Science topics: MedicineGlobal Health
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Global Health - Science topic

Global health is the health of populations in a global context and transcends the perspectives and concerns of individual nations. It has been defined as 'the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide.
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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health problem. Infected patients usually have respiratory symptoms due to lung involvements. However, liver impairments could be another findings.
So does Covid-19 affect liver functions & how?
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i am student of Master in global health. i am currently doing thesis on analysis of social health insurance In Pakistan in the context of achieving UHC through programmatic analysis in a rural district.
My study sample involves beneficiaries of the insurance program, empaneled hospital managers, Insurance company staff, and and health insurance program representatives.
Since, my study involves different stakeholder and beneficiaries of the program , i am not sure how to choose sample size, what will be reference population?
i am collecting data both through questionnaire and semi structured interviews
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In this kind of study, you can use the purposive qualitative method for the Qualitative side and the random selection method for the quantitative part
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In light of the Pandemic and the impact, it has had on the global health system I am curious to learn at this point how countries have been able to provide training opportunities for their BScN students. Of course, this is set in the backdrop of the latest research findings that show there is no difference between traditional clinical practice and structured hours spent in simulation activities as a substitute.
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During the pandemic, clinical posting of nursing students has been affected significantly. However, we continued the virtual simulation and videos developed by our team to keep up with the training requirements. Once the pandemic is in control, students are invited back to the campus in batches based on seniority for face to face demonstration, and return demonstrations of the procedures. Upon completion of simulation requirements, they can continue clinical posting for whichever missed semesters. As such, the students must replace all the lost clinical experiences before qualifying for the nursing licensure examination by the nursing board. The process affects the duration of the training and the graduate on-time goals. But we have no choice for time being.
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Dear colleagues,
in my classes about global health issues I often use Gapminder tools to visualize macroregional differences. On our last seminar, we talked about two key indicators - life expectancy and income, and how that can be linked together. In Gapminder, countries are devided also according to WB to so called Income groups. I discussed with students, that there are still differences within one income group still, and one example we showed , is a more than 20 years gap difference in life expectancy between countries of Nicaragua and Papua New Guinea. They both belong to Income group No.2, have almost identical GDP/capita income, and still a huge difference in their life expectancy indicator (sse the picture). Does anybody here can share some insights, why it is so? Is there such a difference in health care system of those countries with very similar macroeconomic indicator? I will appreciate any idea realated to that. Thank you!
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Thank you Olena Wagner for your input. Yes, I discussed that issue with a deputy for food programme located in Port Moresby, and he confirmed, that crime (including those crimes committed in clan wars and tribal fights) are impotant indicator that caused prematured death in many cases. That influences the total lifespan accordingly.
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COVID-19 exposed many divisions among countries and prevented the formation of a united front to combat this pandemic. Even the very closely networked blocs such as ASEAN and EU failed to coordinate their efforts to combat COVID-19 because of national interest. Undermining the world organizations such as WHO, ICOJ, and the United nation various agencies are not painting a very good picture of what to come in the future. Can globalization survive?
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Due to the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic, a lot will change in terms of economic globalization. International, intermodal logistics chains of supply and distribution are shortened.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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One of my dearest professors has recommended me to a global health professor in a great US university to pursue a Ph.D. in global health. And, the second professor also is inviting me to apply there. What is your opinion about a Ph.D. in global health? Do you think it is not a time-wasting process to follow global health in an academic setting? Some say, for global health, you should be in the playfield and not in the classrooms! What What do you think? Also what between Ph.D. and a MPH in global health? Please share your opinion; your thoughts are constructive for me.
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PhD allow that you have been an ability what is you show your experience and talk to others who have worries alike yours. It's excellent oportunity to dissussion about global health.
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2020-10-05
The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet
has awarded
the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
jointly to
Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice
for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus
SUMMARY
This year’s Nobel Prize is awarded to three scientists who have made a decisive contribution to the fight against blood-borne hepatitis, a major global health problem that causes cirrhosis and liver cancer in people around the world.
Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice made seminal discoveries that led to the identification of a novel virus, Hepatitis C virus. Prior to their work, the discovery of the Hepatitis A and B viruses had been critical steps forward, but the majority of blood-borne hepatitis cases remained unexplained. The discovery of Hepatitis C virus revealed the cause of the remaining cases of chronic hepatitis and made possible blood tests and new medicines that have saved millions of lives.
Significance of this Nobel Prize-awarded discovery
The Nobel Laureates’ discovery of Hepatitis C virus is a landmark achievement in the ongoing battle against viral diseases (Figure 2). Thanks to their discovery, highly sensitive blood tests for the virus are now available and these have essentially eliminated post-transfusion hepatitis in many parts of the world, greatly improving global health. Their discovery also allowed the rapid development of antiviral drugs directed at hepatitis C. For the first time in history, the disease can now be cured, raising hopes of eradicating Hepatitis C virus from the world population. To achieve this goal, international efforts facilitating blood testing and making antiviral drugs available across the globe will be required.
CONGRATS to these great, remarkable and lucky scientists.
Shalom and pax
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The 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus
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Although anemia is a significant global health issue, it is not associated with high mortality or morbidity. True or false?
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Anaemia affects a third of the world’s population and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality.
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These days, people are discussing about pro-environmental and protective notions in their life all over the world. It seems this level of consideration should be navigated to a sustainable path. What do you think about it?
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Totally agree to that, However sustaining sensitivity towards these issues after the pandemic remains to be seen...
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Global cases are now more than 16.4 million and died nearly 660,000 worldwide from COVID-19. USA has nearly 4.3 million cases, Brazil tops 2.4 million and India has more than 1.4 million cases. Russia has more than 800,000 COVID-19 cases and South Africa tops 400,000 cases. USA, Latin America and South Asia are still hot spots, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University.
Covid-19 is "easily the most severe" global health emergency the World Health Organization (WHO) has ever declared, the head of the WHO, Dr Tedros Ghebreyesus, said.
After six months of Corona crisis we have gathered more experiences from different countries from their mistakes and successes. World war has been started against a tiny virus and we actually failed in the initial stage. There is still chance to control the spread of coronavirus to save lives.
Data source: 27 July 2020, BBC & JHU
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Dear Muhammed Ashraful Alam the COVID-19 crisis is not just a health crisis. It brings numerous uncertainties that impact our societies, aggravating social inequalities, undermining progress on economic development on a global scale, generating political instability, obstructing objectives and programs on sustainability, and affecting adversely the livelihood of families and citizens, particularly, in vulnerable conditions. Kind regards, Ernani
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Health care and health service priorities are complex - particularly at the global level. Different countries and different communities (national and international) have different resources, different political systems, and different priorities. Which are the most important?
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Dear Dr Dean Whitehead , health promotion is extremely critical in the current global COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 clearly shows that health is a personal issue, and there is an urgent need to equip the general folks, especially the old people with the right health knowledge, so that they can take their own responsibility to keep themselves healthy and fit. Without the involvement and prompt action of the general people in maintaining their own health, little can be done by the medical professors, doctors, hospitals, communities, government health promotion organizations and the countries at all.
In the COVID-19 disease, the main issue is not the virial infection caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus, but is our bodies' excessive immunological response to the infected organs - the cytokine storm. This cytokine storm destroys all cells near the focus of infection and kills the respiratory system. Because of this, the old people with underlying health problems are the most vulnerable people to COVID-19. Yet, most of the modern civilization diseases like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer's disease and many more, are caused by over nutrition:
These civilization diseases can only be solved by food intake restriction, which is the personal responsibility of our own as patients. If we don't take our own responsibility to make the change in lifestyle, there is little the doctors can do to alleviate the situation, as the source of the problem, over nutrition, is still persisting. In this regard, we can say that the best physician in this world is actually the patient himself, as clearly stated by Luigi Cornaro in his book “The Art of Living Long”:
"Therefore, I say again, from all these reasons it follows that it is impossible for anyone to be a perfect physician of another. Since, then, a man can have no better doctor than himself, and no better medicine than a temperate life, he should by all means embrace that life."
Page 58.
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What is your opinion ?
Instead, there is advantage in terms of communication and understanding only ?
Do you have any idea of how it may impact the following -
What are Health effects ?
How it effects sustainability ?
Is there any study on growth impacts ?
What about energy and environment ?
How it impacts the ecology and environment ?
How it impacts the local economy ?
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Yes. The speach is directly connected with the thinking.
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PhD is considered as the highest degree one can get from the university and also is recognized worldwide. What is expected out of a PhD degree, the holder and the providing institutes ? What are expectations of society and science from them ?
Do you have any idea of how it may impact the following -
What are Health effects ?
How it effects sustainability ?
Is there any study on growth impacts ?
What about energy and environment ?
How it impacts the ecology and environment ?
How it impacts the local economy ?
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More scientific endeavors, constant updating, ability to supervise or train more PhD students etc...
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In the latest publication of The Lancet Global Health, I noticed that still antimicrobial resistance remains as the biggest challenge of this planet to fight against infectious diseases. Why the global community fails to address the challenge despite different interventions around the Globe?
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What do you think we should do to create a global society that will be less vulnerable for future pandemics to occur?
Magic Bullets?
Being right in the middle of the COVID-19 storm, everyone is hoping for a quick fix such as a vaccine. In his blog Martin Paul suggests that finding a magic bullet has the highest priority. We, the Global Health Team at Health Ethics and Society of Maastricht University, don’t want to question the priority of working on acute and effective medical solutions in itself, however, with regards to framing the crisis, some more nuances can be made. Do we really just have to sit and wait, complying to some frustrating public health measures, for the new Nobel Prize candidate, like Paul Ehrlich, or for any outbreak-movie-like-action-hero to valiantly save us from the invisible threat?
Simple solution
We all wish that they would exist, these magic bullets (simple solutions with extreme effectiveness). However, just as Bill Gates already abandoned this idea, we teach our Global Health students that they do not. Sadly, none of the solutions to health problems are in and of themselves magic or heroic. All medical interventions and technologies, whether drugs, vaccines, ventilators or diagnostics need daily human handwork (engaging relationships between healthcare workers, decision makers and patients) to function at all. If there is any magic at play, it is created through this human work and collaboration. This work shapes how these solutions are put to use and how effective they are in the end. Yet, this work is not prioritized or talked about when we search for magic bullets. Instead, the belief in magic bullets and their heroes leads to a single focus on targeted and vertical solutions to global health issues. Such vertical solutions are limited in scope and distributed unequally over populations defined by fuzzy and messy lines of affluence and access.
Magic bullet
Importantly, the belief in magic bullets and its effect on innovation processes is directing funding and attention away from other things that highly matter, such as focusing on the structural and causal issues that helped the virus spillover and spread into the human population at the first place. We have been warned long in advance by epidemiologists and environmentalists that - due to our high global connectivity and the ways in which we are disrupting ecosystems and exploiting wildlife and other animals - it was not a question if a pandemic would strike, but when it would strike. This also means that one imagined magic bullet against COVID-19 will not prevent the next zoonotic virus to spill over into the human world.
Large picture
We should address this crisis with urgent and immediate measures, yes. However, we should also emphasize the importance of not losing sight of addressing the more structural and systemic questions and issues that emerge if we look at the larger picture of this disease. Think for example of the need for the strengthening of health systems, of reducing inequalities that possibly exacerbate the effects of the virus in ways we do not yet understand, and of thoroughly questioning the way we are currently meddling recklessly with our planetary ecological health support system.
Sidekick
We should not just mention prevention and public health measures as if they were just a temporarily and frustrating sidekick of the hero with its bullet-gun. This would be following and promoting the strategy that averts attention from one of the most crucial questions raised by our present situation: what should we do to create a global society that will be less vulnerable for future pandemics to occur?
We need concerted efforts and interdisciplinary approaches, including the social sciences, to understand our current situation and to prepare ourselves for the future.
Carijn Beumer, Nora Engel, Alana Helberg-Proctor, Iris Fraikin, Ricky Janssen, Gonnie Klabbers, Anja Krumeich, Agnes Meershoek, Remco van de Pas, Avanti Wadugodapitiya: The Global Health Team at Health Ethics and Society of Maastricht University
Redactie - 01-Apr-2020 12:40
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This is a very relevant topic of discussion under the circumstances.
Let me share something with you that I studied in political science when I was in the college.
There is a theory called the the theory of formation of state. This theory is mostly about how the concept of making countries came to human minds. I remember, I read a book on this topic. The writer wrote that there was a time when man used to lead a sedentary life in the forests. His life was not much different from the lives of the beasts who dominated the earth at that time. Then man united and formed a group. The group expanded to form a community. The community further expanded to form a village. This process went on and on and one by one man formed the district, the provincial units, the region and then the country. The writer wrote in that book that this process is going on till now. Many countries are marching ahead to form a group of countries like SAARC, OPEC, BIMSTEC etc. This way the process can be expected to go on till the world becomes one. That global society will surely (that you are talking about) be created but I don't think that will be created right now. We don't know how many millenniums we will take to built that.
For the time being, we should forget about the results and should go on working towards that global society. We should be ready to sacrifice a little bit of our individuality. We should try to be a little tolerant and teachable.
You never know, I said a few millenniums, may be a few years from now that global society will be here in reality ... after all miracles happen and that is why this word 'miracle' exists.
Thank you.
Best regards,
Anamitra Roy.
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A vaccine is seen as the most likely avenue for defeating the novel coronavirus and alleviating a worldwide health crisis that has killed at least 734,900 people and decimated national economies. Western regulators have said repeatedly that they do not expect a vaccine to become widely available before the end of the year at the earliest.
Around the world, more than 30 vaccines — out of a total of more than 165 under development — are now in various stages of human trials. Currently, eight vaccines have entered the final phase of mass human testing, including ones produced by Moderna in the United States, Oxford University and AstraZeneca in Britain and several Chinese companies.
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Hi folks,
A niche question, but does anyone have a recommendation for scientific journals with a focus on the place laboratory medicine holds within crisis/disasters/global health apart from the traditional larger journals?  
To be precise, I am interested in those that air thoughts and research at the intercept of diagnostic laboratory medicine and health systems/policy/preparedness in the context of crisis and disasters.
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It depends on what are your objectives? Do you intend to publish a paper?
My advice here is to use the following tools:
1. Jane Journal Estimator
2. Springer Journals Tool
3. Elsevier Journal Finder
Just get your abstract copied into their tool, and you may look at the suggestions and scope of the journals that you intend to submit.
If you intend to get articles for reviews with scope specific journals only, use Scimago Journal Rank finder.
Good luck!
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Media discourses around the coronavirus pandemic tend towards metaphorical expressions such as the war against an invisible enemy, of the ecosystem balance so that the Earth returns to its original status. For this reason, expressions of legitimization of police and military violence have been seen to achieve social isolation. There are dangers in these metaphors since they do not focus on health education, but exacerbate autocracy and state violence.
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Very interesting discussion...👍.
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I hold a medical degree and completing a master program in Global Health. I am looking for PhD funding options for a research project among sub-saharan Africa migrants in Spain. Any suggestions on where I could look?
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I hope you will find
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The conduct of the World Health Organization has sparked much controversy within Western Countries. Many believe, firstly, that he alerted the world of danger with guilty delay and secondly that he turned his concerns towards less affected states while in Europe and the USA the pandemic was causing thousands of victims. Some funding country decided to drastically reduce the funds directed to the organization. After the COVID-19 pandemic, will it still make sense for Western Countries to be part of this type of organization? Will WHO need to be reformed or replaced by a new and more efficient structure? Does it make sense that, as many claim, the conduct of an organization that should protect global health responds to purely political logic?
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Dear @erangaHarshanisilva thank you for your answer. The question is open to ensure a comparison between even different opinions on the topic. You are in favor of maintaining the WHO, probably someone else would like to see it disappear. The important is that to stay in a constructive way..
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Human tuberculosis (TB), a devastating disease caused by the gram-positive, acid-fast eubacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was classified as a global health emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993. TB remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases with an estimated 1.8 million deaths occurring per year, mainly in the developing world (World Health
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Hello dear dr. Yazi .. see attached link please
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In light of the inability of the global health systems in front of the Corona pandemic. A lot ask which is the most important, expenditure on space conquest and arms race or increased interest in developing the health sector, medicine and food research?
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There is a need to focus on emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, which are of great importance from public health and economic point of view. Currently, over 300 zoonoses of diverse etiologies are reported from developing as well as developed nations.We are working in the field of zoonoses since 1970.
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So most universities around the globe have been shutdown in these strange and testing times. Researchers, particularly those from the developing countries face a unique dilemma; Having collected data in paper form, we are now stuck on whether or not to allow trained data entry personnel to take copies of the forms to their homes to allow for remote data entry. Data safety and ethics on one hand meeting deadlines and remaining productive on the other. Any insights, suggestions and experience sharing is welcomed.
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Absolutely correct. That is the way to go remote collection & entry of data.
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We are in a war with Coronavirus, and we should look into all the available models to fight the virus. One of the widely discussed models is flattening the curve. Can we flatten the curve by social distancing, or we need both social and clinical interventions? Do you have an alternative approach to managing global health crises?
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Self quarantine of the person who has come in contact with a positive case of COVID-`9, avoiding to visit crowded areas, using of face mask when going out, immediate washing of hands with soap and water after coming in contact with symptomatic person or surface, eating of foods rich in antioxidants to increase the immunity, greeting the person with Namaste (Indian way of greeting) instead of hand shaking, seeking immediate medical help in case person shows cough, fever, difficulty in breathing etc. will certainly help to control the spread of this emerging viral disease.
I recommend the use of Vaseline in both nostril whenever go out of home, daily drinking of one lemon juice in one glass of water in morning, and eating of nuts. This has helped my family and relatives to prevent respiratory infections.
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Let me start by stressing that this is not my field and i would like to get some facts about COVID-19.
As the new corona virus continues to spread across the globe in most of the continents including Asia, Europe, N. America, and now Africa, we should face the fact that there is a possibility/chance that we may be exposed to COVID-19. World Health Organisation has already declared that the Corona Virus infection is a Global Health Emergency.
I have perused through alot of information on the web, but there isn't a general scientific consensus on the above issue.
This brings me to my questions:
  1. Is it a fact that an individual (both young and old) can boost their immunity against COVID-19?
  2. If yes, what are some of the approaches one can take to achieve an increased resistance /immunity to the novel COVID-19?
Thanks for your responses.
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Immunity of the body can be strengthened by inclusion of garlic, ginger, turmeric, fruits and vegetables in diet. In addition, yoga, meditation and intermittent fasting can also help boost immune system of the body.
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With all the medical intervention and mass drug administration over the last 10 years or so with soil transmitted helminths, do the figures reported in 2004-2006 for global infection rates still stand?
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According to Nilanthi R. de Silva , Simon Brooker, Peter J. Hotez , Antonio Montresor , Dirk Engels and Lorenzo Savioli in their research "The updated global distribution of STH reveals some interesting features. As in previous analyses, we found that the tropics and subtropics have widespread infection with all three STH. The highest rates of Ascaris infection occur in China and Southeast Asia, in the coastal regions of West Africa, and in Central Africa. Trichuris infections reach their highest prevalence in Central Africa, southern India and Southeast Asia. Hookworm infections, however, are common throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa, in addition to South China and Southeast Asia. Global estimates were derived from numbers infected in different age classes and in different geographical regions . These estimates indicate that ascariasis remains common with .1.2 billion infections globally. Almost 50% of these infections are in China, which still has the highest prevalence. Trichuriasis and hookworm amount to ,700–800 million infections each. China and subSaharan Africa have the largest number of hookworm cases with ,200 million infections each. These numbers are derived largely from China’s nationwide survey completed in early 1990s. The hookworm prevalence in India was surprisingly low. "
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Are we in the process of a new phase of health threats, and is the Corona virus a model for it?
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Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites characterized by acellular organization. Since they lack their own synthetic machinery, therefore controlling viral infections often becomes a challenging task. I am hopeful that coronavirus will be controlled soon like other infectious diseases.
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Hi all,
I'm currently canvassing the literature for widely used theory-based models of Quality of Life, and was wondering which ones the community generally feels have the best practical utility and empiricial evidence base. I have also been looking at domain-based frameworks such as the PERMA+ model, but would like to cast a wider net. Global, health specific, population specific--I'm Interested in them all :)
Cheers everyone!
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Defining the "Quality of life" is extremely complex, both from a philosophical point of view and in relation to the field (health, economy, society, ...) and to the age group that we want to investigate. The complexity arises from the conceptual divergences and from the heterogeneity of the methodologies and indicators chosen to measure the QoL.
Furthermore, the idea of ​​quality of life has changed over the decades. Initially, in line with the definition of health as complete well-being provided by the WHO in 1946, the health model prevailed with indicators aimed primarily at measuring the quality of health and an interest in psychological aspects and the self-subjective perception.
This approach has been declined in many health-related studies and models. However, the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being represents an unrealistic goal, especially for the weakest and most needy of intervention, such as the elderly and the disabled (Borthwick-Duffy, 1992), and is difficult to translate it at an operational level (Flanagan, 1982). We can say that the definition from the WHO of health is a non-scientific concept (in an experimental sense of science) and purely philosophical, completely comparable to that of happiness (Monteleone 2001).
To date, there is no unanimity on the concept of quality of life, which continues to represent a very important and complex area of ​​study.
Personally, in the two-month period May-June 2014, I conducted a pilot research on the quality of life subjectively perceived by nursing homes guests and their families. On the basis of a semi-structured questionnaire, a panel of guests and family members (which was quantitatively representative of the reference sample) was asked to express a comparative assessment relating to two moments of life: the last quarter spent at home before their institutionalization and the current quarter of life in RSA.
The research questions that guided the survey aimed to explore both the explicit awareness of perceived quality and the implicit one, in the four main dimensions in which the quality construct (biological, psychological, social, spiritual) has been broken down. The results of the survey have provided many important information on the experience of guests and their families, on what are the needs identified by them as primary, on services that contribute positively to the quality of life perceived and on those that - on the contrary - are not contemplated and valued, on the comparison between expectations and priorities of the guest with respect to those expressed by the family members.
This definition emerged from the work: "the quality of life expresses the level of satisfaction with which a person accepts and appreciates his existential moment and the current circumstances in which he lives, regardless of the habitat and health conditions".
To those who wish, I can send the questionnaire (in Italian) used in the survey.
The entire investigation is reported in the book: A. Monteleone "Non autosufficienza e qualità della vita " (Non self-sufficiency condition and quality of life), Maggioli Editor 2015.
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Does anyone know of an international health dataset that contains the prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (with any of the diagnostic criteria sets), type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome by country?
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Hi Katherine,
As suggested above, the Global Burden Of Disease Visualization Dashboard may have the information that you require.
Regards,
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Dear Collegues,
Are you interested in Medical and Veterinary Entomology as well as Global Health?
An Entomology Summer School, entitled “Hands on’ Course on Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Significance: A global perspective, from theory to practice”, will be held from the 26th till the 30th of August 2019 at the National Vet School of Toulouse (ENVT), France.
Please find the complete programme leaflet attached to this message.
The course will encompass topics such as arthropod-borne diseases, resistance in arthropod populations, control tools, principles of laboratory rearing and morphological identification of arthropods of medical and veterinary importance (i.e. mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, fleas, ticks, mites, etc.).
The course targets entomologists, postgraduate students in this field, , post-doctoral scientists ACVM and EVPC residents, pest control professionals and the like.
Applications to attend will be accepted until the 31st of March.
See you in Toulouse?!
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thank you for interest.yes I do.
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The development of the database technology makes a variety of data and medical information is stored in digital form, visualization and present in the form of big data. Currently, healthcare screened utilizes the big data is word in the development stage. Big data starts to be used to expand insight and improve the quality of healthcare. This paper provides information related to the integration of big data in healthcare. Source for big data in healthcare is presented. Opportunities, according, and challenges in the integration process of big data in healthcare are also described.
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Big data analysis it good to use python anaconda , Jupyter notebook is very good to used
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An obvious answer would be tar, but I can't find any analytical evidence for this. I have even found some weak evidence* against this. It seems that it's not even one particular substance.
Haemosiderin is sometimes implicated, but acculumation of this compound is seen equally in smokers and non-smokers.**
*Joyce K. Newman PhD , A. E. Vatter PhD & O. K. Reiss PhD (1967) Chemical and Electron Microscopic Studies of the Black Pigment of the Human Lung, Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 15:4, 420-429, DOI: 10.1080/00039896.1967.10664943
** Craig, P. J., Wells, A. U., Doffman, S., Rassl, D., Colby, T. V., Hansell, D. M., ... & Nicholson, A. G. (2004). Desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and their relationship to smoking. Histopathology, 45(3), 275-282, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2004.01921.x
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Carbon particles in pollution that has been inhaled.
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Tuberculosis is still a major health problem in most developing countries and its incidence is rising in many developed countries. This resurgence has been attributed to the HIV epidemic and TB has been declared as a global health emergency by WHO in 1993. The diagnosis of tuberculosis mainly depends upon initial clinical suspicion and radiographic findings with subsequent bacteriological confirmation by sputum smear examination and culture. Lack of sensitivity in smear examination, non specificity of radiological findings, extended tum around time ofMycobacterium tuberculosis culture and difficulties in diagnosing paucibacillary, childhood and extrapulmonary tuberculosis has necessitated to explore the utility of immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis as a convenient and cost effective test to supplement clinical information for definite diagnosis. Many commercial tests are available in the market for diagnosis of TB. Most of these tests are based on the detection of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to specific mycobacterial antigen or mixture of antigens. Indigenous immunoassay systems have explored excretory-secretory ES-31 mycobacterial antigen for immunodiagnosis of TB. Many a time there is lack of consistent elevation in all the three Ig classes in active infection thus making it more important to determine the ideal antibody isotype assay for reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis and to save the costs of the patient for unnecessary investigations.
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Tuberculosis is still a major health problem in most developing countries and its incidence is rising in many developed countries. This resurgence has been attributed to the HIV epidemic and TB has been declared as a global health emergency by WHO in 1993. The diagnosis of tuberculosis mainly depends upon initial clinical suspicion and radiographic findings with subsequent bacteriological confirmation by sputum smear examination and culture. Lack of sensitivity in smear examination, non specificity of radiological findings, extended tum around time ofMycobacterium tuberculosis culture and difficulties in diagnosing paucibacillary, childhood Indigenous immunoassay systems have explored excretory-secretory ES-31 mycobacterial antigen for immunodiagnosis of TB. Many a time there is lack of consistent elevation in all the three Ig classes in active infection thus making it more important to determine the ideal antibody isotype assay for reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis
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1. It is well known that fasting has a very positive effects on our health. Some doctors advise their patients few days fasting
2. Moreover, fasting means consuming less and therefore less energy is used. Finally we will end up with less carbon dioxide emissions and slow down the effects of global warming.
Please share your ideas with us.....
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I agree with you Yasser Jaamour that many Muslim do not understand the spirit of fasting. This is why many of then gain weight after Ramadhan instead of losing it.
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I am currently on a sabbatical in Colombia. Most of my time has been spent here finishing up previous projects and planning new ones. Being on sabbatical has been such a joy and I'd love to share this with others. If anyone else has interest in this, whether for advancement of work in global health or just out of personal interest, please let me know. You can also see my blog here: drkirschsabbatical.wordpress.com. Mostly about birds and fruit, I have been writing about giving assistance to others interested in taking a sabbatical. I'd love any feedback as well.
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Very nice blog Jonathan.
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I would like to understand the current landscape of patterns in the diagnosis/ treatment and outcome measure of current therapeutic interventions that are available in LMICs for cancer.
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Cancer pattern and outcomes in low-middle income greatly differs from that of high income countries. It will also vary between countries within the low-middle income groups. Mostly, cancers of the esophagus, stomach, mouth, lungs, and pharynx in men, and uterine cervix, breast, ovary, stomach, esophagus, and mouth in women are commonly seen in India. Next, is the stage at diagnosis. Most or around 80% of all cancer patients are diagnosed in advanced stages (Stage III and IV). Thus, the outcomes to conventional treatments are relatively poor in comparison. The late diagnosis results due to lack of specialized services in the rural or under develop areas, low level of cancer awareness , and virtual absence of population-based cancer screening contributes to the late diagnosis of cancer in low-middle income countries. In India for example, more than 70% of our population resides in rural areas, however, almost every cancer diagnostic and treatment centers are located either in urban or semi-urban regions. This also contributes to drop-out during the course of treatment leading to incomplete or sub-optimal treatment, and thus poor outcomes. There are many gaps that needs to be addressed in low-middle income countries to fight cancer, given its socio-economic impact in these countries. I hope this would be useful .
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Sir, I wish to be one of the collaborators in the study. I have certain amount of experience in global health, and would love to do much more... I belong to India and have many country's experience working/reviewing their health systems. I shall appreciate your kind response
Best wishes
Maheswar
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Thank you for your message. I am not actively working on any project now. I shall definitely seek your assistance in future if required.
Regards
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I have just enrolled in the Johns Hopkins Global Health Certificate program as I plan on doing research in the global community as well as working in countries outside of the U.S. during breaks from teaching. How has this program worked for you? Since I am joining a medical mission to Peru for 10 days this summer, I am hoping this education will be applicable and helpful.
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I have not, but have heard great feedback about this program. A former student who now works in Nigeria completed the program.  Good luck and enjoy.
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The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic oral health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions that is the core of oral health literacy, would like to know how and through what modalities they are carried out around the globe, please share you insights.
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Health literacy is becoming increasingly a crucial area of importance in public health. Firstly, it provides more citizen/client/patient empowerment. Secondly, it helps in compliance with health promotion and education campaigns for prevention of disease as well as compliance with health professional advice. 
One approach that is gaining a great deal of attention is technology and social media in promoting health literacy:
Manganello, J., Gerstner, G., Pergolino, K., Graham, Y., Falisi, A., & Strogatz, D. (2016). The Relationship of Health Literacy With Use of Digital Technology for Health Information: Implications for Public Health Practice. Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP.
These authors conclude:
"While self-report health literacy does not appear to influence access to and use of digital technologies, there is a strong association with experiences searching for health information and preferences for health information sources. Public health agencies and organizations should consider the needs and preferences of people with low health literacy when determining channels for health information dissemination. They should also consider implementing interventions to develop health information-seeking skills in populations they serve and prepare information and materials that are easily accessible and understandable."
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We've had smoking, STDs/AIDs, obesity etc as the 'next' or current global health epidemic. What might be the next one - either currently simmering away in the background - or a new one just around the corner?
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just 10 days back, BBC reports Bill Gates saying that we are vulnerable to flu epidemic in next decade. Link added here.
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Dear colleagues,
What are the perspectives within the biopsychosocial model.
Applying concepts from the biopsychosocial model, including systems, reductionism and holism using topics related to local and/or global health issues using the biopsychosocial model
Can anyone help please? Thanks
Mary
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Dear Mary,
I would like to recommend you my paper "The Clinical Application of the Biopsychosocial Model in Mental Health. A Research Critique".
Kind regards
Ani
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I am researching for effective models and approaches to deliver effective and sustainable improvements. Consulting by experts to identify and solve problems, projects to deliver services to the unserved, training of healthcare professionals, etc. are some of the donor-funded activities being implemented in developing countries. However, their effectiveness and sustainability are in often in question as well as the effective impact of international multilateral, bilateral, non-governmental and charitable organizations. What standards need to be met to demonstrate effectiveness, efficient use of all resources available and sustainability?
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To make global health interventions effective, consider
1. Community participation (participation´may not be the right terminology, as many prefer say participation is much weaker than involvement or engagement) : any intervention without a full-scale community participation is a failure.  You can read the role of community engagement in this systematic review http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v8.29842.
2. You need to have the political willingness for your interventions. Lack of lack of engagement of local implementers is one of the barriers interventions in low and middle-income countries. Please read this https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1744-8603-8-11
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We all know that Zika has circulated in Africa in the past and possibly conferred immunity in the populations of these settings. Except to that, I will look for having additional insights from all of you.
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I suspect there are three factors.
1) The immunity factor.  If women develop immunity  as children, they can protect the fetuses they carry just like rubella and many other diseases.
2) Viral drift to a strain that either transmits easier (as an STD) or has more pathology (microcephaly??)   See http://phys.org/news/2016-04-genetic-evolution-zika-virus.html for some of the genetic differences.
3) More effective human surveillance.  This is a disease with a majority of asymptomatic individuals.  Babies with microcephaly  months later.  Without advanced testing and surveillance, who would know?
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Mosquitos represent a major threat to global health and are likely to become more dangerous in the future.  Do we need to prioritise the destruction of this pest and to perhaps introduce more radical means to do so?
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Dear Colleagues! Sorry for disturbing your interesting discussion. Let's start talking about mosquitoes - vectors of infection (malaria, new viral diseases) - with one of Ray Bradbury stories of how travel size on the fantastic "time machine" stole a butterfly in the past and how events have changed dramatically in the world after such a small incident. So it can occur in nature, and then in society. Destruction of mosquitoes will lead to the fact that this niche filled by other living beings, and further - the plot fantasgarmonii - unpredictable.
Vladimir
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Hi, I am doing research on light, melatonin and the effects of melatonin on health. I couldn't find any systematic review or recent review on this topic. Can anyone please advise?
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Negative health effects of low melatonin levels are numerous. There are several indications that low melatonin levels are a CVD risk factor. Russel Reiter has published many papers on this subject:
Melatonin is a small, highly conserved indole with numerous receptor-mediated and receptor-independent actions. Receptor-dependent functions include circadian rhythm regulation, sleep, and cancer inhibition. The receptor-independent actions relate to melatonin's ability to function in the detoxification of free radicals, thereby protecting critical molecules from the destructive effects of oxidative stress under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion injury (stroke, heart attack), ionizing radiation, and drug toxicity, among others. Melatonin has numerous applications in physiology and medicine. (Reiter RJ et al. Melatonin: exceeding expectations. Physiology (Bethesda). 2014 Sep;29(5):325-33. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00011.2014.)
Also several other papers are on this topic:
Statistically significant inverse correlations were observed between urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the major metabolite of melatonin in urine, and WBC count, uric acid, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, being established independent risk factors for CVD, such as WBC, UA, and hs-CRP. Endogenous melatonin may have implications for the risk of CVD. (Masue T et al. Associations of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin with biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease in Japanese women. Metabolism. 2012 Jan;61(1):70-5. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2011.05.021. Epub 2011 Aug 3.)
Women working rotating night shifts for ≥5 years have a modest increase in all-cause and CVD mortality; those working ≥15 years of rotating night shift work have a modest increase in lung cancer mortality. These results add to prior evidence of a potentially detrimental effect of rotating night shift work on health and longevity. (Gu F et al. Total and cause-specific mortality of U.S. nurses working rotating night shifts. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Mar;48(3):241-52. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.10.018. Epub 2015 Jan 6)
Another relation is low melatonin and breast cancer risk (i.e. nurses and night shift):
The results showed that melatonin not only inhibits breast cancer cell
growth, but also is capable of inhibiting angiogenesis, cancer cell invasion, and
telomerase activity. Interestingly this hormone is able to induce apoptosis
through the suppression or induction of a wide range of signaling pathways.
Moreover, it seems that the concomitant administration of melatonin with other
conventional chemotherapy agents had beneficial effects for patients with breast
cancer, by alleviating unfavorable effects of those agents and enhancing their
efficacy. (Nooshinfar E et al. Melatonin, an inhibitory agent in breast cancer. Breast Cancer. 2016 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print])
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The use of ethnographic method to evaluate compliance with protocol.
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Mail peter.eze@unn.edu.ng .He is a guru on ethnography
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In an hour I have half an hour of time with ex-WHO director of Medices Hans Hogerzeil. Have you ever wanted to ask him a meaningful question, feel free to post it!
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Estimated occurrence (not what is known) of fake medicines on the market in developing countries - and estimated losses
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As ZIKV RNA can be detected in the saliva, can the saliva be used as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. And what are the disadvantages?
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As far as I'm aware, the recent detection of Zika virus within saliva is the first reporting of its kind - very little is known at this stage as to if ZKV infection can be transmitted from human to human through saliva itself, and further testing would be required to determine this.
Relating back to your question, I imagine that it would depend on what the viral load is within saliva compared to serum/traditional sample techniques, and if this is a high enough titre to be detected consistently. 
Another thing to bear in mind is that viral RNA tends to be easier to detect in serum during the first 7 days of illness; viremia decreases over time. We would need to determine at what stage of zika infection viremia is detectable in saliva. It would indeed be interesting to see if testing of saliva samples result in a higher sensitivity/detection rate compared to traditional serum testing by RT-PCR. 
Very interesting question!
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I'm having trouble with a project. I am using ONS deprivation indices (https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/english-indices-of-deprivation-2015)
which assign deprivation indices according to postcode/LSOA.
My problem is that I'm unsure what to do regarding homeless people. Since they have no postcode, I can't assign a deprivation score. Homeless people are a 'deprived' population, however the deprivation indices is an area level index. One option would be to exclude them from the deprivation analysis, but this would then underestimate the impact of 'deprivation'.
Would be interested to hear from anyone with experience in this.
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I have tried categorising in both ways. Unfortunately with the dataset I am using (RCGP RSC) it is not clear whether postcode is missing because of incomplete data or because of homelessness which makes this more difficult. With most missing data adding an extra category seems to work well e.g. categorising smoking status as; current smoker, ex-smoker, smoker, and not recorded. This way no data is lost. As you would expect the outcomes of 'not recorded' smokers falls somewhere between smokers and non-smokers. If you are categorising IMD for your regression models then adding an extra category for homeless would be a straightforward approach.
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... who out there would prioritize communicable vs noncommunicable disease (trauma being categorized as non communicable disease)? Both require urgent attention in all stages but the transition from acute to chronic health care provision in war and conflict settings seems to be a major gap. 
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WOW! Great responses guys - thanks so much. Great insight. 
Thank you!
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I am interested in the availability of medical treatement for sickle cell anemia in belize.
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Thank you very much for the information. Both answers are helpful. In regard to Anthropological gemetics, does it refer to the current availability of treatment in Belize? What is the publication year?
Best Regards
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Currently specialization divides medical disciplines into sectors, much like slices of a cake. The results are that (i) patients with multiple morbidities are shunted from one doctor to another to another etc., (ii) it is impossible to have all the necessary specialists in one place unless that place is sufficiently large (and wealthy), (iii) emergency cover is unsustainable in all areas unless certain specialists double for others, (iv) the inevitable consequence is that a specialists, even if perfectly trained and competent, cannot deal with a patient with a malady accorded to a different specialty than his own, (v) specialists leave the simpler aspects of their field to their juniors, as they prefer to deal with the complex, "more interesting" issues (except in private practice). (vi) the system is more and more expensive to run, (vii) specialization leads to further "super-specialization" and further fragmentation of medicine, (viii) the model is exported to LMICs with catastrophic results as they cannot afford nor accommodate such a system, (ix) inevitably medical schools will be pushed to limit training of their students pertaining to their final specialty destination, (x) the specialties are themselves not defined and "turf wars" are created in bordering areas of practice, both in terms of departmental control and patient care.
There is no proper definition of the generalist, neither in medicine nor surgery. Yet, on the shoulders of this dying breed rests the burden of most "ordinary" patients' treatment worldwide.
Where therefore are we going? Is it not time to define the "Generalist" as a "Specialist" in his own right, and let him deal with the central part of the cake, leaving the periphery to be divided by the particulate specialists?
After all, everyone knows that the cherry is usually in the middle of the cake.
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My apologies for my nuanced take on your question and the accompanying elaboration Michael.
For me there needs to be clarification on various points to be sure that we are on the same page. First, by division of the medical cake do you mean total health spending by sector? Second, by "proper" division do you refer to an agreed upon allocation level bereft of value judgement?  Third, by generalist do you mean the general practitioner (GP) or primary care physician or the hospitalist - in the context of the US?  Just focusing on the third point, although the GP can be considered one and the same to the primary care physician the competencies between the two can be vary varied between health systems.
Cheers.
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Can it be considered as a global health issue? If so is there a specific type of depression that is most predominant in adolescence that should be addressed.
If anyone has any research information on this topic I would be grateful especially information on recommended solutions. Also if there are specific countries that have a higher prevalence.
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Thank you very much everyone. This has really been helpful
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I am primarily interested in valid/reliable instruments that were used outside the U.S.  Especially instruments which measured nutrition educational processes through cultural erudition models such as Africentrism, etc.
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Hello, Mr.Cleamons!
I found several links that you might want to investigate.Each link is in reference to tools to measure global health issues.I hope you find them useful.
Have a great day,
Suzette
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I'm aware of the WHO and THET guidelines, but wondered if there are other papers detailing the process or evaluations of medical equipment donations to resource-poor settings? Many thanks! Ed
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Here is another link to a small Indian study looking at the utility of medical equipment donation, as well as another article in the WHO bulletin on a hospital in the Gambia:
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Please explain your answer. Thank you in advance!
Here is a link to the abstract where you can access the PDF of the whole article:
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What James's and Prosper's replies emphasize is the close relation between epidemiological and ecological studies. Since the days of yellow fever disease specialists have tried to correlate incidence with environmental attributes that either impede or promote disease. This can occur at various scales as the work of Simon Hay and David Pigot (you'll see it on Research Gate) makes clear. For a review you might see one of my books on the history of disease studies through the maps made to present incidences from the late 1600's to the present. 
 So ... epidemiology keeps getting ... bigger and both stands alone and folds into the ecological dynamics of peoples in places.
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I am currently working on reverse innovation in global health care and I am trying to assess the growth of the phenomenon
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Thank you all very much for your answers and advices. Very helpful!
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I'm wondering if the common understanding of health project managers about the vector borne diseases is global issue why they deal with it locally, although that will not fix it at all, because even if we thought it disappear it's going to re emerge soon.
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The vector borne diseases are no more a local issue. With people and cargo moving globally at a great pace the possibility of vectors moving to other unknown areas are incresing manifold. This requires an international monitoring.
The global warming and climate change also have an impact on the spread of vectors to new areas and needs to be looked into globally as well as locally. 
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I am interested in furthering the agenda around integrative medicine in Asia Pacific and wondered if there is any documentation of policy approaches to this.
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You might want to review this article by a colleague. . 
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I know that this is one of the forms of violence against women and I am interested in this particular topics as a possible area of research for my studies.
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I am presently carrying on a qualitative research on FGM
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I'm specifically looking at the intergenerational aspect of historical trauma in Native Americans and its relationship to adverse health outcomes (cortisol effects maybe?).
There's some great info re: relationship of HT to mental health issues (Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, Eduardo/Bonnie Duran and Joseph Gone) and some re: Holocaust survivors (Baronowsky), but looking for more info and anything you might know of specifically related to physiologic changes?  Many thanks!
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Hi Mary Elizabeth
Not sure if you're interested in material beyond the Native American experience, but here's a link to a paper by Pat Dudgeon (and colleagues), who has done a lot of work on trauma experienced by members of Australia's stolen generations.
The institute's Stewart Sutherland is also about to complete a PhD in this area, so let me know if you are interested and I'll send him you enquiry.
Regards
Pauline
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Lots has been written about quarantine and closing borders domestically (US) but not much else.
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Hi Brandon,
I think that rather than thinking about "domestic" ethical issues in connection with the Ebola epidemic, we should focus on the epidemic as further evidence of Globalization diminishing the relevance of the nation-state and its imaginary boundaries.  We live in a time of fluid borders and porous nationalities brought on by ease of travel, technological innovations, an aggressive global media and an equally obdurate "global civil society" made up of transnational NGOs.  This denies us the intellectual luxury of viewing global issues such as HIV/AIDS, global warming and, now, Ebola from the narrow lens of a domestic crisis.
Remember how the 2008 "domestic" financial crisis brought on by "domestic" hubris in the U.S.  financial industry ("securitization," toxic loans, etc.) spread like wildfire to the rest of the world?  While I have described the morally challenged financial industry in terms of the weaknesses of domestic regulatory agencies (see "After Shame...." among my RG publications), I definitely do not view the lack of moral fiber in the financial industry as a "domestic ethical issue".  Indeed, it reflects a pandemic of global amorality brought on by the enhanced respectability of "Neoliberalism" as a euphemism for moral decay.
Gwen
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The earth’s population may grow by three billion in the next 50 years or so. The world’s ever-growing number of people points toward a greater demand for food in spite of the already-scarce resources. Famine, hunger and starvation are accordingly a major issue in poor countries worldwide! In your opinion, would the world’s food production/industry suffice to feed the hungry stomachs (given the land and water limitations/scarcity)? What are the world’s options in this respect?
Thanks so much for your contribution!
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Dear Marwan,
We have to somehow reduce the population growth, reduce the wastes and think of alternative food sources. Here are some solutions:
Educating the citizens and setting policies to reduce the population geowth expected in next decades
Achieve replacement level fertility
Reducing population growth can help hold down food demand. While most regions are projected to reach replacement level fertility — or the rate at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next — sub-Saharan Africa's population is on course to more than double between now and 2050.
Reduce food loss and waste
So much food is wasted every day, if we can just work on public education, we may able to save some and send it to poor countries
Boost crop yields
Boosting yields is particularly important in sub-Saharan Africa, which currently has the world's lowest cereal yields but will account for one-third of all additional calories needed in 2050.
Improve land and water management
Conservation agriculture — such as reduced tillage, crop rotations and mulching — increased maize yields in Malawi. Combining these techniques with agroforestry — intercropping with trees — further increased yields. These practices could be scaled up on more than 300 million hectares in sub-Saharan Africa.
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I have almost completed a database to compile all known information on the stability of medications in hot, humid environments. My goal is to improve the formulary management and safety of medications in clinics in the developing world by having information more readily accessible regarding proper beyond-use dating. Please see my website here: http://medicineproject.wikispaces.com.
I am looking for someone who has a good working relationship with a clinic or pharmacy in the developing world that does not have or has limited access to climate control (air-conditioning or dehumidifiers). I am looking to work with that clinic on developing beyond-use dates for their formulary as a pilot to test the feasibility of this database. Is anyone interested? Please write below or send me a message.
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Hi Alex
I am from Pakistan.Iknow someone who can be of help if u need?
let me know as this sounds interesting.
thanks
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Global Health Law brings attention to critical aspects of law that anyone interested in global health needs to be concerned about. Should sexual and reproductive health and human rights be part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is of critical importance not just for the global health agenda but for people's well being over the next decades.
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The UN says "At Rio+20 - the UN Conference on Sustainable Development - countries agreed to establish an intergovernmental process to develop a set of "action-oriented, concise and easy to communicate" sustainable development goals (SDGs) to help drive the implementation of sustainable development."  (http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1565)
One of the thematic areas is health and population dynamics. On the website under this topic it says "Many participants stressed the importance of sexual and reproductive health education and rights for young people and their linkage to the ability to get education and employment, especially for girls. This was also seen as a way of empowerment. "
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Medical devices and interventions, have been developed specifically for low-resource settings, and aim to be of low cost, easy to use, and culturally appropriate. But these devices commonly fail to reach scale of production and implementation in their intended markets. Some international organisations have emphasised the ability of global health technologies to support universal health coverage.The difficult last mile translation (eg, the final phase when the product is finally delivered to patients and providers) for existing, highly effective medical devices has to first be addressed to improve health-care in low-resource settings.
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I'm from Brazil and I think it depends on what kind of technology you are talking about. Remember we have already an universal converage system here, but it is far from perfect.
If we're talking about new medical devices (specially in the field of orthopedics, general surgery, etc.) ans high cost medicines (ex: oncology) this things are devastating to our health system: its high cost and our huge taxes that makes this things virtually impossible to cover. Industries pressure for coverave of this items via judiciary system and it is breaking coverage equity (many cities are broken because of health judicial demands).
I'm not talking about the cost of the drug or device itself, but about the very limited benefit associated with them (high cost with low or no benefit for the patient and limited impact on populational health).
But there are some inclusive technologies that helps people, like mobile e-health devices, educational online tools, etc. These technologies are welcome here and they may promote positive impact on health outcoomes.
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My project is about community-based management of hypertension in developing countries. I managed to secure about 80% of my project costs, but I am still short of about 20% of of my project costs. Does anyone know who I should approach or what I should do? Your comments and suggestions will be highly appreciated.
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You also could try to request some help from pharmaceutical companies
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There is no uniform definition of this right within the international framework. Someone has suggested the distinction between "core elements" of the right to health, and other conditions that could impair the right (i.e right to health environment, clean water etc...). The latter also overlaps, in some features, with the right to life. What's your opinion?
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Because "health" is a state there can be no right to have it. There can and must be a socially agreed upon right to a package of things that effect health (including public health interventions) to allow each individual to maximize their own health within resource constraints agreed upon by their society. Agreeing upon a global package (other than a bear minimum) is essentially impossible though because resource availability differs so much.
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There are various frameworks that are available to assess global health governance, but there is not in my knowledge any framework for for assessing governance at global health.
Also I want to ask about the role of influential and non-influential countries at global health governance, do they have the same say in global health matters?
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Adeel
Have you made any progress with your idea?
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It is recommended to correct the sample size when leading a community randomized controlled trial that considers the community as a research unit and not individuals or households. I would like to know if this recommendation is to be applied.
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Yes - you must allow for clustering by community in both the power calculation and the statistical analysis. There are plenty of papers available showing how this is done. try this web page:
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One health vs. global health?
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My understanding is that one health is a strategy to specifically address zoonosis - it is the name of a specific strategy which various bodies are involved in, including the European Union: http://eeas.europa.eu/health/pandemic_readiness/index_en.htm . Global health is a much broader concept, which is also normative. I've written a discussion paper with a colleague on definitions of global health, and the evolution of global health, which I attach here.
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Could anyone point me towards any papers investigating research/audit capacity in resource poor settings (low and middle income countries)?
I'm interested in looking at work being undertaken in this area, but it seems to be rather neglected and I haven't turned up much on PubMed or Google Scholar. Audit in particular is an essential component of local quality improvement, yet from my recent experience of working in the Republic of Congo and Rwanda, this is an area in need of considerable development.
Many thanks!
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For anyone following this thread, you might be interested to know the the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine have just published a WHO sponsored supplement entirely devoted to "Narrowing the knowledge gap in sub-Saharan Africa".
The link is provided below.
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For example skills of anesthesia (intubation, use of curare and hypnotic drugs), emergency surgery (chest tube, tracheostomy, caesarean section), orthopedics (external fixation pelvis and long bones), ultrasound.
I think it is important to define the core competencies essential to a physician who works with low resources in a developing country. This will have to be the basis of sustainable training.
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ATLS ;-)
Did anyone mention radiological skills yet, in the suggested setting particularly conventional X-Ray.
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This has been on my mind for quite a while. Most people in academia refer to developing countries as "resource limited" or "deprived" or "third world". I do not agree with using such terminologies as we are not quite clear what type of resource we are talking about. Because they are definitely not resource limited when it comes to culture, history, or natural resources (such as mines). What do you think? Isn't it time to stop referring to them as resource limited?
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I also struggle with what is the most appropriate terms to use that correctly reflect different countries' situations without being pejorative. The trouble for many older people is that the terminology of "Third World" was drummed into them during the Cold War to indicate non-aligned countries (First World = USA & allies, Second World = USSR & allies) and so it has become an unconscious reflex to use it.
I disagree with Jagdish that we need a new way of classifying countries. We already have too many and another will further add to the confusion. My preference is to use the World Bank HIC, MIC, LIC classification, with a fallback on "Developed" (HIC) and "Developing" (MIC/LIC) if I want to make a binary distinction. I agree with Susan that we should try to aim for geographical terms if appropriate. There may be a case to use "resource limited" if one is clear about what is the resource that is limited.
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We have made major progress toward elimination of polio as a major threat in most of the world. Yet coxsackieviruses and other enteroviruses, some causing symptoms similar to those of polio, may become emerging threats. I welcome broad participation of a discussion on this topic, especially as news media are currently reporting on polio-like illnesses among children in California, USA, and elsewhere.
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This is not a topic in my experience.
But in Cameroon, my country, major effors are done to eradicate cases of poliomyelitis. Vaccinations against poliomyelitis are performed in children, systematically at birth, and during childhood vaccinations. Vaccination campaigns are systematically done in children aged from 2 years.
In Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, a national laboratory, researchers focus on this topics and manyresearches and publications are made.
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Aedes albopictus continues to expand geographically as an invasive species in various parts of the world, where it may alter the epidemiological profile of viral diseases such as dengue and Chikungunya. As Zika virus continues to emerge in new locations, diversity of competent vectors besides Aedes aegypti will be a matter of concern. I am seeking input about unpublished data as well as speculation by entomologists and other scientists with relevant experience.
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