Science topics: Geoscience
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Explore the latest questions and answers in Geoscience, and find Geoscience experts.
Questions related to Geoscience
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Our group, at HHMI, makes educational resources for teachers to use in their classroom. We like to bring new and exciting stories into high school science classrooms and this year, we are telling the story of how scientist unraveled the KT extinction story. Foraminifera plays a vital role in understanding the mass extinction story, and we want students to get a full appreciation for what these tiny organisms have to tell us. Has anyone ever done any kind of outreach to students using forams? If so, what kinds of activities do you do with them?
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A good high school/middle school unit about sea level rise that uses forams:
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Black Water - from septic sources..
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It is a scatter plot of Ca2+ + Mg2+ vs. SO42- + HCO3-
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Thanks Marcus and Imran
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I am interested both in rectangular forms and in piles placed in random positions.
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Some simple method to work out the differential settlement may not able to adequately address this issue since this is related to the behaviour of pile groups. You may consider to use 3-D finite element method and the results will give you settlements at various sections in order to assess the differential settlement concerned.
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I have been looking at PhD Programs and exploring funding sources/scholarships in Germany and found what is called an Industrial PhD.
Sometimes companies or industries would publish vacancies for which prospective PhDs can apply.
Alright now for my questions:
1) How did you find your position?
2) What were the inherent advantages and disadvantages of pursuing this type of PhD?
3) Did you end up in Academia or did you end up working for the company?
4) My area of interests and expertise is earth science, hydrogeology, groundwater, renewable energy, reservoir modelling. Can anyone suggest companies which may offer Industrial PhDs in the Geosciences?
5) Are there companies which are open to research proposals or does companies always choose the topics and advertise their specific vacancies on their personal websites?
6) Feel free to add anything from your experience of an Industrial PhD.
Thanks!
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Hi,
I am looking for simple codes (Matlab/Octave/Python) in the area of Inverse Problems/Data Assimilation in Geophysics (Earth, Atmosphere, and Ocean).
The idea is to assign them as project study in an undergraduate course on Inverse Problems in Geophysics.
There are several examples in the Computer & Geosciences journal, but more suggestions are welcome.
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Gracias Guillermo, this is a good "Model Compendium"! I will try the SLEPIAN BRAVO code. Seems it's the only one directly related to inverse problems.
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Should geoscientists resist the temptation to coin snappy neologisms? Snowball Earth, mantle avalanche, Cambrian explosion……..are all useful shorthand for complex phenomena, but is there also a danger of trivializing, obfuscating or even misleading the unwary? Does popularization through conceptual simplicity override scientific rigour? Your thoughts please, and any other examples that either irritate or have inspired, and why.
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This is a fantastic question. While snappy names can often lead to misunderstandings and simplifications, it is probably a major factor in popularizing topics that would go unnoticed by the general public otherwise. The clever terms are what draws in readers, both inside and outside the scientific community. It is the job however of the person coining these phrases to make sure they are clearly defined and not misleading.
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Naturally, a large percentage of manuscripts submitted to the 'big' journals in the Earth sciences, Nature and Science, are rejected. This leaves authors with an option to submit their work to 'related' journals, i.e., Nature Geoscience and Nature Communications; or Science Advances, respectively.
I'd like to know about your feeling about publishing in these 'second-order' journals. Since they carry the prominent publisher labels of Nature and Science, do you think they are equally visible and prestigious, and maybe just a different platform to present your research? Or does it leave you with the feeling of having to settle for a '2nd-class' article in comparison to a paper in Nature or Science? Your opinions and thoughts would be much appreciated.
To give this a quantitative measure, here are the current (2014) impact factors for some of the leading geoscientific journals (released in 2015):
Nature: 41.456
Nature Geoscience: 11.74
Nature Communications: 11.47
Science: 33.611
Science Advances: Debut 2015; impact factor announced 2017
PNAS: 9.674
Geology: 4.88
Thanks,
Martin
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Herr Schmieder... Publication in any of the "major" journals entails significant risk if the subject of your paper is in any way controversial because the editorial referee selection process seeks to find the higher profile individuals. If your paper tends to conflict with their established views it is likely to encounter resistance. If it tends to agree with those views, but is not a significant advance it may again encounter resistance. In the "lesser" journals this is less likely to be the case. However, if your paper has new findings and represents an advance in knowledge, it stands a much better chance. Evaluate your paper with respect to the audience you hope to reach and act accordingly. A specialty journal could be a better choice and easier to gain acceptance for publication. After all, that's your goal, is it not?
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 What is your opinion about the recent hypothesis ?
Giant Underwater Craters May shed Light On Bermuda Triangle Mystery
We have been performing experiments in the laboratory for more than a year , and results are fascinating.
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Last time I looked, there was no such thing as a "mystery" around the Bermuda Triangle. As far as I am informed, the whole thing is just an overblown myth. No significantly higher losses of shipping and planes than in any other sea region. Also, the hypothesis that methane blowouts can lower buoyancy and thus sink ships is old news. I heard about that one already in the beginning of the 90s.
I have no time to look into the story any deeper, but I think a sincere scientist shouldn't go public invoking a "Bermuda Triangle Mystery". Just my two cents.
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Dear Author(s):
Greetings!!
We are in the process of editing a book entitled  “Medical Geographical Information – Applications, Analysis and Mapping"  for Springer press; as a part of the book series entitled "Geosciences and the Environment".
It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute chapter(s) in our book. More information are available at the following website: https://sites.google.com/site/mgiaam2016/
For any query feel free to write us.
Best regards,
The editors
Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla (spdimi11@gmail.com)
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yes sure, i will reply to your email. 
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I need journals indexed in scopus database, specialized in geosciences and respond quickly 
2 months maximally  i have to publish before april 2016 
Thanks in advance 
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Earth was  definitely not heated to this state from a cold condition. It was cooled from a very high temperature and also very slow rate to this state.The question is what are the possible causes for this cooling?
A Geo-Scientist can answer this question
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>...,materials on initial earth will be at more than 6000K above melting point of all materials and in gaseous state.
Radhashyam, how did you get this idea?
Is biogeochemistry closer to geosciences (earth sciences) or to biosciences?
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Sometimes it is necessary to decide which of these keywords (biology, or earth sciences) have to be associated with publications on biogeochemistry. Recently I made a small but important edit of this question.
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To my mind it is close to both, geosciences and biosciences. However I want to hear opinions of you, dear colleagues.
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i wanna submit a paper to this journal. Can anyone help judge my abstract is okay for it?
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Journals such as IEEE TGARS, IEEE JSARS, IEEE GRSL, Remote Sensing, JARS etc
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 Fatih, that is a challenging question to answer because it depends so very much on the individual reviewer. Established journals usually offer four weeks for review to the individual reviewer. Realistically you can expect a first review result after 1-3 months. The reviews of revisions should be much faster (within 1 month).
Good luck,
Christine
What is Lovelock famous for?
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Key words include: biosphere, global environment, ecology, earth sciences, geosciences, superorganism, biosphere
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Dear Sergei, key in my field (Science & Technology Studies, STS) is Bruno Latour's take on Gaia. For a lecture series by him on Gaia, see the short ad at http://bruno-latour.fr/sites/default/files/downloads/GIFFORD-BROCHURE-1.pdf. My field is not very much concerned with actually opening up how Lovelock was influenced. Instead, Latour takes Gaia as an inspiration to discuss how Science and Politics are and could address Nature, questioning in this process what Science, Politics and Nature are. I add a few references on Latour's take and a paper in which I propose a critique of his take. I hope that helps. Best, Ingmar https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00972921/document http://www.ethicsandglobalpolitics.net/index.php/egp/article/viewArticle/6373 http://ias.umn.edu/wp-content/upLoads/2014/03/agency-Anthropocene-Latour.pdf
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Information is required about research centres across the globe that offer Ph.D scholarship in environmental geoscience.  The area of interest is on landfill geo-environmental assessment using physicochemical, geomathematical, geochemical and geotechnical evaluation.
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Thank you. However, the emphasis is on scholarship.
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In the 1984 paper where they introduced coefficients for the Tasselled Cap transformation of TM data, Crist and Cicone remarked, "As more experience is gained with TM data, adjustment of the TM Tasseled Cap coefficients may be indicated, leading to increasing precision in the data rotation." Have the coefficients they provided in Table 2 of that paper been updated? Is anyone using slightly different (or more precise?) coefficients than those in the table?
Crist, E. P., and R. C. Cicone. 1984. A Physically-Based Transformation of Thematic Mapper Data---The TM Tasseled Cap. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing GE-22 (3):256–263.
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Hi everyone, I'm developing a research of mineral chemistry in phyllosilicates of alteration zones of porphyry deposits, like a complement, I want to know the theory about how is the variation of the chemical elements during the hydrothermal stages?.
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Please see attached manuscript. Also this reference: 
Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, Volume 1, 1997
By Hubert Lloyd Barnes
Chapter 9 & 10.
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Trying to differentiate between mud, rock, and ice. 
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look at this article that may be help you
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I´m a PhD student in Geoscience and Natural Resource Management. I´m sampling soil down 2 meters depth and investigate how much carbon there is at that depth. Can anybody suggest the newest method to determine soil carbon content?
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Take into account that Walkley-Black is a semiquantitative method (partial oxidation of the sample). This method was/is mainly used for soil classification. To  work up to 2 m depht, a CHN determination is better. Anyway you could split  any sample, collected according to the genetic horizons,  in two subsamples; you can use  the Walkley Black to classify your soil  and the  CHN  determination to get more precise data. 
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Does anyone know of detailed geologic maps of India? Thanks in advance...
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Hi,
Please find attached the geological map of India, published by the Geological Survey of India.
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Who can help me offer some matlab codes on scattered data fitting using spline-wavelets; Some other matlab codes on wavelets is also useful to me, thanks .
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thanks
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The 1975 lexicon of Qatar states that the Cretaceous Mauddud Formation got its name from that locality near Dukhan.
The name was assigned by Dr. F.R.S. Henson in an unpublished 1940 report. Does anybody have that report?
A 1948 geological report on the Dukhan anticline by Dr. Max Chatton says "Ain Mauddud has a little water spring on the seashore". Does someone know where that water spring is/was?
Any help would be appreciated. This is related to my current research on the silica of the Rus Formation
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Just like google earth, we are putting more efforts to generate 3D city models with more and more details both in geometry and semantics. However, we can not see the indispensable requirements of 3D city models except 3D visualizations and games.  I would like to see the comments and suggestions from different fields. Then we may summarize the basic scientific problems that 3D city models can solve
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As I know, the 3D city models could be used in the field of urban air quality modeling.
The current urban surface parameterizations and schemes could not accurately elaborate the structure of cities in air quality models such as WRF-chem, CMAQ etc.
I think if you could coupled the parameters or the structure description method in your 3D city models with the urban climate / air quality models, that will promote a lot to the climate and pollution studies. 
and maybe this review will help you:
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The goal of the aforementioned question is if someone got published a paper from this journal, how this one would be helpful for him/her to grab a good score during higher degree research scholarship evaluation.
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May i please know what does the term Quaternary signify in 'Quaternary Deposits' i would also like to know if it has similar meaning in case of 'Quaternary Landslides'.
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Dear Mr. Sr:
Dr. Beaudoin has already paved the way to an explanation of the technical term and marked the beginning and end (?) of this interval. The term "Quaternary" coined by A. Morlot (1858) only becomes a logic term in view of its predecessor called "Tertiary" (the Secondary Period = Mesozoic and Primary Period = Paleozoic do not exist like these terms in chronostratigphy). The most recent changes in chronostratigraphy led to an abolition of the term "Tertiary" in favour of the Paleogene and Neogene building up the Cenozoic together with the Quaternary. The term "Quaternary" thereby became an isolate term. The processes active during the Quaternary are manifold, among others encompassing mass wasting processes such as landslides which are well preserved due to the age of formation and which are still active or under development. It would go far beyond this Q&A process to summarize all geologically and geomorphologically relevant and meaningful processes in Quaternary geosciences.
With best regards
H.G.Dill
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Looking for a book to teach VB for geoscience students for M.Sc. and Ph.D. courses.
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Load of Thanks Pete Bettinger.
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can someone attach me a journal or an article about an urbanization technology in a scope of geoscience?
Thank you.
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thank you:)
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I am specifically asking about the well log data and any other geophysical studies.
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It is also for my works
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I am looking for laboratory in Central Europe which posesses the Thermal Conductivity Scanner for some measurements in hard rock samples. I will be grateful for information about who has this kind of equipment.
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Jacek:
GFZ has such scanner and Andrea Forster is the person to be contacted. Same scaller designed originally by Drs Popov and Huenges and produced by a Leipzig company by special orders is also a property of Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw.
Cheers
Jacek M
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This may help answer questions surrounding future discovery directions and technology required.
I've heard it said, 1M geophysical programs are required to find a greater than $100B totally blind subsurface mine. If so, is this lack of geophysical ore discovery success with current technology the issue or scarcity of large economic resources? Hope you include data that may help answer this question.
The former means much improved or new geophysical technology is required. Or will alternative new technologies and approaches to augment geophysics be required if scope of new geophysical technology needed is predicted to be limited?
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Dear Bernhardt
Thank you for the question - an interesting one. 
From my perspective there are not any step change geophysical technologies on the immediate horizon.  Likely developments are in the foreseeable future are tensor potential field systems and EM systems capable of lower base frequencies and so hopefully better penetration.  This will certainly improve things but its my opinion that at present the weakest link in the exploration chain is our ability to interpret the geoophysical data.  For this reason here at UWA we've started working on the petrophysics of the mineralised environment and in particular the integration of the petrophysics with mineralogical and geochemical data.  Its early days but its clear that just thinking about the problem in terms of lithological controls only (as is common in most petrophysical studies) is not the right way to go. Alteration is very important especially in mafic and umafic rocks.  Apart from serpentinisation the petrophysical consequences of common types of alteration is hardly studied at all.
I am actually quite concerned about how geophysics is currently being used in mineral exploration, in particular the creation of 'geologically realistic' models of the subsurface.  These frequently have a level of complexity inconsistent with the resolving power of the geophysical data.  And then there's ambiguity.  For these reasons, another line of research we're pursing here is finding a way to represent uncertainty and resolution in a sub-surface physical property model.  Which parts of the model are most reliable; which parts are not well constrained etc?
So to summarise, I don't see any geophysical silver bulletins on the horizon and a short term objective  is to make better use of what we already have.  
Regarding the original question about discoveries and resources.  Are you aware of the work of Richard Schodde?  Richard has compiled a lot of data of this kind and its accessible in summary form on his website.  It would be great to include something similar in the new book with emphasis on geophysical discoveries but as I've already found published data are often contradictory, there is often dispute about how deposits were actually discovered and data on resources is commercially very sensitive for obvious reasons.  So its a tough question to resolve at the moment.
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SCP is a great tool and I've used it extensively in my PhD research on remote sensing of benthic habitats (https://www.researchgate.net/project/MORE-MAPS). Thank you for developing it!
Have you considered publishing a software meta-paper about SCP? It would make it much easier to cite your project, and these kinds of papers tend to be relatively quick and easy to write. Some possible journals are: the journal of open research software (http://openresearchsoftware.metajnl.com/), SoftwareX (https://www.journals.elsevier.com/softwarex/), or Computers & Geoscience (https://www.journals.elsevier.com/computers-and-geosciences).
Thanks again!
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Thank you very much.
I am glad the my plugin was useful in your interesting research.
Yes, you are definitely right. I am wiling to publish a paper about SCP in a scientific journal.
Thank you for the suggestions, I'll consider submitting to these journals.
Best wishes,
Luca
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Several theoretical models have been developed to study the coupling between physical and chemical weathering rates. Generally, when the physical erosion rate is extremely high (e.g. >4 mm/yr), the potential increase in chemical weathering rate due to the exposure of fresher materials is offset by the decrease in regolith thickness, therefore chemical weathering rates may decline (Ferrier and Kirchner, 2008, EPSL; Gabet and Mudd, 2008, Geology). By contrast, in landslide-dominated landscapes, there may be a positive relationship between chemical weathering and physical erosion even if the erosion rate is extremely high (e.g. >5 mm/yr), because of the particularly frequent exposure of fresh minerals (Gabet, 2007, EPSL). This is also proved by a case study on an active mountain belt, New Zealand (Emberson et al., 2015, Nat. Geosci.).
Hence, Is there always an anti-correlation between physical erosion and chemical weathering when the denudation rate is extremely high? Or the frequent landslides in certain geological settings may change this kind of relationship?
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I have not studied this specific question to any degree, but have some experiences and observations to contribute to your search started in the various studies of specific circumstances.  I have not read these specific publications to comment on them.
I have seen that in areas with chemical weathering or influence in some soils, the erosion rate is higher including the potential for piping in some instances, gully formation, etc (mostly South Carolina, Georgia, with other examples in North Carolina, Texas, Arizona, Alabama, Colorado and Arizona). I understand your thought that eventually erosion may occur to the extent that eventually the most weathered material may be gone, exposing less weathered soils (e.g., C horizon, regolith), or soils with accumulation of clay materials (B horizon) may offer resistance. I note that for soils to be eroded to degree of C horizon or regolith, you are most likely talking about channelized systems or more or less permanent barrens, with little potential to support vegetation without further soil weathering and development.  We had some of these barrens in the weathered C horizon, saprolite soils in SE USA, and they lacked vegetation and often rilled or gullied surfaces, and on occasion continuing to contribute sediments during extreme rainfall events (researchgate paper on sediment from a small ephemeral gully.  It mentions freeze-thaw, high rain intensity and wind-cyclonic storms that move trees as other processes that can contribute in dislodging particles in extreme headwaters with exposed conditions.
Denudation of soils exposes them to rainfall, and increases the potential that soil particles will be dislodged and entrained where surface flow accumulates, potential for development of rills or gullies on sloping terrain if rainfall rates tend to be high, and soils are erodible.  Weathered soils contribute much to the potential for these severe erosion processes.  Landslides may or may not be connected to soil weathering, and usually dependent more on steep slope, geologic contacts, ability of the soil to hold rather than percolate water (such as mica schist soils), and conditions of excess water is available to help overload the weight of the soil and reduce the friction against the bedrock or controlling geology features.  Roads with poor surface drainage properties and their undercutting of slopes, sometimes placing fills on steep slopes increase the natural potential for landslides due to the adjacent denuding activity, soil disturbance, compaction, vibration by heavy equipment and modifications to hydrology (or hydraulic properties).  There may also be conditions where chemical weathering and erosion rates are not well correlated, even if soils are denuded.  In general, I would suggest that chemical weathering of soils contributes to erosion rates, but the lack of chemical weathering does not prevent soils from being eroded under conditions that favor erosion, such as high rainfall, steep slopes. The factors that affect surface erosion in the Universal Soil Loss Equation include the soil K factor, but several other factors.  Is the product of these varying factors that affect surface erosion.  It does not address channel or slope erosion, which are affected by some of the same factors but also some different ones such as the concentration of water to the specific site. 
So in the models suggested on these processes, there are many elements to consider, and perhaps some further refinements to be able to separate the various types of erosion, types of conditions, types of soils, potential for and rates of weathering, soil disturbances, geology, topography, hydrology, rainfall, etc.
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 If possible, kindly mention the tentative deadlines and links. 
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If you sign on to this e-mail list you will be informed on open scholarships: http://scholarship-positions.com/category/postdoctoral-fellowships-positions-jobs/
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Dear collegues,
I am pleased to inform you that the EGU 2017 (European Geosciences Union) call for abstracts is already available.
You are cordially invited to submit an abstract to the session: SSS6.9 Aggregates formation and C stabilization in soils – present achievements and future perspectives at the Soil System Sciences Programme Group during the next European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2017 Vienna | Austria | 23 April-28 April 2017.
If you submit your abstract before December 1st you can request for financial support.
Please see the website of the session in the following:
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How to model CO2 properties such as velocity at deeper depth say 30 Km? Is there any equation to model CO2 velocity?
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You can compute the CO2 properties depending on pressure and temperature using Span and Wagner equations. From CO2 bulk modulus and density you can compute the P-wave velocity of CO2. If you want to compute the velocity of a saturated or partially saturated rock with CO2, you need to plug the CO2 properties (bulk modulus, density and viscosity) in Biot-Gassmann theory (or variants) and you will be able to derive viscoelastic properties.
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Dear Peers
One of my graduate students is pending graduation this semester and will have a grace period before starting a industry job in June 2017. He is looking for a temporary geosciences research assistant job world widely and especially outside US. His thesis project is to use seismic attribute and AVO analysis for reservoir characterization on a offshore dataset near New Zealand. Please let me know if there is any opportunity around you.
Thank you
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heories about geoscience maybe I can help, but not for application in the field
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SAR, Remote Sensing, Geoscience
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Hi Rajesh,
Well, it depends on the technique you decide to use. IW is an adquisition mode, so you could have both GRD and SLC in IW mode. If you are going to estimate the glacier velocity by using SAR interferometry techniques (InSAR, DInSAR, PSI, etc), you should use SLC, because according with the documentation of sentinel-1 the phase is missing in the GRD product. So, for this reason I strongly recommend you to use SLC in order to apply InSAR or DInSAR approaches.
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Dear Professors,
I am currently finishing my M.Sc in GIS at K. N. Toosi University of Technology and have set out to pursue my studies abroad. I am looking for a fully-funded PHD position in the relevant research areas. I will appreciate if you inform me if there is any vacant position to apply.
Thanks in advance.
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I don't know about funded availability, but I would reach out to The University of Maine School of Computing and Information Science.  That's a great program that has produced a lot of faculty members around the world.
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I am wondering if using an research article for a book chapter has the same impact or transcendence in the Geosciences academic world. Even if the book publisher is highly recognized, the research article as a book chapter loses value compared to a peer review article?. What about the impact factor and citations?. A review paper is more suitable for a book chapter instead of a journal?
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Thank you Marcello, your answer was very focused and concise.
The scientific trajectory of the SP editors is an important issue to consider as well.
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Geo-scientific evidences in Environmental Litigation arising from oil and gas pollution
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Capture and storage plans are part of the global commitment made in Paris. Who will be the lead defendant in this committed but losing "cause"? These plans are completely unworkable. Humans cannot possibly capture and hide safely somewhere the 100,000 million metric tons of CO2 that will have to be reburied to get us all back to a "safe" 350 ppm. It took Nature millions of years to bury it the first time, unoxidized. Attempts to force it to work will lead to serious social and economic collateral damages. especially to poor and overpopulated areas. This will be large-scale "pollution" to the plaintiffs?
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The alacrity with which researchers from many disciplines have embraced the term “Anthropocene” to connote a fundamental man-made disruption to the Earth System suggests it is an extremely useful conceptual shorthand amongst professionals, as well as capturing the attention and imagination of the wider public.
This was clearly the intention of Crutzen & Stoermer (2000) who coined it, yet as atmospheric chemist and biologist, it is unclear whether they did so in the expectation that it could, or should, be implemented as a formal stratigraphic term, or that they had a clear understanding at the time of the challenges of achieving a practical (stratigraphic) definition that would be useful to all disciplines.
A cursory survey of the research in the journals Anthropocene and Anthropocene Review reveals the very broad temporal range of anthropogenic phenomena investigated, a significant proportion of which predates the ICS Working Group’s current recommended onset in the early 1960’s.
Such concerns have prompted a degree of scepticism (e.g. Klein, 2015) about the considerable efforts being expended by the IUGS/ICS in this area.
Your thoughts and opinions please, particularly those from professional stratigraphers.
Crutzen, Paul J & Stoermer, Eugene F “The Anthropocene” Global Change Newsletter No.41  International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) (May 2000):17-18
Klein, George Devries. "The Anthropocene": What is its Geological Utility? Episodes 38.3 (2015): 218-218.
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In defining this term, where should one start and what criteria should be used? 
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The continental drift is a reality now, supported by the dynamics of plate tectonics and seafloor spreading. Continuous convergence (collision) and divergence (separation) of continental and oceanic plates from each other has been reshaping our Earth since the initiation of the process. Therefore, the absolute location (latitudinal and longitudinal) of places has been changing with the change of associated biotic and abiotic environments (tropics shift to equator, or polar regions being shifted to mid latitudes for example). 
Then, how the shape of the earth arises due to the continuous movement of the continents and oceans is impacting the global climate? Does it also impact the paleoclimatic records which are being considered to understand the climate of the past?
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Dear Sumanta: the question you posed is a very complex one! The supercontinent cycle has been operating since at least the Paleoproterozoic or Neoarchean, assembling and disrupting continental masses, creating -and destroying- orogenic belts and ocean basins, volcanic belts, and the like. So it is unquestionable that such tectonic variarions had a strong influence on past climate, just as they have been doing since the Pangea disruption in the Jurassic. The problem is relatively easy to resolve in Mesozoic terrains, a bit more difficult in Paleozoic, and really a hard one in the Precambrian. Conditions for deposition of evaporitic basins were widespread during the Permian, but also in the Devonian and Proterozoic, where large evaporitic basins are found, also aeolian sandstones are frequent in this very dry period, and in older times too. Climate changes so profound as to be unimaginable to us happened when continental blocks collided to form supercontinents. Pangea was covered possibly by a desert three times larger that the actual Sahara, and by an enormous ice cover in its southern parts. The uplift of the Appalachian-Caledonian belt surely had a profound effect in the climate of this supercontinent and global Earth. Before this, in the Neoproterozoic, the uplift of the world-wide Greenvillian system of orogenic belts, which was probably even higher than the Himalaya and longer than the Andes..., due to the assembly of Rodinia, certainly had a marked influence in atmospheric and oceanic circulation, as to eventually lead he planet to the "Snow-ball Earth" global glaciation, just as the uplift of the Andes and Himalaya has done in more recent times, creating large deserts in South America and Central Asia. The problem in older terrains is the large uncertainties in the relative shape, positions and paleolatitudes adquired by land masses, this is relatively easy to solve during the Jurassic, but increasingly difficult to ascertain in older times. With regards, Sebastian.
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Global warming = Ice melting = Sea level rise = More water availability for evaporation and (possible) decrease of salinity = More evaporation = More clouds = Less solar radiation to earth = Global cooling = Fresh ice formation = Sea level fall = Less water availability for evaporation and (possible) increase of salinity = Less evaporation = Less atmospheric clouds = More incoming solar radiation = Global warming again.
(1) Are these consequences always true?
(2) If not, then what are the alternative circumstances?
(3) How does ever-changing Global Climate maintain its Dynamic Equilibrium with Global Water Cycle? Which one is the initiator of Change? Any evidence?
and,
(4) Is there any long term record of salinity of oceanic water?
**Note: Above are the physical factors (components) for global change and associated consequences... excluding biological factors such as changes of concentration of Oxygen/Carbon-dioxide/Methane etc. and their inter-relation which also influence the global cycle.
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UPDATE: Few Related & Interesting References (referred by the experts with their answers)
(IPCC Working Group Reports, referred by Harry ten Brink and Commenter)
http://isthereglobalcooling.com/ (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/sotc/ (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Past_sea_level   (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glaciers-and-climate/ (referred by Steingrimur Stefansson)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas  (referred by Henrik Rasmus Andersen)
http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/ (referred by Alastair Bain McDonald)
https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/education-outreach [Click Introduction to Paleoclimatology] (Commenter)
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/ [For Global and Regional Analysis of (1) Climate, (2) Hazards, (3) Snow & Ice, (4) Upper Air, and (5) ENSO events .....during late 1990s to till date] (Commenter)
...for refence see the Global Major Climate Events (originally source & compiled map credit NOAA-NCDC and WMO) during year 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and some images related to historical trend of global temperature (Images collected from various webpages referred here)...
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Dear Sumanta, you are asking a complex question for which there might be no exact answer today. While in economic literature the statement about temperature growth in the last 100 years by only anthropogenic influence dominates, physicists are still in doubt; see for example https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn11639-climate-myths-the-cooling-after-1940-shows-co2-does-not-cause-warming/ . There exists also a hypothesis about global cooling, but on much larger time scale; see http://isthereglobalcooling.com/ . The graph about global temperature and CO2 dynamics is the last 450,000 years is attached (from this source). If this graph is correct, we have an interesting observation: warming went faster (about 10,000 years) than cooling (100,000 years). It is unclear whether triggering is caused by some shocks or some mechanism of dynamic equilibrium on the Earth. But is is also clear that we observe anthropogenic contribution to this process for the 1st time.
The problem however is that we cannot wait too long without making actions to combat global warming. Less carbon emissions would indeed work towards speed reduction of this process, but it might happen that other greenhouse gases (like methane) will continue working in its favor while increase of volcanic activity (observed in the last 10 years) will work towards reduction.
As for the rise of ocean level, the effect is still small today, and is caused not so much by ice melting but more by change of water density with temperature and salinity. However, melting of all Antarctic ice will cause a catastrophic rise of the ocean level by 60 meters; see https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html . Melting of Greenland will have much lower effect (6 meters), but here we observe catastrophic melting in the last years.
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optical remote sensing data: Landsat and Sentinel2
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Landsat resolution (pan ) is 15. and Sentinel 2 is 10 m.
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Theory of fractal describes the things being scale-independent. This approach is also widely being used in geology/geosciences worldwide.  
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Well,
Right, using a predictive modeling.
Regards
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there are many countries which have challenges with dust storms. maybe some of these dust storms are salty and have different methods for biological performance. Certainly, these countries and their researcher's were applied some methods for stabilize and control of dust storm. i would like familiar with methods and will be grateful you if introduce me some article, guideline and photos.
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The problem of the dry lake beds will only be solved by adding water, and in the California case, vegetation of the lake bed did not work and we had to add the water.  I can see the impact of the lack of water on Urmia lake from Google Earth, that it is turning into a saline dry lake bed, what we call here a "playa". 
If you cannot add water because your neighbors are keeping it behind dams, you have to replant the surrounding watershed with plants that can grow on their own with the limited desert rainfall,  to increase the rainfall during the summer monsoon season.
If you monitor the monsoon moisture that passes over your country each summer, there  is enough moisture that could be harvested by the added natural vegetation, that you could potentially go from a few cm. per year in the driest central and SE part of your country to up to 20-50 cm. or more.
This is a similar situation where natural vegetation exists in the mountains above Salalah compared to the surrounding barren Arabian peninsula.  
If you look at the examples of the original vegetation of your country, it was a forest prior to the domestication of grazing animals, and you can still see examples like around the town of Ardeha or the town to the east at Lat, N37.83 and Long, E47.68 which looks like oak woodlands from Google Earth--like you can read about in "Forests of Iran: A Treasure from the Past, a Hope for the Future."
And it is the oak woodlands surrounding that town, that bring the rainfall to that area so that farming can occur there,
But that process ecological restoration process has to go step-by-step, with the annual desert plant colonizers to cover the soil first, then the perennial grasses and herbaceous perennial plants, then the shrubs, then the trees.  
Iran has enough examples left of the original ecosystems that they could be used as points to work from, and use those native seed resources that still remain, and increase the relic areas in size.  
 The main issue is money and significant annual budgets to do something on a country-wide scale, which is what needs to happen in your area.    
Unfortunately the drop in oil prices will be a big impact of having a budget, but perhaps your government will decide to transfer funds from the annual military budget to promote and increase in rainfall and ecological security, like most countries around the world will need to do in the near future?
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Thanks in advance for your replies.
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I guess that any chromatography data system (suitable for MS data) should be able to handle these files. I usually export into this format, so I assume you can also import it, although I haven´t done that.
If you are looking for free software to analyse your data, you can try OpenChrom (tried it a long ago and it was a bit difficult to adjust to my needs) or AMDIS (if you are only interested in qualitative results).
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I am looking for comments specifically related to the ICP-MS maker.
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This is a tricky question as it will be difficult to avoid mentioning brand names and producers.
I presume you are looking into a quadrupole instrument. The big players such as Thermo, Agilent, PE etc. all produce great instruments. It is certainly a matter how good your support is in your country.
You need to make sure that you have the possibility of a collision/reaction cell with He or He/H2 to get rid of interferences. Also low oxide formation rates (CeO+/Ce+) are essential for good REE data (1% and lower is needed, but this can also be reached with different sample introduction systems, such as APEX from ESI etc.
Also for whole rock analysis you would want to have a detection system that can span at least 8 orders of magnitude in intensity as you would like to analyse major and trace elements concentrations from the same solution.
In addition you would like to have a robust system that can handle high total dissolved solids content and probably you would need a HF resistant sample introduction system.
There are many more things to say. It would be better for you to ask specific questions.
How many microequivalents per litre are there in a milliequivalent per litre?
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I guess this shouldn't be a problem, but google search hasn't really helped. Or is it that I am not searching rightly? Can I also convert micromolc/L to mEq/L? I will be happy with suggestions.
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Have a look at this. It should give you some idea about how to convert. http://www.aces.edu/waterquality/glossary/glossary_results.php3?rowid=9892
What are hot article about shale geochemistry?
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The most cited articles
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What are the application of shale geochemistry?
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Of the two terms photomicrograph and microphotograph, which term is correct for the photograph of a rock thin section slide taken with the help of a petrological microscope?
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Thank you Sir.
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Studying the karst aquifer behavior by using Spring Discharge Time series
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Dear Ibraheem Hamdan,
Have a look to the paper below. its aboout the use of the MODKARST model in the Almiros karst spring in Crete - Greece.
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Which algorithm works best while integrating LiDAR with optical image
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I'll assume for part one that you want to pull colour information from images and apply it to a point cloud.
If you have access to the Terrasolid suite, there are tools to first coregister imagery with LiDAR, and then extract colour values for the LIDAR point cloud from coregistered imagery.
For the imagery, you need a way to apply an apriori geolocation - either ground points or camera positions and orientations. I've used the second approach - no ground control, but camera centre location (plus heading, pitch, roll).
I've used this in an airborne context - it's a very good tool but fairly expensive.
If your imagery and LiDAR are already coregistered, LAStools also offers a method to extract colour data and apply it to the point cloud (LAScolor).
For part two, I'll assume you want to drape already-coregistered imagery over a LIDAR cloud to make a pretty terrain model.
Terrasolid also offers this capacity (TerraModel). I am almost certain that FUSION can also do the job, but I'm not a FUSION user, I've just dabbled at the edges.
Right now I'm working on a quick-and-dirty program to coarsely coregister (direct georeferencing) some images and LiDAR over a flat surface - but it is not such an easy task. Preferably I'd use an existing tool but I have operational (no ground control, which most methods require) and funding constraints.
I hope my assumptions are somewhat correct, and you find this useful!
Regards
Adam
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I'm working on an artice in which the goal is to propose an exploration key for a deposit.
In geologic perspective, the mine is in the limestone and lime_ dolomite stone.
The type of this deposit is SEDEX. the questions are :
1. Are there any SEDEX deposits in which the hydrothermal solution put the mineral on joints and fractures of limestone and lime_ dolomite stones, around the world?
2. Are the faults proposing to be exploration keys for recognition of this type of deposit?
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The key of SEDEX (sedimentary exhalative) deposits is barite!. MVT deposits don't usually have much barite, and regarding the sulfides textures, are rather different.
Most SEDEX have very large barite accummulations that cover Pb-Zn sulfides above the redox boundary, and as pointed out above by Max, these hydrothermal solutions are expelled from sub-sea extensional faults (i.e., opening basins, continental margins...). The faults are the counduits for fluid expulsion (i.e., the feeder), and these might be shown in potential geopphysical data, as well as the barite accummulations due to the large specific gravity of Ba.
You should expect precipitation of metal cations along the faults-fractures network but most of the ore can actually be spread over the seafloor at the time of exhalation-sedimentation. If your're lucky to find an undisturbed non-deformed sedex deposit, good for your!. In many cases, subsequent deformation remobilises the ores and accumulates them along fault zones or the hinges of folds (same for VMS deposits for instance).
Have a look to this link by Goodfellow from the Geological Survey of Canada: 
Another nice reference is the special volume of Economic Geology devoted to the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ba-Ag deposit of the Brooks Range (Arctic Alaska ). 
OR this one:
Pablo
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I'm now working on a project in which I must visualize a porphyry Cu veinlet relationships, I have a variety of cores from various deeps of an ore deposit, each core illustrates the mineralization in a specific deep, I have also the cores's coordinates.if there is any useful way for vain classification, I will accept warmly.
I eagerly look forward to hear from you through this post,
Regards
Pezhman
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Do you want to vizualize some properties of veins on geological section or to carry out geological (genetic) classification of vein? If first, then which properties of vein network are important for you (e.g. anisotropy, compactness, prevailing thickness of veins or other geometrical characteristics of the network)?
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Titanium (Ti) showing a zoning pattern, increasing a the rim part
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Al-rich pyroxenes are either from some high pressure meta-sediments or found as minerals that crystallized in impact melt rocks (the later likely occures after decompression)
Greshake et al. (2010) Brownish inclusions and dark streaks in Libyan Desert Glass: Evidence for high-temperature melting of the target rock. MAPS 45, 973–989.
Additinal references to Al-rich pyroxenes are given in the paper. i.e., Conrad et al. 1988; Carrington and Harley 1995; Montel and Vielzeuf 1997; Bultitude and Green 1967; Montel and Vielzeuf 1997; Hecht et al. 2008;
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Increasingly, evidence has been and is shiftig to a wet Earth even before 4 billion years ago. What evidence of this do you find compelling?
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The crust of the Moon is 60 km on the near side and 80 km on the far
side. Since the Earth is older than the Moon, the Earth's crust should be
thicker than the Moon's Crust, but it is thinner at an average of around
39.8 km thick.
The world's most unloved theories is Growth and Expansion of Planets,
but the crustal thickness " deficiency " problem may be due to
a redistribution of materials out from under the Earth's Continental
crust to feed the newly forming Oceanic crust.
The Oceanic Crust is between 5 and 7 km thick, and is only between
zero and 252 million years old.
The continental Crust is 4544.40 million years old and is
thinned from a prior greater thickness to about 39.8 km thick.
252 million years ago, the continental crust of Pangaea was
around ( 1/0.2904 ) x 39.8 = 135.7 km thick.
At T = zero, the crust was 0 km thick and the Planets radius
was about 1703.4 KM.
At T= 4300 MY, the Radius was 3434 km and the Thickness
was 135.7 km thick.
At T = 4544.4 MY, the Radius is 6372.4567 Km and the
Thickness due to material redistribution is reduced to
39.8 km thick.
The Planet follows an exponential growth curve which
was very slow until 252 million years ago, but has accelerated
since then.
You should be able to get crustal thickness info from Mars and
possibly from venus.
Now it is computer time.
I have never been able to figgure it out since the Earth has
an external source of growth, and an Internal source of growth.
The Hazen-Tharp Map should help, or
get a copy of Terra Non-Firma Earth from
James Maxlow _ Perth Australia.
Have Fun.
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I acquired the time series climatology data and have got the 3.2 version of cru data sets but am unable to convert these netcdf files to either ascii or geotiff format. Can anybody help me please?
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use GDAL tools, specifically gdal_translate. Or you can use GRASS, which incorporates GDAL. (GDAL = Geographic Data Abstraction Library: http://www.gdal.org)
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The soil in this field is a heavy clay soil of Cambisols group, and there has not been any dry periods flow to suggest groundwater ingress. Despite this there is likely ingress of water from the soil below the drains (preferential path). I am not sure this should be called 'groundwater' (because it is still far away from the water table) but can anyone suggest a better term?
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Technically it is groundwater by all means. Any subsurface water is ground water sensustricto as well as sensulato. Now it may again be classified to a more appropriate nomenclature to be precise. Here it may be acse of vadose zone water, preched water, precolated water or simply seepage / infiltration.
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The crustal origin of many granitic plutons in the accretionary orogenic belts is still a controversial point of view. The assumed contribution of the (lower) or the (middle) crust in the genesis of the granitic plutons especially, the high-K calc-alkaline ones (A2 of Eby) contradicts with their wide distribution in the juvenile continental crust (e.g.Arabian-Nubian shield).
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One idea: Perhaps delamination of lower crust is underestimated as a factor in accretionary orogens and the contribution of a mafic lower crust to the origin of granitic melts is overestimated. If you consider stacked middle crust as the main source for such magmas this might lead to a better explanation of the observed high-K calc-alkaline chemism.
How GIS can help to study Canals. how to find out distribution and does GIS helps to manage canals.
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Canal management
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thanks a lot for your response, please can you explain some specific analysis with details, so It would help me lot.
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The tool or the software should be "opne source" that I can download from the web.
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Assalamo alaikum, I am going to help you in tutorial way ( in case you need more help you are welcome to pose as much as question to me, I am going to answer all your questions as soon as possible ). You should be familiar with ILWIS or ArcGIS.
1. Required data:
a. Polygon map
b. Raster map
c. Seismic map
d. hazard map (e.g. Landslide map, Volcanic map, Tsunami map)
e. Rivers map
f. Beach map
g. Topographic map
h. Industry map
i. Major infrastructure map
j. Concentration of economic Concentration of economic activities map activities map
2. Derivation of hazard maps :
a. Assigning weight values for (Seismic map, Landslide map, Volcanic map, Tsunami map, Rivers map, Beach map, Topographic map, Industry map )
b. Create hazard map
c. Weight major infrastructures
d. Weight industry map
e. Weight concentration of weight concentration of economic activities map
f. Weight population density map
g. Vulnerability map
3. Derivation of risk maps
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To test the percentage of each type of pore, such as the connected, the open, and the size of the pores.
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Good afternoon! There is a lot of different techniques how to measure the porosity. But, every technique gives you another kind of porosity. I tried the application of a helium pycnometer (helium under pressure) to the measurement of the helium-accessible communicating/effective porosity. This kind of porosity in % is higher than the so called "open porosity" measured by water saturation, as the helium molecule is much smaller than the water molecule and helium penetrates deeper into the rock. Because low He pressure was applied, method was not destructive, which is an advantage compared to the destructive mercury porosimetry (there, at different pressures, different pore sizes can be reached and measured by penetrating mercury). You can find abstract about the He-pycnometer method in my publications at ResearGate. This technique was successful in porous limestones, andesites at different weathering levels and in sandstones. However, if you wish to see your different pores in the rock in 3D, you should use the X-ray computer tomography!
how can I insert my publications from ISIweb into here? thanks
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My profile here is not complete
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this is not a trivial problem, I had a similar issue with citeyoulike where I collect literature, there I imported all the RIS files from ISIweb etc, and later I exported from citeyoulike the bibtex files to researchgate.
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.
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Concerning crystallographic textures + shell microstructures of bivalves you may ask Daniel Chateigner. See also here
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Need to collect literature for citations related to mangrove carbon dioxide sequestration using GIS methods.
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pls contact Dr.Sivaji at sivaji@icmam.gov.in
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--
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possibly
but the most common process results from superheaing (Vernon, 1985, Geology, 13, 846-845). it could b caused by the falling of a felsic hydrous magma into a magma chamber. this would led to orbicukes with core as a K-feldspar. in case of a cordierite core, it could result of a part of the roof falling into the magma chamber (abdallah et al., 2007, Jour frixan Earth Sci, 49, 153-178)
i could mail you those papers
jl
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Whether absorption or transmission
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Though both are opposite to each other, but are equally probable.Depending upon the nature of the band gap, temperature and the mole % of the dopant, we can make a choice between the absorption and the emission methods as follows:
1. In direct band gaps, the emission peaks are usually narrow but are broadened at high temperatures while the absorption specta are invariably broad.So the emission spectra should give more accurate values of lambda (max) in direct band materials.
2. The absorption spectrum of an indirect band gap material usually depends more on temperature than that of a direct material, because at low temperatures there are fewer phonons, and, therefore, it is less likely that a photon and phonon be simultaneously absorbed to create an indirect transition.As more photons are awailable at high temperatures, the absorption coefficient (alpha) increases with temperature. So if the choice is possible, one should opt for absorption spectrum for indirect band materials at high temperatures.
3. The shift of the absorption to higher energies due to doping induced band is called Burstein-Moss shift.In such cases, we should prefer absorption techniques.
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(Cressie, 1991, p. 58) wrote: "When the random process are Gaussian, second-order stationary and strong stationary coincide, because a Gaussian process is characterized by its mean and its covariance function".
I have to assume the insect sampling data as a Gaussian process, but the strong stationary can't be satisfied? Does someone have experience with this?
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In many cases non-stationarity pertains to (1) the mean and/or (2) the covariance function (see the equation in Bhowmik). In both of these the non-stationarity makes it more difficult to model the covariance function using only data. (1) is easier to deal with and is often encountered. Very commonly the mean is assumed to be a polynomial function of the spatial (or temporal) coordinates and one begins by fitting a trend surface, i.e. a regression surface to the data. Then use the residual data to model the covariance function. This is not the theoretical best solution but is the most likely practical solution. If you are wanting to use kriging then you can use universal kriging but with the variogram/covariance function fitted to the residuals. Note that kriging does not require a Gaussian distribution. If the covariance function is non-stationary (and just because the mean is not stationary) then the problem is much more difficult if the objective is to use kriging.
What will be the climate changes and the expected impact to the water resources in our globe?
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In our country we are studing on climate changes and the expected impact to the water resources, and conretely: The climate impact in water resources and in turn for the Albania’s power sector, which is more than 90% dependent on hydropower for the energy and electricity supply is significant. Albania has currently experienced less rain than ever, therefore dryness of the reservoirs. Country can meet only 50% of its electricity needs. Albania is currently undergoing the deepest energy crisis reflected with shortage of energy supply. Given the importance for the country and high likelihood of significant climate impacts the Vjosa River Catchment’s has been selected as a pilot area. The climate changes scenarios for Albania project an average increase in annual temperature up to 2.0°C (2050) and 4.0°C (2100). A high warming during summer, up to 2.8°C (2050) and 5.6°C (2100) might be expected. As far precipitation, the annual scenario leads to a decrease of annual value (average) up to 6.1% (2050), and 12.4% (2100). A drastic decrease in precipitation total is likely to occur in summer. To evaluate the effects of Climate Change on the Vjosa Basin, a hydrological rainfall – runoff model was applied. The precipitation and temperature input into the model was spatially averaged over the basin using Thisean method for precipitation and arithmetic mean for temperature. The model was calibrated with data for standard period 1961-2000. By the analysis results that the most important climate changes effect in the Vjosa basin is a change in the timing of stream flow through the year. In the study is investigated the trends in annual maximum river flow for the station of the Vjosa river basin using the peak-over-threshold (POT) method. Trends in POT magnitude and in number of POT’s per year are estimated. Studding the number of POT’s per year will reveal if floods are becoming more frequent or not.
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"Major and trace element geochemistry of Albian and Turonian shales from the Southern Benue trough, Nigeria" L.C. Amajor
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Here you have it
Regards,
Gustavo
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Some students have obtained free Ikonos or QuickBird imagery by filing in a special request for their Ph.D. I am curious as to which product will be given away, and if there are any limitations to the study area size
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European Geosciences Union General assembly 2015
GMPV4.2
Inclusion-host systems: melt, fluid and solid inclusions and their importance in Earth Sciences
Convener: Fabrizio Nestola
Co-Conveners: Matteo Alvaro , Nadia Malaspina
Investigation of geological processes at planetary scale through minerals and their inclusions has long been recognized. Melt, fluid and solid inclusions, trapped in their mineral host acting as a “pressure vessel” are in fact resistant to several geological processes. Therefore, inclusions yield an archive of geological processes that otherwise would remain invisible at the whole rock scale. For instance, host minerals and their inclusions have the capability to record the genesis of magmas, mantle metasomatism, mineral solubility, mineral growth, redox processes, mass and heat transfer.
In this session we welcome contributions in the field of mineralogy, metamorphic and igneous petrology, which address the chemical composition, the structural and physical properties of the deep fluids and their role in the geochemical and geodynamical evolution of the Earth’s interior. Submissions of experimental, and field studies, as well as contributions based on theoretical and numerical models are welcome.
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Dear Friends,
I need some review papers about "Heterogeneity" and "Uncertainty" in Geoscience. If you know something, would be appreciated sharing.
Regards, PM
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I am compiling global database on fault zone permeability, in rocks, any depth. Looking for hard to find data: tunnels (engineering reports), anything not published in journal papers or not in major repository studies.  I have >1000 publications but some regions are under represented, especially anything not in English.
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for which region?
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I am after some cheap geophones. They do not need to be highly accurate, and can be horizontal or vertical. Looking for 10 Hz geophones in particular. Thanks
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Sparkfun electronics - a Hobby and Robotics Electronics Supplier has one with them - Geophone -SM24.
Best Luck!
How can we analytically calculate the Hurst exponent for a periodic function?
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Let's focus on a sin(x) function. I tried using the DMA (changing sums into integrals) and the series width w(l) from Katsev & L'Hereux, Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 1085–1089. In the first case I got stuck with some crazy functions, and in the second (expanding logs in time series to first order as l<<T) I got... H= -1/2. I want to precisely understand why H=1 for strict periodicity.
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Im looking for papers discussing the analysis of DPSH test results and the correlation between the results to SPT N value for both sandy and clayey soils.
Any help would be appreciated.
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Hi! Maybe this one ca be helpful? There is no correlation, but at least a comparison... http://www.cpt10.com/PDF_Files/3-22Gadcca.pdf
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I need to seperate nanoplanktons from Eocene Deep sea Calcarous marls. Can any one tell me exact procedure. 
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Hi Bhawanisingh, 
We have basically been using the technique described in:
Minoletti, F., Hermoso, M. & Gressier, V. Separation of sedimentary micron-sized particles for palaeoceanography and calcareous nannoplankton biogeochemistry. Nat. Protoc. 4, 14–24 (2008).
In summery: desegregate the sample by putting it, with a small quantity of DI water, into a beaker and hold beaker in an ultrasonic bath. Our samples were very soft so they diddnt need anything more than that and it took seconds to desegregate. (similar age samples to yours, IODP). 
Pass the suspended sample through 63 and 46µm sieves and then a 20 µm palynology mesh and then cascade filter (in ultrasonic bath) using laser etched polycarbonate membranes at 12, 10, 8, 5 and 3 µm. (from 3 µm below is basically clay and nano fragments). We concentrated on the 12, 10, 8 and 5 fractions for nannos. 
We didn't have a problem with using DI water (for geochem work). However, I know others prefer to not use DI water and also champion the use of a settling technique: e.g. 
Bolton, C., Stoll, H. & Mendez‐Vicente, A. Vital effects in coccolith calcite: Cenozoic climate-pCO2 drove the diversity of carbon acquisition strategies in coccolithophores? Paleoceanography 27, 1–16 (2012).
Both methods work. 
Hope that helps!
Katy
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I just want to know if it is possible to use trace elementary abundance in monzite occurring within unconsolidated and lithified clastic materials to trace the origin of those sediments.
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Dear Professor,
The attached file is a copy of the Table of Content of my submitted PhD Research Thesis. I would present thisThesis before the 15 of next month. This PhD research was submitted since 01-01-2014. But, because of admistrative dilay, the authorization for its presentation is still to be issued. Experts gave a positive comment for this Thesis since 15-05-2014. But the admistration in Cameroon in slow.
I hope to read your reply. I hope to visit Germany next year for research. I hope to come to your Laboratory next year.
Cordially
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Several studies had been conducted on indoor radon concentrations around thermal power plants. But can anyone provide any data (published) for 222Rn exhalation rates in coal ash produced during thermal power generation?
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The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) released the new report on 8 February 2017, which is freely downloadable from
 
This "UNSCEAR 2016" report discusses dose from various electricity-generating technologies. For radon in coal and resulting exposure, the information is available on its pages please see pages 184-192.
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Hi, 
I am looking for an expert(s) in the application of machine learning methods to geoscientific issues and especially aquifer vulnerability. The purpose of this, is collaboration in a pdoc research i am conducting, co-authoring in papers and potential partnership in proposal submissions for project calls relevant to this field.
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Hi,
I am expert in the application of machine learning methods in geoscience, but not in  aquifer vulnerability. 
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I need to make a 3D model of a certain area. Elevation difference is very low. I would like to know if there is any way that I could extract Google Earth data.
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you can use geomansura software there is an option that help to download directly topographic data from google earth
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Can someone help me to convert pH values measured in a microalgae culture in CO2 concentrations. I suspect that there is not a direct relation but someone has an idea about how to obtain this concentration value.
Thank you in advance
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Hi Lazaro,
It is exactly as Henrik mentions here above, but it would take you (quite) some time to figger out the mathematics of the basic equations to estimate CO2 from pH and alkalinity.
Therefore look at:
Mathematics of the total alkalinity–pH equation – pathway to robust and universal solution algorithms:the SolveSAPHE package v1.0.1 from G. Munhoven D́epartment of Astrophysics, Ǵeophysics and Oćeanography, Universit́é de Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
Correspondence to: G. Munhoven (guy.munhoven@ulg.ac.be)
Guy elaborated the whole set of equations and came to a set of equations which always give a solution for CO2 concentration in function of pH and alkalinity.
I added Guy's paper for your convenience.
Have fun,
Frank
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I would rather prefer ArcMap - friendly software (not LAHARZ)
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TNT mips is very good solution for your need.
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Looking for new researchable area or innovations.
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To my perspective, one of the innovating fields, is to include biophysical data derived from satellites in geologicla mapping. Some research efforts of mine in this fiels follow:
Miliaresis G., 2013. Terrain analysis for active tectonic zone characterization, a new application for MODIS night LST (MYD11C3) dataset. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 27(7), 1417-1432
Miliaresis, 2012. Selective variance reduction of multi-temporal LST imagery in the East Africa Rift System. Earth Science Informatics, 5(1), 1-12,
Miliaresis G. and K.ST. Seymour, 2011. Mapping the spatial & temporal SST variations in Red Sea, revealing a probable regional geothermal anomaly from Pathfinder V5 data. Int. J. of Remote Sensing, 32(07):1825-1842.
Zouzias D., Miliaresis G., Seymour, K.ST. 2011. Probable regional geothermal field reconnaissance in the Aegean Region from modern multi-temporal night LST imagery. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62(4):717-723
Miliaresis G., 2009. Regional thermal and terrain modeling of the Afar Depression from multi-temporal night LST data. Int. J. of Remote Sensing, 30(9):2429–2446
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In the age of open economy and transformation of material wealth to information as  wealth, and the widespread application of IPR, it seems that the geoscientists are not getting their due in terms of number of patents applied/granted when compared with other sciences. It does not mean that we, the geoscientists are not generating enough information or design processes worthy of getting patents. Even the routine academic performance is also being measured in terms of number of patents generated out of academic research!! On the contrary, it seems that the number of patents granted to other sciences is multifold higher than the geosciences. Please share your thoughts on whether we should work on problems worthy of generating patents. I am putting forth this question to get convincing answer and also to spread awareness on the importance of IPR regime in geoscientific research.
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I asked to my Prof about patent. He said knowledge is human right. Patents is like a dark hole for develop knowledge.
In my opinion for technology and industry is ok.
Thanks
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The DEM resolution can be medium resolution (20~100m). 
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Archived cartosat DEM of 1 arc second is avialable from -http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in/data/download/index.php
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I need to identify the elevation of the top surface of water in a filled and capped waste disposal trench, the elevation of the bottom of the unlined trench, and the elevation of the water table in the surrounding glacially-deposited fine grained silty-clay till. Are there remote methods to provide this information?
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I think the best method is Electromagnetic method by using Ground Penetrating Radar ( GPR ) where, the electromagnetic energy will be absorbed at the water table.
Also you can use electrical resistivity method
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I have downloaded images from Landsat MSS (1972) with the corresponding lot of stripe and noise ( MSS 4 jpg = band 4). Which is the best method for destripe with ENVI 5.0. I tried to destripe with « destripe tools » and « fill the gaps » in ENVI 5.0 , but I have had negative results.
So, I will appreciate if someone can help me with step by step (ENVI 5.0).
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If you are not interested in monthly or changes of small temporal magnitude, you may use another image earlier or latter that of date of interest to destripe. Alternatively, you may request the image providing organisation for processing the image for your interested area of research.
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I like to work with some well log data using core data with the multivariate methods in conjunction with Fuzzy logic and neural networks. I need some idea or Problematic.
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Yes. Thank you very much but I work and I use all these features or data log and Imagery and my questio is : How to use all these data specifyng any problematic in the oil industry ?  using the artificial intelligence idea. What is the mean parameter for prediction from these data ? 
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I need to measure the groundwater daily usage of mesquite plant. Please suggest methods and possibilities.
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Since no one has given you an answer I'll try to help although I'm not completely familiar with the subject.
Like any other balance equation you can probably assume that the total water consumption of any system is given by:
total water consumption = mesquite plant consumption + sum(factor "i" consumption)
Now in a laboratory you could easily measure the input of water and the output of water in any given time for some samples of mesquite plant and calculate the water consumption as long as the the second term on the right side of the equation is zero (no other consumption factors besides mesquite plant).
I'm guessing however (from the question topics) that you intend to do spatial study meaning you'll have a much more complex system to study. With such complexity (and assuming that lab studies may not be feasible, I'll talk later about the possibility of that being feasible) I would advise calculating a final number (and an uncertainty) by steps:
0) Define what is your system (it usually is an area given by a shape).
1) Estimate, in your system and for a controlled time range (1 year for instance to avoid seasonal bias), the total input of water and the total output. Input is every water that come in, output every water that comes out. This is usually a number with a big uncertainty but at the very least you can come out with a global consumption value (input - output = consumption).
2) Having that number the next stage would be characterizing the consumption factor by populations (being mesquite plant class 1, for instance, plant A being class 2, plant B being class 3, plant C and D being class4, and so on...). The criteria here would be to specifically individualize the populations which you know you can estimate (even if roughly) the consumption.
3) Since you have the populations you can start building a map (there are many methods available) of those populations and calculate the are occupied by each one.
4) So, for example, if you know that population B has a water consumption X for every m2, multiplying that value for the total area covered by population B is going to give a rough estimation of the consumption by that specific class. You can now subtract that value to the result of point 1 being one step closer from the real number.
5) By repeating point 4) for every class that is not mesquite plant you'll get a final value.
An important remark, however, is that usually plants do not organize themselves neatly in a given area. So in 100 m2, for example, you can have probability 0.5 of having plant A, 0.3 of plant C and 0.2 of plant B. Meaning that if you want to know the consumption of plant C for that area you must multiply the area by the probability since only a part of the area is actually plant C (it would be: 100m2*0.2*X = Y).
If by any chance you can measure mesquite plant consumption in a controlled system you'll get estimates with far less uncertainty since your only preoccupation will be to calculate the percentage of coverage of mesquite plant in the study area.
I hope it helps.
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I am doing research work on the interaction between lithosphere and atmosphere. The interaction is mainly carried out by the mass (liquid and gas) and energy exchange. I assumed the porosity of lithosphere at the top surface (Z=0,soil layer) is about 10e-1, and 10e-5 at the bottom of lithosphere (Z=100km around). And I think that the function of porosity changes with depth is exponential. But I can't find any references. I will appreciate it very much if you can give me any advise,suggestions or references.
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The current approach is focused on the ingection of nanoparticles composed of TiO2 to increase the porosity of the lithosphere ,and sooner or later I try to send you the article which is published by AAPG .
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As per the PCI tutorial on "Orthorectification and DEM Extraction of CARTOSAT-1 Imagery" a minimum of six GCPs per scene is required for processing cartosat -1 data using rigorous model. But I am unable find any research material which explains why minimum of 6 GCPs are compulsory.
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The best answer is from PCI Geomatics itself, so I suggest to write there. For now, I think you should accept that the model used in their software does require at least six control points in order to function properly.
Nevertheless, in my experience more than six GCPs are necessary at a scene level. Their number depends not only on the model, but also on local steepness of the slopes. Related to the last claim, two more problems occur: (i) to find the points measured on the ground also in the image; (ii) to obtain an acceptable error (< 0.5 pixel) at the local level over the entire scene (i.e., the global RMS Error, which is given automatically by any dedicated program, is not sufficient to assess the transformation performance; in addition, RMSE estimations at the sub-scene level are necessary, and for this stage GCPs are needed, which number depends on the slopes steepness; the sub-scenes definition depends on the landscape characterizing each area of interest).
Finally, I consider that the following article may help you with the rationale of GCPs number: "Review article: Geometric processing of remote sensing images: models, algorithms and methods" by T. Toutin, published in 2004 in Int. J. Rem. Sens., 25(10), 1893-1924 (on the web).
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Can anybody suggest a reliable method to estimate the age of ancient olive trees i.e. >500 or even 1500 years old? Radio-chronology is out of question due to the deterioration of the most aged tissues.
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Dear Dr Peter Roussos, the methodolgy I suggested four years ago (see above) is now bearing fruit and the first of a series of papers on ageing monumental specimens of yew will soon be forthcoming. It is with Fellows of Brunel and Harvard Forest for revision right now. There are a few surprises, and the current methodology which yields a parabolic age/girth curve based on constant annual increment derived from John White's Forestry Commission note 250 (e.g. Tabbush and White 2006) is overturned. I believe that the method may be transferrable to monumental olives. Key is measure/re-measure data in order to inform and verify theoretical work. This ageing conundrum cannot be solved using mathematics and theory only. I will alert you when publication is complete. Keep measuring and re-measuring to the highest accuracy possible.
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When we estimate the equivalent dose of soil samples in 3-6 meters depths we find 400-500 Gy using exp+lin or double exp fit procedures in growth curves. Are these results reliable?
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This depends on your samples. For some quartz grains, these doses are OK. Signals from other samples may be close to saturation. In this case, you have to analyze the shape of the growth curves as mentioned above, and try to find indepentent age controls to determine the reliablility of the ages obtained.
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As we prepare for a new academic session, I will like to employ instant messaging in delivering me lecture series. Do you think it can work in geosciences. Thanks