Global Health - Science topic
Global health is the health of populations in a global context and transcends the perspectives and concerns of individual nations. It has been defined as 'the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide.
Questions related to Global Health
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health problem. Infected patients usually have respiratory symptoms due to lung involvements. However, liver impairments could be another findings.
So does Covid-19 affect liver functions & how?
i am student of Master in global health. i am currently doing thesis on analysis of social health insurance In Pakistan in the context of achieving UHC through programmatic analysis in a rural district.
My study sample involves beneficiaries of the insurance program, empaneled hospital managers, Insurance company staff, and and health insurance program representatives.
Since, my study involves different stakeholder and beneficiaries of the program , i am not sure how to choose sample size, what will be reference population?
i am collecting data both through questionnaire and semi structured interviews
In light of the Pandemic and the impact, it has had on the global health system I am curious to learn at this point how countries have been able to provide training opportunities for their BScN students. Of course, this is set in the backdrop of the latest research findings that show there is no difference between traditional clinical practice and structured hours spent in simulation activities as a substitute.
in my classes about global health issues I often use Gapminder tools to visualize macroregional differences. On our last seminar, we talked about two key indicators - life expectancy and income, and how that can be linked together. In Gapminder, countries are devided also according to WB to so called Income groups. I discussed with students, that there are still differences within one income group still, and one example we showed , is a more than 20 years gap difference in life expectancy between countries of Nicaragua and Papua New Guinea. They both belong to Income group No.2, have almost identical GDP/capita income, and still a huge difference in their life expectancy indicator (sse the picture). Does anybody here can share some insights, why it is so? Is there such a difference in health care system of those countries with very similar macroeconomic indicator? I will appreciate any idea realated to that. Thank you!
COVID-19 exposed many divisions among countries and prevented the formation of a united front to combat this pandemic. Even the very closely networked blocs such as ASEAN and EU failed to coordinate their efforts to combat COVID-19 because of national interest. Undermining the world organizations such as WHO, ICOJ, and the United nation various agencies are not painting a very good picture of what to come in the future. Can globalization survive?
One of my dearest professors has recommended me to a global health professor in a great US university to pursue a Ph.D. in global health. And, the second professor also is inviting me to apply there. What is your opinion about a Ph.D. in global health? Do you think it is not a time-wasting process to follow global health in an academic setting? Some say, for global health, you should be in the playfield and not in the classrooms! What What do you think? Also what between Ph.D. and a MPH in global health? Please share your opinion; your thoughts are constructive for me.
The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet
the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice
for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus
This year’s Nobel Prize is awarded to three scientists who have made a decisive contribution to the fight against blood-borne hepatitis, a major global health problem that causes cirrhosis and liver cancer in people around the world.
Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice made seminal discoveries that led to the identification of a novel virus, Hepatitis C virus. Prior to their work, the discovery of the Hepatitis A and B viruses had been critical steps forward, but the majority of blood-borne hepatitis cases remained unexplained. The discovery of Hepatitis C virus revealed the cause of the remaining cases of chronic hepatitis and made possible blood tests and new medicines that have saved millions of lives.
Significance of this Nobel Prize-awarded discovery
The Nobel Laureates’ discovery of Hepatitis C virus is a landmark achievement in the ongoing battle against viral diseases (Figure 2). Thanks to their discovery, highly sensitive blood tests for the virus are now available and these have essentially eliminated post-transfusion hepatitis in many parts of the world, greatly improving global health. Their discovery also allowed the rapid development of antiviral drugs directed at hepatitis C. For the first time in history, the disease can now be cured, raising hopes of eradicating Hepatitis C virus from the world population. To achieve this goal, international efforts facilitating blood testing and making antiviral drugs available across the globe will be required.
CONGRATS to these great, remarkable and lucky scientists.
Shalom and pax
Although anemia is a significant global health issue, it is not associated with high mortality or morbidity. True or false?
These days, people are discussing about pro-environmental and protective notions in their life all over the world. It seems this level of consideration should be navigated to a sustainable path. What do you think about it?
Global cases are now more than 16.4 million and died nearly 660,000 worldwide from COVID-19. USA has nearly 4.3 million cases, Brazil tops 2.4 million and India has more than 1.4 million cases. Russia has more than 800,000 COVID-19 cases and South Africa tops 400,000 cases. USA, Latin America and South Asia are still hot spots, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University.
Covid-19 is "easily the most severe" global health emergency the World Health Organization (WHO) has ever declared, the head of the WHO, Dr Tedros Ghebreyesus, said.
After six months of Corona crisis we have gathered more experiences from different countries from their mistakes and successes. World war has been started against a tiny virus and we actually failed in the initial stage. There is still chance to control the spread of coronavirus to save lives.
Data source: 27 July 2020, BBC & JHU
Health care and health service priorities are complex - particularly at the global level. Different countries and different communities (national and international) have different resources, different political systems, and different priorities. Which are the most important?
What is your opinion ?
Instead, there is advantage in terms of communication and understanding only ?
Do you have any idea of how it may impact the following -
What are Health effects ?
How it effects sustainability ?
Is there any study on growth impacts ?
What about energy and environment ?
How it impacts the ecology and environment ?
How it impacts the local economy ?
PhD is considered as the highest degree one can get from the university and also is recognized worldwide. What is expected out of a PhD degree, the holder and the providing institutes ? What are expectations of society and science from them ?
Do you have any idea of how it may impact the following -
What are Health effects ?
How it effects sustainability ?
Is there any study on growth impacts ?
What about energy and environment ?
How it impacts the ecology and environment ?
How it impacts the local economy ?
In the latest publication of The Lancet Global Health, I noticed that still antimicrobial resistance remains as the biggest challenge of this planet to fight against infectious diseases. Why the global community fails to address the challenge despite different interventions around the Globe?
What do you think we should do to create a global society that will be less vulnerable for future pandemics to occur?
Being right in the middle of the COVID-19 storm, everyone is hoping for a quick fix such as a vaccine. In his blog Martin Paul suggests that finding a magic bullet has the highest priority. We, the Global Health Team at Health Ethics and Society of Maastricht University, don’t want to question the priority of working on acute and effective medical solutions in itself, however, with regards to framing the crisis, some more nuances can be made. Do we really just have to sit and wait, complying to some frustrating public health measures, for the new Nobel Prize candidate, like Paul Ehrlich, or for any outbreak-movie-like-action-hero to valiantly save us from the invisible threat?
We all wish that they would exist, these magic bullets (simple solutions with extreme effectiveness). However, just as Bill Gates already abandoned this idea, we teach our Global Health students that they do not. Sadly, none of the solutions to health problems are in and of themselves magic or heroic. All medical interventions and technologies, whether drugs, vaccines, ventilators or diagnostics need daily human handwork (engaging relationships between healthcare workers, decision makers and patients) to function at all. If there is any magic at play, it is created through this human work and collaboration. This work shapes how these solutions are put to use and how effective they are in the end. Yet, this work is not prioritized or talked about when we search for magic bullets. Instead, the belief in magic bullets and their heroes leads to a single focus on targeted and vertical solutions to global health issues. Such vertical solutions are limited in scope and distributed unequally over populations defined by fuzzy and messy lines of affluence and access.
Importantly, the belief in magic bullets and its effect on innovation processes is directing funding and attention away from other things that highly matter, such as focusing on the structural and causal issues that helped the virus spillover and spread into the human population at the first place. We have been warned long in advance by epidemiologists and environmentalists that - due to our high global connectivity and the ways in which we are disrupting ecosystems and exploiting wildlife and other animals - it was not a question if a pandemic would strike, but when it would strike. This also means that one imagined magic bullet against COVID-19 will not prevent the next zoonotic virus to spill over into the human world.
We should address this crisis with urgent and immediate measures, yes. However, we should also emphasize the importance of not losing sight of addressing the more structural and systemic questions and issues that emerge if we look at the larger picture of this disease. Think for example of the need for the strengthening of health systems, of reducing inequalities that possibly exacerbate the effects of the virus in ways we do not yet understand, and of thoroughly questioning the way we are currently meddling recklessly with our planetary ecological health support system.
We should not just mention prevention and public health measures as if they were just a temporarily and frustrating sidekick of the hero with its bullet-gun. This would be following and promoting the strategy that averts attention from one of the most crucial questions raised by our present situation: what should we do to create a global society that will be less vulnerable for future pandemics to occur?
We need concerted efforts and interdisciplinary approaches, including the social sciences, to understand our current situation and to prepare ourselves for the future.
Carijn Beumer, Nora Engel, Alana Helberg-Proctor, Iris Fraikin, Ricky Janssen, Gonnie Klabbers, Anja Krumeich, Agnes Meershoek, Remco van de Pas, Avanti Wadugodapitiya: The Global Health Team at Health Ethics and Society of Maastricht University
Redactie - 01-Apr-2020 12:40
A vaccine is seen as the most likely avenue for defeating the novel coronavirus and alleviating a worldwide health crisis that has killed at least 734,900 people and decimated national economies. Western regulators have said repeatedly that they do not expect a vaccine to become widely available before the end of the year at the earliest.
Around the world, more than 30 vaccines — out of a total of more than 165 under development — are now in various stages of human trials. Currently, eight vaccines have entered the final phase of mass human testing, including ones produced by Moderna in the United States, Oxford University and AstraZeneca in Britain and several Chinese companies.
A niche question, but does anyone have a recommendation for scientific journals with a focus on the place laboratory medicine holds within crisis/disasters/global health apart from the traditional larger journals?
To be precise, I am interested in those that air thoughts and research at the intercept of diagnostic laboratory medicine and health systems/policy/preparedness in the context of crisis and disasters.
Media discourses around the coronavirus pandemic tend towards metaphorical expressions such as the war against an invisible enemy, of the ecosystem balance so that the Earth returns to its original status. For this reason, expressions of legitimization of police and military violence have been seen to achieve social isolation. There are dangers in these metaphors since they do not focus on health education, but exacerbate autocracy and state violence.
I hold a medical degree and completing a master program in Global Health. I am looking for PhD funding options for a research project among sub-saharan Africa migrants in Spain. Any suggestions on where I could look?
The conduct of the World Health Organization has sparked much controversy within Western Countries. Many believe, firstly, that he alerted the world of danger with guilty delay and secondly that he turned his concerns towards less affected states while in Europe and the USA the pandemic was causing thousands of victims. Some funding country decided to drastically reduce the funds directed to the organization. After the COVID-19 pandemic, will it still make sense for Western Countries to be part of this type of organization? Will WHO need to be reformed or replaced by a new and more efficient structure? Does it make sense that, as many claim, the conduct of an organization that should protect global health responds to purely political logic?
Human tuberculosis (TB), a devastating disease caused by the gram-positive, acid-fast eubacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was classified as a global health emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993. TB remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases with an estimated 1.8 million deaths occurring per year, mainly in the developing world (World Health
In light of the inability of the global health systems in front of the Corona pandemic. A lot ask which is the most important, expenditure on space conquest and arms race or increased interest in developing the health sector, medicine and food research?
So most universities around the globe have been shutdown in these strange and testing times. Researchers, particularly those from the developing countries face a unique dilemma; Having collected data in paper form, we are now stuck on whether or not to allow trained data entry personnel to take copies of the forms to their homes to allow for remote data entry. Data safety and ethics on one hand meeting deadlines and remaining productive on the other. Any insights, suggestions and experience sharing is welcomed.
We are in a war with Coronavirus, and we should look into all the available models to fight the virus. One of the widely discussed models is flattening the curve. Can we flatten the curve by social distancing, or we need both social and clinical interventions? Do you have an alternative approach to managing global health crises?
Let me start by stressing that this is not my field and i would like to get some facts about COVID-19.
As the new corona virus continues to spread across the globe in most of the continents including Asia, Europe, N. America, and now Africa, we should face the fact that there is a possibility/chance that we may be exposed to COVID-19. World Health Organisation has already declared that the Corona Virus infection is a Global Health Emergency.
I have perused through alot of information on the web, but there isn't a general scientific consensus on the above issue.
This brings me to my questions:
- Is it a fact that an individual (both young and old) can boost their immunity against COVID-19?
- If yes, what are some of the approaches one can take to achieve an increased resistance /immunity to the novel COVID-19?
Thanks for your responses.
With all the medical intervention and mass drug administration over the last 10 years or so with soil transmitted helminths, do the figures reported in 2004-2006 for global infection rates still stand?
I'm currently canvassing the literature for widely used theory-based models of Quality of Life, and was wondering which ones the community generally feels have the best practical utility and empiricial evidence base. I have also been looking at domain-based frameworks such as the PERMA+ model, but would like to cast a wider net. Global, health specific, population specific--I'm Interested in them all :)
Does anyone know of an international health dataset that contains the prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (with any of the diagnostic criteria sets), type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome by country?
Are you interested in Medical and Veterinary Entomology as well as Global Health?
An Entomology Summer School, entitled “Hands on’ Course on Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Significance: A global perspective, from theory to practice”, will be held from the 26th till the 30th of August 2019 at the National Vet School of Toulouse (ENVT), France.
Please find the complete programme leaflet attached to this message.
The course will encompass topics such as arthropod-borne diseases, resistance in arthropod populations, control tools, principles of laboratory rearing and morphological identification of arthropods of medical and veterinary importance (i.e. mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, fleas, ticks, mites, etc.).
The course targets entomologists, postgraduate students in this field, , post-doctoral scientists ACVM and EVPC residents, pest control professionals and the like.
Applications to attend will be accepted until the 31st of March.
See you in Toulouse?!
The development of the database technology makes a variety of data and medical information is stored in digital form, visualization and present in the form of big data. Currently, healthcare screened utilizes the big data is word in the development stage. Big data starts to be used to expand insight and improve the quality of healthcare. This paper provides information related to the integration of big data in healthcare. Source for big data in healthcare is presented. Opportunities, according, and challenges in the integration process of big data in healthcare are also described.
An obvious answer would be tar, but I can't find any analytical evidence for this. I have even found some weak evidence* against this. It seems that it's not even one particular substance.
Haemosiderin is sometimes implicated, but acculumation of this compound is seen equally in smokers and non-smokers.**
*Joyce K. Newman PhD , A. E. Vatter PhD & O. K. Reiss PhD (1967) Chemical and Electron Microscopic Studies of the Black Pigment of the Human Lung, Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 15:4, 420-429, DOI: 10.1080/00039896.1967.10664943
** Craig, P. J., Wells, A. U., Doffman, S., Rassl, D., Colby, T. V., Hansell, D. M., ... & Nicholson, A. G. (2004). Desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and their relationship to smoking. Histopathology, 45(3), 275-282, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2004.01921.x
Tuberculosis is still a major health problem in most developing countries and its incidence is rising in many developed countries. This resurgence has been attributed to the HIV epidemic and TB has been declared as a global health emergency by WHO in 1993. The diagnosis of tuberculosis mainly depends upon initial clinical suspicion and radiographic findings with subsequent bacteriological confirmation by sputum smear examination and culture. Lack of sensitivity in smear examination, non specificity of radiological findings, extended tum around time ofMycobacterium tuberculosis culture and difficulties in diagnosing paucibacillary, childhood and extrapulmonary tuberculosis has necessitated to explore the utility of immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis as a convenient and cost effective test to supplement clinical information for definite diagnosis. Many commercial tests are available in the market for diagnosis of TB. Most of these tests are based on the detection of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to specific mycobacterial antigen or mixture of antigens. Indigenous immunoassay systems have explored excretory-secretory ES-31 mycobacterial antigen for immunodiagnosis of TB. Many a time there is lack of consistent elevation in all the three Ig classes in active infection thus making it more important to determine the ideal antibody isotype assay for reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis and to save the costs of the patient for unnecessary investigations.
1. It is well known that fasting has a very positive effects on our health. Some doctors advise their patients few days fasting
2. Moreover, fasting means consuming less and therefore less energy is used. Finally we will end up with less carbon dioxide emissions and slow down the effects of global warming.
Please share your ideas with us.....
I am currently on a sabbatical in Colombia. Most of my time has been spent here finishing up previous projects and planning new ones. Being on sabbatical has been such a joy and I'd love to share this with others. If anyone else has interest in this, whether for advancement of work in global health or just out of personal interest, please let me know. You can also see my blog here: drkirschsabbatical.wordpress.com. Mostly about birds and fruit, I have been writing about giving assistance to others interested in taking a sabbatical. I'd love any feedback as well.
I would like to understand the current landscape of patterns in the diagnosis/ treatment and outcome measure of current therapeutic interventions that are available in LMICs for cancer.
Sir, I wish to be one of the collaborators in the study. I have certain amount of experience in global health, and would love to do much more... I belong to India and have many country's experience working/reviewing their health systems. I shall appreciate your kind response
I have just enrolled in the Johns Hopkins Global Health Certificate program as I plan on doing research in the global community as well as working in countries outside of the U.S. during breaks from teaching. How has this program worked for you? Since I am joining a medical mission to Peru for 10 days this summer, I am hoping this education will be applicable and helpful.
The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic oral health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions that is the core of oral health literacy, would like to know how and through what modalities they are carried out around the globe, please share you insights.
What are the perspectives within the biopsychosocial model.
Applying concepts from the biopsychosocial model, including systems, reductionism and holism using topics related to local and/or global health issues using the biopsychosocial model
Can anyone help please? Thanks
I am researching for effective models and approaches to deliver effective and sustainable improvements. Consulting by experts to identify and solve problems, projects to deliver services to the unserved, training of healthcare professionals, etc. are some of the donor-funded activities being implemented in developing countries. However, their effectiveness and sustainability are in often in question as well as the effective impact of international multilateral, bilateral, non-governmental and charitable organizations. What standards need to be met to demonstrate effectiveness, efficient use of all resources available and sustainability?
We all know that Zika has circulated in Africa in the past and possibly conferred immunity in the populations of these settings. Except to that, I will look for having additional insights from all of you.
Hi, I am doing research on light, melatonin and the effects of melatonin on health. I couldn't find any systematic review or recent review on this topic. Can anyone please advise?
The use of ethnographic method to evaluate compliance with protocol.
In an hour I have half an hour of time with ex-WHO director of Medices Hans Hogerzeil. Have you ever wanted to ask him a meaningful question, feel free to post it!
As ZIKV RNA can be detected in the saliva, can the saliva be used as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. And what are the disadvantages?
I'm having trouble with a project. I am using ONS deprivation indices (https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/english-indices-of-deprivation-2015)
which assign deprivation indices according to postcode/LSOA.
My problem is that I'm unsure what to do regarding homeless people. Since they have no postcode, I can't assign a deprivation score. Homeless people are a 'deprived' population, however the deprivation indices is an area level index. One option would be to exclude them from the deprivation analysis, but this would then underestimate the impact of 'deprivation'.
Would be interested to hear from anyone with experience in this.
... who out there would prioritize communicable vs noncommunicable disease (trauma being categorized as non communicable disease)? Both require urgent attention in all stages but the transition from acute to chronic health care provision in war and conflict settings seems to be a major gap.
Currently specialization divides medical disciplines into sectors, much like slices of a cake. The results are that (i) patients with multiple morbidities are shunted from one doctor to another to another etc., (ii) it is impossible to have all the necessary specialists in one place unless that place is sufficiently large (and wealthy), (iii) emergency cover is unsustainable in all areas unless certain specialists double for others, (iv) the inevitable consequence is that a specialists, even if perfectly trained and competent, cannot deal with a patient with a malady accorded to a different specialty than his own, (v) specialists leave the simpler aspects of their field to their juniors, as they prefer to deal with the complex, "more interesting" issues (except in private practice). (vi) the system is more and more expensive to run, (vii) specialization leads to further "super-specialization" and further fragmentation of medicine, (viii) the model is exported to LMICs with catastrophic results as they cannot afford nor accommodate such a system, (ix) inevitably medical schools will be pushed to limit training of their students pertaining to their final specialty destination, (x) the specialties are themselves not defined and "turf wars" are created in bordering areas of practice, both in terms of departmental control and patient care.
There is no proper definition of the generalist, neither in medicine nor surgery. Yet, on the shoulders of this dying breed rests the burden of most "ordinary" patients' treatment worldwide.
Where therefore are we going? Is it not time to define the "Generalist" as a "Specialist" in his own right, and let him deal with the central part of the cake, leaving the periphery to be divided by the particulate specialists?
After all, everyone knows that the cherry is usually in the middle of the cake.
Can it be considered as a global health issue? If so is there a specific type of depression that is most predominant in adolescence that should be addressed.
If anyone has any research information on this topic I would be grateful especially information on recommended solutions. Also if there are specific countries that have a higher prevalence.
I am primarily interested in valid/reliable instruments that were used outside the U.S. Especially instruments which measured nutrition educational processes through cultural erudition models such as Africentrism, etc.
I'm aware of the WHO and THET guidelines, but wondered if there are other papers detailing the process or evaluations of medical equipment donations to resource-poor settings? Many thanks! Ed
I am currently working on reverse innovation in global health care and I am trying to assess the growth of the phenomenon
I'm wondering if the common understanding of health project managers about the vector borne diseases is global issue why they deal with it locally, although that will not fix it at all, because even if we thought it disappear it's going to re emerge soon.
I am interested in furthering the agenda around integrative medicine in Asia Pacific and wondered if there is any documentation of policy approaches to this.
I know that this is one of the forms of violence against women and I am interested in this particular topics as a possible area of research for my studies.
I'm specifically looking at the intergenerational aspect of historical trauma in Native Americans and its relationship to adverse health outcomes (cortisol effects maybe?).
There's some great info re: relationship of HT to mental health issues (Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, Eduardo/Bonnie Duran and Joseph Gone) and some re: Holocaust survivors (Baronowsky), but looking for more info and anything you might know of specifically related to physiologic changes? Many thanks!
The earth’s population may grow by three billion in the next 50 years or so. The world’s ever-growing number of people points toward a greater demand for food in spite of the already-scarce resources. Famine, hunger and starvation are accordingly a major issue in poor countries worldwide! In your opinion, would the world’s food production/industry suffice to feed the hungry stomachs (given the land and water limitations/scarcity)? What are the world’s options in this respect?
Thanks so much for your contribution!
I have almost completed a database to compile all known information on the stability of medications in hot, humid environments. My goal is to improve the formulary management and safety of medications in clinics in the developing world by having information more readily accessible regarding proper beyond-use dating. Please see my website here: http://medicineproject.wikispaces.com.
I am looking for someone who has a good working relationship with a clinic or pharmacy in the developing world that does not have or has limited access to climate control (air-conditioning or dehumidifiers). I am looking to work with that clinic on developing beyond-use dates for their formulary as a pilot to test the feasibility of this database. Is anyone interested? Please write below or send me a message.
Global Health Law brings attention to critical aspects of law that anyone interested in global health needs to be concerned about. Should sexual and reproductive health and human rights be part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is of critical importance not just for the global health agenda but for people's well being over the next decades.
Medical devices and interventions, have been developed specifically for low-resource settings, and aim to be of low cost, easy to use, and culturally appropriate. But these devices commonly fail to reach scale of production and implementation in their intended markets. Some international organisations have emphasised the ability of global health technologies to support universal health coverage.The difficult last mile translation (eg, the final phase when the product is finally delivered to patients and providers) for existing, highly effective medical devices has to first be addressed to improve health-care in low-resource settings.
My project is about community-based management of hypertension in developing countries. I managed to secure about 80% of my project costs, but I am still short of about 20% of of my project costs. Does anyone know who I should approach or what I should do? Your comments and suggestions will be highly appreciated.
There is no uniform definition of this right within the international framework. Someone has suggested the distinction between "core elements" of the right to health, and other conditions that could impair the right (i.e right to health environment, clean water etc...). The latter also overlaps, in some features, with the right to life. What's your opinion?
There are various frameworks that are available to assess global health governance, but there is not in my knowledge any framework for for assessing governance at global health.
Also I want to ask about the role of influential and non-influential countries at global health governance, do they have the same say in global health matters?
It is recommended to correct the sample size when leading a community randomized controlled trial that considers the community as a research unit and not individuals or households. I would like to know if this recommendation is to be applied.
Could anyone point me towards any papers investigating research/audit capacity in resource poor settings (low and middle income countries)?
I'm interested in looking at work being undertaken in this area, but it seems to be rather neglected and I haven't turned up much on PubMed or Google Scholar. Audit in particular is an essential component of local quality improvement, yet from my recent experience of working in the Republic of Congo and Rwanda, this is an area in need of considerable development.
For example skills of anesthesia (intubation, use of curare and hypnotic drugs), emergency surgery (chest tube, tracheostomy, caesarean section), orthopedics (external fixation pelvis and long bones), ultrasound.
I think it is important to define the core competencies essential to a physician who works with low resources in a developing country. This will have to be the basis of sustainable training.
This has been on my mind for quite a while. Most people in academia refer to developing countries as "resource limited" or "deprived" or "third world". I do not agree with using such terminologies as we are not quite clear what type of resource we are talking about. Because they are definitely not resource limited when it comes to culture, history, or natural resources (such as mines). What do you think? Isn't it time to stop referring to them as resource limited?
We have made major progress toward elimination of polio as a major threat in most of the world. Yet coxsackieviruses and other enteroviruses, some causing symptoms similar to those of polio, may become emerging threats. I welcome broad participation of a discussion on this topic, especially as news media are currently reporting on polio-like illnesses among children in California, USA, and elsewhere.
Aedes albopictus continues to expand geographically as an invasive species in various parts of the world, where it may alter the epidemiological profile of viral diseases such as dengue and Chikungunya. As Zika virus continues to emerge in new locations, diversity of competent vectors besides Aedes aegypti will be a matter of concern. I am seeking input about unpublished data as well as speculation by entomologists and other scientists with relevant experience.