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Geomorphology - Science topic

Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them.
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Physical geography is includes the study of the earth spheres. Geographers usually working on geomorphology, climatology and biogeography. Why they don't work mostly in oceanography ?
Discussion.
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Yes it is true that there is still a vast scope to work on life under the water, that is the part of Biological features of Oceanography. Most of the works are concerned with the geological or hydrological parts of Oceanography. May be it is due to the area of research interest. Jasem A Albanai
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In shallow regions near the coast, sediment transport models require some geomorphological properties of the sea bed. Is there any database that contains d50, d16, d84, some cores to know the kind of material in layers?
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Perhaps USGS websites are useful.
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How to perform sensitivity analysis for dam/reservoir site suitability mapping? if we have considered some parameters (i.e. elevation, slope, distance to the river, geology, geomorphology). So, by using AHP we have done overlay analysis in Arc GIS to develop a suitability map. However, if the dam or reservoir is not constructed, how we can validate the model/resulted maps.
Thanks
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In my perspective, I think the term sensitivity analysis is more appropriate to use in mathematical models such as HecRAS, SWAT etc.
In case of AHP based overlay analysis, this is knowledge based modeling, and depends on the expert judgement.
In order to reduce the no of factors, one may use statistical techniques such as PCA or cluster analysis.
Regarding, validation in such as scenario, only one may propose various sites and let the field observations validate their suitability.
It is simply, throwing an arrow in dark but with sound scientific and rational judgement.
Thanks
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Are there any iPad pro apps for GIS mapping and analysis? Thanks
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Dear Jens Kleb Antônio Carlos Pereira dos Santos Junior Omid Vakili , for precision monitoring I use an emlid reach rs2+ GNSS antenna and its app is well supported by apple so this doesn't worry me. My basic idea is to use the iPad as if it were a topographic map on which to digitize with the pen in the field or in the laboratory the various shapes obviously geo-referenced and using as a base map a topographic map in ecw format, export in shape format and load everything into my beloved QGis, but taking full advantage of the potential of the apple pencil. Is this possible? I must also admit that I am a big fan of global mapper. Regards
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As to deal with micro scale problem we have to constricted by some political or administrative boundary , which may conflict with regional aspect or may not be accurately authenticated with overall geological, geomorphological and geographical perspective. Again natural scale regional focus may dilute the specific spatial issues . That's why the question arises.
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Dear just try to use uncle google, you will find lots of article regarding to your request!
Regards
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I computed different models with 3 variables and there interactions using procD.lm function( so 7 models). Then I would like to compare my models to choose the one which explain most of the variance. I thought to use stepAIC function or a similar function adapted for procD.lm format, but I didn't found any. Any tips ?
Thank
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procD.lm is a permutational approach that confronts observed linear model statistics to the ones generated through permutations of the data.
As far as I am aware, procD.lm does not calculate likelihoods, so it is impossible to use AIC to compare models. I don't think that there is any automated way for selecting models under a non-parametric linear model (except in very specific cases).
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Is there a way to flip the skull? I need the skull to be faced in the opposite direction.
I am using this code string (in r-studio): plotRefToTarget(PCAf$shapes$shapes.comp1$min, mshf).
mshf is the mean shape.
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Geomorphology, Geography, Geology and Coastal
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Desiree Beaudry , Mostly he need to download the pdf copy of the article. Arun Kumar K C already give him what he need.
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I'm looking for some information about mountains in the Andes of Colombia (cordillera central, occidental and oriental) such as geomorphology, width, relief and climate conditions.
Thanks.
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If you have GIS experience, I would recommend you to extract the information from shapefiles available in the SIAC Catálogo de mapas - IDEAM (http://www.siac.gov.co/catalogo-de-mapas). You can get information about soils, geomorphology, ecosystems, threats, etc.
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Hello everyone,
I'm studying about geomorphology for dissertation, furthermore i have doubts about difference of terms geomorphometry and quantitative geomorphology and meaning.
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Geomorphometry involves the processing of DEMs (Encyclopedia of Geomorphology (2004), vol. 1, p. 435). Quantitative geomorphology might just be a term used by A. N. Strahler and M. A. Melton in the 1950s and 1960s.
I can recommend the following paper:
Strahler, A. (1954). Statistical Analysis in Geomorphic Research. The Journal of Geology, 62(1), 1-25. Retrieved March 2, 2021, from
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We are working on a manuscript for groundwater potential by considering different raster layers like Geomorphology, Geology, Soil texture, Elevation, Slope, Drainage density, Lineament density, Topographic Position Index, Topographic Wetness Index, Profile curvature, etc. Some of these parameters like Geomorphology, Geology, and Soil texture are qualitative variables while the others are quantitative variables. Hence, it is difficult to perform a collinearity test of these variables in their original form. So, I thanks in advance the experts in this field to help me in finding out the solution. My question is whether there is any specific technique to perform a collinearity test of taking both qualitative and quantitative variables? Whether the original data be resampled then a collinearity test be performed?
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Thanks, Sunil Kumar & Vivek Saxena for sharing your opinions.
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May be seems an easy question, but i emphasis didn't see an integrated definition!
So far, there is no comprehensive definition for desert that is accepted by most of the experts and Different Sciences Scientists. Depending on the conditions prevailing in their country and culture, the people have different perceptions and definitions of the desert.
For example, the French consider desert, a Large areas covered with sand dunes that camels and camel traveling there. Russia's; vast prairie sand with Tamarix trees and pastures of the shepherds Turks and Mongols in the desert supposed to remember.
Americans see a sharp rocky meat plants, desert visualize in their minds and in language Uighur desert meaning "journey without return” .
Philosophers describe desert as mysterious environment, because it is the origin of the world's major religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) . biologists refer to as the laboratory environment because these places are preserved fossils of plants and animals to survive and adapt the best possible there.
Botanists believe deserts are areas with little vegetation, with very poor species diversity and plant density.
Ecologists believe, deserts are ecosystems that production plant tissues is minimized and chemical energy production are poor.
Soil Science say deserts, are areas whit low potential production, These soils typically include Low permeability, low organic matter, salt accumulation in the surface layers, clay, less developed and less developed soil horizons.
- Geologists believed, desert are areas with saline evaporite formations (gypsum and salt).
- climatologists say deserts are areas with high temperature and low precipitation ( less than 250 mm rain )
- Geomorphology scientists known deserts as Playa, sand dunes hills, Badland, rocky lands, alluvial fans, and Kalut, Glassy, and so on.
So, as you see, there is not an integrated definition for desert that accept and agreed by all scientists and specialists.
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Dear Mohammad , please take a look at this new paper. The concept of deserts was re-visited last year:
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Dear Colleagues
What is slope spectrum and how is it useful for landforms differentiation?
Thanks for help in concept clarification.
With best regards
Ijaz
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Dear @Hussain Alshammary
After going through the paper u attached, I asked this question.
Regards
Ijaz
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Dear researchers
The provisions of ASCE 7-10 states that New Next Generation Attenuation Relationships (NNGAR) has been used in the process of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) to prepare seismic hazard maps provided in United State Geologic Survey (USGS).
Now, I want to know what is new next generation attenuation relationships and how are they different from other typical attenuation relationships such as Campbell, Douglas, Godrati, BJF, etc?
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Hello Majid
Just a few words to answer you, although I was not part of the NGA / NGA2 projects. Essentially, from a methodological viewpoint, these NGA GMPE are not different from the previous ones you quote. They may however considered are significant improvements for several reasons :
- very careful gathering of a common set of high quality strong motion data from various parts of the world, and covering an as brand as possible range of magnitude and distances, together with the corresponding Metadata regarding the source characteristics (rupture extension, fault orientation, moment magnitude, etc.), the propagation characteristics (different source-receiver distance metrics, potentiality of source- receiver configurations), and the site characteristics (the poorest though in my opinion, with only VS30, and most often only inferred and not measured - but with a clear indication of the origin of VS30 value). Personally I do no trust that much the Z1 / Z2.5 values (depth at which the S-wave velocity exceeds 1 or 2.5 km/s).
- derivation of a parallel set of numerical simulation results (with 1D codes for horizontally layered media) in order to constrain the non-linear part of the site response
- on this common data set, several groups of authors have made their own section, and developed their own a priori models for the source, path and site effects, with for some of them very sophisticated models to (try to) account for peculiar effects (directivity, rupture mechanism, NL site response, + what is ambiguously called "basin effect" corresponding indeed to deep deposits effects, etc.)
- a very careful estimation of the aleatory variability and its systematic separation in two terms ( within and between-event), with or without additional dependence on magnitude / distance / site conditions.
These NGA were developed over several years with extensive discussions between many participants, and can thus be considered as being the best State-of-the-art at the time they were developed.
Hoping to have brought useful answers, and hoping also NGA/NGA2 authors will complement and correct me !
pyb
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I am using UAV data for mapping geomorphological processes in different environments, from coastal and estuarine subtropical areas to subpolar and polar glacial landscapes, and I want to profit from the huge amount of information in such high-resolution datasets. So, I was wondering if there are good free options for object-oriented image classification, alternative to eCognition for example?
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trying to explore new probably mineralized areas depending on the previous knowledge and data acquired from a mineralized ones around them.
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See these papers which are available on request on the RG server:
DILL, H.G. (2020) A geological and mineralogical review of clay mineral deposits and phyllosilicate ore guides in Central Europe - A function of geodynamics and climate change.- Ore Geology Reviews 119 (on-line)
DILL, H.G. (2017) An overview of the pegmatitic landscape from the pole to the equator – Applied geomorphology and ore guides.- Ore Geology Reviews 91: 795 – 823.
DILL, H.G. (2017) Residual clay deposits on basement rocks: The impact of climate and the geological setting on supergene argillitization in the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe) and across the globe.- Earth Sciences Reviews 165: 1-58.
DILL, H.G. (2016) Kaolin: soil, rock and ore From the mineral to the magmatic, sedimentary, and metamorphic environments.- Earth Sciences Reviews 161: 16-129.
DILL, H.G., WEBER, B. and BOTZ, R. (2013) Metalliferous duricrusts (“orecretes”) - markers of weathering: A mineralogical and climatic-geomorphological approach to supergene Pb-Zn- Cu-Sb-P mineralization on different parent materials.- Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 190: 123-195
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DILL, H.G., GERDES, A. and WEBER, B. (2010) Age and mineralogy of supergene uranium minerals - tools to unravel geomorphological and palaeohydrological processes in granitic terrains (Bohemian Massif, SE Germany).- Geomorphology, 117: 44-65.
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Data collection, river flow measurements, three height, cross sections of rivers, velocity of water flow, identification of rocks, geomorphology etc.
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Dear Patrik,
I believe that you have to read in the literature of the science that is related to your field of interest. For example, if you are interested in geomorphology, you will find more applied details in geology books, etc..
Hope this will help.
Best wishes.
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SL gradient index = (change in elevation/change in length of river)*L(river length), how can we calculate the L values?
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The length of river (L) can be defined in two ways; 1) straight line from river head to mid of two point of measurement or 2) the slope of the length of river from head river to mod of two point of measurement.
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I am searching for any landscape-scale indices that can be used to predict spatial soil moisture variability such as the range of slope gradients, slope aspects, plan, or profile curvatures.
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What is the difference between agent and process in geomorphological studies?
Factor
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Those which are responsible for creating certain landforms such as river, winds, water, waves, glaciers etc. can be referred as geomorphological agents. The geomorphological processes are those which shape the earth by creating certain landforms with the help of these agents.
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I want to know which quantitative morphotectonic analysis could use as a tool and method for detecting deformation patterns in coastline and geomorphology of the coasts. And know about the relation between morphotectonic and geomorphology in coastlines.
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Our co-authored short paper in 2015 explains the results in using DEM based LiDAR on the Francis Marion National Forest in Atlantic Coastal Plain for improved defining of hydrologic boundaries, stream channel locations and hydrologic modifications as ditches. The scarps and marine terraces were fairly well defined. Also with USGS and other cooperators in mapping hydrologic units in SC, we used the coastal bathymetry to better define and separate legacy coastal boundaries. Our collaborative paper with Jeanne Eidson as lead author probably mentioned this, which was done before we had the Lidar coverage. The LiDAR was also useful in locating wetlands and as well some abandoned channel meandering forms that occurred on some terraces. We also noted that channels traversing from one terrace to the next lower terrace through the scarp were most likely fairly deep gully forms, which are uncharacteristic for the low gradient coastal systems, which were mostly stable anastomosed forms, or highly sinuous especially in the areas with salt marsh.
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Is there a possibility to use the program Arc GIS in determining the relationship between geomorphological forms and mineral formations?
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Dear Dr. Al-Gurairy,
softwares used for modeling the landscape are first and foremost a step forward in exploration for and in the genetic investigations of supergene or sedimentary ore deposits. Hypogene ore deposits can successfully be explored and studied using remote-sensing techniques (satellite- and aircraft based remote sensing devices). From whatever angle you look at mineral deposits, be it genetic or applied you need a good knowledge and practical experience in geomorphology, pedology (weathering of rocks) and hydrography so that you can catch and interpret the landforms. ArcGis and all the other fine softwares are only a tool kit.
I myself have shifted studies from genetic and applied economic geology to this surface expression called landscape using drainage systems and their interfluves for different purposes.
DILL H.G., BUZATU A., GOLDMANN S., KAUFHOLD S., and BÎRGĂOANU D. (2019) Coastal landforms of “Meso-Afro-American” and “Neo-American” landscapes in the periglacial South Atlantic Ocean: With special reference to the clast orientation,
morphology, and granulometry of continental and marine sediments.- Journal of South American Earth Sciences (on-line).
DILL, H.G., GOLDMANN S., and CRAVERO, F., (2018) Zr-Ti-Fe placers along the coast of NE Argentina: Provenance analysis and ore guide for the metallogenesis in the South Atlantic Ocean. Ore Geology Reviews 95: 131-160.
DILL, H.G. (2017) An overview of the pegmatitic landscape from the pole to the equator – Applied geomorphology and ore guides.- Ore Geology Reviews 91: 795 – 823.
DILL, H.G., DOHRMANN, R. , KAUFHOLD, S. and Balaban S.-I. (2015) Kaolinization – a tool to unravel the formation and unroofing of the Pleystein pegmatite-aplite system (SE Germany).- Ore Geology Reviews 69: 33-56.
DILL, H.G., WEBER, B. and BOTZ, R. (2013) Metalliferous duricrusts (“orecretes”) - markers of weathering: A mineralogical and climatic-geomorphological approach to supergene Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb-P mineralization on different parent materials.- Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 190: 123-195.
DILL, H.G. and LUDWIG, R.-R. (2008) Geomorphological-sedimentological studies of landform types and modern placer deposits in the savanna (Southern Malawi).- Ore Geology Review , 33: 411-434.
DILL H.G., LUDWIG R.-R., KATHEWERA A. and MWENELUPEMBE J. (2005) A lithofacies terrain model for the Blantyre Region: Implications for the interpretation of palaeosavanna depositional systems and for environmental geology and economic geology in southern Malawi.- Journal of African Earth Sciences, 41: 341-393.
These papers may help you come to grips with your issue and they are available on the RG server for download.
I wish you much success H.G.Dill
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Hi,
I am working on the analysis of landslide causative factors. Generally, while generating landslide hazard models, we make a random selection of variables. We take into account the geology, geomorphology and other terrain conditions to choose these variables. How to check the statistical significance of these parameters?
Thanks in advance.
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Hi Badal,
This paper might be useful. See section 3.3- Selection of conditioning factors.
Performance evaluation of the GIS-based data mining techniques of best-first decision tree, random forest, and naïve Bayes tree for landslide susceptibility modeling.
Cheers,
Kaushal
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Geomorphology is not a science. Unlike physics and chemistry it has no empirical basis. No one measured stream sediments or mass wasting over a century, which should have been done in hundreds of locations, under all climates, topography, degree of degredation, etc. It is based solely on experts. In the Sierra Nevada, work like yours is typically off by 2 to 5 orders of magnitude from constraints imposed by field evidence. I'm a serious geomorphologist; been one since 1968, and it takes decades to get comprehensive results. Geomorphology is a belief system, like Christianity, and it's interesting to see how each evolved over time. OK, I'm old. Am finally going to publish a very abreviated, if lengthy paper, on history of Sierra Nevada uplift based on Late Cretaceous to Eocene sediment remnants and Oligocene to Quaternary volcanic remnants in the range. There are about 300 sites.
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Jeffrey Paul Schaffer I strongly disagree. Geomorphology is not a belief system like Christianity. It is science.
Let me quote Tim Minchin here:
"Science adjusts its views based on what's observed. Faith is the denial of observation so that belief can be preserved."
What are the beliefs in Geomorphology that could not be overturned by observation?
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Can classical geomorphological concepts such as peneplanation or retrogressive erosion be quantitatively understood? Old mountain ranges such as the Appalachian or the Urals seem to retain relief for >10^8 years, while subglacial fluvial valleys under Antarctica are preserved under moving ice of kilometric thickness since the Neogene. What controls the time-scale of topographic decay?
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These fundamentals must be well understood in order to fully understand geomorphology.
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Hello:
I'm studying (neo)tectonic geomorphologies associated to the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone, Chile, using airborne LiDAR data.
Please, may someone recommend to me some useful papers, books and/or keynotes for this?
Thank you!
Sebastián
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Dear Sebastian,
The informal methodological guidelines we have used to compile hazardous faults in South America may partially meet your question, particularly for putting the outcome data in a friendly formal for SHA requirements:
More info will be available late this year in an upcoming special issue of the Journ. South. Am. Earth Sc.
Best,
Carlos
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I am working on Ririwai ring complex using aeromagnetic and aero-radiometric data. I have generated different maps but i need to generate the temperature of formation or curie temperature of each rock unit to augment my conclusion .
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Dear Damilola Avioye:
Even though, there is a need for studies to estimate the Curie´s temperature from aeromagnetic data, I would like to comment why this approach is faulty and the use of the magnetic data is inappropriate if you are trying “calculate curie temperature of each rock from magnetic anomalies” such as you said. My observation first addresses the data use in this study-case reading the geological and geophysical background (1), then ideas how the analysis was performed (limitations) (2) and finally presents an scenario of numerical examples (3) to illustrate the limited and misleading results that could be generated.
1) Following Raimi,J., Dewu, B.B.M. and Sule, P. (2014) An Interpretation of Structures from the Aeromagnetic Field over a Region in the Nigerian Younger Granite Province. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 313 - 323. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2014.53031, your study area is largely covered by basement rocks and ring complexes Ririwai, Gamawa aand Zuku, Banke, Ningi and Tibchi-Yeli outcrop in the area. There is a high resolution aeromagnetic data by tne Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) were acquired at a flight altitude of 80 m, along NE-SW flight lines that were spaced at 500 m. The authors, used the Euler deconvolution to estimate the depth and position of the main structural features explain: “The results of the Euler solutions indicate that the depth of the ring complexes range from outcrop to 1800 m. For the inferred unexposed ring complex, the depth range from outcrop to 1200 m. It also revealed tightest cluster of solutions along inferred folds with depth that range from 0 to 1800 m.”
2) On the other hand: Curie point depth is a theoretical surface with a temperature in order of 550 °C / 580 °C and can be considered an index of the bottom of a magnetic source, due to ferromagnetic minerals converting to paramagnetic minerals. Geomagnetic anomalies, which are retrieved from magnetic survey, can be utilized to study magnetic structures above the Curie point depth (Bhattacharyya and Leu, 1975; Byerly and Stolt, 1977; Blakely and Hassanzadeh, 1981; Blakely, 1988; Smith and Braile, 1994; Tanaka et al., 1999; Chiozzi et al., 2005; Eppelbaum and Pilchin, 2006; Trifonova et al., 2009; Aboud et al., 2011). On the other hand: you need to reduce the influence of boundary conditions and edge effects, avoid the high frequency noise caused by structures near the surface, and the spectral analysis of the magnetic data described by Spector and Grant (1970) estimated the depth to the top of magnetized rectangular prisms (Zt) from the slope of the log power spectrum, and using this spectral method, Bhattacharyya and Leu (1975, 1977) further calculated the depth of the centroid of the magnetic source bodies (Z0). Okubo et al. (1985) developed the method to estimate the bottom depth of the magnetic bodies (Zb). From the slope of the power spectrum, the upper bound and the centroid of a magnetic body can be estimated. The lower bound of the magnetic source can be derived (Okubo et al., 1985; Tanaka et al., 1999) as Zb = 2Z0 - Zt.
Since Zb is the lower bound depth of the magnetic body, it suggests that ferromagnetic minerals are converted to paramagnetic minerals due to temperature of approximately 580 C. Therefore, the obtained bottom depth of the magnetic source, Zb, was
assumed to be the Curie point depth. To relate the Curie point depth (Zb) to Curie point temperature (580 C), the vertical direction of temperature variation and the constant thermal gradient were assumed. The geothermal gradient (dT/dz) between the Earth’s surface and the Curie point depth (Zb) can be defined by Eq. (8) (Tanaka et al., 1999; Stampolidis et al., 2005; Maden, 2010): dT/dz = 580 °C/Zb.
Another critical issue is the size of your ZOI that you need to use as input in the Curie´s temperature from magnetics: the depth simulations suggest that the optimal square window dimension is about 10 times the estimated depth. For example, you must take square subregions of 200 km by 200 km; or 250 km by 250 km, in a shifting increments of 10 km respect to each other.
The lasted idea to say to you is the vertical resolution of this geophysical method: it is in order of hundred meters, also, it is almost impossible to “calculate curie temperature of each rock from magnetic anomalies” (Please, see the textual comment by Professor Alan Reid at bottom) such as you said.
3) In synthesis: If the results of the Euler deconvolution cited by Raimi,J., Dewu, B.B.M. and Sule, P. (2014) are correct, it is almost impossible to reach the Curie´s critical temperature at this shallow source and the size of your magnetic survey relationship. Thinking if you are in a region of shallow Curie Point Depth such as 10 km, it means that there is a high geothermal gradient, e.g., 60 °C/km and present heat-flow value (200 mW/m2!!!). Is your geological – scenario like this?
"...It is important to understand that the spectral methods are great in the right hands, but you´d better read prudently the Spector and Grant foundational paper (1970). Remember they give averages over the spectral window, and you need to beware of the Power spectrum calculated this way. The one you get with RAPS has a lot of its power from the grid tapering outside the data (to make the edges match), so it´s biased. You need to calculate the power spectrum yourself with internal tapering to get edge matching and no grid extension outside the data". (Alan B. Reid, 2015).
Best regards,
Mario E. Sigismondi
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As part of my proposed research work on gully erosion, the contribution of subsurface flow components for the total erosion at the gully mouth has to be known. Subsurface flow components of soil water and groundwater were planned to address using isotopic mass balance approach. Even though it depends on the area, some publications showed that soil piping plays an important role on subsurface flow and erosion. Therefore, I'm wondering how can I measure the flow and erosion amounts from these soil pipes mostly found on the walls of active gullies.
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Hi Tadesual,
I haven't worked yet with pipeflow measurements (ok, once I tried, but without success;). I can suggest you some papers that may help you.
On pipeflow:
1) The work by Wouter Vannoppen et al. They measured pipeflow and its hydrochemistry at the one pipe outlet (see Fig. 1):
Vannoppen, W., Verachtert, E., Poesen, J., 2017. Pipeflow response in loess-derived soils to precipitation and groundwater table fluctuations in a temperate humid climate. Hydrol. Process. 586–596. doi:10.1002/hyp.11049
2) Papers written by the team of prof. Holden, e.g.
a) Billett, M.F., Dinsmore, K.J., Smart, R.P., Garnett, M.H., Holden, J., Chapman, P., Baird, A.J., Grayson, R., Stott, A.W., 2012. Variable source and age of different forms of carbon released from natural peatland pipes. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosciences 117, 1–16. doi:10.1029/2011JG001807
b) Dinsmore, K.J., Smart, R.P., Billett, M.F., Holden, J., Baird, A.J., Chapman, P.J., 2011. Greenhouse gas losses from peatland pipes: A major pathway for loss to the atmosphere? J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosciences 116, 1–12. doi:10.1029/2011JG001646
c) Holden, J., Smart, R.P., Dinsmore, K.J., Baird, A.J., Billett, M.F., Chapman, P.J., 2012. Natural pipes in blanket peatlands: major point sources for the release of carbon to the aquatic system. Glob. Chang. Biol. 18, 3568–3580. doi:10.1111/gcb.12004
On erosion:
Here you can try to measure the sediment discharge in the pipeflow that you catch. See how we did it in laboratory (in the field you will need some collectors):
Bernatek-Jakiel, A., Vannoppen, W., Poesen, J., 2017. Assessment of grass root effects on soil piping in sandy soils using the pinhole test. Geomorphology 295, 563–571. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.08.027
I hope that it helps you somehow.
Best regards
Anita
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A correlation of the concentrations of SiO2 versus Zr for a suite of basalts show a progressive increase in SiO2 relative to Zr content. Where is the zirconium coming from being a low temperature mineral?
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Many thanks for the exposure to literature.
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Do you know an article or source for evaluating the river's geomorphological quality?
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Geomorphic quality?
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Hello,
do you use smartphone apps (Android) for collecting field data?
Up to now I used following:
Orux - for preparing offline maps from WMS as mbtiles,
Locus Map - for collecting data and georeferenced photos,
FieldMove Clino - for collecting geological data,
Mobile Topographer Free for work in local CRS and WGS conversion,
GPS Status PRO - for sensors calibration and handling A-GPS data.
The best experience I have with Locus.
Do you use anything else?
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You might find it informative to read a recent paper we developed regarding smartphone GPS accuracy ....
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I asked a similar question but thought a different question headline would help get people to answer. I am working on a new publication trying to explain marine geomorphology of a reef system. I wanted to make a series of images showing how the geomorphology may have changed with changing sea level fluctuations. Does anyone have suggestions for programs I can use to make something like this? I attached some suggestions for what I am trying to do but I am not sure what program to use for this. Thank you.
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The most relevant is the program by Rick Allmendinger (Stereonet). This software is also included in the following review:
along with some additional visualization tools.
You can also use Matlab or Mathematica if you have access to such software. In my opinion, this is often the best route, because you gain more control over the animation process.
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I have been reading tens of articles about automated landform mapping methods. However, articles don't give the detailed information about the steps which are taken. How can I implement the methods in arcgis or other open source software? I try to educate myself I need a manual or tutorial or lecture.
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The answer depends on the spatial and topographic features of the forms you would like to discriminate. The simple machine learning can be a good starting point but not only the DEM itself. You need to calculate geomphometric parameters using e.g. SAGA GIS. Here is some example from my studies: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17538947.2018.1501107?journalCode=tjde20 ; https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15481603.2017.1339987?journalCode=tgrs20 .
A sinkhole of karst area can be identified easily due to its special features. But swales and point bars are not easy to find in a semi-automatic way, because there are too many appearance of them.
So, my suggestion for you is to: (1) calculate geomorhometric parameters; (2) collect reliable reference data; (3) split refernce into train and test; (4) try to classify, (5) conduct accuracy assessment. This procedure can be perfomed in any GIS environment you like, and, as an experience, Maximum Likelihhod performs well. But, if you have possibility to apply Random Forest or SVM, try them, too.
Kind regards, Szilard
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I understand that the Hurst exponent of the Gaussian white noise is equivalent to 0 theoretically, because of the definition of fractional Brownian motions, fBms.
Why do some papers say that the exponent is -0.5, not 0?
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I answer a long time after your question, Takumi Sase, but in case you are still working on it:
- The Hurst exponent of the standard Brownian motion (Bm) is 0.5. One can define fractional Brownian motions (fBm) of Hurst exponent H (in (0,1)). If H>0.5, the fBm is a fractional integral of order H-0.5 of a Bm. If H<0.5, the fBm is a fractional derivative of order 0.5-H of a Bm.
- The Bm is an integral of white noises (increments of a Bm are iid Gaussian variables, these increments are the white noise), so we couldsee the white noise as a derivative of Bm. The standard derivative is also "a fractional derivative of order 1". So, consistently with the previous paragraph, one could say that the Hurst exponent of the white noise is 0.5-1=-0.5.
- Alternatively, if one considers the white noise process X_t, the process is distributed in the same way at every time: X_t has the same distribution as X_s. Following Mandelbrot's definition of self-similarity (Y is H-self-similar, with H the Hurst exponent, if Y_t has the same distribution as (c^{-H})Y_{ct}), one concludes that X has a Hurst exponent equal to zero.
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Hello! Please help to find a simple cross-shore sandy beach evolution (erosion+accretion) model for using in day-week scale (i had initial and intermediate profiles (once at month), and 3 hr forcing factors - wave height, period, wave length etc.
I need to estimate beach dynamics between my surveys (primary for getting beach width and slope).
Thanks for your advice!
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If I plotted that right, your location is on the South eastern section of the Baltic. That location has a fairly long fetch to the west. If you don't have access to any wave buoy or had an ADCP deployed on the bottom for information then you'd have to derive that from a Wind sensor that might have been located near your site. I have some clients who have had some of our Axys Wave buoys deployed in the Baltic, but they were more central or western, closer to Sweden and Poland. I'd refer you to the DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute) in Copenhagen. Also, Van Oord, whose office is in the Netherlands, may have done some work in your region. Nortek AS (Norway) who makes ADCP for waves and currents also may have a client who has been working your area.
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What satellite images/bands should I use for this purpose?
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Hi Mannan,
Are the qanat's track superficial or underground? if they are superficial, you can use thermal bands. If the qanat are underground, I think you can use Ground Penetrating Radar for this purpose.
Good Luck,
Reda
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Hi,
does any body know of an open source implementation of the geomorphological unit hydrograph? Actually the most relevant part is the derivation of the unit hydrograph based on the Digital Elevation Model. So likely it is a GIS routine to extract the respective parameters.
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Hi Mauro, thanks for the effort, but I believe the NEMO tool does not quite fit into my requirements.
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These photos taken at Sandstone layer . Please can somebody help me in the identification of these concentric and parralel laminations ? And which is the origin of this process ? NB : outcrops located on the coast influenced by marrine erosion.
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Dear Dr. Idries
These fine-grained sandstones show a rock parting on a different scale and intensity which allows the infiltration of (meteoric) fluids to a different extent and leave behind a residue of Fe-oxide hydrates (“limonite”). The latter “mineral” gives rise to the concentric structures resembling the contour lines of topographic map which reflect the different altitudes. It is a near-surface (supergene) process.
With kind regards
H.G.Dill
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Please, i'm looking for a copy of a Book : "Principles of Alluvial Fan Morphology ( Dan Bowman )", can you help me to find it ??
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Your email
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We have a fault system expanding on tens of kms with more than 1000 m of altitude difference between its eastern and western ends the western being the lower part. Is it exagerated to infer that the fault works as a water conduit bringing water from the eastern mountans to the western plain? Provoking the assotiated geomorphological phenomena due to water circulation? These phenomena are evident. Does the fact that assuming the fault’s role as a water conduit needs a proof?
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Any zone of failure could potentially be an aquifer, but in other cases the faults become a barrier that prevents the flow of water (impermeable barriers).
Geophysical profiles can be made with: Vertical Electrical Surveys (SEV) and even tomographies of the terrain, to determine the presence of water in the faults.
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Dear RG experts in Earth Science and Geomorphology
Upper part of the topographic slope is "convex" while lower part is "concave"; what are the factors shaping such a topographic slope morphology?
Regards
Ijaz
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In A Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains (1877), p.118 Gilbert writes ‘Every slope is a member of a series, receiving the water and waste of the slope above and discharging its own water and waste on the slope below . . . And as any member of the system may influence all the others, so each member is influenced by every other’ (Young 1972).
Let us now follow Gilbert’s observations to the top of the hill where the divide or watershed is. Here, water plays a minor role except in weathering processes. If, for example, frost shattering breaks a rock fragment off, the fragment can only fall sideways or down and only then if there is no rock debris to stop it. This underlies the convexity found at divides. Creep of soil and rock debris downslope then clears the summit ridge allowing further weathering to continue. Further downslope water takes on an extended role as sheet wash begins to combine with soil creep to increase the convexity of the slope.
There comes a point when sheet wash and mass wastage such as debris and mud flows, slides etc. gradually comes into play. The change is transition, as any sudden change would result in a break of slope. With increasing water and waste movement the slope begins to develop a concave form, unless a river is eroding into the base of the slope.
Think carefully on what G. K. Gilbert said all these years ago. They laid the basis for Process/response geomorphology and also introduced the idea of dynamic equilibrium. I hope these thoughts help you Ijaz
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There is a project plan to provide a 130m deep well in this area but I am concerned about the transmissivity of the underlying granite. I have no info on the condition of the rock, or any aquifer it contains, potential yield etc. Any evidence as to likely success in this formation would be welcome.
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To All who provided answers and insight to my question above: thank you. Your suggestions are entirely sensible and valid, and clearly come from good knowledge of relevant disciplines, and from experience. I apologise for my delay in replying. Our concern at the time was the seemingly random recommendations and 'geophysical survey' results we had received. But then we discovered a company who had previously drilled several boreholes in the area without success. Even though I suspect they did not use any advanced techniques to identify the locations, this did not bode well for our project, which had enough for a single drilling effort only. But the village in question does have access to a surface waterhole in a shallow ground depression, so I think this was the most obvious way to address their water security needs - even though it needs treatment. Many thanks again - I just thought I would give you feedback on how it turned out. Kind regards.
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I am writing a town paper on the above topic and I am searching for new published papers on the topic
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Following papers, available in researchgate, may be of help, partially.
Menier, D., Manoj, M.J., Pubellier, M., Sapin, F., Delcaillau, B., Siddiqui, N., Ramkumar, M. and Santosh, M., 2017 Landscape response to progressive tectonic and climatic forcing in NW Borneo: Implications for geological and geomorphic controls on flood hazard. Nature Geosci. Rep. V.7. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-00620-y.
Manoj, M.J., Menier, D., Siddiqui, N. A., Ramkumar, M., Santosh, M., Kumar, S. and Hassan, M., 2016 Drainage Basin and Topographic Analysis of a Tropical Landscape: Insights into Surface and Tectonic Processes in northern Borneo. Jour. Asian Earth Sci. v.124. pp.14-27. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2016.04.016.
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Water bodies and Topo Maps
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Really appreciate your suggestions. They've come in handy Anton Romanov Tobias Ullmann
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Hi. Maybe someone know any publications containing information about the morphological division (sub-unit description) of the coastal foredunes and attached sea beach. I found only coarse units in coastal geomorphology terms like "lee\windward slope", "dune crest", "dune foot", but nothing about more fractional zoning. Blowouts are described as "blowouts" without any sub-uniting. Also with the beach - its possible to find some phrases about "berms", but nothing concrete, with descriptions or definitions of their borders ets.
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Dear Aleksandr Danchenkov,
I recently read a paper on coastal geoindicators and I think there are some references in it which could be helpful. See : Coastal geoindicators: Towards the establishment of a common framework for sandy coastal environments. @ Carapuço et al., 2016. Textbook and Encyclopedia on coastal geomorphology or coastal science will aslo help you.
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I will be conducting a cost-benefit analysis of the impact of the freedom space river managing approach in Québec.
The first and only example I have in hand is of: Thomas Buffin-Bélanger, Pascale M. Biron, Marie Larocque, Sylvio Demers, Taylor Olsen, Guénolé Choné, Marie-Audray Ouellet, Claude-André Cloutier, Claude Desjarlais, Joanna Eyquem, Freedom space for rivers: An economically viable river management concept in a changing climate, Geomorphology, Volume 251, 2015, Pages 137-148,
I am looking for more papers and ideas in that regard.
Thank you for your collaboration!
-Cherine
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The subject of my Masters is to process and evaluate the accuracy of GPR data in one of Iran's mines, which has lead and zinc, as well as modeling in Matlab and Remote sensing software.
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This is more an update, not really a question. But did you know that Harris et al. (2014), doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2014.01.011) have done a great job with making a worldwide map of marine geomorphology? The map may be downloaded (as zipped shape files) from http://www.bluehabitats.org/
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Wow, many thanks ! Indeed a piece of sweet cake for my project (Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean).
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I am interested to know the geomorphology of the chattisgarh region. specifically the places: Kanger, Dantewara, and Bastar. If anyone has something related, I'd welcome the help.
Thanks in advance!
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The best research I have carried in my whole life has been finally published! Here we use some of the current most advanced statistics to model landslide occurrences.
I would even dare to say that it is one of the most complex and complete statistical applications in Geomorphology. I would have absolutely not been able to do it without the other two co-authors and most of the credit should go to them. Nevertheless, here we are online with Lombardo et al. (2018b)! Enjoy the reading at the following link:
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Hello Anton,
I recently got a book chapter where the code is fully explained line by line (to be precise, the code is the simplified version of the version presented in the paper you are referring to). The chapter itself refers to the github repository where you can download it alongside a simulated dataset for other researchers to get familiar.
If you want, I can send you the chapter to your email or you can check my ResearchGate profile and request the full-text (which is only private at the moment due to the copyrights).
Cheers,
Luigi
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In general, the term 'geological complexity' is used qualitatively. Are there any indicators, which can quantify the complexity? Or how the complexity of terrains be compared?
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I think you find parallels with the question in the paper of Iván Almár and coauthor: the London scale. The authors try to formulate the impact of a discovery which is complex enough (for example: to find life somewhere in the Solar System). Earlier other scales were also used by I. Almár in connection with the CETI researcg.
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Hello! I am looking for a city that is situated on one of the tropicals or that experiences a tropical climate that has a similar geomorphology as my hometown of Athens, Greece for a possible comparative study for my dissertation. Athens is nested in a plateau surrounded by 3 mountains and lies near the sea. It's elevation range according to wikipedia is 70.1m to 338m. Thank you in advance!
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Hector, as for Rio de Janeiro, being close to the open ocean indeed affects the climate.
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Dear RG colleagues
I want to know which geomorphological features/landforms are developed from each type of following rocks by exogenic processes:
1. Volcanic rocks
2. Plutonic rocks
3. Sedimentary rocks
4. Metamorphic rocks
Thanks for valuable comments and feedback.
Regards
ijaz
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Dear collegues:
Some books which show the interrelation between the two "major players" atmosphere, and the lithosphere leading to different landforms.
Adams, W.M., Goudie, A.S., Ome, A.R., 1996, The physical geography of Africa.- Oxford University Press, Oxford, 429 pp.
Allaby, A., and Allaby, M. 2003, Dictionary of Earth Sciences: 1st Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 640 pp.
Bremer, H., 1993, Etchplanation, review and comments of Büdel’s model. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N.F., Supplement-Band 92, 189–200. Bremer, H., 2002, Tropical weathering, landforms and geomorphological processes. fieldwork and laboratory analysis. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N.F. 46, 273-291.
Büdel, J., 1977, Klima-Geomorphologie. Gebrüder Bornträger Berlin, Stuttgart, 304 pp.
Centeno, J.D., García Rodríguez, M. and Moya Palomares, M.E. (2010) Influence of granite landforms on water balance in semi-arid and humid climates Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxico de Laxe Coruña 35, 99 – 108 Dalrymple, J.B., Blong, R.J., Conacher, A.J. 1968, A hypothetical nine-unit landsurface model. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 12, 60-76.
Goudie, A.S., Viles, H.A., 1999, The frequency and magnitude concept in relation to rock weathering. Zeitschrift Geomorph. Suppl. 115, 175-189. Harris, S. A., 1994, Climatic zonality of periglacial landforms in mountain areas. Arctic, 47, 164-192.
Holden, J., 2008, An Introduction to Physical Geography and the Environment. Prentice Hall, 769 pp.
Meadows M.E., 2001, The role of Quaternary environmental change in the evolution of landscapes: case studies from southern Africa. Catena 42, 39-57
Migoń, P., 2006, Granite landscapes of the world. Oxford University Press, New York, 384 pp.
Schaetzl R. J., Anderson, S., 2005 Soils: genesis and geomorphology. Cambridge University Press , Cambridge, 791 pp.
Summerfield, M.A., 1991, Global geomorphology. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, 537 pp.
Taboada, T., Romero, R., García, C., 1990, Weathering evolution of a biotite granite (El Pindo, Galicia, NW Spain). Chemical Geology 84, 130-132. Taylor, G., Eggleton, R.A., 2009, Regolith geology and geomorphology: John Wiley & Sons, 375 pp.
Thomas, M.F., 1994, Geomorphology in the Tropics. Wiley, Chichester 460 pp.
Thomas, M.F., 1995, Models for landform development on passive margins. Some implications for relief development in glaciated areas. Geomorphology, 12, 3–15.
Thomas, M.F. 2001, Landscape sensitivity in time and space – an introduction. Catena 42, 83-98.
Thomas, M.F., 2004, Landscape sensitivity to rapid environmental change – a Quaternary perspective with examples from tropical areas. Catena, 55, 107-124.
Tricart, J., Cailleux, A., 1972, Introduction to climatic geomorphology. Longman, London, 295 pp.
Twidale, C. R., 2002, The two-stage concept of landform and landscape development involving etching. origin, development and implications of an idea. Earth Science Reviews, 57, 37-74.
With kind regards
H.G.Dill
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can anybody provide me geology,soil and geomorphology and lulc map ??please my study area is saharanpur district?
Thanks
regards
bushra
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You may try the needed information from the regional offices of Geological survey of India; Central Ground Water Board; Soil Survey and State Groundwater Department.
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We are working on a review of the 3D seismic geomorphology of fluvial channels and associated lithofacies.
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Dear Jahangir, please! explain a little more what do you need to know. Is the question about lithofacies, about seismic attributes?
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We have been seeing many countries still don't have good resolution geological maps of their territory. In such situation remote sensing is an alternative for independent researchers. Understanding of Photogeology is the most for this.
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1. Revision of the scale of last North American glaciation Part 1. Southern Rocky Mountains
2. The origin of lakes and sandy deserts of mountains during the melting of glaciers –Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (EN)
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Hi there,
Scientific efforts in post-fire hydro-geomorphology seem to agree on the dominating importance of the hydro-climatic regime (i.e. precipitation type and timing) on the response of a watershed after a fire. Although variability exists according to scale, fire severity, or soil nature, it appears that post-fire heavy rain or snowmelt can be associated with higher runoff and erosion and eventually higher water and sediment yield.
However, I'm wondering how much topographical settings of a watershed, or of the burned area, can also act as a control of post-fire hydrogeomorphic response, i.e. runoff and erosion? By topographical settings, I mean elevation, ruggedness, slope steepness, curvature, and length, aspect, shape of the watershed or of the burned area...or any metric you could think of to describe a terrain.
To my knowledge, it is something that has hardly been addressed, and only a few papers seem to mention this (I'd be willing to read any reference you may share with me). It also seems that papers focusing on post-fire changes in water or sediment yield, or debris flow, tend to focus on locations displaying a certain level of topographical complexity.
I guess it draws 2 other questions, rather provocative, beside my introductory one:
- Is post-fire hydro-geomorphology "biased" toward complex terrains, especially steeper terrains, because a response is more likely according to general runoff and erosion processes?
- Can we generalize current scientific knowledge and argue that complex terrains, especially those displaying steep slopes, are more likely to experience greater post-fire changes in their hydrogeomorphic regime?
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Good question: macro. I'm not interested here in hillslope processes, but rather in their addition (or product) and how it translates into potential downstream effects that can be potentially problematic in terms of water resource management.
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We have some detailed photography of glass fracturing as it is subjected to extreme cold on one edge, used it for calibrating our codes (qualitatively). 
if you goals of your project align with things we are doing perhaps we should collaborate?
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Hi Robert .. Please contact with Dr. Yu-Shu regarding your request. However this project was done end of 2015.
Good luck!
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Provide me information for obtaining Geological, Soil, Geo-morphological, Lineament map for Latur district, Maharashtra, India.
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Get District Resource Map (DRM) of Latur District from Geological Survey of India office Nagpur. The main map is in 1:250K scale. Can also Check GSI Portal for online purchase of  DRM.
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Collecting Data for a Studio that is looking at the North Sea Commons, focusing on the Netherlands. [Geomorphology, Hydrology (Sea Level Rise, Wind, Lidar+Topo, Resources - Oil & Gas, Field +Extraction), Urban Infrastructure (pts+arteries) for Design Studio.
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Dear Catherine,
we have a dataset of coastal sea level data from satellite altimetry in the North Sea, here is the link: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871920
There is also a user manual. I hope it helps, best regards,
Marcello
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Loamy soils.
Gravelly clay soils.
Gravelly loam soils with stony surfaces.
Gravelly loam soils with very low AWC(Available Water Capacity)
Gravelly loam soils.
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 As AWC value for Gravelly loam soils with very low AWC(Available Water Capacity) is less, hence infiltration capacity will be more. Thus it should be included in HSG-B. Rest seems to be correct.
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I'm going to be coring in a terrestrial environment (ravines near a river). This area has experienced erosion from logging, then agriculture and now construction. I want to be able to tell which layers of sediment are from logging/agriculture/construction to gauge their impacts over time. I'm a grad student and the budget for this project won't be enough to send the samples to another lab for processing, so I'm trying to find out if our facilities will be adequate. 
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AAS cannot be used for measuring 210Pb! It can be measured by 3 methods. 1) Alpha Spectroscopy ; 2) Gamma spectrometry (as mentioned by Arribere) and 3) MC-ICP-MS. By Alpha Spectroscopy, 210Pb activities of sediments can be analyzed indirectly by measuring the activity of its granddaughter 210Po (half life=138.4 d) which is in radioactive equilibrium with 210Pb (half life=22.3 yr). A polonium tracer and chemistry is involved. You may read references. There is some good literature describing the method (e.g., Koide, M., Soutar, A., Goldberg, E.D., 1972. Marine sedimentology with
210Pb. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 14, 442–446. The experts believe that the sensitivity of this method is better than Gamma spectroscopy. But in Gamma, the advantage is the non-destructive technique and does not involve chemistry. You may read an attached paper where this technique is used. In any case, some of the experts suggest that 210Pb cannot be used as a single dating tool and should be used in combination with other methods (say 137Cs...).
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Late Paleocene to early Eocene (56 to 51 Ma) interval is characterized by five distinct transient warming (hyperthermals) events (Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), H1/ETM2/ELMO, H2, I1 and I2) in a super greenhouse globe associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs)
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check for the very-high resolution oxygen isotope reference curves, especially in papers based on DSDP sites.
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I am very interested in geothermal energy investigations in Jamaica. Mainly with reservoir characterization, simulations etc.
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Very interesting topic
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I am thinking to install a microseismic monitoring system in Uttrakhand Himalayan region.The rock mainly consists of slate and rock is layered too but stress level is low.Will Microseismic monitoring system work in such geological area having low stress  and poverburden thickness is of 14m at an elevation of about 1000m?
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I don't know, because I only have used in porphyry copper rocks, like Greenstone and Andesite.
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The inversions of vegetation seem to allow the increase of phytocenotic biodiversity. The main factors are often ecosystem topography and evolution.
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Thank you for your remarks. When I speak of evolution I do not speak of genetic evolution. My remarks consider the evolution of the ecosystem linked to the process of self-organization of vegetation in relation to time and space: this refers to chorology and plant succession.
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about Tethys Sea
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Are you referring to northern border of the Indian plate, or the present day political border of India? The latter is not easy to answer very simply. As you know, India is a large country and its geology shows considerable change from Assam to Kashmir. There are juxtaposed fold-thrust belts, suture zones, HP-UHP rocks, island arcs, Asiatic (formerly Gondwanic) blocks and of course the Siwaliks. 
You might like to contact Wadia Institute of Himalayan Gelogy, Dehradun, India, and Dept of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India. Their e-mails should e available on the internet.
Best, Qasim
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Geothermal waters in large sedimentary basins are being used for space heating and other purposes globally. It is neccessary to streamline the various factors that may contribute to the formation of heat accumulation structures (traps).
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Thanks, Tomas and Anthony, for the answers. I found that Karstified carbonates are excellent heat trapps when covered (sealed) by loose sediments with lower thermal conductivty. This is enhanced if the sedimentary cover is a coal which has the lowerest thermal conductivity.  
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I am looking for a magnetometer in which a survey doesn't require a base station and the diurnal corrections should not be necessary to calculate.
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Procure 3 axis digital magnetometer
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Dear all
Please share your research/knowledge about the mechanism behind the rapid tectonic uplift of Nanga-Parbat Haramosh Massif (NPHM) with respect to its surrounding area in northern Pakistan to make it a thought provoking discussion for geological community on the globe.
With best regards
IJAZ
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Nanga Parbat, the fastest rising mountain with youngest migmatites (700,000 years). Nanga Parbat is the western indenting corner while Namchi Barwa is the eastern one. The mechanisms include crustal buckling/ folding in response to Indian-Asia collision, crustal weakening, decompression melting, focused erosion with a feedback from intensive precipitation or a combination of all of these. See Zeithler and company's aneurysm model too.
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Dear all
I want to know about this relationship especially in the case of Indus River and Nanga-Parbat Haramosh Massif (NPHM) from northern Pakistan.
With best regards
IJAZ
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In the long run the river wins, but in the cade of the Indus cascade, every few centuries or millenia, a  tectonic  lanslide may punctuate the flow  for decades or more.
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Hi everybody.
I am going to create the wind erosion risk map after determination of some factors (land use, slope, soil texture and so forth).
Could you please introduce me a sufficient protocol about that??
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you need to : speed of wind ,directions of wind ,kind of soil, topography of the area,type of climate and the aim from it.
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As part of our industrial project we want perform a numerical modeling of wet and dry gypsum stacking on the groundwater. So, I would like to know what are the hydrogeological model that we can use? Any references?
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Are you interested hydrogeological responce to the earthquakes (Toxoku, Nepal) in the other geological structures (for example Moscow syneclise)?
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yes, sure.
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River morphology, Hydrology, Sediment load,Geomorphic process
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Scientists have missed some important physical science concepts as far as rayleigh wave propagation and its affect on biota are concerned.
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As cited in Norris et al. (2000, Geology, 28/4):
"Surface displacements have been estimated to be ∼10 m at a distance of ∼500 km (5° angular distance) from the impact and ∼2 m at a distance of ∼6700 km (60°) from the impact (Boslough et al., 1996)."
If nothing else, this scale of vertical displacement could have broken the legs of many large dinosaurs that were too close to the impact. Like elephants, the limb bones of large dinosaurs could not have withstood the vertical accelerations involved. For the same reason circus elephants do not jump off chairs or generally leap about.
Original reference is Boslough, M.B., Chael, E.P., Trucano, T.G., Crawford, D.A., and Campbell, D.L., 1996, Axial focussing of impact energy in the Earth's interior: A possible link to flood basalts and hotspots: in Ryder, G., et al., eds., The Cretaceous-Tertiary event and other catastrophes in Earth history: Geological Society of America Special Paper 307, pp. 541-550.
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 I like to download Geodatabase of Katsina, Nigeria that consist topography of soil, soil chemical, soil properties and climate, I think of shuttle rider topography mission (SRTM) before but unfortunately their is no such data for Nigeria.
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of course you can download SRTM data for Katsina - one site where you can easily do this is https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/; for other soil related data see http://www.isric.org/explore; for climate see http://www.worldclim.org/
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I am interested in weathering processes.
I have read this particular publication  
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Dear Gerhard Martens,
Thank you for your time and suggested readings. I appreciate it.
Kind regards,
Petko Bozhkov.