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The SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic has, in some respects, through interrupted chains of international supply and supply logistics, reduced the scale of economic globalisation processes. On the other hand, the need for the development of remote Internet communication has increased due to the introduction of home quarantine periods and lockdowns imposed on selected sectors of the economy in 2020. Consequently, the scale of internetisation and digitalisation of various aspects of business conducted by companies and enterprises has increased. As a result of the growth of the Internet, the importance of information globalisation has increased in terms of remote Internet-based communication. In a multi-year perspective, the importance of environmental and pro-climate globalisation may increase in the future. In view of the above, how else will globalisation processes change in this decade of the 21st century? Will the current energy crisis, the unfolding food crisis, the migration crisis
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Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Over the past decades, a number of sources of globalization have emerged. One of them is technological progress, which has led to a sharp reduction in transport and communication costs, a significant reduction the costs of processing, storing and using information.
The second source of globalization is trade liberalization and other forms of economic liberalization that have curtailed protectionist policies and made world trade freer. As a result there were tariffs have been substantially reduced, and many other barriers to trade in goods and services have been removed. Other liberalization measures have led to an increase in the movement of capital and other factors of production.
The third source of globalization can be considered a significant expansion of the scope of organizations, which became possible both as a result of technological progress and wider horizons of management on basis of new means of communication. Thus, many companies that previously focused only on local markets have expanded their production and marketing capabilities, reaching the national, multinational, international and even global level.
Globalization brings not only benefits, it is fraught with negative consequences or potential problems, which some of its critics see as a great danger.
One of the main problems is related to the question: who benefits from globalization? In fact, most of the benefits are rich countries or individuals. The unfair distribution of the benefits of globalization gives rise to the threat of conflicts at the regional, national and international levels.
The second problem is related to potential regional or global instability due to the interdependence of national economies at the global level. Local economic fluctuations or crises in one country may have regional or even global implications.
The third set of problems posed by globalization is caused by the fear that control over the economies of individual countries may shift from sovereign governments to other hands, including the most powerful states, multinational or global corporations and international organizations.
Because of this, some see globalization as an attempt to undermine national sovereignty. For this reason, globalization can make national leaders feel helpless before its forces, and the electorate - antipathy towards her. Such sentiments can easily turn into extreme nationalism and xenophobia with calls for protectionism, lead to the growth of extremist political movements, which is potentially fraught with serious conflicts.
The problem generated by globalization - the infringement of national sovereignty and the independence of political leaders - can also be largely resolved on the basis of international cooperation, for example, by a clear delineation of the powers of the parties, i.e. national governments and their leaders, on the one hand, and international organizations and multinational or global corporations, on the other. The very involvement of political leaders in building the necessary institutions to deal with these and other globalization-related issues will help them regain the sense that they are in control of their future and in control of their positions in the world.
Globalized world. In the meantime, unfortunately, the world is moving in the opposite direction, along the path of political and military dictate of a strong
weak, that in the context of globalization of all aspects of the life of the world community, it is fraught with a global confrontation.
The current crisis of the Western economy is not a recession because it is not cyclical and is not limited to 12-16 months. What is happening in the US and Europe today is a structural crisis, a process that began in the fourth quarter of 2021 and will continue for at least five years without interruption. However, the West does not understand the causes and essence of the crisis, because they do not have theories describing it. That is why, according to the economist, the American and European authorities are doing stupid things instead of effective measures to resolve problems.
It was impossible to avoid this crisis, because they went too far. They have expanded private consumption so much that they can no longer keep it. You need to name the main number. There is an indicator in the United States that they do not disclose in public discussion: this is the level of price growth for all industrial goods, not only for final goods entering the wholesale trade, but in general for everything, from raw materials to the final product. For the first time, the rise in prices for manufactured goods exceeded the level of the late 1970s. The previous peak was at the end of 1947. There are 23 with something percent.
The entire system of socio-political management in the West, both in the USA and in Europe, is built through representatives of the middle class, qualified consumers. Today this instrument is being destroyed. Instead of the middle class, new poor people appear, who have a middle-class attitude, but they have no money.
The sanctions pressure on Russia has exacerbated the economic problems of the West. European financiers note that EU politicians are afraid to take responsibility for decisions taken under the slogans of transatlantic solidarity and assistance to Ukraine.
In fact, this whole situation with global confrontation and the breakdown of the dollar system is disastrous for the United States not by economic factors, but by intellectual ones. Roughly speaking, Washington will undoubtedly lose to Moscow only because the US does not even have a concept of a plan to solve the colossal economic problems and save the dollar system.
Intellectual life in the US and Russia goes in opposite directions. The US has nothing left for a long time. There, no one can imagine even a weak positive scenario. The complete absence of any thought, not to mention the concept.
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•The first 7 SDGs is an extension of MDGs
•Second group is inclusiveness (jobs, infrastructure industrialization, and distribution).It includes goals 8, 9, and 10
•The third group is on sustainability and urbanization that covers the last seven goals
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The pandemic has drastically halted progress
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Economic globalization?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Economic globalization.
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Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
The issues of globalization of financial and banking systems are described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Dear Dariusz Prokopowicz thanks a lot for the suggested literature to discuss this topic. I would like to contribute considering that from the economic perspective, the integration of green programs into recovery plans could better rebuild the way industries operate, specially, after the COVID-19 pandemic, adopting innovative methods as the case of the so-called doughnut. It comprises an economic model that envisions a world in which people and planet can thrive in the balance based on the SDGs, as stated by its author Kate Raworth: ―As we all start thinking about how we will emerge from this crisis, let us seek to be holistic in how we reimagine and recreate the local-to-global futures of the places we live". Kind regards, Ernani
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Sustainable pro-ecological development of the global economy?
Probably the future of humanity depends on the next decade. If, over the next few years, renewable energy sources replacing traditional energy based on the burning of minerals are developed on a massive scale, it might be possible for humankind to avoid a climatic catastrophe in the 21st century. The international climate agreement that currently (December 2018) concluded in Katowice in Poland may be a late and insufficient agreement, because most countries do not intend to develop high-budget projects for the construction and development of power plants based on renewable energy sources. In addition, changes in the automotive industry, changes leading to the development of motorization in the direction of electromobility are too slow. The problem is serious because it concerns the future of all humanity in the perspective of the next two to three generations, yet the necessary changes and reforms in the implementation of economic principles of sustainable pro-ecological development are too slow. With the current pace of changes, there may be a shortage of time to implement the necessary pro-ecological undertakings, and then the problem of global warming will become an irreversible process and will constantly accelerate!
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Pro-ecological economic development is a pretty mouthful term.Both economic development and environment in a given economy are important. The balance between them is difficult. Finding a suitable model with respect to different economies( which are at different stages of development) is the need of time.An interesting ideas can be: "Finding a Sustainable Model for a particular industry or sector in a particular country or region". The sector may be power,agriculture,mining, forestry...anything.If it addresses the real problem of that society, it will be a great contribution. The issue of pro-ecological development rests on two things: first, the balance between our need and greed; second, local people participation.
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How does global warming affect the economy?
Global warming affects the geography within which the global economy operates. It changes growth zones. It changes shorelines. It changes the places where humans will feel comfortable living. In addition, if humans actually decide to do anything about it, it will change the way industry and people use fossil fuels.
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From January 2014 to December 2016, I conducted monthly field trips in three different areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh to investigate how butterflies survive in an inner-city habitat. I have found that the species richness (I did not count the species abundance) is declining with time.
Presently, I have:
* monthly species-specific data of three continuous years (36 continuous months) of the three different areas
* Four environmental variables (temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine hours)
* Pollution level
* IUCN Red List status
* Land-use analysis of these three different areas
Now, I am really confused considering the proper way to link these pieces of information! Could anyone of you please share some ideas?
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Look at the Material and Methods section. Perhaps it could help?
Best,
Guy
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I'm looking for community-level datasets older than 20 years, at the landscape spatial-scale (i.e. multiple survey points in space), for any taxa or region.
If you know any dataset with these characteristics, please list it in the answers (hopefully with a related reference or website).
Thank a lot for your help,
All the best for 2018!
Cheers,
David.-
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Any kind of community data. It could be an assessment of the entire community of any taxa, or a specific assemblage. And it could be species composition (presences-absences) or relative abundances; in just one survey or multiple surveys.
I am actually carrying out a review of databases suitable to the study of species redistribution in space and time due to environmental change, so the main filter is that it should have several survey points within a region and in a not-so-wide temporal window in the past to make predictions on the present composition of these communities using ecological modelling.
Thank for your answer Kenneth.
Cheers
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Thesis statements were given to us in our ecology class. One of which included the possible need to terraform a non-habitable planet due to drastic effects of human manipulation in natural occurrences of the environment. Given the fact that the earth's environment, which sustains life, should be followed, is it safe to say that terraforming might be a solution to the now depleting earth? Also, are there calculations as to which we will already be able to determine if terraforming is the only option?
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Terraforming, especially for a planet like Mars, would take millions of years but is possible when the time comes that the Earth cannot supply the resources we need. It would start with manned missions to the planet (which we haven't even done yet and wouls cost billions of dollars). It would also involve changing the planet's atmosphere to alleviate the planet's current harsh atmosphere. Creating domes or structures that people could live should also be done before having people stay in the planet. Moreover, studies show that even after alleviating Mars' atmosphere, people may still need to wear body suits in order to breathe efficiently in the said planet. In conclusion, humans proliferating Mars is possible yet would entail sufficient preparation and funds.
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As in the subject. I am looking for papers that look for the effects of nitrogen deposition on seeds/acorns chemial content/quality. I found a lot of papers on other tissues (like increase in N foliar concentration, phloem) but it seems like those on seeds are scare.
Anyone?
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Hope this papers can be useful
Regards, Moein
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Several tropical island in the Lesser Antilles are experiencing massive sargassum arrivals on their coast. They consist in large dense rafts of algae that impact heavily seagrass through light interception, dissolved oxygen decrease, H2S emissions.
Some of these rafts reach coastal mangrove forests. I am wondering if they may impact significantly mangrove ecosystem functioning ? Did you observe such impacts in other parts of the world (Florida, Louisiana, elsewhere) ? What part of the ecosystem is / could be impacted e.g., mangrove trees, crabs, epibionts, birds, ?
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Hello Felix, I'm glad you included an illustration of the scale of the problem. From and nutrient point of view small to medium scale inputs of organic matter into mangroves over medium to long time periods may not be much of a problem for mangrove trees, since most mangrove forests are nutrient limited. However, substrate is also important here. I imagine that in the Lesser Antilles mangroves are growing on realitively well aerated sediments compared to mangroves in large estuaries where sediments are already reducing.....so even medium scale inputs of labile organic matter (e.g. Sargassum) could cause sediments to go anoxic and hence effect tree health and survival.
I don't know of other systems that have this sacle of macroalgal input, but you might want to look at an old paper of mine (Robertson and Phillips 1995) to see a model of feedbacks that may occur when large amounts of allochthonous organic matter are delivered to mangroves over long time periods. The quantities of sargassum you show in your picture, if trapped in mangrove forests for a medium to long period are likely to have a significant negetive impacts on many aspects of system structure and function, including survival of trees (via greatly decreased redox potentials in what are probably naturally oxidising sediments), burrowing infauna (via decrease oxygen or smothering) - with further de-oxygenation of soils through loss of animal burrows. With these losses there would be a trophic cascade effect, with negative impacts on a variety of ecosystem services including habitat amenity for resident and transient fauna.
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It is known that woody encroachment is occurring in grassland worldwide. I want to know which factors will affect this process, please give me some relating references.
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In arid and semi-arid tropics there are many possible causes, and the often advocated one, 'overgrazing' not always obvious. Changes in run-off/run-on balances in relation with landuse changes can explain some of the observed dynamics. It is important to consider the mode of dispersion of the woody species: the encroachment of pioneer shrubs that followed the droughts of the 70's and 80's in Sahel was in part due to wind dispersed seed species such as Calotropis procera and Leptadenia pyrotechnica...
Hiernaux P., Diarra L., Trichon V., Mougin, E., Baup F., 2009, Woody plant population dynamics in response to climate changes from 1984 to 2006 in Sahel (Gourma, Mali). Journal of Hydrology, 375 (1-2): 103-113