Questions related to Glacier
Since 2001, warming increasing repeatedly as global average temperatures in 2015 were 1 degree Celsius or more above the 1880-1899. The rapid declining of Arctic sea ice both the extent and thickness, over the last several decades and retreating of glaciers i.e. the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa around the world. Does pollutant or increasing GHG is the main reason for changing in temperature globally?
Surge-type glaciers exhibit cyclic behavior between long periods of the quiescent phase and shorter periods of the active phase, during which ice surface velocities increase by up to at least an order of magnitude. And during surges, a significant volume of the entire ice mass rapidly transferred from the reservoir to the receiving area, leading to dramatic changes in the surface height and an advance of the glacier terminus often, but not always, takes place, as well as forming newer crevasses and looped moraines. The quiescent phase, surge-type glacier flows slowly, is a period of relative stagnation during which the lower portion of the glacier thins and mass builds up in an upper, reservoir area.
I would request if anyone kindly elaborate in detail or step by step...! Your suggestions will be highly appreciated.
Kindly request you clarify on this issues. Plus, how significantly such methane contribution--if yes-- is worsening the global warming?
I am looking at glacier change in the Andes. I am using SPSS for my statistics. I have been provided with discharge data also, for which I would need to look for a relationship between glacier area, temperature, and river flow over a specific time period of 7 years. Temperature is given in daily minimum/maximums, river flow is monthly, and area change is yearly. Thanks :)
I struggle to identify these sediments, which I suspect to be fluvio-glacials deposits alluvial from melting glaciers in Eemian.
The area where this conglomerate is exposed have a bed from recent Riss and located 500 km from the Alps (eastern France)...
I'm not expert, so I would be grateful for anyhelp.
In the geological map, I cercled in violet the light yellow area (Recent Riss).
Thank you !
At the beginning of September last year, I took these pictures in front of the Qaleraliq glacier (61°01'30.2"N - 46°37'49.3"W), which is located near Narsaq in South Greenland. I´m still deeply impressed of the transparency of these icebergs. First I wondered if this ice consists of frozen melt water. But then I saw small caves of about 10 cm, looking like large air bubbles (yellow circles in fig.3 and 4). Unfortunately there was no way for me to take closer pictures.
I think this ice has changed over a long period of time due to the influence of extreme pressure. Could it be that the air could no longer escape and combined to form such bubbles?
Does anyone know of studies or knowledge of the conditions under which such ice forms?
I look forward to your assessments.
Dear research colleagues,
Is there a method to detect glaciers from out of space with satellite images?
Resolution is of course the bottleneck here. So coarser than 100m image data is not beneficial.
1) What Satellite Images are most beneficial for this task?
2) What type of image data might be suited best? Is a specific choice of bands helpful or do LST provide most promising results?
3) I have encountered this work below. It seems very promising, can someone evaluate?
The final goal is to automatically generate masks in shape of these glaciers. For example with help of unsupervised k-means classification or if necessary supervised classification to recognize and distinguish between glaciers and everything else including snow-covered soil by color (examples attached, as you can see it does not work very well yet.). These masks are further a key element for the test part in a CNN project.
Here is a very nice project with very fine masks from lakes and sea instead of glaciers: https://github.com/JiahuiYu/generative_inpainting/issues/451
Since I work mostly with GEE, here are several LST datasets which I ask you to evaluate if you have more experience than me:
Due to Global warming the earth temperature increases (https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/), which generates floods, storms, and tornadoes because of melting of ice glacier, in response it caused increase in the sea level up to 3mm/year, now if the sea level is increased and already the temperature is high, which will cause fast cycle of vapor formation having comparatively high temperature, these vapors will go up and will cause rain again, so as, rain reduce the earth temperature as we feel normally, and this phenomena will occur in a cycle. Then why we are concerned about global warming causes, also if there will be rains and floods and sea level is going up throughout, then how the literature says that cause of global warming water shed is going down and down and rivers lacks etc are getting dry day by day?
Just one reason I know, we have to control GW to stop those acid rains its true rain reduce temperature but acid rains has multiple negative impacts....
Your Thoughts Please!
I have multiple line outlining annual glacier extent (over 20 lines per glacier). I would like to calculate the average linear retreat of the glaciers. Is there a tool to calculate such distance on arcGIS?Or is there a python script I could use?
Several environmental experts have warned about the global warming and its effects on different ecosystems. It may also cause large scale melting of continental and alpine glaciers. If this occurs, which changes can happen in the world and on what scale? Would these changes threaten global life?
The West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest warming areas on Earth, with only some areas of the Arctic Circle experiencing faster rising temperatures. However, since Antarctica is a big place, climate change is not having a uniform impact, with some areas experiencing increases in sea ice extent. Yet in others, sea ice is decreasing, with measurable impacts on wildlife. Scientist believes that understanding climate change impacts on Antarctica is a matter of critical importance for the world and for the continent itself.
The effects of global warming in Antarctica may include rising temperatures and increasing snow melt and ice loss. The rising temperature may be causing more icebergs to form by weakening the glaciers, causing more cracks and making ice more likely to break off. As soon as theice falls into the ocean, the ocean rises a little. If all of the Antarctic ice melted,sea levels around the world would rise about 61 meters (200 feet).
Dear researchers, please provide your prestigious opinion on this important matter. Thank you
It's reported about the extreme air temperatures. But I can't find the same information for the temperature of soil or bare earth - desert.
I'm pretty new to remote sensing and want to use time series of Landsat to follow changes in glacier lakes. I know that atmospherically corrected images from Landsat exist in USGS but what I can't figure is if it would make any difference to do the corrections myself after downloading L1 images or to simply download and use L2 images. And do I need to do surface reflectance on thermal band as well?
In large sedimentary basins surrounded by mountainous glaciers, mountainous runoff feeding the basin increases as a consequence of enhanced glacier melting. In this context, it woud be useful to assessing this effect if groundwater regime is monitored in regions that are affected, in particular, the alluvial fans.
This qestion intends to stimulate a discussion on this by collecting examples and datasets from different regions to achieve a common understading of the issue.
Unlike Microwave data, optical data is not sensitive to snow depth and internal snow pack properties. But Is there any other way with which it is possible to estimate snow volume using optical remote sensing data. I could not find any relevant publications on this topic. Kindly share links of articles, or any ideas in this connection. I appreciate the time and effort taken for answering this query.
Dear RG researchers
Which methods are used to study non-polar glaciers on basin-scale and regional-scale?
Thanks for valuable comments.
A lot of people suggested to use Water and change the CN value afterwards but I already have Water and Barren land as other classes.
From physics perspective the ice or snow are good in reflecting the solar radiation and the land is a good absorber of solar radiation. Let consider scientist who climb the top on mountain covered with glacier for ice core drilling, hope they may expose the land covered by ice to solar radiation and this may accelerate the melting of ice over the mountain. I would like to know is this could explain the melting of glacier for example over mountain Kilimanjaro. Or what are the impact of ice core drilling over tropical mountains?
I have been looking for information on water column DO, pH, SST , Chl-a, POC for areas in the peninsula near the glaciers vs the Southern Shetland Inland with no luck. Any information available to look for the main differences? Mostly influence of freshwater inputs to the fjords at the peninsula.
I am currently doing literature review on snow depth retrieval methods using passive remote sensing. While the algorithm in Chang (1987) says it uses brightness temperature difference at 18 and 37 GHz frequencies (Horizontal)(https://nsidc.org/sites/nsidc.org/files/technical-references/amsr-atbd-supp12-snow.pdf) in few other papers it is mentioned as vertical polarisation(
I would be grateful for all the responses and time taken to answer this query.
I want to estimate glacier surface lowering using UAV data acquired on glacier frontal areas where it is too difficult and dangerous to measure GCPs.
Russian discovery of five Arctic islands and the death of the first Icelandic glacier, Okjökull, are two recent observations for the melting ice in Polar Regions of the earth.
I would like to discuss this matter with RG members.
I currently consider using WorldClim (v. 1.4) data for testing how plant communities respond to variations in temperature and precipitation in Greenland, but I am not entirely sure to what extent the data can be trusted. Has anyone tried validating WorldClim data against field measurements in the Arctic?
I am trying to calculate the overall error of my glacier mass change calculations.
I have identified the following sources of uncertainty:
- Area change of glacier (+/- 3%)
- elevation change from DEM's (SD +/- 21.2m)
- Uncertainty from C-band penetration of SRTM (1.5m +/- 0.4m)
- Assumption of 850kg (+/- 60kg)
What would be the best way to calculate the overall uncertainty?
In the period end of October / beginning of November 2018 numerous weather anomalies such as snowfall in Spain, floods in Italy, almost summer temperature in some places in Central and Eastern Europe are recorded in Europe. From year to year, more and more warm winters are recorded in many places around the globe. In addition, for several years, higher and higher annual average temperatures have been recorded. More and more areas in Africa are covered by droughts, lack of rainfall and higher heat temperatures. In some coastal locations, off the coast of the oceans, in America, in Southeast Asia, in Polynesia tornadoes appear more and more dramatic. However, in Alaska, Canada, Norway and other countries where there are glaciers in the mountains, there are fewer and fewer glaciers. In the 20th century, a significant part of these glaciers melted. does it mean that the greenhouse effect on Earth is progressing so fast and is it already an irreversible process?
Are current weather anomalies in Europe derived from the progressive greenhouse effect on Earth?
Do current weather anomalies occurring in many places on Earth are a derivative of the globally progressing greenhouse effect?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
if giant tubes of say alluminium are filled with liquid nitrogen, would it be possible to place them within the existing/remaining ice in the sea to try and refreeze the water while also slowing down melting and slowing down the rate of rising sea levels and hopefully cool down the planet. where would i start if i wanted to do such research. thank you.
Dear In the article entitled "Mapping Radar Glacier Zones and Dry Snow Line in the Antarctic Peninsula Using Sentinel-1 Images" the normalization of the backscattering coefficient in Sentinel 1C images for the 30 degree angle of incidence was performed, since the raw image can range from 18 to 46 degrees. if there is any procedure that can be done in the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) or if the sigma-0 file generated in the processing is already normalized data at a certain angle of incidence. Thanks for listening.
Dear RG researchers
What are the major differences between Karakoram Glaciers and and Himalayan Glaciers for their response to climate change?
Thanks for feedback.
I appreciate that this question could open a can of worms, but i am looking for any examples in the literature of where mining activities have had a direct impact on glaciers (mass / dynamics / hydrology etc), and examples of where ining organisations have attempted to mitigate or compensate for these impacts?
Any experience, or pointers in the right direction woul be greatly appreciated.
The warming climate of the Earth causes a multitude of secondary effects, usually adverse weather anomalies and climatic disasters. As a result of these weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms, the area of the undesignated natural environment and areas developed by man for the needs of the development of civilization, including arable land areas in the field of crop production, may gradually diminish. Every year, more and more cases of weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms are coming, which may confirm such a research thesis.
Currently (end of October / beginning of November 2018) numerous weather anomalies such as snowfall in Spain, floods in Italy, almost summer temperature in some places in Central and Eastern Europe are recorded in Europe. From year to year, more and more warm winters are recorded in many places around the globe. In addition, for several years, higher and higher annual average temperatures have been recorded. More and more areas in Africa are covered by droughts, lack of rainfall and higher heat temperatures. In some coastal locations, off the coast of the oceans, in America, in Southeast Asia, in Polynesia tornadoes appear more and more dramatic. However, in Alaska, Canada, Norway and other countries where there are glaciers in the mountains, there are fewer and fewer glaciers. In the 20th century, a significant part of these glaciers melted. does it mean that the greenhouse effect on Earth is progressing so fast and is it already an irreversible process?
In view of the above, I am asking you: Will the areas of natural environment suitable for human life decrease as a result of the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
We are compiling global-scale water pools and fluxes and would like to include temporary snowpack (i.e. not perennial ice sheets, glaciers, or snow fields). Is anyone aware of a global-scale estimate of snowpack water content? To make it comparable with the other pools, we would probably show the annual average snowpack, or potentially the range (i.e. lowest month-highest month). Thanks in advance.
How we can scientifically classify the third pole (Himalaya, Karakorum, Hindu kush, tian shan, Tibetan and Qinghai plateau) into sub-climate zone?
e.g by considering precipitation regime, precipitation amount, glaciers behaviours e.t.c
There are meadows in chilean Patagonia that calls VEGAS. Here a definition of Vegas.
In the valleys and canyons of Patagonia, produced by the
fusion of Pleistocene glaciers, there are wetland meadows
locally called vegas or mallines. According to the Agricultural and Cattle Service, the vegas are damp and fertile areas owing
to the topography and the characteristics of the soil profile,
characterized by a strata of clay at varying depths. High
yield grasses with high forage value grow in these areas in
spring and summer (Filipová, 2009)
I am looking for a bibliography on the reduction of glacier masses in high mountains and the reduction of precipitations in the form of snow due to the effect of climate change.
I am working on refelectance and spectral properties of Landsat 8 and Sentinel for identication of different features of earth surface and, focus is glacier surface( Clear Ice, Snow and Debris).
May I request for your help to find tools for the processing and any propose methodology..
so I am working on a SWAT model of glacier's proglacial zone.
it's area equals ca. 9 km2 and there are places where metamorphic bedrock outcrop is present. I'm talking mostly schists.
what should I do when it comes to soil parameters input.
my main problem is, I do not have a soil map of this region from any database so I have to make one myself by creating some basic polygon map.
Because ice mills work ( Revision of the scale of last North American glaciation Part 1. Southern Rocky Mountains and The origin of lakes and sandy deserts of mountains during the melting of glaciers –Taklamakan and Gobi deserts)
There is work on overridden trees at Galciar Seco from several years ago but I am not sure whether the trees were eventually crossdated.
Sounds like a great project
Would the gradual melting of Earth's glaciers, due to the greenhouse effect, cause a further increase of the SLR?
If not, what happen to that water?
How ocean currents contribute to the phenomenon?
link photos: https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/sea-level/
I offer my thanks in advance to all those who will answer for the attention.
Yes. Observations show a global-scale decline of snow and ice over many years, especially since 1980 and increasing during the past decade, despite growth in some places and little change in others. Most mountain glaciers are getting smaller. Snow cover is retreating earlier in the spring. Sea ice in the Arctic is shrinking in all seasons, most dramatically in summer. Reductions are reported in permafrost, seasonally frozen ground and river and lake ice. Important coastal regions of the ice sheets on Greenland and West Antarctica, and the glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula, are thinning and contributing to sea level rise. The total contribution of glacier, ice cap and ice sheet melt to sea level rise is estimated as 1.2 ± 0.4 mm/yr for the period 1993 to 2003.
The isolate from glacier stream and water showed high resistance profile, what are the possible reasons? Any paper or study that may be useful to explain this?
Hot water locates 500 meters away from cold groundwater ,but something strange that cold groundwater is artesian from a well with low TDS (1g/L) ,while thermal water with average temperature 88℃ and high TDS (8g/L) ,both of them are tapped from granite due to some faults there. Thermal water is believed to have some connection with seawater, but what about cold groundwater ? the seawater can't affect it in such a close distance because of geological structures ? Or seawater exists much deeper so that shallow cold groundwater can't be influenced ? I'm so confused.
There is a method described by Sobrino in which he uses NDVI to find out the emissivity and therefore, calculate LST. I am sceptical of extrapolating this method for glaciers since glaciers do not have vegetation.
Recently, The three kinds of monthly air temperature data from 20 weather stations all show a uptrend with different rate over 20 years in Karakoram-Himalaya-Nyenchen Tanglha region. The glacier change pattern (by other independent observations) match this of Max Temperature. I mean glacier melt fastest in the place where Max Temperature increase fastest (Min Temperature increase slower maybe it is coincidence). I wonder the glaciers should melt fastest when (Max, Min or Mean?) temperature trend is biggest. Here we ignore other climatic condition. I know the real situation is complicated.
We found a big salt glacier in xinjiang, china, which is like the namakiers in iran. Some research about salt tecnics have been done in xinjiang. But, they have almost used the geophysical method, for example, 3D seismic technology. I want to research the process of salt flow by geochemistry, but I don`t how to begin. please give me some suggests, thans very much !
Attaching some pictures, salt glacier in xinjiang being trilateral; namakiers in iran; rock salt from salt glacier in xinjiang
From what I see, gemorpohology of proglacial zones of tropical glaciers has not been a major issue of concern. Together with my students, we're planning a small geomorphological project on Zongo glacier in Bolivia (drone, DEM, gemorphological map). Any publications, maps or more ideas for research would be of great use.
Thanks in advance,
I would like to estimate quantification of error during the glaciers area mapping and I need instruction
I am trying to calculate the surface temp. of debris cover glacier of Nepalese Himalaya? For this application which satellite image is better?
Ubiñas Massif (2.417 m. a.s.l. Cantabrian Mountains. 43º 2' N. - 5º 57' W.). With extensive and vast glaciers during the last ice age, currently it has small permanent snowfields.
I'm studying a body of ice with known thickness (60m) and slope (20°) and need to calculate the rate of strain (i.e., downslope velocity). I can calculate the downslope force of the glacier but I don't have the needed constants (k, A) needed to complete the strain rate calculation following the Glen-Nye Flow Law (strain rate = k*stress^n). Perhaps it is listed in Hooke's 'Glacial Mechanics' or Benn and Evans' 'Glaciers and Glaciation' texts? Thanks in advance, -Josh
I have no experience in glaciers modeling, but I think it could be useful in my work. I am considering post LGM deglaciation of subpolar fjord and I have a little information about retreats rates. It would be useful to model deglaciation over ~12 ka in order to get more control points for retreat rates. It is necessary for my numerical experiment with erosion rate (glacier positions are input and are integrated).
Please suggest methods based on Raster data set processing.
Is there any model that I can use to delineate accurate extent of a Glacier?
Please suggest me. Thanks
I think many of us have heard various estimates of the thickness of the glacier but what were the methods used and which are the most reliable.
I need to know what dating technique will be good for dating in LGM and what is best way to get good sample for that dating.
In times of Glacier Lake outburst floods, usually moraine walls fail. Therefore, I am interested in studying the nature of the strength of moraine walls and the hydrostatic pressures that they are subjected to.
For my study I have six different DEMs of a glacier. The DEMs are all from different years and I want to calculate the volume changes over a timeperiod. Including the six DEMs I have one subglacial DEM with low resolution (100 meter). In ArcMap, I use raster calculator to subtract the DEMs from the subglacial DEMs to get the volume results. The problem is that the DEMs with high resolution gets converted to 100 meter resolution. Is there any way to derive results with better resolution?
Using surface temperature and net shortwave radiation up to certain depth (0.2m).
Is there R code to solve this equation?