Science topics: Geoscience
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(Technical issue, but can be useful for many of us).
For geosciences purpose, it is common to extract swath profiles from DEM in order to extract topographic and relief information. In the same logic, do you know if it could be easily done with vtk files in Paraview (with synthetic DEM)? It is obvious to extract data along a line and I would like to know if someone succeeded in doing it along a swath (with min, mean and max elevation data for instance)?
Thanks in advance for your answers,
All the best,
Benjamin Gérard
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Dear Benjamin Gérard,
when generating swath profiles that do not follow a straight line there are many pitfalls. Therefore, I suggest the following literature for theory and a tool for generating swath profiles with ArcGIS:
Hergarten, S., Robl, J. & Stüwe, K. 2014. Extracting topographic swath profiles across curved geomorphic features. Earth Surface Dynamics, 2, 97–104, http://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-2-97-2014.
Pérez-Peña, J.V., Al-Awabdeh, M., Azañón, J.M., Galve, J.P., Booth-Rea, G. & Notti, D. 2017. SwathProfiler and NProfiler: Two new ArcGIS Add-ins for the automatic extraction of swath and normalized river profiles. Computers & Geosciences, 104, 135–150, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2016.08.008.
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If the geodetic coordinates (φ,λ,h) of the ground station (e.g., GPS station) is known, how can the pressure, temperature, and relative humidity of this station be predicted at different times?. I'm looking for a mathematical model+modeling data, not instruments (equipment) used. If you have any information about this, please share it here.
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You might be biased against measurements because you feel you cannot afford them. But often there are meteorological networks nearby - based on stations, weather radar, lidar, GPS dual frequency electron density, meteorological satellites, and many amateur networks. One measurement is sometimes worth 10 supercomputer's. You did not say what you are trying to do, or where. The location matters a lot - for the complexity of the modeled region, for the sparsity or abundance of continuous data stream, and for the possibility of others working on the same place.
I found that many of the seismic stations are recording meteorological data. Because when you work at parts per million or parts per billion problems the atmospheric variations are often one of the largest variations. Sometimes simple correlations remove or identify the the big variations. But I found that imaging arrays ultimately are needed.
I am sorry I cannot answer you more clearly. You don't say your restraints in terms of computing resources. If you have 10 supercomputer nodes, there are one set of options. If you have only a Raspberry Pi, then something else is needed.
I am sitting here listening to a lightning storm passing over the area. It reminds me of all the electromagnetic sensor methods for monitoring weather in 3D and quantitatively. You did not say how long your project related to the question might be. If it is a casual "I wonder?" or "a ten year plan", the methods are different.
I see you are working with geopotential. The daily variations of the gradient of the potential are easily measurable. After subtracting the sun moon portion of that, the largest component is the local atmosphere. I mentioned the seismic stations measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, acoustic. That is because the acceleration is correlated with atmospheric events and properties.
The most cost effective way to get good estimates for different locations is to use a combination of all the available continuous data streams and their correlations, then use algorithms that can run on low cost equipment. But all that is set by what you are trying to accomplish.
Atomic clocks are "direct geopotential sensors". You might want to look more closely at gravimeters and gravity gradiometers. Again, I cannot tell what you are trying to do, so I cannot be more specific. But generally the gravimeter networks are more sensitive to meteorological changes. I am trying to set up gravitational imaging arrays to 3D image the atmosphere for cities that also have 3D weather radar and climate models at sufficient resolution - for correlations. The less expensive gravitational sensors, once calibrated, are not bound by electromagnetic noise or weather conditions as much.
You seem to be assuming "I can get some data more easily by running a model". But often the best models are proprietary or horribly difficult to run. Then your best bet is to locate places on the Internet where the data is served continuously. The European Space Agency has a rather large project on global climate change that has to estimate global climate at any location over long time periods. Their model outputs are available. They keep moving things around, but you might try looking here - https://spacedata.copernicus.eu/ just to get some sense of what is going on. Brian Bramanto link is good. But the global climate model community is large and varied, and has many applications.
All their models, and any model you find will have to have been calibrated using real data, to be of any use. So whether you tap the raw data, or they do it and feed you the processed results - you are ultimately looking at measurements by someone. Usually many someones.
Looks like you and I are in the same project. You might want to take a closer look at Mossbauer methods for measuring the geopotential. That is the first absolute gravitational potential measurement. Also, the neutrino and cosmic ray networks are getting to the level of sensitivity and temporal resolution they can pick up daily and hourly variations driven by local pressure temperature humidity. Their results depend on the local atmospheric density.
Rather than TPH, you might want to think more in terms of mass density variations. PV = nRT is really very useful. n(i) = ParticlesPerCubicMeter(i) = MassDensity * AvagadrosNumber/ MolecularWeight(i) for sets of molecular and atomic species. i is the index for the species. It might seem trivial, but if you have to use it a million times and it gets embedded in thousands of different models, it is good to bring it out explicitly to be able to combine results from many groups.
Richard Collins, The Internet Foundation
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"Participation of underrepresented minorities has long been an issue for science and engineering occupations, with participation rates well below that of whole population demographics as well as all occupational categories. Since 2007, the percentage of underrepresented minorities working in science and engineering occupations has ranged between 15% to 25% below that of whole population demographic trends with environmental science and geoscience occupations having the lowest participation rates."
From:
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Also check please the following very good RG link:
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Drawing pictorial diagrams on topics related to geosciences
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Dear all, thank you for your suggestions! I appreciate your help! It seems that the majority prefer Inkscape! Thanks a lot!
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I am studying the thermal effect of the large Igneous Province recently. Is there any way to do it?
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Dear Xin Liu, China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
I recommend using the magnetic anomalies to estimate the Curie boundary, which indicates, direct or by analogy, the distribution of the thermal anomalies, present-day heat-flow, providing a clear marker for the thermodynamic effect in the crust and mantle. Therefore, I recommend first the use of magnetic anomalies, for example, from the EMAG2 datasets, it is free, and it has the wavelength (deep mantle large-scale structure) that you need in your research.
The knowledge of the magnetic anomalies in LIP (large igneous provinces) regions is a geophysical way, due that the mafic and ultramafic intrusions linked to those LIPs and their contrast in magnetic properties, magnetic susceptibility, using modeling and inversion.
Also, high densities contrast mafic/ultramafic rock compatible with serpentinized, also could show you in gravity anomaly inspection of a LIP, particularly regarding Bouguer complete anomaly map / Residual isostatic anomaly map.
I attached Jennifer Blanchard´s Marter of Science thesis, "Geophysical identification and characterization of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in plume centre regions", 2015, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. I recommend reading in focus the Modeling methodology, it has wonderful examples.
Best regards, Mario E. Sigismondi
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except for the vitrinite reflectance, conodont and acritarch colour alteration, fission tracks, (U-Th)/He, is there any new methods to reconstruct the thermal history of sedimentary basins?
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Carbonate mineralisation can be used to track thermal histories, utilising U-Pb geochronology (giving you time), in combination with clumped isotopes (giving you temperature).
These papers combine these two methods (and there are many others utilising the methods individually):
Mangenot, X., Gasparrini, M., Gerdes, A., Bonifacie, M. and Rouchon, V., 2018. An emerging thermochronometer for carbonate-bearing rocks:∆ 47/(U-Pb). Geology, 46(12), pp.1067-1070.
Pagel, M., Bonifacie, M., Schneider, D.A., Gautheron, C., Brigaud, B., Calmels, D., Cros, A., Saint-Bezar, B., Landrein, P., Sutcliffe, C. and Davis, D., 2018. Improving paleohydrological and diagenetic reconstructions in calcite veins and breccia of a sedimentary basin by combining Δ47 temperature, δ18Owater and U-Pb age. Chemical Geology, 481, pp.1-17.
Brigaud, B., Bonifacie, M., Pagel, M., Blaise, T., Calmels, D., Haurine, F. and Landrein, P., 2020. Past hot fluid flows in limestones detected by Δ47–(U-Pb) and not recorded by other geothermometers. Geology, 48(9), pp.851-856.
MacDonald, J.M., Faithfull, J.W., Roberts, N.M.W., Davies, A.J., Holdsworth, C.M., Newton, M., Williamson, S., Boyce, A. and John, C.M., 2019. Clumped-isotope palaeothermometry and LA-ICP-MS U–Pb dating of lava-pile hydrothermal calcite veins. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 174(7), pp.1-15.
Looser, N., Madritsch, H., Guillong, M., Laurent, O., Wohlwend, S. and Bernasconi, S.M., 2021. Absolute Age and Temperature Constraints on Deformation Along the Basal Décollement of the Jura Fold‐and‐Thrust Belt From Carbonate U‐Pb Dating and Clumped Isotopes. Tectonics, 40(3), p.e2020TC006439.
Pan, L., Shen, A., Zhao, J.X., Hu, A., Hao, Y., Liang, F., Feng, Y., Wang, X. and Jiang, L., 2020. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology and clumped isotope constraints on the formation and evolution of an ancient dolomite reservoir: The Middle Permian of northwest Sichuan Basin (SW China). Sedimentary Geology, 407, p.105728.
Hoareau, G., Crognier, N., Lacroix, B., Aubourg, C., Roberts, N.M., Niemi, N., Branellec, M., Beaudoin, N. and Ruiz, I.S., 2021. Combination of Δ47 and U-Pb dating in tectonic calcite veins unravel the last pulses related to the Pyrenean Shortening (Spain). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 553, p.116636.
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Hello everybody. I am a student at the end of my bachelor's degree in marine geology. I'm looking for proposals and suggestions for the end of the course work. In particular, I would be interested in geophysical methods (petrophysical, seismic,) and Coastal geology. That said, I evaluate proposals in all areas of Marine Geosciences.
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Satellite driven data integrated with local geology will give you good suface control and then seismic stratigraphy integrated with well loh sequence stratigrpahy can help you demarcate pockets suitable for hydrocarbons
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The best geologist, they say, "is the one who has seen the most rocks". One begins to wonder the future of geological mapping in the state of rising insecurity in Nigeria. The pleasure and associated leisure of field studies/work is becoming life threatening largely because of the neglect of securing life and properties. Who will rise to the call and save our profession. On one hand, its as though, its the farmers that are most hit, on the other, look closely, geosciences is largely hit by this ugly development.... pls what are your thoughts
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Hope you safe and sound.
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Belongs to Geology and Remote Sensing?
What are the main references available for free (pdf) in this field of knowledge?
Is it still a usual field within geology?
Best Regards.
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It is a branch of geology to study the geological features through aerial photography. There are three types of aerial photography like vertical, low oblique and high oblique. Yes, it is a usual field withing geology.
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I am looking for case studies related to "sustainable mining" with a focus on water and environment protection. I am particularly interested in research about improving the water and waste management, potential resource recovery (circular economy), mitigating the environmental impact or reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
I am looking for a study suitable to present as a part of a course about Geoscience for sustainability - could you recommend me anything?
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Hi there, there are a few cases of ecological restoration in New Caledonia, however it might be useful to ask for this paper :
Good luck !
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I have been looking for some paper related to solar radiation prediction or photovoltaic power generation from IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Journals ( IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, and IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters). If anyone can provide me it will be helpful for me.
Thanks
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There are for sure many papers,
But I can offer you F77 code to calculate PV Power generation. Have a Look at:
Cheers,
Frank
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We know that the estimation error (in percent) can be calculated with EEx = a*sqrt(var(x))*100/x, where EEx is the estimation error, a is a constant, var(x) is the variance (came from (co)kriging), and x is the estimated value by (co)kriging.
Considering an estimated value below 1%, the above equation may leads to large and meaningless estimation errors (thousands of percentages).
The question is that what should we do for estimated values less than 1%?
in the other side, we need to report the estimation error in percentages to classify mineral resources based on their estimation error.
p.s.: an example is Phosphorus grades at an iron ore mine. They vary between 0 and 1, but after performing (co)kriging, their estimation error ranges around 1500%.
Despite performing compositional data analysis (CoDa), this happens, more or less.
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The equation must solve any problem
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I have been working in the field of forest research for a decade and a half so far.
I have experienced different events during submitting manuscripts and revisions and I think the process of reviewing manuscripts isn't fair and is only in the favor of the editors.
Let me explain a real situation, I have submitted a manuscript in "Arabian Journal of Geoscience" ( https://www.springer.com/earth+sciences+and+geography/journal/12517) on 12 Mar 2019 and today it has been 196 days since I made the mistake and the status of the MS is still "pending for editor". I have sent several emails to the editor and the manager, but mostly I receive no response or the same email which I think is only copy and past of the same text.
Now, my student so far has lost half a year and I can't even withdraw the ms.
I even sent springer "contact us' ID explaining the problem, but still, nothing happened.
I am really getting more and more disappointed to see that the whole process is mostly a marketing job rather than a scientific responsibility or an ethical act.
Yours
HORMOZ
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Due to COVID-19, maybe there is some suspension in the review process. But if you feel a wastage if time simply, withdraws that paper and submit to another journal of the same field for timely publication.
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 What is your opinion about the recent hypothesis ?
Giant Underwater Craters May shed Light On Bermuda Triangle Mystery
We have been performing experiments in the laboratory for more than a year , and results are fascinating.
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This may be a different explanation. See https://www.chinasona.org/Thiaoouba/Bermuda-triangle.html
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Hi
Would you please let me know if the following is accurate as an answer to the question:
Suppose we have sensors which measure the volumetric soil water content of a soil layer for a long period (more than 6 months) and also high temporal resolution (half-hourly). Could I assign the maximum in this dataset to the saturation point?
I understand that we do need to have a lengthy rainfall event, how long the event should be so that the above proposal works?
And if there is any other way that I can get to the saturation point of a soil layer from the volumetric soil water content data/sensors, please let me know.
Mostly focused on the topsoil and preferably only using the dataset.
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There are standard methods for testing soils to consider. Usually soil samples are taken and put into a container of water so the soil is saturated from the bottom, about 24 hours. Unless there is a water table to saturate soils in the field, ability in reaching saturation may vary with the conditions. I remember we had a dry period and wildfire, then a substantial rain, about 3-5 inches. Water was pounded on the surface the next day, but the soil scientist found the soil totally dry about 12-18 inches below the surface. I also learned that an upper clay layer needs to be saturated before the lower sandy layer can effectively gain water and this is related to the tension with which clay holds water as compared to sands. Some soil layers have difficulty becoming saturated, such as well developed forest soils seldom exhibit runoff due to high infiltration and macropores from roots, etc. other soils as hydric soils are saturated frequent enough to exhibit hydric soil indicators due to frequency of high water table. Sampling the soil depth or horizon is probably the most reliable using standard methods to saturate and measure.
I would not use just the high reading in 6 month period, unless at least I reviewed nearby stream gauging stations and the rainfall during the 6 month produced at least a bankfull streamflow event, which occurs generally about every year, and the stream channel is at a level where flooding begins for stable channels that have not aggraded or degraded. I would want to be pretty sure there was a reasonable likelihood of saturation based on evidence like the streams were near or at flooding. The other option might be to set up so the area with the data sensors can be irrigated for long enough so the detectors stabilize after reaching their approximate maximum. Saturating from the surface can apparently leave some air spaces unfilled, but unless the area periodically has a high water table, the air spaces may not be filled easily to saturation by rainfall anyway.
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It is generally believed in the geoscience world (with reference to published work) that, high intensity turbidity current and hyperpycnal flow have the ability to create deep cut or shallow cuts on the shelf breaks of continental margins. While some authors claim hyperpycnal flow to be the precursor of turbidity currents, others simply do not recognize the influence of hyperpycnal flow in turbidity currents initiation. Thus, the rising confusion of how best to differentiate the two flow processes.
Though, some may argue that hyperpycnal flow is mostly of coastal origin and turbidity current is perfectly influence by mass wasting induced by slides, slump and slope failures in the shallow marine environment; turbidity current is in fact not restricted to marine environments. These could create the thought of whether these two (turbidity current and hyperpycnal flow) processes are not the same and the genesis of the question: " what is the striking difference between high intensity turbidity current and hyperpycnal flow?".
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Dear Vivian,
Yes hyperpicnal flow is the riverine/fluvial water continuity in a lake or marine environements. Alternatively we can also observed homopycnal flow in lake system which are spread over to total water column. These currents can create a turbidity current and thus turbidite deposit in regard to sediment density. But mass wasted deposit related for instance to earthquake could also induce turbidity current. To resume turbidity current is a large definition which include many triggering processes while hyperpicnal flow is very specific to fluvial inputs.
Best regards
Pierre
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With oil reaching historic lows, massive layoffs, a growing stigma against fossil fuels, new fields of science with a futuristic feel, retirement of legend professors from academia, lack of fundings, take over by climate change and global warming, supress the fundamental geology, hard working field based surveys etc. The ease of modeling lab work and software support in Geosciences snatch the heal of learning geology. It is understandable why studying the geosciences – particularly for careers in petroleum – might strike a student as a bad idea.
Share your review/opinion to uplift the descending trends in Earth Sciences.
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"Geology has not brought losses in any country of the world" (Antoine de Saint-Exupery, the author of "The Little Prince").
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Who can help me offer some matlab codes on scattered data fitting using spline-wavelets; Some other matlab codes on wavelets is also useful to me, thanks .
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Anyone here interested in Wavelets?
Follow my dissertation about PCBs Fast Wavelet Transform.
Please, download and read it!
Link:
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I am looking for published (preferably open-access) articles on geoscience education with a focus on the geoscience curricula in basic education. Thank you!
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Christoper Jan Landicho , thank you, and I hope you are doing great.
That information should be easily available from school or university websites as was suggested above. Information on this from Universiti of Brunei Darussalam is given below. Earth Sciences is not taught at school or college levels here, so, this should cover the entire country for you.
Hope this helps.
Kind regards
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I am using ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data for ambient noise H/V with a target of nearly 5 Km. To consider the water layer effect, it is important to know the theoretical concept of P-wave contribution to ambient noise H/V peaks. The frequency range I use is 0.03 to 2 Hz.
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ambient noise consist of body and surface waves and their complex interference (diffarciton, scattering, dispersion etc.). Within this scope P waves echos in the range of 'broad band' frequencies between 0.1-2 Hz. You can use therotical p wave/s wave amplitude spectrum in order to obtain h/v transfer function for deep basin (as your case-5 km)
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What reference studies (Book, Article, Tesis etc) you know used ER Method was applied using the Vertical Electrical Survey (SEV) technique (Wenner-Schlumberger, dipole-dipole arrays) for definition of intrinsic vulnerability index to water contamination underground?
Are there any studies that have used this method to set parameters for analyzing groundwater vulnerability to contamination por geoelectric layers?
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Maybe, the rejection was due to a lack of proper understanding of the content of the paper, by the reviewer(s) or the editor(s). Or, the editor claims your work is not suitable for the journal, when there are tens to hundreds of similar papers already published by the journal.
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Never argue with editors. It is extremely hard to reverse a rejection letter. Keep uploading to next journal and move on peacefully. I have faced over 175 rejections so far. It is futile to ask an explanation from editors. Paper publication is akin to gambling. A manuscript may or may not be published. Since you have done a good work and submitted a well written manuscript, it does not mean that it should be always accepted. Accept the reality of research arena lest you become frustrated and giving up research. There are all kinds of bias existing in publication domain. Try again, again and again until your manuscript is accepted by some journal. If an editor or a reviewer premeditated rejection, he will definitely find out an awkward reason to reject.
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There are several scattered texts including papers on interdisciplinary areas of Geosciences for a particular river/ river system/ basin/ catchment. Need to know about a standard text book dealing with themes or interdiciplinary areas pertaining to themes stated in question? If so, May I request you to kindly state details about a comprehensive single text book about the same, with bibliographical details?
Best,
AK
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D'Souza, Rohan, 2016. "Drowned and Dammed: Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199469130.
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I supposed the answer is YES. Then, the question is how to improve the estimate of water availability by using remote sensing scheme. Here you are a new index for your considerations: NDLI as newly proposed in the prestigious journal IEEE TGRS: Liou, Y.-A.*, Mai Son Le, and Hwa Chien, 2019a: Normalized Difference Latent Heat Index for Remote Sensing of Land Surface Energy Fluxes, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 57(3), 1423 - 1433, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2866555.
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Klaus Hanke It's probably just a promotion for the article, not an actual question.
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Dear members of the Geophysics, Geoscience and seismology communities,
I am new in the areas of Geophysics and seismology; and I would like to get clear understanding of some technical concepts proper to these fields. Please, kindly spare few minutes of your time to answer this question so as to provide me with some tips to move on. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you for your time
Best regards,
Patrice
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Dear Patrice:
There are 3 basic steps in seismic works, chronologically such as:
1) Design and Acquisition.
2) Processing the data, from 1).
3) Interpretation the data, from 2).
The objective of the point 2), seismic processing (your question) is to try to convert the acquired seismic data (using artificial “earthquakes” source: impulsive / vibrators / air-gun; and several receivers: geophones / hydrophones) to a seismic image.
Due that the data are recorder in time-sequences, and you use the multiple-fold coverage, you need to re-order the field data by CMP / CDP. Therefore, the basic processing sequence usually involves the following steps: Read the acquired data and assign its geometry; amplitude recovery; deconvolution, noise filtering; static corrections; rearrangement of traces by CMP; velocity analysis; correction for normal move-out NMO; residual static; Stacking; Migration.
On the other hand, you are talking about seismic interpretation, the third step. I recommend to read this wonderfull synthesis by Alistair Brown, AAPG, only 4 pages, a clear ideas, a better understanding what we (me too) do everyday.
If you are interesting to find a little more knowlegde, there are a lot of papers and books ... but please, you do not try to start with Oz Yilmaz´s bible for example ...a lot !!!!!!
Cheers, Mario E. Sigismondi
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What is the conceptual difference between Geological Map and Stratigraphic Map?
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The geological map shows the distribution of the formations and their contact ( different kinds of rocks and faults).
There are three major types of maps they use: topographic, cross-sectional, and structural.
A structural map shows the geologic features of an area. Its appearance is similar to that of a topographic map, but a topographic map displays elevations of the Earth's surface and a structure map displays the elevation of a particular rock layer, generally beneath the surface. a geologic map shows the distribution of geologic features, including different kinds of rocks and faults.Rock units or geologic strata are shown by color or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the surface. Isopach maps detail the variations in thickness of stratigraphic units.
A cross-sectional map shows the cross-section from the side.
So you can't talk about stratigraphic maps, but rather structural maps at different stratigraphic levels,
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Hello, I am looking for funds or scholarships for PhD in geology/geophysics in the United States. The University doesn't currently have any funds to support the position I found. Please could you recommend potential grants?
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Question: Can a newly developed Normalized Difference Latent heat Index (NDLI) significantly advance the research fields, requiring land surface heat flux?
Background: Latent heat is the energy released or absorbed by a substance through phase change without changing its temperature. Its flux is a crucial element of the hydrological cycle at the land–air interface. Many water-related indexes have been proposed as indicators for latent heat flux extraction from satellite imagery, while the extraction accuracy still remains a space to improve nowadays.
Advancements: A new multiband index, called normalized difference latent heat index (NDLI), is proposed for remote sensing of land surface heat flux. The NDLI is found to be the most sensitive and reliable index outperforming the previously developed indexes to determine the characteristics of water content in different land cover types. It is concluded that NDLI can be used as a good indicator to represent the potential latent heat flux at the earth’s surface.
Citation: Liou, Y.-A.*, M.S. Le, and H. Chien, 2019 (March): Normalized Difference Latent Heat Index for Remote Sensing of Land Surface Energy Fluxes, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 57(3), 1423 - 1433, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2866555. (SCI, IF=4.662) (https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8464042)
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Numerical and experimental approaches on the behavior of salt caverns during storage of hydrogen and other gases
PhD opportunity at the École des Mines de Paris – Centre des Géosciences - Fontainebleau
Subject:
The intermittency problem that usually characterizes renewable energy led to vast storage techniques in the last few decades. Hydrogen/energy storage in solution-mined caverns is one of the suggested solutions. In this context, a precise prediction of the cavern thermodynamic state is needed. Besides, such a thermodynamic response requires to be fully coupled with the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of the rock mass surrounding the cavern.
Most of the recent available researches with regard to gas storage in salt caverns depend on numerical tools that assume a uniform cavern thermodynamic state, thus they ignore the spatial variations of the cavern thermodynamic variables as well as the flow nature (laminar/turbulent). These numerical approaches allow for low cost and fast simulations, however, a question arises about their validity during fast circulation.
This proposed PhD thesis is dedicated to investigate the integrity of salt cavern mechanical and thermodynamic behavior during fast and slow cycling while addressing the entire complexity of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) problem, i.e. full discretization of the cavern, cavern gas velocity and thermodynamic variables spatial variations, nature of flow, and the 3D thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of salt. Moreover, the problem of H2 storage in salt caverns is particular from other gases. This is attributed to the large mobility of hydrogen induced by its very small molecular length, and its potential reactivity with other chemical species that can be present in the storage environment. We aspire that this PhD thesis would shed a light on the phenomenon of hydrogen seepage into the salt rock during fast and slow cycling.
The centre of geosciences and the centre of thermodynamics and processes (CTP) of Mines ParisTech, associated with academic and industrial partners, are involved in a scientific research that includes the development of a laboratory model that is intended to be used to investigate the thermodynamic aspects of underground caverns during gas storage. This laboratory model will help understand the spatial distribution of the thermodynamic variables of caverns during fast and slow cycling. With properly controlling its boundary conditions, it is supposed to reproduce a similar thermodynamic response to real underground caverns. We wish to use this model to study other important phenomena that take place in caverns during cycling, i.e. the presence of water vapor due to brine evaporation, and hydrogen solubility in brine.
Required skills:
Interested applicants need to have good scientific backgrounds in thermodynamics and mechanics of solids. Numerical expertise in the finite element method is needed as well. Other skills may be learnt during the PhD course. Applicants who appreciate laboratory work are strongly recommended to apply. The outcome of this PhD work will be utilized in finalizing industrial projects, therefore chosen applicant will have direct contact with our industrial partners which will promote a certain future work in prestigious companies.
Interested applicants should send their CVs along with a brief motivation letter to Murad ABUAISHA:
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There are many claims that the Arabian Peninsular used to be a green jungle. This article came to mind [Geology (2015) 43 (4): 295-298. https://doi.org/10.1130/G36401.1]
Actually the claims are two:
1. Arabia was meadows and rivers and
2. it will once again become meadows and rivers.
We have adequate scientific evidence to understand that first claim is indeed a fact scientifically. However, I do not know much scientific explanations about the last prediction.
The Question is How scientific is this claim(s)?
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Check the geological history of the area in the past, say, 600 million years. Climatic change can bring forests. The present dry land is not geologically old. If there are fossil wood remains as in the Sahara, and even those of mammals, it is possible with return of wetness to have rivers flowing.
Obianuju P. Umeji
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The aim is to publish e-journal of quality research. Need your consent to support the editorial board, peer-reviewer, web developer, etc.
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I will be glad to help.
Regards
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Hello,
I've decided to start a discussion, I'll be thankful if you can add something here or encourage any classmates, colleagues or researchers to share their knowledge as well.
Suppose someone aims to enter the realm of Spatial Data Analysis esp using Data Science and Quantitative Methods, how can you guide such a person to start his path? How long does it take for such a person to become a Spatial Data Scientists and Analyst.
Any ideas or experience will be helpful for everybody.
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Dear Pooya,
I think that the optimal way of learning spatial data analysis and gaining the mentioned skills depend on the person we are talking about. For example, if the person was me, I would select an/some environment(s)/software(s)/IDE(s), and search for online tutorials and download/buy books about this topic. But I'm sure that there are guys who prefer intensive courses, others like BSc/MSc at university. So I can't give the exact answer for your question.
HTH,
Ákos
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Black Water - from septic sources..
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Well,
the attached pdf may help.
Sincerely
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We would like to invite you to contribute with your original research articles, reviews, and technical notes to the Special Issue "Climate prediction of extreme events" in the journal Geosciences.
More information can be found at:
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019
We are looking forward to your valuable contribution,
Dr. Marco Turco
Dr. Sonia Jerez
Guest Editors
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Certainly climate predictions do not allow forecasting the specific location/day an extreme event will occur. However they can inform about the probability of occurrence of climatic anomalies for the next months and seasons based on dynamical or empirical models. For instance, climate predictions provide probabilistic information about whether next season will be more, equal or less warm and/or humid than usual.
Traditionally these forecast systems provide monthly anomalies. However, forecasting statistics of extreme events, such as the number of frost/hot days within a season, can be more useful for industries and end-users due to their potential for damaging. In spite of the increasing interest in estimating the ability of forecast systems to predict extreme events, little work has been performed so far on the topic.
We hope that this special issue will provide new insight into this strategic issue.
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Hello,
I am working on stratigraphy and lithogeochemistry of a VMS-hosting sequence of Paleoproterozoic volcanic rocks and would like to plot drillcore samples that I collected into IoGas and Geoscience Analyst. I only have the collar location, drillhole orientation and sample depth, however both softwares require the ZYX coordinates to display the sample accurately. I know these calculation can easily be done with Gocad, Target or other 3D mining softwares, but I am wondering if there is another (cheaper) option where I could process small batch of data on a need basis. It does not have to be something that takes into account all the drillhole deviation, I am not looking for that kind of precision. Thank you.
Simon
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Simple trigonometry and direction cosines.
The z-coordinate of your sample = z(collar) - depth(sample)*sin(DHdip), where
depth(sample) = halfway point between top and bottom of sampling interval and
DHdip = drillhole inclination angle from horizontal.
Sample x (Easting) and y (Northing) are given by:
x = x(collar) + depth(sample)*cos(DHdip)*sin(DHazi)
y = y(collar) + depth(sample)*cos(DHdip)*cos(DHazi)
As you know, I guess, you have to express the angles in radians for the trigonometric functions in Excel, so divide angles in degrees by 180 and multiply by pi.
You can correct for DH deviation using one of the common correction formulas. I have made an Excel spreadsheet that does that using the minimum curvature algorithm. I can send you a copy when I get back to my office computer on Monday. Haven’t checked the link William sent you above, but I guess you should find your answer there too.
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"I am inviting you to submit interesting structural geological snaps and captions in the "Atlas of Structural Geology" (2nd Edition, Elsevier) that will be edited by me. Elsevier has approved this re-edition.
Open to take- natural secondary and primary, and also human-induced structures developed in all scales, acquired by any techniques.
To know the detail or to discuss, please drop me a mail at  
Deadlines:
1. Expression of interest: 30-Sept-2018
2. Submission of contributions: 30-January-2019
Best,
Dr. Soumyajit Mukherjee
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, INDIA"
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Dear Sir
I have some collection of Field photographs pertaining to my previous project. The following attached field structural photographs are from part of Bastar Craton Central India
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Dear all, what is your opinion in the question above? Do you think a scientist would have a better reputation when he is known for his punctual specialty or when he has a deep analytical capacity because of a great knowledge and convergent experiences?
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Dear Adil - I think that both types of scientist are equally important to the development of a discipline. Both specialists and generalists have a role to play. Much of today's research is cross-disciplinary. This requires people with specialist expertise and also people with the ability to synthesise and forge links. In practice, I don't think that one can exist without the other, and I do not think that one is necessarily more prolific than the other.
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What is the validity period of scientific results in geosciences?
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Dear Adil and colleagues:
I think the validity period of scientific results in Geosciences is different from one discipline to another, but all of the disciplineas share in common the concept of paradigm shift.
Since the "inflation" of the observations, data, and knowledge in Geosciences, e.g., Plate Tectonics, we constantly shift the paradigm from the older to the newer. When changes are dramatically, such as Plate Tectonics, you can talk about a period.
I strong recommend the The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Thomas Kuhn: As for his big idea – that of a "paradigm" as an intellectual framework that makes research possible –well, it quickly escaped into the wild and took on a life of its own.
An excelent example at present-day, is the concept of the Anthropocene: it has created a profound paradigm shift within the scientific community that we argue will create equally important changes in philosophy, history and politics. There is general scientific agreement that human activity has been a geologically recent, yet profound, influence on the Earth System. The magnitude, variety and longevity of human-induced changes, to the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere suggests that we should refer to the present, not as within the Holocene Epoch (as it is currently formally referred to), but instead as within the Anthropocene Epoch. (taken from the American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2015, abstract id. GC14B-01).
I hope my answer can help to your own ideas, thinking about it.
My best wishes, Mario E. Sigismondi
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please help me to find a new research topic in geoscience oil field !?
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Having been in this same situation myself when trying to decide on a doctoral research topic, I would suggest the following pathways. First, where are you located globally? Is there oil & gas activity in your country or your local area (if you are in a very large country)? If so, research what the exploration and production targets are and what is the drilling method: conventional or unconventional, is it offshore or onshore? Secondly, look into the problems associated with this industrial effort. Are there exploration issues such as unusual geology, poor seismic quality, not utilizing gravity or magnetic surveys, is there an issue with random reservoir quality, etc. Are there problems with development wells? If production is underway, how could it be made more efficient? or more cost effective? If there is no oil & gas industry where you are working, then you might want to look at industry-wide issues in general, depending on what is your skill set: geologist, geophysicist, engineering, mathematics, or computer programming. Ask yourself "What could I do that would make a difference in success rates or cost effectiveness?" Trying to solve industry problems in your research efforts will get you noticed when you graduate. A word of caution is not to make your research too obscure, such that it has a limited application. Too many graduate students spend years on research that very few people care about or find useful, and then wonder why they can't find employment. Make that time and effort count!
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any Geoscience topic that could help in applying EOR techniques
not an EOR topic
such as: something that could be helpful for using Low Salinity Waterflooding from the geologist point of view ?
or any other topic
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The criticality issue pertaining to EOR is the ability to understand the flow behaviour at all scales. The dynamic of the reservoir is scale dependent. It is very essential to enumerate it at different scale. The approach is to create Multiscale Geological models encompassing the reservoir heterogeneity and inherent uncertainty in data due to tool resolution. This model needs again a multiscale dynamic simulation. Any EOR technique needs to be established first at the laboratory followed by a field trial before field implementation.
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The aim is to identify different types of emerging concepts in Geoscience that can have a direct or an indirect impact, or which can greatly contribute to meet the energy demand in the near future (say for a timespan of coming 2020-2035).
Any suggestions would be of great help to me for my project.
Thank you!
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I am a third year geology student at the University of Edinburgh, School of GeoSciences. This summer I will be working on my dissertation mapping on the Ditrau massive. I have a mapping partner. I would appreciate information on the location of good exposures so I can spend more time on finding the lesser ones. I have seen a few good ones in scientific papers.
Best,
Hunor
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Springer Conference of Arabian Journal of Geosciences
12-15 November, Tunisia
5 Field Trips on 8-11 and 16-20 November 2018
20 Keynote Lectures
Submission deadline: 1 May 2018
Mark your calendar for the most comprehensive geosciences event particularly focused on understanding the geologic, geophysical, environmental and climatic evolution of the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa and Earth’s Arid and Semi-Arid areas. In general, the Conference Scientific Committee invites research papers on all cross-cutting themes of Earth sciences from all regions of the world, principally focusing on 10 major themes.
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Hello dear Nabil,
tank you for your quik answer!
I respect your opinion, all journals édirors around the world say the same thing!
and I understand it very well, considering your position in this Journal and in in this conference,
for the acceptance I do not generalize but I know works with errors of beginner, and with a english of google translation.
So by respect to the authors, I do not want to mention name or works published in this journal
  .
 must we accept criticism to improve and advance?
   cordially
Hassan IBOUH
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Does anyone know how frequently sand storms and dust storms that arise from middle east or north africa travel to Pakistan and North India? I was wondering, in view of the already worsening air pollution levels in North India, events such as dust and sand storms reaching the subcontinent may exacerbate the situation. How rare or common are such sand and dust storms being carried from their place of origin (usually middle east and north africa) and intermix with fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants in another far off location? Has there been any similar, possible mixing of phenomena (dust storm and smog) reported/documented/studied anywhere around the globe at any time, preferably that was also caught by polar or geostationary satellites?
I was looking at a true-color or natural color satellite image acquired on 29th Oct. 2017 by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi-National Polar orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite around early afternoon. I've attached a screenshot of the image as well as provided the full link to access the satellite imagery. These satellite images have been stitched together to create a global mosaic. Unlike MODIS, VIIRS do not show any data gaps (except sun glints!). I found this satellite image particularly compelling because it clearly shows the sand storm picking up over northern Saudi Arabia and moving around Iraq, Iran, Caspian Sea towards Afghanistan with the movement of wind. I also think the Earth's rotation from west to east has a role to play in the movement and direction of the wind laden with sand and dust. But it seems difficult to understand their dynamics. The smog over North India and parts of Pakistan can be differentiated from the sand storm over middle east in this satellite image. In North India this is the time of the year when there are intentional crop fires due to the traditional slash-and-burn agriculture practice.
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I find these spectra repeating in certain areas. I know it is a hydrocarbon, but I wanted to know if the spectra is a specific signature to a certain hydrocarbon. Literature survey suggests that the spectra belongs to beta-carotene. Does anyone know the significance of the same in rock samples?
Thank you in advance.
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Dear John,
Thanks for the reply. I have checked the papers too. Is the Raman spectra associated with Beta carotene?
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I have been facing some problems with the Raman imaging of natural rocks. At many locations of the rock (even polished rock samples) , the baseline shifts upwards drastically (suggestive of fluorescence) , totally engulfing the peaks of interest. I cannot use a higher wavelength because the spatial resolution of the CCD gets limited (upto 1800 cm-1), which means I have to do two scans to search for peaks in the other end of the spectrum. Moreover the intensity is too low . The rock is rough , which means using a 100 x objective makes me lose out on z resolution. But using a lower magnification causes a greater baseline shift. I have seen many images of rocks showing the different minerals in it clearly demarcated and I was wondering what I can do to the rocks to make the imaging better.
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Dear Aurelio, I scanned both thin sections and bulk sections too. Thin sections also gave the same problem, so I assume the luminescence is coming from the rock (organics, clays) etc. I state this because these baseline shifts are usually associated with the CH stretching band between 2700-3000 cm-1. And thank you for your time!
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Thanks in advance for your replies.
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Hello!
I'm trying to plot a chromatogram in .SMS format. I've tried some programs and all the others. TXT or .CSV or some other ASCII file. Please, does anyone know of any software that can open this kind of file in .SMS?
Thanks!
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The Bermuda Triangle is one of the amazing landmarks in the world And there are strange, interesting and horrible events in that area. Events such as the crash of planes, the sinking of ships, the collapse of the compass, and etc. Scientists express different ideas for these events Like hexagonal clouds, deep earthquakes, atmospheric disturbances, methane gas and etc. And each of these reasons justifies part of the events in that area . What really happens in this area ? Could this be the cause of the extraterrestrials? Is there another area like the Bermuda Triangle?
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It is time for someone to do a serious study of these events. Not just one investigator, but many of various disciplines and specialties.
People have already solved the disappearance of dinosaurs, why not these phenomena?
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This is an unsolved problem in applied geosciences
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First of all it is...what kind of fluid, at what temperature, how much volume and into what kind of rock
every thing varies depending on all these criteria
In a hard rock like granite which is un weathered...if you try to inject fluid by making some hole or along some plane...it will be less effective whereas
in case of sandstone it will occupy pore spaces, in case of shale it will react with soft clay minerals...
when you simply inject and withdraw fluid unless it is of large volume
nothing big will happen
you have to add the other dimensions also, specially time.
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Can anybody suggest a reliable method to estimate the age of ancient olive trees i.e. >500 or even 1500 years old? Radio-chronology is out of question due to the deterioration of the most aged tissues.
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Dear Dr Peter Roussos, the methodolgy I suggested four years ago (see above) is now bearing fruit and the first of a series of papers on ageing monumental specimens of yew will soon be forthcoming. It is with Fellows of Brunel and Harvard Forest for revision right now. There are a few surprises, and the current methodology which yields a parabolic age/girth curve based on constant annual increment derived from John White's Forestry Commission note 250 (e.g. Tabbush and White 2006) is overturned. I believe that the method may be transferrable to monumental olives. Key is measure/re-measure data in order to inform and verify theoretical work. This ageing conundrum cannot be solved using mathematics and theory only. I will alert you when publication is complete. Keep measuring and re-measuring to the highest accuracy possible.
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Hi everybody ,
i want to know about this journal hows it?
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The publisher of this journal is at Beall's list of predatory journals (https://beallslist.weebly.com/).
This suggests that it is more or less a pay to publish venue, with questionable (if not at all) peer review practices. Some argue that published in predatory journals might be harmful for your career.
In any case, there are decades of established and reputable peer reviewed journals so I would not see a reason for going there.
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Hello Respected Members,
I am master's research scholar in China University of Geosciences, Beijing. At this time, i am completing my course work. In my course work, i am studying Numerical Analysis, now i have needed to submit a report related to mathematical problem that we have faced during or research, my research direction in Remote Sensing Geology. Kindly suggest me same Research papers and Articles. Thanks
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Read up ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations using Numerical method as a solution
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Quantitative evaluation of heterogeneity in reservoirs
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Computers & Geosciences, Comptes Rendus Geoscience , Journal of China University of Geosciences by Elseviers ;Mathematical Geosciences by Springer ; Geosciences — Open Access Journal; Journal of Geoscience Education ...
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- Does anyone have experiences in geosciences regarding sample printing? What type of printer are you using? What type of material could be interesting. We are thinking of PVA and PLA combination. Someone has experiences?
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Dear Kathleen,
For topography/map printing I've seen LOM (laminated object manufacturing) being used. It is a rather fast and "cheap" technology.
or http://www.raprotec.de/lomtechnik.htm (both links lead to text in German)
Regards
Felix
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I need an experience Resercher/Prof. to work with at postdoc level either in the US, Canada, Australia and Europe in any aspect of Environmental Geoscience. I have about 3 months to conclude my doctoral research in environmental geochemistry
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Thanks Drs. Ayub and James for your concern
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Dear colleagues (scientists, engineers and communicators),
in October (~3rd week), the Early Career Scientist representatives of the Natural Hazards division of European Geoscience Union (called NhET) will launch the EGU Natural Hazards blog online.
I will be the editor of the blog together with other scientists/friends that will equally contribute to the maintanance and development of the blog itself.
We plan to post online interviews and other elements that would open up natural hazard concepts to a very wide audience.
This is why I am writing here.
Would you be interested in being interviewed for the EGU blog? The topic needs to fit within Natural Hazards of course but as almost everything can fit in this profile, I would like to hear your ideas on the matter. How could you contribute? What topic are you familiar with and can we make the effort to discuss it keeping in mind a communicative purpose?
The NhET plans to release a post on a biweekly basis. This can be either a review of an important article (not authored by the interviewee) in a given branch of science or a discussion of the state of the art of a given scientific topic or technique.
The target length of the interview must be 500 < words < 1000.
Let me know your ideas and potential availability.
Thanks!
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Hello Hein,
I answered yesterday but it appears that me reply was never added here. Your topic is quite stimulating. Are you interested in contributing with an interview?
Just send me an email and we'll take it from there.
Thanks in advance for your interest and potential availability.
Regards,
Luigi Lombardo
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I have a set of disease cases in the polygon form as an attribute of each city. There are some 180 cities (polygons) that 2-5 of them recorded more than 300 cases, about 100 of them contain 0-2 cases and the rest recorded 2-20 disease cases. I'm going to evaluate the possible correlation between illness and some environmental factor such as temperature, precipitation, etc.
However, the distribution of the disease data is severely non-normal and violates many statistical methods' assumptions.
Do you have any suggestion in this case?
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To assess the correlations in your data set you could use a non-parametric correlation measure like Spearman's rho. Also, if you analyse spatial autocorrelation in your spatial pattern, you should use a Monte Carlo/ramdomization approach to determine you p-values. See e.g. http://pysal.readthedocs.io/en/latest/library/esda/moran.html --> p_rand
Another thing you could use is Poisson regression to determine the strength and direction of influence of your environmental factors on the number of local disease cases. 
Cheers,
Jan
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May i please know what does the term Quaternary signify in 'Quaternary Deposits' i would also like to know if it has similar meaning in case of 'Quaternary Landslides'.
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The history of the term "Quaternary" is well explained above by Mr. Dill. So in an old way of earth creation classification, Quaternary was the fourth phase, and maybe the etymology is from Italian language "Quarto".
Arduino was firs to use it, when studying the geological cross section of north Italia observed four kind of rocks, which began from ultramaffic rocks (primary) to recent unconsolidated depositions (fourth or quarto).
The acceptance of this concept was very difficult, but at the end the Quaternary is the only therm survived by the fourth class classification.
Today is accepted than Quaternary begin 2.6 million years before now, and is subdivided into Pleistocene -2.6Ma to 11.7 ka, and Holocene from 11.7Ka until present.
The main characteristic is the appearance of Homo Sapiens during this geological Period and the glacial inter-glacial oscillation during Pleistocene (four significant).
Quaternary deposition are deposition that belong to this period, younger of which belong to Holocene. Quaternary landslides is a therm that I encounter for the first time, but I believe they are actual and active landslides and that this must be the correct terminology. I don't believe a landslide can be collected with an entire geological period, as we can do it with tectonic activity.
But it must be in the concrete framework. if they are some landslides, created by sea level rise during the Holocene transgression, you can use a term like Holocene landslides, but the correctness of this term is to be evaluated.
 
 
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I am specifically asking about the well log data and any other geophysical studies.
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It is also for my works
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I am looking for laboratory in Central Europe which posesses the Thermal Conductivity Scanner for some measurements in hard rock samples. I will be grateful for information about who has this kind of equipment.
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Jacek:
GFZ has such scanner and Andrea Forster is the person to be contacted. Same scaller designed originally by Drs Popov and Huenges and produced by a Leipzig company by special orders is also a property of Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw.
Cheers
Jacek M
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This may help answer questions surrounding future discovery directions and technology required.
I've heard it said, 1M geophysical programs are required to find a greater than $100B totally blind subsurface mine. If so, is this lack of geophysical ore discovery success with current technology the issue or scarcity of large economic resources? Hope you include data that may help answer this question.
The former means much improved or new geophysical technology is required. Or will alternative new technologies and approaches to augment geophysics be required if scope of new geophysical technology needed is predicted to be limited?
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Dear Bernhardt
Thank you for the question - an interesting one. 
From my perspective there are not any step change geophysical technologies on the immediate horizon.  Likely developments are in the foreseeable future are tensor potential field systems and EM systems capable of lower base frequencies and so hopefully better penetration.  This will certainly improve things but its my opinion that at present the weakest link in the exploration chain is our ability to interpret the geoophysical data.  For this reason here at UWA we've started working on the petrophysics of the mineralised environment and in particular the integration of the petrophysics with mineralogical and geochemical data.  Its early days but its clear that just thinking about the problem in terms of lithological controls only (as is common in most petrophysical studies) is not the right way to go. Alteration is very important especially in mafic and umafic rocks.  Apart from serpentinisation the petrophysical consequences of common types of alteration is hardly studied at all.
I am actually quite concerned about how geophysics is currently being used in mineral exploration, in particular the creation of 'geologically realistic' models of the subsurface.  These frequently have a level of complexity inconsistent with the resolving power of the geophysical data.  And then there's ambiguity.  For these reasons, another line of research we're pursing here is finding a way to represent uncertainty and resolution in a sub-surface physical property model.  Which parts of the model are most reliable; which parts are not well constrained etc?
So to summarise, I don't see any geophysical silver bulletins on the horizon and a short term objective  is to make better use of what we already have.  
Regarding the original question about discoveries and resources.  Are you aware of the work of Richard Schodde?  Richard has compiled a lot of data of this kind and its accessible in summary form on his website.  It would be great to include something similar in the new book with emphasis on geophysical discoveries but as I've already found published data are often contradictory, there is often dispute about how deposits were actually discovered and data on resources is commercially very sensitive for obvious reasons.  So its a tough question to resolve at the moment.
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Geo-scientific evidences in Environmental Litigation arising from oil and gas pollution
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Thanks Kenneth. I viewed at the first instance a situation of articulated storage, which certainly is limited by the storage capacity of the storing medium. In all of this, safe storage is of key consideration
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The continental drift is a reality now, supported by the dynamics of plate tectonics and seafloor spreading. Continuous convergence (collision) and divergence (separation) of continental and oceanic plates from each other has been reshaping our Earth since the initiation of the process. Therefore, the absolute location (latitudinal and longitudinal) of places has been changing with the change of associated biotic and abiotic environments (tropics shift to equator, or polar regions being shifted to mid latitudes for example). 
Then, how the shape of the earth arises due to the continuous movement of the continents and oceans is impacting the global climate? Does it also impact the paleoclimatic records which are being considered to understand the climate of the past?
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Dear Sumanta: the question you posed is a very complex one! The supercontinent cycle has been operating since at least the Paleoproterozoic or Neoarchean, assembling and disrupting continental masses, creating -and destroying- orogenic belts and ocean basins, volcanic belts, and the like. So it is unquestionable that such tectonic variarions had a strong influence on past climate, just as they have been doing since the Pangea disruption in the Jurassic. The problem is relatively easy to resolve in Mesozoic terrains, a bit more difficult in Paleozoic, and really a hard one in the Precambrian. Conditions for deposition of evaporitic basins were widespread during the Permian, but also in the Devonian and Proterozoic, where large evaporitic basins are found, also aeolian sandstones are frequent in this very dry period, and in older times too. Climate changes so profound as to be unimaginable to us happened when continental blocks collided to form supercontinents. Pangea was covered possibly by a desert three times larger that the actual Sahara, and by an enormous ice cover in its southern parts. The uplift of the Appalachian-Caledonian belt surely had a profound effect in the climate of this supercontinent and global Earth. Before this, in the Neoproterozoic, the uplift of the world-wide Greenvillian system of orogenic belts, which was probably even higher than the Himalaya and longer than the Andes..., due to the assembly of Rodinia, certainly had a marked influence in atmospheric and oceanic circulation, as to eventually lead he planet to the "Snow-ball Earth" global glaciation, just as the uplift of the Andes and Himalaya has done in more recent times, creating large deserts in South America and Central Asia. The problem in older terrains is the large uncertainties in the relative shape, positions and paleolatitudes adquired by land masses, this is relatively easy to solve during the Jurassic, but increasingly difficult to ascertain in older times. With regards, Sebastian.
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I have downloaded images from Landsat MSS (1972) with the corresponding lot of stripe and noise ( MSS 4 jpg = band 4). Which is the best method for destripe with ENVI 5.0. I tried to destripe with « destripe tools » and « fill the gaps » in ENVI 5.0 , but I have had negative results.
So, I will appreciate if someone can help me with step by step (ENVI 5.0).
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My best option that can work is using Panchroma a $99.90 USD satellite imagery software tool I used that for all my work enhancement work for Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI imagery - did that in one my local conference papers quite successfully. I am not not endorsing it but just sharing some experience.
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optical remote sensing data: Landsat and Sentinel2
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Landsat resolution (pan ) is 15. and Sentinel 2 is 10 m.
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Global warming = Ice melting = Sea level rise = More water availability for evaporation and (possible) decrease of salinity = More evaporation = More clouds = Less solar radiation to earth = Global cooling = Fresh ice formation = Sea level fall = Less water availability for evaporation and (possible) increase of salinity = Less evaporation = Less atmospheric clouds = More incoming solar radiation = Global warming again.
(1) Are these consequences always true?
(2) If not, then what are the alternative circumstances?
(3) How does ever-changing Global Climate maintain its Dynamic Equilibrium with Global Water Cycle? Which one is the initiator of Change? Any evidence?
and,
(4) Is there any long term record of salinity of oceanic water?
**Note: Above are the physical factors (components) for global change and associated consequences... excluding biological factors such as changes of concentration of Oxygen/Carbon-dioxide/Methane etc. and their inter-relation which also influence the global cycle.
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UPDATE: Few Related & Interesting References (referred by the experts with their answers)
(IPCC Working Group Reports, referred by Harry ten Brink and Commenter)
http://isthereglobalcooling.com/ (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/sotc/ (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Past_sea_level   (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glaciers-and-climate/ (referred by Steingrimur Stefansson)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas  (referred by Henrik Rasmus Andersen)
http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/ (referred by Alastair Bain McDonald)
https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/education-outreach [Click Introduction to Paleoclimatology] (Commenter)
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/ [For Global and Regional Analysis of (1) Climate, (2) Hazards, (3) Snow & Ice, (4) Upper Air, and (5) ENSO events .....during late 1990s to till date] (Commenter)
...for refence see the Global Major Climate Events (originally source & compiled map credit NOAA-NCDC and WMO) during year 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and some images related to historical trend of global temperature (Images collected from various webpages referred here)...
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Dear Sumanta, you are asking a complex question for which there might be no exact answer today. While in economic literature the statement about temperature growth in the last 100 years by only anthropogenic influence dominates, physicists are still in doubt; see for example https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn11639-climate-myths-the-cooling-after-1940-shows-co2-does-not-cause-warming/ . There exists also a hypothesis about global cooling, but on much larger time scale; see http://isthereglobalcooling.com/ . The graph about global temperature and CO2 dynamics is the last 450,000 years is attached (from this source). If this graph is correct, we have an interesting observation: warming went faster (about 10,000 years) than cooling (100,000 years). It is unclear whether triggering is caused by some shocks or some mechanism of dynamic equilibrium on the Earth. But is is also clear that we observe anthropogenic contribution to this process for the 1st time.
The problem however is that we cannot wait too long without making actions to combat global warming. Less carbon emissions would indeed work towards speed reduction of this process, but it might happen that other greenhouse gases (like methane) will continue working in its favor while increase of volcanic activity (observed in the last 10 years) will work towards reduction.
As for the rise of ocean level, the effect is still small today, and is caused not so much by ice melting but more by change of water density with temperature and salinity. However, melting of all Antarctic ice will cause a catastrophic rise of the ocean level by 60 meters; see https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html . Melting of Greenland will have much lower effect (6 meters), but here we observe catastrophic melting in the last years.
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How to model CO2 properties such as velocity at deeper depth say 30 Km? Is there any equation to model CO2 velocity?
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You can have a look to Ghaderi and Landrø (2009, Geophysics 74(2)).
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The 1975 lexicon of Qatar states that the Cretaceous Mauddud Formation got its name from that locality near Dukhan.
The name was assigned by Dr. F.R.S. Henson in an unpublished 1940 report. Does anybody have that report?
A 1948 geological report on the Dukhan anticline by Dr. Max Chatton says "Ain Mauddud has a little water spring on the seashore". Does someone know where that water spring is/was?
Any help would be appreciated. This is related to my current research on the silica of the Rus Formation
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I am not expert in this field
ram
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Earth was  definitely not heated to this state from a cold condition. It was cooled from a very high temperature and also very slow rate to this state.The question is what are the possible causes for this cooling?
A Geo-Scientist can answer this question
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Dear Radhashyam,
This is what you said above ". . . gaseous envelope of hot earth at 6000K, as it is thought that earth had taken its birth from a bulk of hot gaseous clouds ejected from sun or solar nebula. " This statement at best is simply not true and at worst is nonsense. I don't know where you obtained your notion of the formation of the earth with which you seem determined to belive although it is wholly contrary to known science and evidence. You posed a question and have received many answers but the only ones you accept are those that agree with your erroneous preconceived view. My question to you is why did you ask the question if you already had the only answer that you would accept?
What may be causes of cooling of the planet earth to this temperature, say 15 degree celcius? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_may_be_causes_of_cooling_of_the_planet_earth_to_this_temperature_say_15_degree_celcius#view=579042a23d7f4bc0ed6eb084 [accessed Jul 21, 2016].
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