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Since 2001, warming increasing repeatedly as global average temperatures in 2015 were 1 degree Celsius or more above the 1880-1899. The rapid declining of Arctic sea ice both the extent and thickness, over the last several decades and retreating of glaciers i.e. the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa around the world. Does pollutant or increasing GHG is the main reason for changing in temperature globally?
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Surge-type glaciers exhibit cyclic behavior between long periods of the quiescent phase and shorter periods of the active phase, during which ice surface velocities increase by up to at least an order of magnitude. And during surges, a significant volume of the entire ice mass rapidly transferred from the reservoir to the receiving area, leading to dramatic changes in the surface height and an advance of the glacier terminus often, but not always, takes place, as well as forming newer crevasses and looped moraines. The quiescent phase, surge-type glacier flows slowly, is a period of relative stagnation during which the lower portion of the glacier thins and mass builds up in an upper, reservoir area.
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Dear YongPeng
You may want to have a look at the following papers:
Copland et al. 2003. Journal of Glaciology 36, 73-81.
Grant et al. 2009. Annals of Glaciology 55, 960-972.
Good luck
John
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I would request if anyone kindly elaborate in detail or step by step...! Your suggestions will be highly appreciated.
Thank you
Regards,
Arindam
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Check out this paper:
Altena, B. & Kääb, A., 2017. Elevation Change and Improved Velocity Retrieval Using Orthorectified Optical Satellite Data from Different Orbits. Remote Sensing, 9(3). DOI:10.3390/rs9030300
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Sentinel imagery is widely used for the estimation of glacier velocity according to the literature.
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Kindly request you clarify on this issues. Plus, how significantly such methane contribution--if yes-- is worsening the global warming?
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I am looking at glacier change in the Andes. I am using SPSS for my statistics. I have been provided with discharge data also, for which I would need to look for a relationship between glacier area, temperature, and river flow over a specific time period of 7 years. Temperature is given in daily minimum/maximums, river flow is monthly, and area change is yearly. Thanks :)
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Yes, Daniel Wright, at least partly. But I was also trying to understand whether there are explanatory and outcome variables versus simply looking at associations among the 3 variables.
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Dear colleagues,
I struggle to identify these sediments, which I suspect to be fluvio-glacials deposits alluvial from melting glaciers in Eemian.
The area where this conglomerate is exposed have a bed from recent Riss and located 500 km from the Alps (eastern France)...
I'm not expert, so I would be grateful for anyhelp.
In the geological map, I cercled in violet the light yellow area (Recent Riss).
Thank you !
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The paleoenvironment of this deposit should be studied according to the facies associations. But according to you, and as well as the roundness of the grains, it is probably a glaciofluvial deposit.
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At the beginning of September last year, I took these pictures in front of the Qaleraliq glacier (61°01'30.2"N - 46°37'49.3"W), which is located near Narsaq in South Greenland. I´m still deeply impressed of the transparency of these icebergs. First I wondered if this ice consists of frozen melt water. But then I saw small caves of about 10 cm, looking like large air bubbles (yellow circles in fig.3 and 4). Unfortunately there was no way for me to take closer pictures.
I think this ice has changed over a long period of time due to the influence of extreme pressure. Could it be that the air could no longer escape and combined to form such bubbles?
Does anyone know of studies or knowledge of the conditions under which such ice forms?
I look forward to your assessments.
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INFINITELY THANK YOU for such an impressive clarification and practical demonstration of the detached glacier, appreciated Frank T. Edelmann!
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During April, 2021, the long overdue movement of Alaska's largest glacier began.
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Dear Nancy Ann Watanabe thank you very much for this interesting technical question. I had not heard about this unusual phenomenon before. In this context please have a look at the following useful links:
This Alaskan glacier is moving at an 'awe-inspiring' pace, 100 times faster than usual
(Published April 16, updated April 19, 2021)
and
This Glacier in Alaska Is Moving 100 Times Faster Than Normal
(Published April 13, 2021)
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Dear research colleagues,
Is there a method to detect glaciers from out of space with satellite images?
Resolution is of course the bottleneck here. So coarser than 100m image data is not beneficial.
1) What Satellite Images are most beneficial for this task?
2) What type of image data might be suited best? Is a specific choice of bands helpful or do LST provide most promising results?
3) I have encountered this work below. It seems very promising, can someone evaluate?
The final goal is to automatically generate masks in shape of these glaciers. For example with help of unsupervised k-means classification or if necessary supervised classification to recognize and distinguish between glaciers and everything else including snow-covered soil by color (examples attached, as you can see it does not work very well yet.). These masks are further a key element for the test part in a CNN project.
Here is a very nice project with very fine masks from lakes and sea instead of glaciers: https://github.com/JiahuiYu/generative_inpainting/issues/451
Since I work mostly with GEE, here are several LST datasets which I ask you to evaluate if you have more experience than me:
Cheers,
Sven Szardien
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You can use Sentinel 10mpp. Albedo is great when it is used in snow-free season
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Hi Professionals!
Due to Global warming the earth temperature increases (https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/), which generates floods, storms, and tornadoes because of melting of ice glacier, in response it caused increase in the sea level up to 3mm/year, now if the sea level is increased and already the temperature is high, which will cause fast cycle of vapor formation having comparatively high temperature, these vapors will go up and will cause rain again, so as, rain reduce the earth temperature as we feel normally, and this phenomena will occur in a cycle. Then why we are concerned about global warming causes, also if there will be rains and floods and sea level is going up throughout, then how the literature says that cause of global warming water shed is going down and down and rivers lacks etc are getting dry day by day?
Just one reason I know, we have to control GW to stop those acid rains its true rain reduce temperature but acid rains has multiple negative impacts....
Your Thoughts Please!
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Atmospheric circulations and changes in them thereof due to global change, some of the regions get drier and the other regions get wetter despite changes in water sources in the atmosphere. However, the present models/the methods we employ do not permit us to ascertain the atmospheric changes due to global change.
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I have multiple line outlining annual glacier extent (over 20 lines per glacier). I would like to calculate the average linear retreat of the glaciers. Is there a tool to calculate such distance on arcGIS?Or is there a python script I could use?
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This resource might be helpful:
It is designed for shoreline change analysis, but applications to other boundary change studies are possible ("The software is also suitable for any generic application that calculates positional change over time, such as assessing change of glacier limits in sequential aerial photos...").
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Several environmental experts have warned about the global warming and its effects on different ecosystems. It may also cause large scale melting of continental and alpine glaciers. If this occurs, which changes can happen in the world and on what scale? Would these changes threaten global life?
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Thanks Michael Issigonis for your worthwhile views. Disturbance in water system balance definitely can cause huge and complicated multifaceted changes over the globe.
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The West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest warming areas on Earth, with only some areas of the Arctic Circle experiencing faster rising temperatures. However, since Antarctica is a big place, climate change is not having a uniform impact, with some areas experiencing increases in sea ice extent. Yet in others, sea ice is decreasing, with measurable impacts on wildlife. Scientist believes that understanding climate change impacts on Antarctica is a matter of critical importance for the world and for the continent itself.
The effects of global warming in Antarctica may include rising temperatures and increasing snow melt and ice loss. The rising temperature may be causing more icebergs to form by weakening the glaciers, causing more cracks and making ice more likely to break off. As soon as theice falls into the ocean, the ocean rises a little. If all of the Antarctic ice melted,sea levels around the world would rise about 61 meters (200 feet).
Dear researchers, please provide your prestigious opinion on this important matter. Thank you
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The most significant impact is obviously, the rise in existing sea levels and flooding of the coastal regions. This will lead to loss of life and property and will force millions of people to migrate from existing land to some other areas. This mass migration may lead to clashes between people even lead to disturbed political situations.
How to stop this, is the real situation on which researchers are still working in different fields (for ex. CCR & CCU). However, in my opinion, the solution to control global warming can be solved, if man is willing. Since there are a lot of economic constraints, and the world economy and existing machines and infrastructure can work on fossil fuel as a source of energy (to a major extent). Hence it will take time to switch to green and renewable sources of energy. Again here, the economy and availability of technology will be a major constraint, and the balance (i.e. the consequences) will shift again to the side to which process is fast (i.e. rate of global warming rise vs rate of switching to renewable sources of energy).
The easiest way to control global warming is still, planting more trees to maintain and control the world's CO2 levels.
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Please explain their principles briefly with references and flowchart. What are their advantages and limitations?
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Muhammad,
I fully recommend the CRISSP model which allows simulating dynamic processes of river ice including thermal effect. You can find 2dimensional version of the software CRISSP2D or 1 dimensional CRISSP1D. As far as I know the software is available from CEATI, Canada however I don’t know the price for the software.
Tomasz Kolerski
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It's reported about the extreme air temperatures. But I can't find the same information for the temperature of soil or bare earth - desert.
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According to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Archive of Weather and Climate Extremes, the highest recorded temperature was (56.7 °C )134 °F on July 07, 1913 in Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA and the lowest ever recorded temperature was -89.2 °C (-128.6 °F) on July 21, 1983 in Vostok, Antarctica.
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I'm pretty new to remote sensing and want to use time series of Landsat to follow changes in glacier lakes. I know that atmospherically corrected images from Landsat exist in USGS but what I can't figure is if it would make any difference to do the corrections myself after downloading L1 images or to simply download and use L2 images. And do I need to do surface reflectance on thermal band as well?
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Hi,
You use the ENVI software there have FLAASH model tool to correct the satellite as your requirement
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In large sedimentary basins surrounded by mountainous glaciers, mountainous runoff feeding the basin increases as a consequence of enhanced glacier melting. In this context, it woud be useful to assessing this effect if groundwater regime is monitored in regions that are affected, in particular, the alluvial fans.
This qestion intends to stimulate a discussion on this by collecting examples and datasets from different regions to achieve a common understading of the issue.
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Unlike Microwave data, optical data is not sensitive to snow depth and internal snow pack properties. But Is there any other way with which it is possible to estimate snow volume using optical remote sensing data. I could not find any relevant publications on this topic. Kindly share links of articles, or any ideas in this connection. I appreciate the time and effort taken for answering this query.
Thank you.
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Have you considered using stereo optical image pairs to extract a DEM of the surface without snow and then a stereo image pair to extract a DEM with snow and then generate a difference image of the two resulting DEMs? Ideally you would like stereo image pairs collected by a forward and downward looking satellite so that the images are collected on the same orbit so they would pretty much be images taken at the same time. Since they will be optical image pairs I realize cloud cover will be an issue, plus I am not sure if existing stereo imaging systems have the vertical resolution needed for this but this would be something to consider.
Also, perhaps if a DEM with high enough resolution already exist for your area of interest you could identify the elevation of points you can see in the 'snow image' and from that get a general idea of the snow depth.
Pat
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Dear RG researchers
Which methods are used to study non-polar glaciers on basin-scale and regional-scale?
Thanks for valuable comments.
Ijaz
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Methods for studying polar and non-polar glaciers do not differ much.
At the moment, there are a lot of methods for studying glaciers. In recent years, the study of mountain glaciers is very much helped by unmanned aerial vehicles-quadrocopters (drones).
In General, methods for studying glaciers can be divided into several groups, namely:
a) Geophysical methods of glacier research:
thermal and mechanical drilling of glaciers;
methods for measuring movement and thermal conditions;
the use of methods of exploration Geophysics;
radar sensing of ice and its application to determine the thickness and mode of glaciers, their subglacial relief, internal structure.
Also, glaciologists have developed very subtle methods for studying the input-expenditure balance of glaciers. In the upper part of the glacier — the feeding area — the falling snow freezes and increases the mass of ice, in the lower part-the flow area-the ice melts or, sliding into the sea, breaks off in the form of icebergs. Between the supply and flow zones, ice moves slowly under the influence of gravity.
To understand whether the mass of the glacier is growing or shrinking, you need to measure how much ice is accumulating in its upper feeding part and compare it with the losses in the lower consumption part. Ice accumulation is tracked by special racks that gradually sink into the ice.
Yet the input-output method does not provide acceptable accuracy. The speed of ice movement not only changes over time, but also is not the same in the depth and width of the glacier. Therefore, it is not easy to make an accurate balance.
b) Geochemical methods of glacier research:
use of stable and radioactive isotopes for paleoglaciological reconstructions;
microparticles, chemical and gas composition of glaciers;
macro-and microelements, sources of admixture;
glaciers as indicators of anthropogenic pollution of the natural environment.
C) Remote methods of studying snow and ice:
ground-based geodesic and photogrammetric methods for studying Nival-glacial objects and processes;
aerial photography of snow and ice;
repeated aerial photography as a method for studying dangerous Nival-glacial phenomena;
the use of space-based information for the study of snow and ice;
mapping of Nival-glacial objects and GIS systems.
There is a new opportunity to monitor glaciers from satellites that have entered a near-polar (inclination 89°) orbit with a height of about 500 km and move along it strictly one after the other at a distance of 220±50 km.
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I am looking for the most suitable satellite to monitor glaciers.
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Landsat and Sentinel 2 are suitable and free, Sentinel2 provides higher resolutions
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A lot of people suggested to use Water and change the CN value afterwards but I already have Water and Barren land as other classes.
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I recommend you to use a proxy land use type (eg: the land use code for may be tomato, agriculture land) and then provide the appropriate CN for ice or snow
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From physics perspective the ice or snow are good in reflecting the solar radiation and the land is a good absorber of solar radiation. Let consider scientist who climb the top on mountain covered with glacier for ice core drilling, hope they may expose the land covered by ice to solar radiation and this may accelerate the melting of ice over the mountain. I would like to know is this could explain the melting of glacier for example over mountain Kilimanjaro. Or what are the impact of ice core drilling over tropical mountains?
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The vast majority of tropical mountains that have glaciers or permanent snowpack (at least throughout the year) are volcanoes. Considering the above, the composition of the substrate is lavas (basalt among others). One of the characteristics of volcanic rocks is the high absorption of solar radiation and conductivity. Therefore, once the rock emerges between the smell and the snow, its fusion accelerates almost exponentially.
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I have been looking for information on water column DO, pH, SST , Chl-a, POC for areas in the peninsula near the glaciers vs the Southern Shetland Inland with no luck. Any information available to look for the main differences? Mostly influence of freshwater inputs to the fjords at the peninsula.
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Hey Jorge Arigony-Neto ! Thank you very much!
Best,
G
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I am currently doing literature review on snow depth retrieval methods using passive remote sensing. While the algorithm in Chang (1987) says it uses brightness temperature difference at 18 and 37 GHz frequencies (Horizontal)(https://nsidc.org/sites/nsidc.org/files/technical-references/amsr-atbd-supp12-snow.pdf) in few other papers it is mentioned as vertical polarisation( ). Which is correct representation.
I would be grateful for all the responses and time taken to answer this query.
Thankyou.
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Srinivasarao Tanniru i have read lot of literature for snow cover monitoring and depth analysiss. According to many studies VV polarisation is best suitable for snow depth analysis.
FOr more information please visit this page: https://forum.step.esa.int/t/snow-depth-estimation/13517
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1. Role of facies analysis.
2. Physical and chemical components.
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Dear Mrs. Biswas,
the chemical component has little impact on the mode of transport and deposition since the weathering is true mechanical/ physical as it is the decisive transport parameter. Ice does not cause any density differentiation and thus neither the hydraulic nor entrainment equivalence of heavy minerals
relative to quartz can be applied to these glacial deposits. By contrast, these physical processes can well be applied to the fluvial component of the transport. In other words, the prevailance of the hydraulic differentiation and to some extent entrainment are a function of the ratio of the fluvial/aquatic (including lacustrine and marine processe) to the glacial transport mode. They should be checked and compared with the mapping of the fluvial/aquatic and glacial facies zones and landform types (see my first comment).
H.G.Dill
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I want to estimate glacier surface lowering using UAV data acquired on glacier frontal areas where it is too difficult and dangerous to measure GCPs.
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Jorge, you may be interested in this article by Cook and Dietze (2019)
They propose a system to compare UAV derived point clouds without ground control essentially by using the sparse point cloud from Survey 1 as control for Survey 2. As photogrammetric datasets can be subject to distortion, this essential would give the same distortion to both datasets, so change detection results are more representative of process than reconstruction error.
As mentioned by Edgar, automated or pick-point registration can be a nice approach too, but since you are working with a glacier where surfaces could potentially retreat at a similar rate, you might overfit your data and estimate lower retreats than actually happened. To get around that, you could focus on bounding rocky sections of the valley to get your translation matrix (the geometric matrix used to move your data to the best fit in CloudCompare) and apply the best translation to your entire dataset for change detection.
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Russian discovery of five Arctic islands and the death of the first Icelandic glacier, Okjökull, are two recent observations for the melting ice in Polar Regions of the earth.
I would like to discuss this matter with RG members.
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Thank you Vaibhav Amarsinh for the comment. Still, I did not find a comprehensive comparison. we will see in the future.
Piyal
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I currently consider using WorldClim (v. 1.4) data for testing how plant communities respond to variations in temperature and precipitation in Greenland, but I am not entirely sure to what extent the data can be trusted. Has anyone tried validating WorldClim data against field measurements in the Arctic?
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Is it possible and logical to use the findings of Escobar et al. 2014 in other parts of the world to exclude those bioclimatic variables from species distribution analysis that showed the spatial artifacts in their study? or, should everyone check this spatial anomaly for every study region of interest?
Escobar LE, Lira-Noriega A, Medina-Vogel G, Peterson AT. Potential for spread of the white-nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) in the Americas: use of Maxent and NicheA to assure strict model transference. Geospatial health. 2014; 9(1):221–9.
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Hi,
I am trying to calculate the overall error of my glacier mass change calculations.
I have identified the following sources of uncertainty:
Volume
- Area change of glacier (+/- 3%)
- elevation change from DEM's (SD +/- 21.2m)
- Uncertainty from C-band penetration of SRTM (1.5m +/- 0.4m)
Density
- Assumption of 850kg (+/- 60kg)
What would be the best way to calculate the overall uncertainty?
Thanks
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Hi Ellis,
I can give a general idea how to approach this problem in the sense of adjustment computation and error propogation law. First obtain the equation with respect to the Volume and density. Take the first derivative of the eqaution then apply error propogation law. Insert values ( e.g. 850kg with sigma as +/- 60kg) and the other values as well. Then you can find the overall accuracies...
I hope this helps
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In the period end of October / beginning of November 2018 numerous weather anomalies such as snowfall in Spain, floods in Italy, almost summer temperature in some places in Central and Eastern Europe are recorded in Europe. From year to year, more and more warm winters are recorded in many places around the globe. In addition, for several years, higher and higher annual average temperatures have been recorded. More and more areas in Africa are covered by droughts, lack of rainfall and higher heat temperatures. In some coastal locations, off the coast of the oceans, in America, in Southeast Asia, in Polynesia tornadoes appear more and more dramatic. However, in Alaska, Canada, Norway and other countries where there are glaciers in the mountains, there are fewer and fewer glaciers. In the 20th century, a significant part of these glaciers melted. does it mean that the greenhouse effect on Earth is progressing so fast and is it already an irreversible process?
Are current weather anomalies in Europe derived from the progressive greenhouse effect on Earth?
Do current weather anomalies occurring in many places on Earth are a derivative of the globally progressing greenhouse effect?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Planting trees can save planet earth and minimize effects of weather anomalies.
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if giant tubes of say alluminium are filled with liquid nitrogen, would it be possible to place them within the existing/remaining ice in the sea to try and refreeze the water while also slowing down melting and slowing down the rate of rising sea levels and hopefully cool down the planet. where would i start if i wanted to do such research. thank you.
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I would start by calculating how much energy the production of liquid nitrogen and its containers consumes, and how large GHG emissions that would create. After that, I would reconsider whether this would be the best option, or could for example maintaining their albedo be more effective.
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Dear In the article entitled "Mapping Radar Glacier Zones and Dry Snow Line in the Antarctic Peninsula Using Sentinel-1 Images" the normalization of the backscattering coefficient in Sentinel 1C images for the 30 degree angle of incidence was performed, since the raw image can range from 18 to 46 degrees. if there is any procedure that can be done in the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) or if the sigma-0 file generated in the processing is already normalized data at a certain angle of incidence. Thanks for listening.
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Fernando!
You can do this normalization in a simple raster calculator in a gis software.
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Hello,
I am searching laser scan data for a glacier. Knows someone a source or is willing to share his data?
It will not be used for papers, lecture or similiar things.
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Carsten Hayduk here there are some useful websites which publish free LiDAR points
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Dear RG researchers
What are the major differences between Karakoram Glaciers and and Himalayan Glaciers for their response to climate change?
Thanks for feedback.
Regards
Ijaz
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Ijaz,
You might find this interesting: "Ice Loss Slows Down Asian Glaciers" See:
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I appreciate that this question could open a can of worms, but i am looking for any examples in the literature of where mining activities have had a direct impact on glaciers (mass / dynamics / hydrology etc), and examples of where ining organisations have attempted to mitigate or compensate for these impacts?
Any experience, or pointers in the right direction woul be greatly appreciated.
Best regards,
Andy
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Hi Andy. Hope you're doing well! I've been doing a bit of light background research on this myself recently. This paper may be useful in addition to those already mentioned by others above:
Simon
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The warming climate of the Earth causes a multitude of secondary effects, usually adverse weather anomalies and climatic disasters. As a result of these weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms, the area of the undesignated natural environment and areas developed by man for the needs of the development of civilization, including arable land areas in the field of crop production, may gradually diminish. Every year, more and more cases of weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms are coming, which may confirm such a research thesis.
Currently (end of October / beginning of November 2018) numerous weather anomalies such as snowfall in Spain, floods in Italy, almost summer temperature in some places in Central and Eastern Europe are recorded in Europe. From year to year, more and more warm winters are recorded in many places around the globe. In addition, for several years, higher and higher annual average temperatures have been recorded. More and more areas in Africa are covered by droughts, lack of rainfall and higher heat temperatures. In some coastal locations, off the coast of the oceans, in America, in Southeast Asia, in Polynesia tornadoes appear more and more dramatic. However, in Alaska, Canada, Norway and other countries where there are glaciers in the mountains, there are fewer and fewer glaciers. In the 20th century, a significant part of these glaciers melted. does it mean that the greenhouse effect on Earth is progressing so fast and is it already an irreversible process?
In view of the above, I am asking you: Will the areas of natural environment suitable for human life decrease as a result of the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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I think that it happens naturally and it effected our settlement.
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what is the impact of mining on glacier?
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I do not know about any research on the impact of mining on glaciers but there is an example of the impact of glacier hydrology on mining available from The University of Oslo, see:
There might be some research on the vise versa available for this mining side.
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We are compiling global-scale water pools and fluxes and would like to include temporary snowpack (i.e. not perennial ice sheets, glaciers, or snow fields). Is anyone aware of a global-scale estimate of snowpack water content? To make it comparable with the other pools, we would probably show the annual average snowpack, or potentially the range (i.e. lowest month-highest month). Thanks in advance.
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I've found the NSIDC database of snow water equivalent data: https://nsidc.org/data/NSIDC-0271/versions/1, and several studies that evaluate global-scale snowpack (e.g. Hancock, Steven, Robert Baxter, Jonathan Evans, and Brian Huntley. “Evaluating Global Snow Water Equivalent Products for Testing Land Surface Models.” Remote Sensing of Environment 128 (January 21, 2013): 107–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.10.004.).
However, I still can't find a paper that reports global scale water content of snow. The closest thing I've found to a direct report of the mass of snowpack is here: https://globalcryospherewatch.org/assessments/snow/, but this doesn't include the southern hemisphere and is only for this year. Any input would be most appreciated!
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Dear RG researchers
It is invited to join the discussion on Global Warming-Non-polar Glaciers and Climate Change.
Regards
Ijaz
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The problem of the “glacial world’s dust-ice Achilles heel” is addressed in the study of the role of dust albedo feedbacks in the evolution of the climate system.
The paper explores also the relative role of CO2 (section 6).
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How we can scientifically classify the third pole (Himalaya, Karakorum, Hindu kush, tian shan, Tibetan and Qinghai plateau) into sub-climate zone?
e.g by considering precipitation regime, precipitation amount, glaciers behaviours e.t.c
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Dear Mr. Hussain:
This is mixing up of two different items which do not belong to each other sensu stricto but only sensu lato. The pole is a projection of a planet´s axis of rotation onto its celestial sphere. The climate zones show a horizontal zoned arrangement on the northern and southern hemisphere but also a vertical one in high-altitude mountain ranges such as the Andes, Himalaya. Using the pole for this arrangement of climate zones is comparing apples and pears. All world maps dealing with (morpho)climate zones based on Koeppen-Geiger delineate a separate part called “mountainous regions”. The earth turns on its own axis and does not rotate around modern fold belts. The approach taken in your assumption is not correct.
With kind regards
H.G.Dill
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There are meadows in chilean Patagonia that calls VEGAS. Here a definition of Vegas.
In the valleys and canyons of Patagonia, produced by the
fusion of Pleistocene glaciers, there are wetland meadows
locally called vegas or mallines. According to the Agricultural and Cattle Service, the vegas are damp and fertile areas owing
to the topography and the characteristics of the soil profile,
characterized by a strata of clay at varying depths. High
yield grasses with high forage value grow in these areas in
spring and summer (Filipová, 2009)
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Thank you very much.
Best regards from southern Chile
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"Climate change is causing the net shrinkage and retreat of glaciers and the increase in size and number of glacial lakes", Absolutely true, if we conclude so?
Tsho Rolpa is a Lake located in Nepal.
Regards,
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That is not unique. In the spring of 1818 an young engineer Ignace Venetz was engaged to drain the Lac de Mauvoisin, which was blocked by the Gietroz Glacier. The locals were aware of the danger because an outburst flood from the same valley had killed 140 people and wrecked 500 buildings in 1595. In June the ice dam failed, but without the work of Venetz there would have been many more casualties. [Woodward, J. (2014) The Ice Age: A Very Short Introduction, 1 edition., Oxford, Oxford University Press.]
So what you are describing has happened at least twice before anthropogenic global warming was a problem. However, there are several of those lakes forming in the Himalaya, and the melting glaciers caused by AGW are filling them.
Another problem with AGW is that the ice on the mountains is needed to feed the rivers during the summer for agriculture. The answer to that problem may be to follow the example of Lac de Mauvoisin which has now been dammed by man to produce a reservoir.
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Hello.
I am looking for a bibliography on the reduction of glacier masses in high mountains and the reduction of precipitations in the form of snow due to the effect of climate change.
Thanks
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Hi Sara
A very recent paper reviews the current state of the European mountain cryosphere. It discusses snow, ice and permafrost. Perhaps a good starting point? Beniston et al (2018), The Cryosphere 12, 759-794.
Cheers
John
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Dear Beinh,
I am working on refelectance and spectral properties of Landsat 8 and Sentinel for identication of different features of earth surface and, focus is glacier surface( Clear Ice, Snow and Debris).
May I request for your help to find tools for the processing and any propose methodology..
Najam
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Please see the following paper:
H. Petersson, D. Gustafsson and D. Bergstrom, "Hyperspectral image analysis using deep learning — A review," 2016 Sixth International Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications (IPTA), Oulu, 2016, pp. 1-6.
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Hello Everyone!
so I am working on a SWAT model of glacier's proglacial zone.
it's area equals ca. 9 km2 and there are places where metamorphic bedrock outcrop is present. I'm talking mostly schists.
what should I do when it comes to soil parameters input.
my main problem is, I do not have a soil map of this region from any database so I have to make one myself by creating some basic polygon map.
SWAT 2012
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Go for any soil in the SWAT database and edit the attributes of that soil to the topic of interest. A metamorphic bedrock has a restricted soil layer depth.
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Because ice mills work ( Revision of the scale of last North American glaciation Part 1. Southern Rocky Mountains and The origin of lakes and sandy deserts of mountains during the melting of glaciers –Taklamakan and Gobi deserts)
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Thank you. You're absolutely right. But this is half of the deal. The second part is the separation of weathered rocks, the removal of fine-grain rocks, the formation of sand deposits and the placer metal (gold and other) deposits. It was more interested.
Read: 1- Revision the last glaciations scale of North American. Part 2. The Ice is godfather of Alaskan placer gold
2. The origin of lakes and sandy deserts of mountains during the melting of glaciers –Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (EN)
3. Formation of placer gold deposits in Canadian Shield during late Wisconsin glaciation
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I am getting increase value around 16 degree using normal LST model.
Is there any specific method to derive glacier surface temperature?
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Dear all, it would be of interest to compare the performance between single and split-window algorithms. Albeit, considering the issues of TIRS resulting in uncertainties.
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There is work on overridden trees at Galciar Seco from several years ago  but I am not sure whether the trees were eventually crossdated.
Sounds like a great project
Cheers
Brian
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Dear Lucas,
That would be great- please keep me informed of progress.
Cheers Brian ( and Helen)
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Would the gradual melting of Earth's glaciers, due to the greenhouse effect, cause a further increase of the SLR?
If not, what happen to that water?
How ocean currents contribute to the phenomenon?
I offer my thanks in advance to all those who will answer for the attention.
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There is a lot of confusion in the answers to this question. Let us all recall the main question being asked: 
– Would the gradual melting of Earth's glaciers, due to the greenhouse effect, cause a further increase of the SLR?
There are 2 main causes of global sea level rise resulting from the greenhouse effect:
1. Melting of land-based ice (permafrost, valley glaciers, and ice sheets) flowing into the ocean
and
2. Volumetric thermal expansion of oceanic water due to increased global temperature
So, yes melting glaciers on land does increase the rate of SLR, however the amount of water stored in the greenland ice sheet and in the permafrost is much greater that the amount of water being stored in valley glaciers. Thermal expansion also plays an important role and will get worse as time goes on, even after all the land based cryosphere melts.
– How ocean currents contribute to the phenomenon?
Ocean currents drive local climate conditions (i.e. Europe being warmer than Canada at the same Latitude), and therefore with warming ocean currents, there is a positive feedback with the rate of cryospheric melt. There are other ways that the destabilization of the global thermohaline circulation can be effected by the addition of less dense freshwater to the currents, but this is a long subject to discuss.
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Yes. Observations show a global-scale decline of snow and ice over many years, especially since 1980 and increasing during the past decade, despite growth in some places and little change in others. Most mountain glaciers are getting smaller. Snow cover is retreating earlier in the spring. Sea ice in the Arctic is shrinking in all seasons, most dramatically in summer. Reductions are reported in permafrost, seasonally frozen ground and river and lake ice. Important coastal regions of the ice sheets on Greenland and West Antarctica, and the glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula, are thinning and contributing to sea level rise. The total contribution of glacier, ice cap and ice sheet melt to sea level rise is estimated as 1.2 ± 0.4 mm/yr for the period 1993 to 2003.
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Yes. Observations show a global-scale decline of snow and ice over many years, especially since 1980 and increasing during the past decade, despite growth in some places and little change in others
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The isolate from glacier stream and water showed high resistance profile, what are the possible reasons? Any paper or study that may be useful to explain this?
Thanks.
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Hello Sir,
Greetings
hope everything is good, What parameters would be there so that  we can compare three glaciers ,using remote sensing techniques.
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You can check out the publication list of Tobias Bolch on ResearchGate (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tobias_Bolch). He is one of the leading scientist in this field, so you might get some inspiration from his work.
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Hot water locates 500 meters away from cold groundwater ,but something strange that cold groundwater is  artesian from a well with low TDS (1g/L) ,while thermal water with average temperature 88℃ and high TDS (8g/L)  ,both of them are tapped from granite due to some faults there.  Thermal water is believed to have some connection with seawater,  but what about cold groundwater ?  the seawater can't affect it  in such a close distance because of  geological structures  ?   Or seawater exists much deeper  so that  shallow cold groundwater  can't be influenced ? I'm so confused.
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Artesian water is produced by height of  the water table in nearby hills being greater than ground level where it appears. It is driven by hydraulic pressure. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artesian_aquifer
It is possible that the thermal water is being heated above its boiling point and is being driven to the surface by steam pressure.
If both are on a coastal plain then it is possible that both waters are in the same aquifer, but with equal pressure they are balanced and do not move. However if that is the case, then during droughts the artesian pressure will drop and the thermal water could impinge on the artesian water raising its temperature and or salinity.
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There is a method described by Sobrino in which he uses NDVI to find out the emissivity and therefore, calculate LST. I am sceptical of extrapolating this method for glaciers since glaciers do not have vegetation. 
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Hi Sujai,
Good to know you are working on Glaciers.
Regarding LST estimation of glaciers based on Landsat images, I agree with your assessment. NDVI based emissivity is a very crude method. Many use this method to estimate LST because this is the easiest way. Sobrino et al. (2004) uses average emissivity values of soils and vegetation from the list of samples present in the JPL ASTER Spectral library. I'm not sure if Snow & Ice were ever considered in their paper. However, as Prof. Michel suggested you can use one of the reported emissivity values of snow and ice from literature. The most crucial questions that you need to ask regarding this research was very well summed up by Prof. Michel's last paragraph. Therefore, please pay attention to what are the acceptable levels of uncertainties. LST itself comes with uncertainties, e.g., the algorithm used, the sensor used, atmospheric corrections, stray light effect (Landsat 8 TIRS) etc.
Having said that, I would suggest you to take a look at the ASTER derived emissivities for your study area. AST_05 is an on demand product that you can order for free. You may want to download as many ASTER derived emissivity images and study the values, compare it with values based on literature and come up with the most appropriate emissivity values for your study area. The reference links are attached.
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Recently, The  three kinds of monthly air temperature data from 20 weather stations all show a uptrend with different rate over 20 years in Karakoram-Himalaya-Nyenchen Tanglha region. The glacier change pattern (by other independent observations) match this of Max Temperature. I mean glacier melt fastest in the place where Max Temperature increase fastest (Min Temperature increase slower maybe it is coincidence). I wonder the glaciers should melt fastest when (Max, Min or Mean?) temperature trend is biggest. Here we ignore other climatic condition. I know the real situation is complicated. 
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Dear Qiuyu,
First, remember that the temperature of an object is only an indicator of its state. What makes a glacier melt is not temperature, but the net heat flux into it.
Second, the sensible heat flux between an object and its environment is typically approximated by a rate equation that depends on the temperature gradient between the two media in contact. From that point of view, a higher air temperature would generate a larger sensible heat flux into the glacier than a lower air temperature, for a fixed glacier temperature.
Third, it is even more important to consider the time period during which the glacier is subjected to a given heat flux. Hence, a peak air temperature of 100 C that would last for only a nanosecond would have a negligible impact on the glacier, while a 12 hours exposure to 10 C average air temperature would definitely cause some melting.
Fourth, the arguments above address the issue of instantaneous heat flux and its impact on melting. The answer to your question might also depend on the length of the time period of interest (a day, a month, a year, a century, etc.)
To answer your question quantitatively with a known degree of accuracy, you should build a model of the glacier of interest and of its heat balance. This may involve multiple heat reservoirs and processes, including gains and losses due to sensible, latent and radiative processes. So there is no simple answer to your question.
Best regards, Michel.
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What advantages or disadvantages exist when I use L-band to monitoring glaciers. Or which band are recommended X, C  or L, P?? Thank you.
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Ok, for most of glaicers, X, C, L has no obviously IFG, for the glacier movement will cause decorrelation. Anyhow, you may got IFG if the glaicer moves very slowly. Or otherwise you have to use pixel track method. This is happen in different part of one glaicer as well.
So, you need some knowledge of the velocity of the glaicer and you need to compute the movement of the glaicer during the revisiting time, and at last you need to compare this values with wavelength. Like L band PALSAR, LOS displacement during time span need to small than 23.6 cm/4 (Colesanti, 2006, P181), then you got IFG, or you need to use Pixel track.
Conclusion, L C X , is one option, the others things, glaicer velocity, revisiting time.
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We found a big salt glacier in xinjiang, china, which is like the namakiers in iran. Some research about salt tecnics have been done in xinjiang. But, they have almost used the geophysical method, for example, 3D seismic technology. I want to research the process of salt flow by geochemistry,  but I don`t how to begin. please give me some suggests, thans very much !
Attaching some pictures, salt glacier in xinjiang being trilateral; namakiers in iran; rock salt from salt glacier in xinjiang
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You are refering to the Chaerhan salt glacier if I am right.
The Chaerhan salt glacier (namakiers) is the largest surface salt flow in Kuqa depression which is remolded from a pre-existing salt diapir (Zhao and Wang, 2016, evidence of early passive diapirism and tectonic evolution in the western Kuqa depression; Tang, 2011, Doctoral thesis). In the field, components of the paleocene rock salt is completely recrystallized, dissovled and mixed up. The chemical measuring of field samples is hard to achieve certain aims, I'm afraid. However, I'm very willing to know a possible way to unravel the kinematics of a salt structure from surface samples.
Below could be some possible aims for your research:
a. Despite the common understanding of a passive early history, some researchers still suggest that the Quele salt nappe (from which the Chaerhan namaskier is fed) is formed during the Pliocene shortening of Kuqa depression, without an early stage;
b. What is the burial depth of present surface samples? Could we establish a satisfying equation between surface samples and deep source in lab? This could led to a new way to understand a few structural quenstions, such as the shortening rate (could be calculated from the burial depth), the early history (when is the salt extruded?)
Ps: the recent surface study by Cindy Colón et al., 2016 (The variety of subaerial active salt deformations in the Kuqa fold-thrust belt (China) constrained by InSAR) could be helpful if you wanna do some remote sensing work.
Best Regards
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From what I see, gemorpohology of proglacial zones of tropical glaciers has not been a major issue of concern. Together with my students, we're planning a small geomorphological project on Zongo glacier in Bolivia (drone, DEM, gemorphological map). Any publications, maps or more ideas for research would be of great use.
Thanks in advance,
Jakub
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Hi Jakub,
Jacob Yde, a colleague of mine, has just published an article about snow distribution in Andes.Please find the link to his article below.
Cheers
Lukasz 
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Is there any culture dependent method for the isolation of psychrophilic Archaea from soil sediment sample of Glaciers?
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Dear Meena,
My experience in the isolation of psychrophilic archaea allows to give following suggestions. First, you need to take a large sample of the glacier, and add a small amount of medium, for example 5:1. Second, cultivate your enrichments at temperatures of 15-18. In case of failure try to add cryoprotectants (ectoine, proline, etc.) in the medium. If there is a steady growth, cultivated in the presence of penicillin group antibiotics  to remove bacterial contamination. Good luck!
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I would like to estimate quantification of error during the glaciers area mapping and I need instruction
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Hi, Levan, I try to answer some aspects of your questions. For an overview of the uncertainties involved in glacier delineation, you can see the Chapter 7 of GLIMS Book which suggested by Dr. Glazovsky, and also some literatures list in its references, like Paul et al (2012). But for the practical assessments of the glacier delineation error, I suggest you use the buffer method that was most widely used in recent years. You can see the paper of Dr. Bolch which was published on Remote Sensing of Environment at 2010 (vol 114, 27-137), or my paper on Journal of Glaciology at this year (vol 61, issue 226, 357-372). 
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I am trying to calculate the surface temp. of debris cover glacier of Nepalese Himalaya? For this application which satellite image is better?
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Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery has been extensively used in mapping debris cover and other relevant analysis. SRTM data may also be used as an ancillary data to facilitate the analysis. Please refer to following links.
To download Landsat data, follow this link:
Hope it helps!
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Ubiñas Massif (2.417 m. a.s.l. Cantabrian Mountains. 43º 2' N. - 5º 57' W.). With extensive and vast glaciers during the last ice age, currently it has small permanent snowfields.
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Dear Mr. Gallinar,
there is only one chance to find out where and what type of sediment or morphology the glacier has induced , to go in the field, map and sample. There are numerous textbooks which also deal with the glacial sedimentology and geomorphology. Those are the best manuals. I will not give a selection here, because I do not know exactly what your aim is. You should first and foremost direct your thoughts to those papers with mountain-and- foreland glacial morphology such as the Alpine Mountain Range and the Rocky Mountains.
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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I'm studying a body of ice with known thickness (60m) and slope (20°) and need to calculate the rate of strain (i.e., downslope velocity). I can calculate the downslope force of the glacier but I don't have the needed constants (k, A) needed to complete the strain rate calculation following the Glen-Nye Flow Law (strain rate = k*stress^n). Perhaps it is listed in Hooke's 'Glacial Mechanics' or Benn and Evans' 'Glaciers and Glaciation' texts? Thanks in advance, -Josh
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Paterson (now Cuffey and Paterson) "The Physics of Glaciers" 4th ed., Elsevier, 2010, includes discussion of the equation and constants as well as experimental data.  I note that Amazon has free-trial electronic access.
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I have no experience in glaciers modeling, but I think it could be useful in my work. I am considering post LGM deglaciation of subpolar fjord and I have a little information about retreats rates. It would be useful to model deglaciation over ~12 ka in order to get more control points for retreat rates. It is necessary for my numerical experiment with erosion rate (glacier positions are input and are integrated).
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I attached to you four useful articles of methods used in tropical glacier areas, some of those areas had glaciers until 8 ka ago. 
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I have written a Matlab function called flowline which makes the task of predicting flow lines like quite simple.  Just enter starting locations and it solves the rest.  The limitation is that it only works for Antarctica.  If you're working elsewhere, you can adapt my flowline function or create your own using gridded velocity fields and Matlab's inbuilt stream2 function. 
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Please suggest methods based on Raster data set processing.
Is there any model that I can use to delineate accurate extent of a Glacier?
Please suggest me. Thanks
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Hello Vishal,
Just in case it may help you explore this from a different angle, have you tried contacting researchers from the glacier research groups elsewhere ?
One such group is at the University of Bristol'School of Geography (UK) where they have been working extensively with radar datasets for many years,especially with large ice caps (Groendland, Antartica).
If you are interested in small mountain glaciers, on the other hand, Harry Zekollari from the Department of Geography at VUB, in Brussels (Belgium), is advancing well on a PhD modelling the 3D evolution of such small glaciers and should be able to suggest specific colleagues who are assembling datasets using radar remote sensing, as he also uses such data to assess and calibrate his own modelling efforts, on a regular basis.
Changing perspective a little, such measurements can introduce considerable DEM distortions and a colleague of mine, Professor Matthieu Kervyn, also in the Department of Geography at VUB has examined the biases involved in trying to do what you are trying to do for glaciers but for small volcanic cones and I suspect also now for bigger volcanoes.
Matthieu has published at least a couple of papers on DEM dérivations from remote sensing data (including SRTM) which also list the few other studies carried out in order to assess DEM quality in the volcano context.
Another expert of DEM derivation for volcanoes is Thomas Walter (GFZ, Germany) and he may also want to add his advice should you contact him.
This is what comes to mind just now.
I hope it may contribute to pointing you in a helpful direction for your research.
With best wishes and kind regards,
Gerald
-------
(Prof. Gerald ERNST)
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I think many of us have heard various estimates of the thickness of the glacier but what were the methods used and which are the most reliable.
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I cannot answer for the local evaluation, but from the three different reconstructions for the full Laurentide ice-sheet, we are talking about two kilometers in surface elevation (that is about 1/3 additional in thickness), depending on the precise location. cf. for example discussion of the reconstruction at
and the hemispheric plots at the bottom of the page:
Full references to adequate publications are given on the same page.
All the best,
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I need to know what dating technique will be good for dating in LGM and what is best way to get good sample for that dating.
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You could read "Himalayan glacial sedimentary environments:
a framework for reconstructing and dating the former
extent of glaciers in high mountains" of Benn and Owen (2002).
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In times of Glacier Lake outburst floods, usually moraine walls fail. Therefore, I am interested in studying the nature of the strength of moraine walls and the hydrostatic pressures that they are subjected to.
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Dear Denziel
I hope this papers help you to the answer of your question:
1.PDF]Coupling glacial lake impact, dam breach, and flood ...
by R Worni - ‎2014 - ‎
2.[PDF]download - International Association of Geomorphologists
3. [PDF]Mitteilungen 222 - ETH Zürich
4.Testing a glacial erosion rule using hang heights of hanging ...
by JM Amundson - ‎2006 - ‎
5. [PDF]pdf 771 KB
by J Noetzli - ‎2006 -
6.Arctic Institute of North America (AINA) - Publications
7.[PDF]USGS Professional Paper 1693
Best Wishes
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For my study I have six different DEMs of a glacier. The DEMs are all from different years and I want to calculate the volume changes over a timeperiod. Including the six DEMs I have one subglacial DEM with low resolution (100 meter). In ArcMap, I use raster calculator to subtract the DEMs from the subglacial DEMs to get the volume results. The problem is that the DEMs with high resolution gets converted to 100 meter resolution. Is there any way to derive results with better resolution? 
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Another thought I have.
Do you roughly know the thickness of the ice sheet? And how rough is the subglacial DEM and the surface of the ice?
Maybe it would be useful to take the 3D surface into account. There are tools available in ArcMap (or extensions) to calculate first the surface of each cell based on the topography. During the volume calculation you multiply then the surface of the cell by the thickness of the ice instead of using 100x100m. 
This approach could be more accurate depending of the terrain roughness and the relation between thickness and cell size.
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Using surface temperature and net shortwave radiation up to certain depth (0.2m).
Is there R code to solve this equation?
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