. What Russia, China, Iran and North Korea do is not happening in a void and it is not just dependent on their attitude.  Since the supposed end of the Cold War there are some countries, the United States for example, that could not live without creating a different "global threat" every three or four years, to keep their war-drugged economy ongoing and justify an unbelievable amount of public money spending on military and "un-" security policies. Obviously,  other countries rightly see that level of spending as an announce of what they can perceive (and in fact is) as a future balance of power "according to the US". More aggressive tones, more sanctions, more attempts to "isolate" the "enemy" and more likely a worrying (and warring) answer and temptation to form even unlikely coalitions. All specialists of the Cold War will tell you that the tactics has been used by the hawks inside Moscow and Washington leadership whenever some window of peaceful relationship was in sight. 
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I would like to know if some has case studies or survey data related to internationalization process of American/European (developed) countries service firms or developing countries service firms?. I am conducting research on developing country construction firms, we can work together by comparing the results. If interested, kindly let me know.
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Thanks dear Michael. I have read this paper and its helpful.
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Problem: More and more countries are getting involved in the globalized world, partly by strengthening such transnational communities as the European Union and the AEC (ASEAN Economic Comunity). The free movement of the workforce and of students is a fact in this regard. Besides the need for comparable transcripts there is also the need for the secure exchange of such data between national authorities. 
What are current activities in setting up data international exchange standards (such as EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport, United Nations) for educational institutions?
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Countries are converging and so, emerging as a global village.
So useful -- exchange of data.
This is natural and exchange will increase in future for mutual benefits.
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I am currently reviewing some literature on global public policy making and was wondering whether anyone has applied this approach ( I am sure of that) to the international level. Thanks.
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Given that we now have approximately seven billion people on our planet, and all of the problems that follow, is there any benefit to continue growing our numbers?
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Pat, There certainly is a school of thought that argues that environmental problems (especially greenhouse gas pollution) is caused by over-consumption in the developed world and that over-population in developing countries is a non-issue. See George Monbiot < http://www.monbiot.com/2009/09/29/the-population-myth/>. And yes, there is enough food in the world right now to feed everyone; nonetheless  842,000,000 are hungry, and more people today die of starvation than of AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined <http://www.wfp.org/hunger/stats>.
Most environmentalists don't see the environmental problem in such stark terms as does Monbiot, but argue that it's caused both by over-population and by over-consumption by the rich, as well as environmental destruction by the desperately poor. See Jonathon Porrit <http://www.jonathonporritt.com/blog/george-monbiot-guardian-population>.
Priorities vary. Paul Erhlich is famous for saying "Whatever your cause, it’s a lost cause without population control".
Just because we could feed everybody adequately now doesn't mean we will. And it also doesn't mean that we would be able to if, even if the will were there, when and if  the population grows from 7 billion to 9 billion.
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I'm looking for sources of data as well as potential collaborators for cross-country comparisons of protest movements, particularly their demands.
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Probably, you could find some data in the recently released version [6th Wave] of the World Values Survey. Official documentation and data are available at the website below.
WVS
Also, although a little old one, you might be interested in the following article.
Participation and protest in the European Union and the ‘outsider’ states
Thank you for your kind attention.
Best wishes,
Katsuto Furusawa
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I am working on a paper on the comparison of situations of indigenous peoples in the Americas and I'd like to verify the proportion of indigenous lands in each country. For example, in Brazil, indigenous lands represent approximately 13% of the entire national territory. Data on other American countries will be useful as well.
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There's a quirk in Canadian constitutional law which means that unless lands are specifically ceded through 'treaty or sale' they remain the property of first nations people and are held in trust by the Government of Canada. This has had major implications in the succession of negotiations about self-government and resource extraction and is, I think, a big part of the background to the establishment of Nunavut. It has been nearly 20 years since I looked at any of this, but it definitely will muddy your calculations because by some estimates the first nations in Canada essentially own nearly all of the country --- the threat from the Cree to the Quebec separatists has long been something like "if you leave Canada, we will leave Quebec, and we own all of the land on which Quebec Hydro has dams" which would financially kill any idea of an independent Quebec. I'm simplifying massively, but you can dig up more by following your nose from my very reductionist paragraph.
For more detailed information try combing through the Canadian rough equivalent of FUNAI -- http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/ -- the federal ministry for indigenous issues. The current government is not big on disclosing anything despite its rhetoric, but who knows what is burred on the site.
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I intend to identify the importance of higher education institutions in promoting local and regional development. What is their role in shaping the future of local communities in this challenging world of globalization and digitization?
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University can play various roles for regional development. They can play as engine of growth to drive local economy as being a new urban center. Then it create demand for services e.g. dormitory, shopping center, banking, book store and health care. University can generate many jobs for local people and nowadays through sub-contracting or out-sourcing.University can educate skilled workforce which partly come from local and regional residents. Lastly university can provide technical outreach and research catering for the specific needs of both local and regional people or organizations.
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When President Obama visited Malaysia recently, this was one of the things that he said: '“Myanmar won't succeed if the Muslim population is repressed.”'
What is your view then. Have there been communities or countries that were successful, and continued to be successful, when a segment of it was repressed?
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Dear Miranda
In India, we have caste system. There is a most vulnerable group of people called scheduled castes (SC) and scheduled tribes (ST), which in all are about 22 percent of Indian population. SCs have been, and in reality continue to be, seen as untouchables by the highest castes for centuries. There are so many stories of their repression.
I have lived in a small village of Delhi till I was 20 years. In this village there were about 150 houses, of which about 30 houses were of the SCs. Despite Constitutional protection, they could not share a well, a temple, and other community services with the upper castes. They have no land like the other castes. They lived in ghettos on a fringe of the village. They were/are basically sweepers, animal skin flayers, etc. My heart would bleed to see them in that state. .
Even as I left the village some 44 years ago, they are all there living in same houses, but perhaps in a bit better state..
Few good things have changed the life of some of the SCs in general in the country. I think, the community will take several decades to come up with some semblance of equivalence. These good things have improved their position, though not exponentially, but in good measure.
1. To me, the best thing for them is the emergence of Dr BR Ambedkar, who was a SC himself, and was also one of the architects of the Indian constitution. He saw to it that the Constitution made provision of free education for SC/ST children with reservation of seats for them and scholarships for their education at all levels.
2. The Constitution also provides reservation of jobs for them in government and public sector (15% for SCs and 7.5 % for STs)
3. There is reservation of seats for them in Parliament and legislative councils, on which people from other castes can not contest elections. So some leaders have emerged to take up their cause.
4. A powerful leader named Ms. Mayawati has come up to give them a voice. She has been instrumental in providing them still better protection in terms of awareness of their rights and realization of the importance of political power.
I feel, but for these four factors, their condition would have been vulnerable beyond imagination.
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Contemporary and future prospects of private military and intelligence as a global industry: are these feasible for empirical analysis for a PhD thesis?
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This is a really important topic. In Central America, for example, Nicaragua is the only country with a rate of crime and violence lower than its neighbors. While a community oriented police and large percentage of women in the security forces have been credited for the difference, the key factor for greater security in Nicaragua is that it spends a considerable amount of its GDP in private security. There are approximately 100,000 people engaged in private security in a country of only 6 million people and 140 companies providing services to citizens and private sector. I would suggest that you look more into this topic.
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Cross functional team is a group of people with different backgrounds, expertise, age, gender, ethnicity, functions and more that are working toward shared objectives. Are there any qualities for leaders of this team,? Also, can cross functional teams replace traditional functional teams?
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A person who has the ability to think and take correct decisions at suitable time and and critical points should have the qualifications to be the leader of any group
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Outlining four key issues in our globalizing economy (unprecedented wealth, unprecedented poverty, ecological challenges and political and economic volatility), Professor Guptara goes on to provide a historical survey from prehistoric times (demonstrating that the roots of the current crisis lie in the Darwinians and Nietscheans defeating the moral and ethical values of the Protestants), and concludes by presenting seven essential steps to creating the right kind of globalization.
These seven essential steps in Professor Guptara (2010) opinion are:
Our culture needs to be focused again on a realistic optimism not a fatalistic pessimism.
We need to restore education to its function of nurturing citizenship and genuine personal fulfillment – and move away from the present function of training people for employment by the elite.
The media needs to be restored to the function of truth-telling, by removing the obsession with entertainment.
Political parties and representative democracy should now be abolished, and direct democracy installed instead.
Fundamental and even applied research needs to be liberated from the trammels of private sponsorship.
A global minimum wage and/or guarantees need to be introduced for food, clothes and shelter.
Fundamental reforms are needed if the global economy is to avoid becoming an enslaving economy.
Source: Guptara, P. (2010). Towards creating the right kind of globalization: an analysis - with proposals. Journal of Organizational Transformation and Social Change, 7(1), 89-103.
I really liked these seven essential steps - well, in your opinion, can we implement these - and how easy would that be --- further, do you have any other points that can be added?
Thank you for your contributions.
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Dear Theodora Issa,
Regarding the implementation of these seven steps, the most important step seems to be the Seventh one (Fundamental reforms needed in the global economy). This can be implemented only with strong political will power and support from the public and other major stakeholders. Having implemented the seventh, implementing the Sixth step (global minimum wages / guarantees) might be relatively easy. So also is the case of the Fifth step (liberation of research from private ownership). The first three steps can be implemented only over a period of time and that too on a phased manner, as these are all rather "idealistic" in nature than practical; but these are all excellent propositions if they could be practically attained. The Fourth step (direct democracy instead of political parties..) seems to be the most difficult step as far as its implementation is concerned.
With regards,
Dr. MANOJ P K
CUSAT, KERALA, INDIA
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Migration has rapidly gained momentum in European Union external policy. Aid programmes have been driven primarily to strengthen management patterns and boost the effects of migration on development. However, we know that this nexus is more a cultural and political construction than a well established link.
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In the latest developments of the migration-development debate, European actors have been increasingly concerned with 'return migration'. Whilst it is evident how this is linked to aspirations of migration management, there is a general dearth of evidence that return indeed does promote development (and of what kind) in sending countries.
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This topic becomes increasingly important especially for Germany's rural areas. I would like to develop strategies based on the framework of institutional economy.
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...and here we are again... This paper is already accepted for publication, but not yet published.
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The globalisation theory and the convergence arguments have not really addressed the role and impact of global business networks, asymmetries in global commodity chains and the country differentiation in global production networks and cluster capabilities. The patterns of growth of emerging industries such as information technology and the internet, green energy, medical technology, biotechnology or nanotechnology deliver conflicting messages about the convergence of industry capabilities around the world.
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Undoubtedly, globalization and the emergence of the knowledge economy have generated opportunities for multinational companies to expand their activities in markets around the globe, seeking locational advantages of countries, natural resources, proper institutional frameworks, favorable labor conditions and high-quality infrastructure. Market seeking FDI involves the attempt by MNCs to establish their business in important export markets, in order to exploit advantages such as trade barriers, cost and investment factors. According to Rugman & Verbeke, 2010, strategic asset seeking FDI incorporates R&D operations to maintain competitiveness and firm growth through acquisitions, strategic alliances and joint ventures, all of which contribute to the creation of synergies and knowledge capital.
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What have been some limitations of collective diplomacy?
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Collective diplomacy is really an interesting topic - to engage with, but we will need some more feed-in information. What are the specific evidence of collective diplomacy in this region? Regional trade agreements and political / military alliances have a long history. How collective diplomacy is different - in a world where each nation-state or regional authority pursue their own interest?
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How innovation processes have affected international relations?
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We have to keep in mind that the present topic requires a reformulation of your question:
For which areas of international law can scientific and technological assessment be relevant?
For the most of them, but I will only name some areas where science and technology are very important for a correct legal assessment:
1. International environmental law;
2. International IPR protection
3. Global antitrust law
4. International trade laws and standard setting.
The innovation of today can set the standard of tomorrow and it is important to be able to cope up with tomorrow in the field of trade and competition. The scientific research also establishes what can be considered to be sustainable technology, what is dangerous for human/animal health etc
It would be helpful to have a definition of innovation. What do you mean by innovation? Do you rely on the legal definition used in the field of the IPR? Do you mean some new knowledge that can be used in order to manufacture a new or improved product? We discuss even process innovation today. Your question is too wide, it must be narrowed down a bit.