Science topic

Gender and Science - Science topic

Gender and Science is the topic is dedicated to greatest driving forces of human evolution - the genders. Members can discuss various factors like evolution, co-evolution, anthropology, neuroscience, psychology, physiology, counter-adaptation, behavior, mutuality and their relation with history, culture, society, behavior, economics, balance - power, threats, counter-challenges and future.
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When I embarked on this journey of exploring more on exploring the condition and status of gender equity and equality in architecture, or public spaces, or urban design, I found very little literature is available. Would be great to discuss on this topic. I have started to get an impression perhaps this topic is irrelevant or not trending at all. But I have strong feeling that has an importance, but very little research has been done on this. Would be great if you know of some documents or share some light on this.
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Designing Gender Sensitive Public Spaces – Cidco Smartcity (niua.org)
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Respected Scholars! What are the sayings/views about intersex and trans people (Jesus) an old/new Testament/Version? I am entire need of it for my research.
Regards,
Mouna (awaiting)
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Holy Scripture and the teachings of the Church unequivocally condemn homosexual sexual relations, seeing in them a vicious distortion of the God-created nature of man.
"If anyone lies with a man as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination" (Lev. 20:13). The Bible tells about the severe punishment to which God subjected the inhabitants of Sodom (Gen. 19:1-29), according to the interpretation of the holy fathers, precisely for the sin of sodomy. The Apostle Paul, characterizing the moral state of the pagan world, names homosexual relations among the most "shameful passions" and "lewdness" that defile the human body: friend, men on men doing shame, and receiving in themselves the due wages of their error" (Rom. 1:26-27). "Do not be deceived: neither the Malachis, nor the homosexuals...they will inherit the Kingdom of God," the apostle wrote to the inhabitants of corrupted Corinth (1 Corinthians 6:9-10). The patristic tradition just as clearly and definitely condemns any manifestation of homosexuality. The "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles", the works of Saints Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, Gregory of Nyssa, Blessed Augustine, the canons of Saint John the Faster express the unchanging teaching of the Church: homosexual relationships are sinful and subject to condemnation. The people involved in them do not have the right to be members of the church clergy (Basilius the Great, pr. 7, Gregory the Great, pr. 4, John the Lent, pr. 30). Turning to those who have stained themselves with the sin of sodomy, the Monk Maximus the Greek cried out: “Know yourselves, cursed ones, what a foul pleasure you have indulged in!... Try to get behind this most vile and foul pleasure of yours as soon as possible, hate it, and whoever claims that it is innocent, anathematize eternally, as an opponent of the Gospel of Christ the Savior and corrupting its teaching. Cleanse yourself with sincere repentance, warm tears and almsgiving and pure prayer... Hate this wickedness with all your soul, so that you will not be sons of damnation and eternal destruction.
Discussions about the position of the so-called sexual minorities in modern society tend to recognize homosexuality not as a sexual perversion, but only one of the "sexual orientations" that have an equal right to public manifestation and respect. It is also argued that homosexual attraction is due to individual natural predisposition. The Orthodox Church proceeds from the unchanging conviction that the God-established marriage union of a man and a woman cannot be compared with perverted manifestations of sexuality. She considers homosexuality to be a sinful damage to human nature, which is overcome in a spiritual effort leading to healing and personal growth of a person. Homosexual aspirations, like other passions that torment a fallen person, are healed by the Sacraments, prayer, fasting, repentance, reading the Holy Scriptures and patristic writings, as well as Christian fellowship with believers who are ready to provide spiritual support.
Treating people with homosexual inclinations with pastoral responsibility, the Church at the same time resolutely opposes attempts to present the sinful tendency as a "norm", and even more so as an object of pride and an example to follow. That is why the Church condemns any propaganda of homosexuality. Without denying anyone the fundamental rights to life, respect for personal dignity and participation in public affairs, the Church, however, believes that persons promoting a homosexual lifestyle should not be allowed to teach, educate and commanding position in the army and correctional institutions.
Sometimes perversions of human sexuality manifest themselves in the form of a painful feeling of belonging to the opposite sex, resulting in an attempt to change sex (transsexualism). The desire to refuse belonging to the gender that the Creator bestowed on man can only have detrimental consequences for the further development of the individual. “Sex reassignment” through hormonal influence and surgical operation in many cases does not lead to the resolution of psychological problems, but to their aggravation, giving rise to a deep internal crisis. The Church cannot approve of this kind of "rebellion against the Creator" and recognize artificially changed gender as valid. If a "sex change" occurred to a person before Baptism, he can be admitted to this Sacrament, like any sinner, but the Church baptizes him as belonging to the gender in which he was born. The ordination of such a person to the priesthood and his entry into a church marriage is unacceptable.
It is necessary to distinguish from transsexualism the incorrect identification of gender in early childhood as a result of a medical error associated with the pathology of the development of sexual characteristics. Surgical correction in this case does not have the character of sex change.
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Is the art world guided by "an invisible hand"
- or has it become "economics of regulation"?
The problem in art was the turn around the sixties:
- controversial art became investment -
that makes the natural "going viral" more problematic
So the question is :
Has the Avant-Garde become an institution?
institutionalized = established = linked with status & investment.
- Should art be risk investment by nature?
Do critics always have the freedom of speech?
- An artist's career can show ups and downs - do critics have the freedom to discuss this when status investment gets involved?
And if contemporary art has become institutionalized.
- What about the artist training?
Are art students to be trained to adopt an attitude towards an art market - and the institutions that go with it? (art marketing?)
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students can learn to adopt an attitude by collecting the data about the Issues interest , or under thinking . in addition by asking the specialist people interest in the same field .
warm regards
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In the 19-item McCoy questionnaire on female sexual health, how do I converted question 12 (frequence of sexual intercourse) into 7-point categories on a percentage-wise basis?
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If you are actually looking for percentages then I would take the 7 and dived it in to 100 and get about 14.28. This would me that every answer is about 14% on a scale of 1-7 (which I am assuming that you are using). I would then assign each number a percentage range and then find the average(median):
1: 0%-14% (7%)
2: 14.1%-28% (21%)
3: 28.1%-42% (35%)
4: 42.1%-56% (49%)
5: 56.1%-70% (63%)
6: 70.1%-84% (77%)
7:84.1%-100% (92%)
I hope this answer helps. It sounds difficult but after practice it becomes really easy.
v/r
Ken
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The research question is: Does gender influence stress levels four month post-diagnosis of cancer?
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Very interesting information
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Having suffered a MA poetry seminar  where I was the only male amongst 10 women, and resented for being there, is this what you mean by New Australian Poetry?
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the "New Australian Poetry" refers to the Australian Poetry collection edited by John Tranter encompassing the poets of the '68 Movement. The title is a 
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I would like to learn if faculty members and administrators would be interested in learning their conflict handling styles to better manage interpersonal conflict in organizations.
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Nice Dear Alexander Osherenko
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Domestic violence crosses all countries and cultures. Some abusive men claim that in their culture women have a subordinate role and the use of violence is permitted to keep women in line. We have to fight against this injustice in many countries, because if this its true, women have no escape for this.
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La violencia domestica ha formado parte de muchas personas (mujeres, niños, ancianos, ect) influyendo en su comportamiento y en todos los ámbitos de la sociedad. La violencia ejercida contra las personas tiene como base la cultura a través del uso de estereotipos, el abuso de poder en esta sociedad patriarcal y la dominación masculina hacia las mujeres.
Dada la importancia del factor cultural, todas las formas de manifestación de la violencia son perjudiciales para cualquier persona y no existen diferencias geográficas. Aunque la diferencia entre algunos países reside en el valor que se le da a la figura de la mujer (como el caso de España frente al de Irak donde la mujer carece de importancia) las consecuencias para las víctimas son las mismas y puede producirse en cualquier situación economía, social o política. Por lo tanto, que un país sea desarrollado o en vía de desarrollo no indica que la violencia sea menor o no se ejerza como tal.
Frente a este debate también encontramos otros aspectos importantes como puede ser como la conducta aprendida en la infancia como modelo repetitivo de comportamientos y en futuras relaciones abusivas.
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I am studying physical activity levels in relation BMI among university students. I have read a paper in which they have followed new BMI cut points for Asian people. I want to know whether these changes are scientifically accepted. 
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I agree with Dr kilven
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Woeking on a paper about women's experiences of ageing in Russia. Reviewers advised to engage more with/critique the notion of neolib subjectivity. Am trying to do so by linking together the concepts of governmentlaity and biopolitics, but in relation to Russia. 
Thanks in advance for any advice!
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Dear Benjamin, apologies for the later reply. Thank you for the very useful suggestions!
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All members of research gate can answer. There answer will be considered as a helping hand in developing policy which can groom Middle east students into world class students. So please tray to become part of solution. Thanks 
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Several initiatives have been proposed in:
HEIs Quality Improvement Through Students and Academic Staff’s Perception: Data Analysis and Robustness of the Results. International Journal for Quality Research, 2017, Vol.11, No.2, pp.261-278.
· Al-Farahidi Performative model to assess HEIs. 4th OQNHE Conference 2017, pp.1-15.
· A Framework for Fostering the Quality of HEIs: Data Collection, Evaluation, Indication and Validation. Int. J. of Quality and Innovation, 2016, Vol.3, No.1, pp.42-66 (Inderscience).
Regards,
Zuhair
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India has large ecological variation and diversity in term of religion, beliefs and culture.Malaria case reporting system is also not very stringent, leading to under reporting many times for one or other reasons. Isnt it right time to re-speculate the elimination strategy and focus more on these barriers before allocating full resources on elimination?
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In India, I realize that it is now a disease of the poor.  As the economy level of the down trodden will rise this disease will also see its downfall. 
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This question formed the basis of my Masters research.
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Please let me know if these references/sites are useful to you:
1.  An alternate reality game for language learning - Semantic Scholar
Over the last decade, Alternate Reality Games (ARGs), a form of narrative often involving ..... This study found a significant decrease in choice reaction time in the intervention ...... Available at: http://argosi.playthinklearn.net/final.pdf Accessed.
2.  Alternate Reality Games as a Platform for Practicing 21st Century ...
Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are a new genre of transmedia practice .... how to deal with a flood in London, a financial crisis in Cuba, and gender inequality.
3.  Alternate Reality Games: Platforms for Collaborative ... - June Ahn
http://ahnjune.com/wp- content/uploads/2012/03/CoopLearningARG_FinalRev.pdf
Abstract: We review the first iteration of an Alternate Reality Game (ARG) designed to engage ... To mitigate this uneven active participation ratio ... Alternate Reality Games (ARGs): collaborative, counterfactual learning experiences. Like their ...
4.  Writing the Implosion: Teaching the World One Thing at a Time ...
https://culanth.org/articles/741-writing-the-implosion-teaching-the-world-oneWriting the Implosion: Teaching the World One Thing at a Time ... former helps me unpack the process of Haraway's inquisitive implosion method and ..... land opens up of forgotten memories, tentative and alternative explanations, ..... Writing interests me only in the measure that incorporates the reality of .... Gaming Studies.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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Pentecostalism is one of the biggest branches of contemporary christianity. In Africa we don't all have details. Christianisty is also the largest religion in the world, what about it in Africa?
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Pentecostals currently represent 12%, or about 107 million, of Africa’s population of nearly 890 million people. It is the second largest Christian movement in Africa, behind Roman Catholicism.
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Sport events promiss a lot according all kind of officials. What remains after the event and all the investments? Which partnerships were triggered by these events and continue doing their good work for the population?
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i have closed my research on this topic; thx for all responses
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Tips: Have you read or done case studies about millennials? Have you dealt with them often? Do they know if the most applied millennials are women, males or even parts? Do You know if they usually study and work?. Those who work, the most study traditional careers ?. Do you know if they collaborate more with Generation X or the other way around?
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Thank you very much Leonidas!. I apologize for presenting my work in Spanish. But, I do not want to venture to write it in another language so as not to make more mistakes than I already do when I do it in Spanish. But as it is quite restricted and technical the set of words used I believe that you will be able to understand.
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Dear colleagues,
I am looking for a group, or invidual ethic hackers for in depth  interviews concerning the dangers and knowledge of the 'Deep Web'.
Any suggestions or 'organisations' are welcome.
Thank you,
Bert 
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Thanks Sabina! 
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I am conducting a data analysis intersectionaly  of gender, religion, ethnicity/race, immigration status/nativity, and sexual identity,  that best predict discrimination and depression.
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Further reading:
Bates, Laura (31 March 2014). "Sexism, double discrimination and more than one kind of prejudice". The Guardian.
Clarke, Averil Y.; McCall, Leslie (2013). "Intersectionality and social explanation in social science research". Du Bois review: Social science research on race. 10 (2): 349–363. doi:10.1017/S1742058X13000325.
Collins, Patricia Hill; Andersen, Margaret L. (2015) [1992]. Race, class, & gender: an anthology. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-305-09361-4.
Collins, Patricia Hill (2009) [1990]. Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-96472-2.
Collins, Patricia Hill; Bilge, Sirma (2016). Intersectionality. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-8448-2.
Collins, Patricia Hill (1998). "The tie that binds: race, gender and US violence". Ethnic and Racial Studies. Taylor & Francis. 21 (5): 917–938. doi:10.1080/014198798329720.
Doucet, Andrea; Siltanen, Janet (2008). Gender relations in Canada: intersectionality and beyond. Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-542320-4.
Doná, Giorgia (March 2013). "Interconnected modernities, ethnic relations and violence". Current Sociology, special issue: Violence and Society. Sage. 61 (2): 226–243. doi:10.1177/0011392112456507.
Harnois, Catherine E. (2010). "Race, Gender, and the Black Women's Standpoint". Sociological Forum. Wiley. 25 (1): 68–85. doi:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2009.01157.x.
Hancock, Ange-Marie (2016). Intersectionality: an intellectual history. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-937037-5. OCLC 941724695.
Köllen, Thomas (2014). "A review of minority stress related to employees' demographics and the development of an intersectional framework for their coping strategies in the workplace" (PDF). The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being. Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being. 12. Emerald. pp. 41–82. ISBN 978-1-78350-646-0. doi:10.1108/S1479-355520140000012000.
Lee, Butch; Rover, Red (1993). Night-vision: illuminating war & class on the neo-colonial terrain. New York: Vagabond. ISBN 978-1-883780-00-5.
Leung, Lai-ching (May 2017). "Intersectional challenges: marginalization of ethnic minority sexual assault survivors in Hong Kong". Affilia. Sage. 32 (2): 217–229. doi:10.1177/0886109916678026.
Ní Aoláin, Fionnuala; Rooney, Eilish (December 2007). "Underenforcement and intersectionality: gendered aspects of transition for women". International Journal of Transitional Justice. Oxford Journals. 1 (3): 338–354. doi:10.1093/ijtj/ijm031.
Robertson, Eleanor (23 December 2013). "In defence of intersectionality – one of feminism's most important tools". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group.
Schuster, Julia (September–October 2016). "Intersectional expectations: young feminists' perceived failure at dealing with differences and their retreat to individualism". Women's Studies International Forum. 58: 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2016.04.007.
Smooth, Wendy (September 2006). "Intersectionality in electoral politics: a mess worth making". Politics & Gender. Cambridge Journals. 2 (3): 400–414. doi:10.1017/S1743923X06261087.
Sunderland, Jane (April 2012). "'Brown Sugar': The textual construction of femininity in two 'tiny texts'". Gender and Language. Equinox. 6 (1): 105–129. doi:10.1558/genl.v6i1.105.
Vidal, Ava (15 January 2014). "'Intersectional feminism'. What the hell is it? (And why you should care)". The Telegraph.
Weldon, S. Laurel (June 2006). "The structure of intersectionality: a comparative politics of gender". Politics & Gender. Cambridge Journals. 2 (2): 235–248. doi:10.1017/S1743923X06231040.
Gutiérrez y Muhs, Gabriella; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; González, Carmen G.; Harris, Angela P., eds. (2012). Presumed incompetent: the intersections of race and class for women in academia. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 978-0-87421-922-7.
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I am especially interested in factors that have been assigned to genetic influence because nothing else seems to explain the phenomena. 
Is there some hidden x factor that we are calling genetic because we don't know what else to call it? 
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Thank you, Alexandre!
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I am writing a work which may show up that Austrians aren´t so religious as they seems according to the official statistics.
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Hi. I don't know if it can help you, but, have you ever thought on using cinema as an auxiliary source? You have Michael Haneke's filmography. It could be interesting analyze "71 fragments of a chronology of chance". https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YKHKl_JxCY
Good luck with your research.
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I have lived with an Asian culture for 39 years.  I am not Asian.  I have noticed a pattern of behavior.  Not is not about good or bad behavior.  It is just behavior.  I read your articles on reluctedness (for the lack of a better word) of Asians to seek psychological council due to the stigma of mental illness.
While I understand this reluctedness (for lack of a better word), I am also aware of the cultural need to keep family business, family business.  
Most cultures saw mental illness with a stigma until shows such as Oprah and Dr. Phil began to appear.  In much of my travels the stigma seems to be an age thing.  Younger generations seem willing.  When I mean younger, I am referring to below 60's.  
I am noticing a trend of self-victimization and the need to be a victim.  
I am a public school teacher.  
The physical majority of my students are outside my culture and race.  
However, this trend seems across the board and increasing each year.  What I a wondering, is while Asian history it was a strong stigma to be mentally ill, could the changes I am seeing first hand be attributed to the change in the merging of cultures or is this trend more isolated to areas where the cultures are already merged or blended?
Thank you for your ideas,
Jeanne
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Hi Jeanne,
Thanks for your very important and interesting question and for the elaboration of your question. I appreciate your insightful observations on the emotional and identity challenges of third culture individuals or the second and third generations of immigrant families. Some of them can embrace the host country's culture and their culture of origin; others reject both; and still others accept one, but reject the other.
As a clinician and an academic, I've seen these phenomena very often together with intergenerational conflict due to acculturation and generation gaps as well as linguistic and cultural barriers between the generations.
In my presentation on a multicultural psychotherapy approach to bipolar disorder in Asian Americans, I discussed some ways for dealing with the intergenerational conflict among Asian/Asian American families (e.g., understanding and validating both generations and helping them to understand each other, etc.). Another idea is to suggest that the older generation does not impose its cultural values on the next generation, but introduce them to the new generation, while they allow the next generation to choose whatever cultural values and ideas they prefer to adopt.
To respond to your question on how to teach these students, I wonder if you'd discuss the values and ideas your students have and explore their origins, while you validate/affirm all their values and choices. In an opportune time, consider gently reminding them of their good fortune of being exposed to different values from both individualist cultures and collectivist ones and being free to decide what to accept and adopt. This is my two cents.
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I can not find this article, does anyone have a pdf they can send me or suggestion were I can find it ? 
Hudson, P., & Levasseur, K. (2002). Supporting foster parents: Caring voices. Child Welfare, 81(6), 853-877.
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Thank you we already have this article : )
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My report is on volunteersim. Plpease send information concerning the behaviors on mandatory volunteering
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That you be fantastic, thank you!
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Research scope of psychosocial aspects of ageing and interpersonal acceptance and rejection across culture
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i send you message, and lets start to work on this research,
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Hello,
Before conducting my factor analysis, I need to reverse some variables portraying a negative attitude towards an issue. 
Should I reverse variable with a negative attitude or should I only reverse variables that are negatively worded?
Please find below some variables that I chose to reverse and let me know if this is correct:
1) NO REVERSE: In instances where my workmates offer us advice on our work, we know that she/he is providing us with her/is best judgment.
2) REVERSE: It has often occurred that my workmate has shared with us information that was later discovered to be imprecise.
3) NO REVERSE: Even when my workmate provides us with a doubtful explanation, we trust that she/he is telling the truth.
4) REVERSE: I would rather see myself succeed regardless of my team's success.
5) NO REVERSE: I would rather prosper as a team.
6) REVERSE: If my colleague is performing slowly with a risk of not attaining the objective on time, I would think it is his mistake and she/he should bear the consequences.
7) REVERSE: In situations where the accomplishment of a task requires a colleague's input, I wouldn't trust my colleague's work and would perform a follow-up.
8) REVERSE: Most of my colleagues are not competent enough which always slows down the advancement of work.
9) REVERSE: I believe that the racial, ethnic, regional, or tribal background of some of my colleagues significantly affects his/er professionalism at work.
10) REVERSE: I have previously restrained myself from sharing important yet non-confidential information with my colleagues.
11) REVERSE: I trust that most of my colleagues will not make good use of sensitive information about the company.
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Hello Burke,
Thank you for your answer.
If I don't reverse code the negatively formulated variables, I assume two things will happen:
1) the variables will most probably be attributed to a particular factor, merely because they are all negatively formulated, and this might not reflect reality;
2) factor 1 will then show a negative correlation with factor 2 since a negative sign will most probably show on the Pearson correlation figure whereas the most logical correlation should be a positive one.
What do you think?
Thank you in advance.
Regards,
Khalil
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I am currently writing my thesis about female entrepreneurship and social media in Nigeria and I am looking for personal contributions that can help me justify/challenge the theory I have found. 
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Thank you so much for your help Salam! I will have a look on the VOA website. 
Dear Yash, 
I am looking to gain more insight about the following questions: 
- what are the challenges that women/female entrepreneurs face in Nigeria? 
- what are the necessary characteristics for female entrepreneurs to succeed in Nigeria? 
- what role does social media play in the lives of women in Nigeria? Can/does it help empower and inspire women?
Thank you so much for your input! 
Warmest regards, 
Loretta 
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Do you think there is a real scarcity of economic resources and what is the evidence?
What about the words of God:- ((And if you count the graces of God, you can not count it)).
Conversely
What about the unfair distribution of these resources?
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Scarcity means that at a zero price the supply of something exceeds its demand. The existence of non-zero prices is the proof of scarcity. This is fairly simplistic, but so long as there are no barriers to entry, suppliers would find it profitable to bid down prices so long as a resource or product is not scarce. In the limit, without scarcity price would fall to zero. One might think that distribution of resources matters, but it does not affect the answer so long as there is not a single monopolist or an effective cartel arrangement that prevents cheating (an extremely high bar) there cannot be an artificial scarcity that creates positive prices when the price would otherwise be zero. Short of monopoly pricing, including ruling out entry, an apparent shortage witnessed by positive price cannot exist when supply exceeds demand at a zero price. 
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Answer: Punctuated equilibrium theory represents shifting balance theory, Wright rule, allopatric speciation theory, Species selection and Genetic drift.
 If want its documents please search by the title: “Punctuated equilibrium theory represents shifting balance theory (of macro and quantum evolution) and invalid Darwin’s theory”.
 The article published in Thomson Reuters Journal –“Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies” 5(3, part-A) 6-12. OR go to profile of “Prof. D. Md. Abdul Ahad in ResearchGate.
.
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Punctuated equilibrium theory represents shifting balance theory (of macro and quantum evolution) and invalid Darwin’s theory
 Abstract:
The objectives of this article are that to prove punctuated equilibrium theory represents shifting balance theory and those theories declared invalid Darwin’s theory and Neo-Darwinian theory and those are true fact: Because all features of both theories are same- i) Genetic drift play the key role of both theories. ii) Both theories advocated evolution progresses rapidly in a small and isolated population with rapid evolution after long period of stasis without the help of Darwin’s theory. iii) Both theories advocated allopatric speciation, macroevolution, quantum evolution and species selection. iv) The fossil is the only evidence of both theories. Additionally, those theories declared invalid Darwin’s theory and Neo-Darwinian theory. As a result, if anyone proves that genetic drift unable to produce new species or rejected  shifting balance theory and fossil does not support macroevolution but support gradual evolution; then punctuated equilibrium theory even allopatric speciation theory would be invalid automatically.
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Considerable work has been done by Dean Laplonge into gender in mining and construction in Australia and Canada.
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Hi Kevin, thanks for directing us to Dean Laplonge's work.  Unfortunately at this stage our data does not allow for gender to be included in the analysis.
cheers
Elsa
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Children under the age of four use tablets or mobiles, the television is always on: background television  . Parents are permanently connected
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Tiene usted razón. Los hogares caóticos puedn no tener muchas pantallas. La definición se resuelve yendo al inglés: household chaos. Entrando este concepto en google scholar se percibe una definición muy concurrente de diversos artículos. Environmental chaos es otra entrada.
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It is advisable to make people aware of this issue, since today it is present in all areas of daily life.
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I would rather say yes the society is more aware of gender equality, however gender is socially constructed. The perception of culture and impact of patriarchy system influences our level of reasoning,  Yes, the society is very aware of gender equality but the rules generally changes depending on the actors and location.  
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published articles that address the subject of impact of development of education on the host community. more specifically how the eating habit of the host community has change due to their interactions with the foreign students.
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@ Tawakalitu Alloh; Thank you for your input. it address some of the issues I am working on. 
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So I was sitting in my ecology lecture one time and and the instructor was saying that Lemmings didn't commit suicide by jumping off of cliffs. He also said that lemmings couldn't possibly kill themselves to prevent overpopulation since eventually the "altruistic gene" would run out in favour of the "selfish gene". This got me and so I searched online. However, in both cases there was an assumption that choice and attitude are heritable in a population.
So, from a genetic standpoint, is attitude and behaviour hereditary? And from an ecological standpoint, are there cases wherein bahaviour is passed down such that it has influenced a population (not necessarily population control-wise)? 
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Plenty of research, most of which uses twin studies, indicates that a substantial proportion of human attitudes and behaviour is attributable to genetics. In the case of political ideology, about 40% is attributable to genetics in contemporary western societies. 
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According to a study conducted by Gilfillan et. al in Botswana some of the females were maned and acted like male lions, the possible cause apparently is that the females had a genetic predisposition towards it. It did state a few other factors such temperature without really delving into it. What other factors could increase female testosterone level and how exactly will it cause a rise?
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Stress is known to induce high testosterone levels in women (though it also can reduce levels of that hormone too, suggesting a complex feedback regulatory mechanism).  What those stressors might be will depend on context - inter/intra-group rivalries, starvation, climatic factors, etc., but to produce the phenotypic outcome of male-like appearance the stress most likely is long-acting and intense (perhaps long-term drought)?
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Luis Sánchez Saldaña died this past March, and Miguel A. Soto 6 years ago.
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Students: How to email to your Professor, employer, and professional peers
8NOV2010
A third of student emails make me cringe. Not from scorn (well, maybe a little scorn) but mainly sympathy. Distressing sympathy.
Here are 12 pieces of advice. I welcome others from readers. (Examples of terrible emails are welcome, so long as the sender is anonymous.)
1. Kick the email address from high school. It’s time for “hot_muffin92@hotmail.com” and “mikey_g@gmail.com” to rest in peace.
2. Greet. Politely. Launching straight into the message is bad, but “Hi!” is poor form and “Hey Prof!” is an unmitigated disaster. “Dear” and “Hi” are fine, so long as you follow both by a name or title: “Hi Professor” or “Hi Mr. ____”.
3. On second thought, be careful with the Mr. and Ms. I could care less if strangers address me as Mr., Dr. or Prof. Blattman. Few of my colleagues seem to feel the same way. Sadly your approach must conform to the average (or even greatest common) ego. If you’re not sure if the person is a Dr. or not, three seconds on Google should tell you.
4. Capitalize and punctuate. otherwise we will lol at yr sad attempts
5. But not all punctuation. Of the exclamation point, Elmore Leonard said “You are allowed no more than two or three per 100,000 words of prose.” That’s roughly one exclamation point for every 500 messages you send. Use them wisely, for their overuse is the first sign of an immature mind. (Related, from Terry Pratchett: “Five exclamation marks, the sure sign of an insane mind.”)
6. Death to the emoticon. Keep them for your friends. And recall that, for centuries of the printed word, writers managed to convey sarcastic and funny without the semicolon and parenthesis. If you think your comment needs an emoticon, this is a sign you need to rewrite (or delete) the remark.
7. Avoid fancy typefaces or “stationery”. One word: cheeseball.
8. Be clear and concise. Write short messages, make clear requests, get to your point rapidly, and offer to provide more information rather than launch into your life story. Most of us get over 200 emails a day we need to read and respond to. So say what you need in 2-4 sentences and ideally ask for simple answers (like yes or no).
9. Don’t ask for information before you’ve looked on Google. “Can you send me paper X?” is annoying. But the best I’ve received: a request to explain the Cold War.
10. Don’t sound presumptuous. Many people are busy and important (and everybody thinks they are). If you are asking for anything requiring time or energy, it is courteous to be demure.
11. No quotes from famous people in your signature. See “cheeseball” above.
12. With your juniors, do the above as fastidiously as with your seniors. Allow me, momentarily, to break rule #11: “Modesty is not only an ornament, but also a guard to virtue” — Joseph Addison
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A majority of the peoples of this world strongly believe that we were created by Allah almighty through common parents Adam (A.S.) and our grandmother Eve. Today we are divided based on color, race, geography, religion, ethnicity etc. We have become less tolerant in our attitudes and behaviors. Our egos are more powerful than logic. That is a why we have witnessed world wars a few decades ago. Even today, we are smelling the clouds of the world war. On the other hand, we know all wars end on the discussion table. If we develop tolerance and respect for those with different ideas, then we can turn this world into heaven. 
How can we develop tolerance and how can we accept opposite opinions which are logical but are different from our own?
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Dear Muhammad Shoaib Ahmedani,
I think that "improve the level of tolerance in ourselves and the peoples around us", as well as among the states, can be achieved, above all, by investing more money into the development of science and by expanding the influence of science and scientists.
Regards,
Milivoj B. Gavrilov
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To know about the techniques of data collection and interpretation in the context of Muslim education and Social exclusion
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@Zainab Farhat
Just what is the plan, applied approach or study?
Quality and price of housing, isolated and discrimination against a minority (a ghetto), where the dominant group(s) are other than Muslim does not reflect the general nature of the Muslim people. Morality and other teachings of Islam, supposedly, demand integrity, honesty, and egalitarian values make for the best ingredients for absorbing academic information at any learning institution.
"Hidden curriculums' and other adverse learning devices will probably have no adverse effect on school-age youth whose primary values are instilled at home.
Unfortunately, your question is not a developing research question, or hypothesis to and link them to a study design. which entail a collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. There should be monitoring and evaluation plans, assessments to determine a baseline for surveys and situational analyses located within the project cycle, necessarily require high-quality data to inform evidence-based decision-making and programmatic learning.
Cancelli, A. (1980). Observing behavior (Vol. 2): Data collection and analysis methods. Journal Of School Psychology,
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Research topic is on ,international students staying in host country instead of returning to country of origin  after completion of studies
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I'be been reading lately about reentry and repatriation of exchange students, the best literature review about it is "Reentry-Areview of literature" By Betina Szkudlarek, she includes some tables at the end in which you will find the authors that talk about your topic. As long as I understand, the first study about students that never return form their exchange programs was the "Brain drain and foreign students" by Lakshmana Rao (https://www.amazon.com/BRAIN-DRAIN-FOREIGN-STUDENTS-Lakshmana/dp/0702212075). 
Marie-Claire Patron (Cultural Identity Studies : Culture and Identity in Study Abroad Contexts : After Australia, French without France. 2012) also include in her book information about returning to the host country, or the predisposition of coming back to the host country or moving to a different one. 
You will also find some useful information in the chapter 4 of "The Psichology of culture shock"  (Ward, Bochner and Furnham 2001).
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Different physical, developmental and interactional factors have been discussed in the development of excessive infant crying. However, has there ever been an investigation of the familial transmission of excessive crying or a potential genetic predisposition?
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I agree that the concept of temperament overlaps with excessive crying. However, I am looking for studies investigating the familial transmission of excessive crying in particular, i.e. whether offspring of mothers or fathers who cried excessively during their infancy (>3 hours per day on >3 days per week) are more likely to develop excessive crying issues on their own.
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I'm working on a project that looks at the relationship between religion and individual level tolerance for corruption within society 
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Hello Patty
I recommend that you define your terms precisely:
What do you mean by religion?
What do you mean by teaching?
What do you mean by influence?
What do you mean by individual tolerance?
What do you mean by corruption?
What do you mean by society?
It is clear to me that undertaking a project with such an enormous scope would not be viable without a very large research team. I recommend you narrow your parameters. ‘Influence’ alone is an extremely complex notion, closely related to ‘power’ and the whole concept of power is contested. Please try looking at Mark Haugaard’s reader. Mark is on research gate too.  (http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/9780719057298/).
 
I strongly disagree with some of the feedback you have been given. Religion will never eliminate corruption. Human history makes that self-evident. Take the view of the Bible as a comment on human history, if you wish to consider the matter carefully from a religious perspective. Paul, the great apostle states, ‘There is none righteous’ and just in case you are tempted to think there me be just one of our fallen race that could stand before God without corruption, Paul answers you immediately, ‘No, not one.’ All people, religious or not, stand under God's condemnation because He sees all and will not ever overlook corruption He judges it all but He is being patient with humanity for now. 
To all His followers He says, “Judge not, that ye be not judged. 2For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. 3And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? 4Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? 5Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye.” Matthew 7:1-6. 
I wish you well with your research.
Alan
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Since women are the beneficiaries of the cash grants,  they are also responsible in ensuring that the conditions are met such as children's attendance in schools.  Thus, it is seen as increasing women's responsibilities.
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Gender   has   been   neglected   in   the   design and  implementation of social transfers due to the dominant male breadwinner model which naturalizes the care giving role of women and their dependence on men. social  transfer  could help  tackle  patriarchal  norms  and  promote  gender  equity. Gender   equality   concerns   are   more   systematically   taken   into account  when  discussing  cash  transfer  programs.  Increasingly,  women  are  the direct  recipients  of  cash  transfer  programs  as  these  programs  often  target  child care,  education  and  health  care  of  children  and  women  are  perceived  to  have better skills at managing household resources. Cash transfers help households smooth consumption and  enable  them  to  sustain  spending  on  food,  schooling  and  health  care. Gender impact of cash transfer  programs in Brazil, Chile, India, Mexico and South Africa concluded  that  cash  transfers  helped  women  improve their and their families’ nutrition,   increased   their   access   to   healthcare,   positively   influenced   their daughters’ education while reducing the severity of poverty without a significant reduction in overall poverty.  CCTs reinforce asymmetrical gender roles and risk establishing a trade-off between children's and women's needs for long-term security.
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Positive and negative impacts of colonialism in Africa.
Liberation movement in Africa
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There is no colonialism at my country but there are criminal movement (ISIS) and the resources for this criminal movement is Saudi, Qatar, and other gulf countries all of them represents ISIS
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I am interested in the pharmacogenetics, genomics, socio-cultural diferences and how it impact our illnesess.
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Let organize a group and creat our own registry protocol. I can share few hints and articles next week.
Sincerely,
Raul H. Morales-Borges
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I want to expand my research and take in data on this topic, as much as possible. 
I need research papers or journals which talk about the position the intersex people have in different societies, their role, status and their way of living. 
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A colleague of mine Edmund Horowizc is doing work around this at Edge Hill University - it might be worth getting in touch with him.
Also I have just taken over as Editor for British Mensa's Androgyny and will be calling for articles on this subject in the coming months which you may be interested in reading/contributing to.  Keep an eye out for the first edition which should be June!
Hope you manage to find what you are looking for.
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Relationship between nature and women.
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An interesting discussion in the following: 
Review of Environmentalism in popular culture: Gender, race, sexuality, and the politics of the natural.
By Scanlan, Stephen J.
Gender & Society, Vol 24(3), Jun 2010, 410-411.
Reviews the book Environmentalism in popular culture: Gender, race, sexuality, and the politics of the natural by Noël Sturgeon (2009). Sturgeon utilizes a "global feminist environmental justice perspective" as the foundation of her analysis. In doing this, she contributes to the development of what she calls "environmental cultural studies," a field that synthesizes various forms of contemporary "radical" environmentalisms (e.g., environmental justice, environmental feminist approaches, and Global South feminist and anticolonialist movements) with the global justice movement. By her own admission, Sturgeon notes that her book is light on solutions and more focused on critique and advocacy for change. Readers may find this a bit frustrating in that while engaging in her dialogue, even the most progressive will discover cases in which they have gotten caught up in a positive environmental message only to have missed the broader social injustices being portrayed, and they may want ideas and direction. In sum, Sturgeon presents a solid critique of mainstream environmental perspectives and how, in being shaped by popular culture, these often unknowingly reinforce injustice in its many forms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Environmentalism, feminism, and gender.
By Smith, D. Clayton
Sociological Inquiry, Vol 71(3), 2001, 314-334.
Although social scientists have written much recently about environmentalism, feminism, and gender, insufficient systematic examination of their interrelations has been done. The lack of adequate research on links among these three concepts limits their usefulness for both grassroots mobilization efforts and general theory development. The present exploratory study surveys a college student sample (N=393) clarifying the relationships between liberal environmentalism, gender, and feminism. Relationship between feminism and attitudes toward human use of the environment and between gender and environmental regulation are found suppressed by a relationship between feminism and environmentalism. Although tentative, these findings suggest new directions for the study of ecofeminism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Review of Ecofeminism.
By Hallen, Patsy
Women's Studies International Forum, Vol 18(3), May-Jun 1995, 375-376.
Reviews the book, Ecofeminism by Maria Mies, and Vandana Shiva (1993). Ecofeminism is essential for the 21st century. This book brings together two brilliant women, Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva, in a unique North-South partnership. In addition, it integrates two of the most powerful movements of the late 20th century: feminism and environmentalism. It represents a major contribution to our future because it illuminates how the twin dominations of women and nature are intimately linked and mutually reinforcing, and it concretely illustrates how to transform this compulsion to dominate into life-producing and life-sustaining work. The book's main thesis is that the ultimate ecological crisis is the colonisation of regenerative sources of the renewal of life, from seeds to women's bodies. It cogently shows how the patriarchal system cripples both women and nature and how we need to overcome our need to dominate, control, and colonise if we are to become ecologically sane. The book also critiques prevailing economic orthodoxies where the disease (growth of capital and the impoverishment of the environment and women) is offered as the cure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Rethinking environmental choices: The intersection of feminism and the environmental movement: or What is feminist about the feminist perspective and the environment?
By No authorship indicated
American Behavioral Scientist, Vol 37(8), Aug 1994, 1090-1103.
Explores several questions on the intersection of feminism and the environmental movement, or a new kind of environmentalism. It discusses the questions of what is the feminist perspective of the environment, what is not already present in an environmental movement that seeks to reconnect nature and humans in a way that has not been done in the past, and what is the traditional environmentalist approach or movement that seems to have omitted something or had a different orientation than the feminist vision. Two different approaches to environmental issues and concerns are discussed: theoretical perspectives and a practical approach about a particular environmental issue and the way in which women have been active. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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long ago lions were not eating human being ,they were hunting other animals ,what changed 
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Sorry, that earlier-described Australopith skull was actually from Swartkranz. The idea is that this hominid was killed by a leopard and dragged up a tree, from which it later fell into a crevice in the ground, in which it apparently was buried for about 1 million years.
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The project was my idea, and I did the work independently. Since it wasn't my PI's idea, he's not excited about it. This is still a high-impact paper, and it's important to my career.
I might be able to submit it myself But I'm afraid if I do that, I'll burn a bridge. What can I do?
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Hasn't the bridge already been burnt by your PI, Hajjaj? Or perhaps another way of saying it is, what future benefit do you anticipate gaining from this relationship when your PI has already demonstrated a lack of concern for your future career?
What you should be concerned with, from my perspective, is not maintaining this relationship, but finding a way to submit the manuscript without violating any ethical standards. For example, if the data is owned by your PI, then you will clearly need his/her permission to submit the manuscript. If not, perhaps your IRB can provide guidance on ethical means of bypassing your PI to submit the manuscript.
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If we go back in history we will find out that scholars who didn't enjoy any internet or other facilities wrote their books in the age of 16 and some of them were younger. Can we think about giving today's youngsters a chance to chose how to prove themselves alone ?
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Dear Basema Younes,
Generally speaking, age does not play a determinant role in publishing because there are numerous instances of young writers who started writing at the age of 16. Exemplifying this would be Benjamin Lebert's book "Crazy", which was written and published at the age of 16. Although age is not an index reflecting how good of a writer an individual is, publishing agents may be reluctant to take young writers seriously. As such, the young writers need to get an adult to sign the related contracts for them. Nonetheless,  people in the academic world believe that getting engaged in writing is mainly for the fun of it, not for getting it published.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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I hail from  India. The position of women in the locality is not so good keeping in view the law.Trying for change, what change and empowerment  ?
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If Islamic Shariah is no relevance in your case/place, then turn to the government policies, and look how the government ' strongly intend' to change women's position 
Also, you can meet any NGO that fights for women. Good luck
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As the baby boom significantly affected at the Spanish pyramid of growth, it is possible that the decrease in the birth rate during this time greatly affect the later pyramids. How? 
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I should think that Spain is not alone as the largest part of Europe is affected by the baby boom we are the oldest population with higher numbers in 50-60 age group. This will have a huge impact financially as older people may have to work longer and much will depend on the economic cushion or financial preparation made by government in relation to pensions. In Ireland it takes 7 people in full employment to pay one pension. A decline in births means there will not be enough young people to support the ageing population. This in turn could see older people continuing to work much longer unless they have been financially prudent and saved or were fortunate to have good jobs or high paid work. This was one of the reasons I examined volunteering and the baby boom generation looking at the importance of active ageing as hospitals and medical services will be under huge pressure to care for this older population. I wish you success in your research and look forward to reading the final article.
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Hi, I am doing a study on understanding premarital sexual behavior among adolescents. In order to understand the individual differences I am thinking to use social control and learning theories to see the individual differences based on some variables related to social control and leanings, using the quantitative method, In order to understand the perspective of adolescents, I am thinking to symbolic interaction perspective (to understand the meaning and process involved), using an in-depth interview, qualitative method. My supervisor is suggesting me to see the gender differences and its reason also. I am getting confusion which gender theory can be used and how I can I link up with my other theoretical perspective. I would be very grateful, if any one can give us a genuine suggestion.
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Thanks Sergio A. Silverio, Kaliya Madam, Dede and Robin,
1.    Research questions
The main purpose of this study is to understanding the pattern and process of changes in premarital sexual behaviour among adolescents in the changing context of Nepalese society. More specifically, it will focus on answering the following research questions:
·       What are the prevailing practices around premarital sexual behavior by age, sex and place of residence (urban/rural)?
·       What are the underlying intermediate and structural determinants of changes in premarital sexual behavior?
·       How do adolescents and other key social agents perceive premarital sexual behavior (risk taking, pleasure, good, bad, etc.)?
·       How do adolescents make negotiations and decision around premarital sexual behavior (voluntarily, involuntarily, forcedly etc.)?
Am thinking to conduct the study in two phases employing both quantitative and qualitative methods, so it employs a mixed method.  The first phase, will focus on quantitative study, two answer first two questions . This phase will focus on describing the prevalence of premarital sex, and the strength and direction of influence of selected factors drawn from the literature. This will be undertaken using secondary data from the National Survey.
The second phase will focus on answering that what are the reasons behind the individual and genders differences in premarital sexual behaviour, how do adolescents and other key social agents perceive premarital sex, and how do they involve in negotiating decision around premarital sex. This will be undertaken through the qualitative study, which comprises in-depth interviews (if anay one can help me toa have ethical protocol and the questionnaire, please)  with adolescents and focus group discussions with adolescents and influencers.
All theories agree that the sexual behaviour is not innate but socially constructed, however through different mechanism. Thus, focusing on only one factor is unlikely to explain much about the premarital sexual behaviour. Similarly, the review of theories of premarital sex have revealed a piecemeal theoretical statements and inconsistent empirical support for them. There is a paucity of well-developed comprehensive theories to describe, explain, or predict premarital sexual behaviour among adolescents. I am thinking to use social determinants of health  (purposed by WHO) as an overarching theoretical framework expecting that this will help to understand several dimensions highlighted by other theories, as well as structural dimensions. Integration of multiple dimensions will present more powerful multifaceted explanation of premarital sexual behaviour than any one theory in the context of Nepal, where there is scarce of information in this issue.
Is there any studies which have used this framework relevant fro my studies.  
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How relevant do you think is the construct of "employee strengths at work"? Do individual strengths get identified, deployed or leveraged in organizations? Will leveraging of individual strengths contribute to making the workplace more humanized and individuals happier, more engaged and productive? Your views will be deeply appreciated as it will help me to ascertain the relevance of my current research.
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I think the construct of "employee strengths at work, is a great thing in theory however, I honestly don't see many organizations utilizing their employees strengths to maximize productivity within the workplace. If employers were to really position employees based on their strengths and abilities to complete certain tasks or even re-align their employees to get the job done (based on  individual strengths), I believe life at work would be even better, however I just don't see much of that happening. 
I think to accomplish this construct, it requires supervisors/ upper level  management to step outside the norm, to be creative, to be open, and willing to take let their employees take control. 
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Is there any anthropological research addressing the question: Why may many of the female workers be aversive to their  female co-workers but may have a strong preference for male co-workers in the workplace in the North America or elsewhere? Can anyone direct me relevant references or research materials?
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There is a fairly large literature examining gender, legitimacy, status, power, and how the confluence of these factors influence behavior (in work places, task groups, and so forth). Much of this is based on findings that demonstrate men more easily gain access to legitimate forms of power and influence (I'm speaking symbolically/interpersonally... not to mention material and economic forms of power). There is also some evidence that femininity (which violates "ideal worker" norms) is punished, yet agentic women (who violate femininity) may also face backlash. While much of this research speaks to gender, it can be at least somewhat extrapolated to other forms of inequality, as the mechanism can be considered that of status, not of gender (in its purest interactional/group process forms--obviously gender has other influences). There is also social psychological research on gossip, which speaks to Alethea's comments.
It's been awhile since I've delved into this literature, but here are some cites:
McAndrew, F. T., Bell, E. K., & Garcia, C. M. (2007). Who Do We Tell and Whom Do We Tell On? Gossip as a Strategy for Status Enhancement1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(7), 1562-1577.
Phelan, J. E., Moss‐Racusin, C. A., & Rudman, L. A. (2008). Competent yet out in the cold: Shifting criteria for hiring reflect backlash toward agentic women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(4), 406-413.
Rudman, L. A., & Glick, P. (2001). Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women. Journal of social issues, 57(4), 743-762.
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Hello, I am a student of Social Work at the University of Huelva. I am doing a research work on how a social worker should act against a woman who has suffered gender violence, unfortunately the complaints about such violence have increased by 13.9% and I find it interesting to know what social skills should carry out a Social worker to help the person overcome the difficult moment he is going through.
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As a social work practice professional for many years (moved to research and policy), our skills are taught as "generalist practice" such that I/a social worker can apply them with different groups, individuals, etc. These include compassion, sensitivity, non-judgemental, and client centered. Most important, the social worker should be comfortable with persons in such sensitive situations and sometimes what is needed  is specialized training with "... " a specific group or population.  Here in US, (at least in the urban area where I live) even a Masters level social worker has to take a 40 hr training to work with this group
You could start with visiting a shelter or look for a social worker who works with victims of gender violence or maybe just observe such a case in the courts. (I am assuming lots of things here that ARE possible in US). Interestingly, there are many persons working with this group who are not SW professional but volunteers or w/o college education.
Re the research:  perhaps also looking at skills of persons who work with gender violence victims (in general) to include hospital personnel (doctors, nurses, orderlies, assistants), EMT, police, clinic, counseling centers. 
Please say, "social worker should act toward or with a woman...". "against"  means "en contra."
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I don´t undertand why they create campaigns, protocols, investigations and resources for battered women when the battered man, nowadays, is a minor problematics but continues being a problematics in our society.
¿Por qué se tiene más en cuenta la violencia de género hacia la mujer que hacia el hombre¿
No entiendo por qué solo se crean campañas, protocolos, investigaciones y recursos para mujeres maltratadas cuando el hombre maltratado, actualmente, es una problemática menor pero sigue siendo una problemática en nuestra sociedad.
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Social expectation is that men will react violently to violence or threats against them, and there exists to a degree social shame or humiliation when men reach out for help instead of solving their own problems of this nature. Previous generations' expectations are the standards to which the current generation of men are being held to, and not every man today is comfortable or able due to social conditioning and shaming of historical male tendencies. Raising a generation of men to standards which do not match the standards by which they are being judged is understandably going to lead to some cognitive dissonance when instead of fighting back men of this generation reach out for help. Monica is absolutely correct that the majority of social violence today is against women, and for that I intend to make sure my daughter knows how to fight back,  use pepper spray when she is old enough, and a pistol when she is old enough to carry concealed. For my part, I refuse to raise a damsel in distress, just as I would refuse to raise a son who was a victim. I don't see this as an identity politics issue, I see this as a generational issue; the World War II generation would kick or shoot an attacker where the sun doesn't shine, but today's young men in the United States and possibly elsewhere are taught to wait for someone else to rescue them from their victimhood so they can gain access to recovery tools/social services. Suppression of male tendencies it the name of political correctness disables self-defense as well. Education should focus on the proper use of abilities for self defense and the defense of others, instead of training any combat abilities at all out of men. Isshin-Ryu karate has as one of it's core principles that the skills taught are to be used for self defense, never for attack; when I was six years old, my single mother put me into classes at the local dojo to learn how to stick up for myself because my father was not around, and I remain grateful for that to this day. If the United States would adopt the principle of mandatory self-defense training such as Japan does, perhaps the domestic violence rates would look like Japan's. An example of an outstanding effort by an organization working to provide self-defense training among marginalized men and women to give them the tools to free themselves from victimization in a way that does not make them dependent on anyone is the Pink Pistols. True freedom is fundamentally incompatible with any kind of dependence, be that economic, safety, or social, and that organization is doing amazing work to free a minority group from fear of violence, especially in the wake of the Orlando shooting. Domestic violence is not something anyone should ever have to deal with, and it is time people rediscover how to fight back before it is too late and someone else becomes a victim.
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A study of empirical evidence of women enterprise risk   management issues from 1950  to present.  Challenges and future prospect.
 The topic is based  on evidenced work  of academic and none academic researchers on Enterprise Risk Management and women in management positions.  From late 1950  to  present.
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I have written a review which is currently under review which touches on this (Conference poster attached).  I have attached some literature which may (or may not!) be useful.  Good luck!  I would be interested to see what work comes out of your research and happy to talk about the topic more.
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I live in Indonesia, and the issue of intolerance with different ethnic and religion is raising. so, I am interesting to know which musicians (by his/her genre) have greater tolerance / empathy. my professor asked me to search for any battery to test musicians' genre, beside my own observation from his/her discography.
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Hi Levina
If your hypothesis is just that some kinds of musicians are more tolerant/empathic than others, you can invert your research question and (i) measure the degree of tolerance of your sample, (ii) ask the participants how they describe their music style and (iii) see whether for the same levels of tolerance/empathy (high/low, for example) you get similar descriptions.
Classifying musicians is bound to be difficult unless they identify themselves as this or that type of musician.
If you stay with your original plan, I suggest two strategies:
1. Work with a musician to define musical criteria and classify musicians according to those criteria (can't help you there). The quality depends on your informant, of course, but if the criteria are explicit and you really stick to them, you at least ensure your study is understandable and replicable;
2. Assemble a panel of musicians (3-4) not related to your study, define criteria for musicians classification with them, have them classify the musicians in your sample, calculate raters' agreement level, select the musicians with higher raters' agreement and measure your dependent variables in these unambiguous groups.
I hope this helped. Good luck
JK
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There are plenty of psychometric tools to measure the beliefs or attitudes towards anything. What are the real differences between beliefs and attitudes? What are the factors shaping the beliefs and behavior? Which one is more constant? Which can be influenced by upbringing, education, life experience?
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Generally, yes. Here is a quotation in support of this approach taken from well-established researchers who are authorities in the field: 
"...attitudes do not exist at all until an individual perceives an attitude
object (on a conscious or unconscious basis) and responds to it on
an explicit or implicit basis" (Eagly and Chaiken, 2007, p.584).  
And further, as a concrete example:
"An individual who had no (conscious or nonconscious) exposure to snakes could not be said to have a negative attitude toward them but instead likely has the potential for an easily acquired negative attitude" (Eagly and Chaiken, 2007, p.584). 
Arguments on the behavioural aspect of attitudes may be more diverse. As a whole research literature on attitudes is really immense in volume.  An as introduction to this literature and as a feasible way to find theories that could suit your particular research problem you may want to begin from reading relevant entries in Encyclopedias on behavioral sciences  (e.g., SAGE publishes such encyclopedias). These entries can point to more concrete works to fit your research vector. In addition to Encyclopedias, various handbooks on attitudes contain collections of articles with extensive literature reviews, which also helps to navigate the field. 
Good luck!  
Larisa 
******
References
Alice H. Eagly, Shelly Chaiken (2007). The advantages of an Inclusive definition of attitude. Social Cognition,  25(2), 582-602  
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I am currently researching on transformational studies in political science regarding post-socialist change in Eastern Europe. Many texts, and especially textbooks for students, refer on how likely change towards democracy is in different societies. For that, Huntington`s religious cultural types often are employed. I wonder, whether that kind of old differentiation still is up to date in social science, especially because it seems to generalize the non-western (and especially the african) cultures in a quite discriminative manner (and because it is discriminative towards non-western cultures in general...). I would like to mention that doubts within my work, does anybody know some current works on that I could refer on?
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Well, history, religion, attitudes are all closely related ... Various sides of the same coin. As Spengler has shown, even the forms of mathematics, arts, law even that of "materialism" are closely related to the original religious world view from which mature cultures and later civilizations grow.
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such as, if there is a feminist theorist how much focus has ze laid on the idea of self perception of the women about their 'self' by the women themselves, while the they have theorised their ideas. 
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We have written on this with regard to young people, see the 2015 article:
 “Young people’s search for agency: Making sense of their experiences and taking
control”. Munford, R. & Sanders, J. Qualitative Social Work, 14 (5): 616-633.
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I am interested to know the sexual and mental health status (as a separate domain) of involuntary bachelors (30+ years of age group) who are considered as lifelong unmarried males in an underdeveloped region/District of Rajasthan, India.
Please suggest me any such comprehensive schedules/questionnaires/survey tools that help me for the survey.  
Thank you for your time.
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Sexual activity is an important dimension within quality of life.The fundamental psychological needs of an individual are represented by four psychodynamic factors: attachment, autonomy, sexual identity, and self-esteem. Sexual disorders are common in psychiatric patients and include desire, arousal, orgasmic, and pain disorders. Along with the positive aspects of human sexuality,
however, mental illnesses can also affect an individual’s sexual health. I think you can use "Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire" (SDQ). Try to look for the available Literature review. It will help for sure. Best of luck in your future endeavor.
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I am wondering about your thoughts related to mediated learning experiences designed specifically to target the 'expression'/'internalization' of personality traits associated with 'good' life outcomes (ie educational achievement, mental health, economic health, social health, physical health.
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yes, it would be wise to separate out psychological constructs from personality traits.  I should have been more specific in my question.  The question I am asking, couched in my particular interest, is about the fixed/malleability of personality traits as depicted in the Five Factor Model.
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Recent research has revealed that the practice of the female genital mutilation in countries like Ivory, Somali and Sudan is mostly the influenced by patriarchal dominance in these nations in Africa (Poggioli, French Activists Fight FGM,2009; Monagan,2010). For this reason, my project intend to investigate the roles men can play in the prevention of  Female Genital Mutilation using  their supremacy in the societies in Africa.
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The approach described is a form of moral suasion also used in the temperance and foot binding movements-the declarations made act as a moral position to motivate others to do likewise.
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I am working on my research on role of social persuasion on multiple role management among emerging adults.
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You can always create a survey with the key areas you want people to answer to, which you think are focused on social encouragement and discouragement. Target mostly experience employees/ old employees to check their e.g job satisfaction, role they have been assigned within a company. Further you could search for tests pertaining to Organizational Behavior, a course taught at various business schools for more tests and potential answers to your question. 
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I was using HSPQ and still find it really useful, but it was developed a long time ago. 
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HI, I am using the IPIP Neo Personality Inventory short form of 120 item for my research purpose and find it appropriate for Indian adolescents except for the fact that it requires good understanding of english language
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In almost all the countries around the world traditional as well as modern educational is becoming a salable commodity. Unfortunately, higher education in particularly becoming out of reach for a common man, what to talk about a poor man. Why it is so? Everybody deserve to acquire knowledge. 
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One comment I would make is that without education, business activity would soon degrade and even disappear. Especially in the new global economy, where people compete more than they used to. As the older workers in a country's economy retire, if qualified younger workers are not in the pipeline, you have a problem.
But your question seems to also ask about cost of education? Cost becomes too high for the average person?
I think the answer to that question has to do with the structure of the "education industry," compared with many other industries that make up the country's economy. Education remains mostly as labor-intensive as it has always been. Many other segments of the economy are not. They have gradually been increasing "productivity," by exploiting new technologies. Education has perhaps not been exploiting new technologies specifically to reduce their labor costs, as much as other industries.
There are new schemes starting to make headway, such as online courses and online degrees. This might help keep costs in check. Government subsidies sort of solve the problem, but the government has to raise taxes for that to be viable. So that drags down the economy, to an extent.
I think the medical industry has much the same problem. There too, new technologies have definitely been exploited to improve medical care, but not so much to reduce costs (labor, mostly). So medical costs also keep rising. Especially medical costs for procedures that require much labor. (Some procedures, such as blood tests, have probably benefitted more than others. It doesn't even take a visit to the doctor's office to get some blood tests done, these days. Just mail the specimen to a lab.)
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I am currently trying to decide on a topic for my masters thesis, which will be on behavioural finance. I was thinking of linking behavioural finance with the recent US election results. I was just wondering what people thought of this, whether they could give me any further guidance or any particular research areas?
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This is probably a subset of a broader topic around how risk aversion to change (or perception of change) could influence stock picking decisions. The phenomenon of Trump is perhaps seen as an introduction of an "unknown" given that he appears to devote from what is perceived as "accepted" presidential comportment. Who defines what is "accepted" is a good place to start.
You may need to refine the definitions so that your research will be more manageable. For instance, over the span of presidential elections history, there are regressions made that appear to suggest how stock market indices tend reform under a democratic or republican presidency. However, I am not aware if they have gone deeper into what the perceived policy stance was to warrant certain responses by the stock market indices.
One approach is to take the sector indices and examine how they differ in their performances. I suspect you may find that the correlation, if any, may not be as clear cut as what some previous regressions would have suggested. 
Trust this helps in at least framing your research question.
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I think the expansion of electronic or social media in every nook and corner might be the major reason.
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Your question is an interesting one that is also very complex. Without a doubt, the "new Media" that individuals are employing is different from literary texts and the difference in genre can make a real difference.  I agree with Mitja that some of the reason lies there...those learners/consumers are employing a media that is different in style and in how the information is relayed...since individuals employ this new media, they are less oriented to the more literary structure of books.  With regard to the style, one is not better than the other, they are different.  I would argue, however, that the new media is less oriented to the deeper and reflective aspects of our human condition and so the content appears (to me, at least) to be more superficial in the new media.  David Lodge in his essays about the evolution of the novel, for example, shows very effectively that this literary device developed quite unique ways to address and share consciousness across individuals that simply cannot be done in other types of media.
Another issue is how the decreasing book reading habits are measured....if this is done without careful consideration of how audiobooks and electronic books have impacted the sells of physical books and how they are shared across individuals, then the data might be less accurate.
Another issue is that how children are taught to read will impact whether they are good readers and whether -- if they can read -- whether they want to do so.  At least in the United States, there was a huge rush (really created by political and ideological motives during the Bush administration) to employ fragmented and behavioristic approaches to reading pedagogy that produced a generation of poor readers or readers who do not like to read....... these are just three variables to this complex problem.
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I have found two-one by Nuance, Healthcare Division and another article by Softwire
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Thanks for taking the time to respond.
June
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(I asked myself this question while reading Larry Frankfurt's book "On Inequality.")
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I recommend that you review the Medical Ethics component, Justice. This ethical principle one of the four pillars of Medical ethics, All of us who serve in a hospital setting (I am a chaplain) abides by this ethic. One definition (to begin your study) is "The principle of justice could be described as the moral obligation to act on the basis of fair adjudication between competing claims. As such, it is linked to fairness, entitlement and equality. In health care ethics, this can be subdivided into three categories: fair distribution of scarce resources (distributive justice), respect for people’s rights (rights based justice) and respect for morally acceptable laws (legal justice)  [http://www.alzheimer-europe.org/Ethics/Definitions-and-approaches/The-four-common-bioethical-principles/Justice]
When resources are limited, the ethic of Justice guides to giving the limited resources to those that will be best helped,  rather than those who feel their are entitled to them. Medical ethics pages on the internet dealing with this subject are readily available. I recommend that if your study has this as a key point that you talk to a medical ethics expert before going any further.
A visit to the library of a university with a medical school is also advisable. There are many books on the subject of Medical Ethics. Justice is one of the four common pillars of medical ethics. there is likely many articles you can pull from a Google Scholar search.
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I am interested in the affect/health aspects of becoming a stay-at-home dad which for most fathers living in a culture where hegemonic masculinity contradicts this, becomes a liminal and vulnerable state. If attachment theory is based on an interpersonal relationship between infant and caregiver then surely this is a two-way street in the 'motivational and behavioral system'. The attachment possibly provides important resources in terms of emotional support and "safe base" for the father from which to redefine masculinity and to build up self-esteem and reassurance when manliness is being questioned. Any literature on the caregiver perspective in attachment theory?
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Hello Felicia, as Adelheid infers attachment theory is not the right methodology for thinking about the remaking of fatherhood. Attachment theory originates in an understanding of how infants grow developmentally. Mothers and fathers are transformed by the experience of parenting, but attachment theory and psychoanalysts such as Winnicott focus on the mother's good enough parenting. The father is a secondary figure. Klein puts the figure of the father between mother and baby. You could pursues a psychoanalytic approach but it is limited in its usefulness in rethinking the function of fatherhood. Nancy Chodorow wrote the seminal text on objects relations gender development and motherhood in the 1970s - The Reproduction of Mothering.
There is now a large literature on fathers and fatherhood but not so much on what you are trying to do. In the early years too much of the work negated the historical meanings of being a man. I do not think these are simply cultural constructions that can be abandoned for something new. Men and women are different. They can be equal in many spheres of life but they cannot be the same. So if fathers are not to become mothers or 'the same as women' how might a rethinking of fatherhood take place? I have only ever found one attempt at this. Its an essay by Paul Ricoeur called Fatherhood: From Phantasm to Symbol. It was published in The Conflict of Interpretations Essays in Hermeneutics ed. Dan Ihde, Northwestern University Press 1974. If you could get hold of it it might open up new fields of thought. You might also keep in mind the cultural and historical specificity of who the men are you are writing about.
For me being a father is actually about trying to live up to many of the traditional virtues of being a man. Rather than work against the grain of men's understanding of who they are or who they think they need to be, work with it.
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A thought just passed by and generated a question to be answered. If anyone interested!
When a person proposes interest in selecting a partner (expected partner) and finds few more trying to impress the same individual, that shows active competition in 'Sexual selection'. But how is the interest grown by this person towards the expected partner accounted as? Amongst many, choice of the person towards expected partner is also to be accounted as a competition and possible a passive one. Isn't it? Then sexual selection is just not a one way competition that is often discussed. Right?
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I think you may be referring to mate choice copying, for which there is a fair amount of evidence in vertebrates, including humans: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=mate+choice+copying+humans&btnG=&as_sdt=1%2C39&as_sdtp=
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The reason to reclaiming representativity from social surveys is the assumption, that the answers significantly differ by age and sex of the respondents.
Of course there may be questions on personal preferences such as on your individual life satisfaction that may justify this assumption.
But what if we ask for today's weather? For the number of hospitals in town?
Or for the perceptions of social goods such as the social climate, trust, solidarity, helpfulness, friendliness and hospitality such as currently done in the World Social Capital Monitor:
As the results from Cambodia (attached) show, both median and average standard deviation remain quite stable even in a sample of six! respondents only.
The group being directly interviewed shows a lower standard deviation and a higher median in two items.
But in general representativity would not better the validity of these local results.
Is representativity an outdated condition for many social surveys?
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I've been troubled for many years by the growing reliance on non-probability survey methods.  During the social interaction portion of a recent gathering, I asked Gallup researchers about the issue.  They are clearly concerned because response rates have fallen into the single digits.  Unfortunately, to paraphrase Upton Sinclair it is almost impossible to engage such a discussion when the personal and organizational credibility of your interlocutors rests on the validity of the results from such efforts.  In part, I believe that the 'surprise victory' in the recent US presidential election is attributable to the problems you point out with the Cambodian section of the World Social Capital Monitor study.  I've done several field research studies in Cambodia over the last 5 years and have many former students in government positions there.  I share your concerns and wonder what we might do about it.
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cuban slave culture in terms of the roles of women or any influential women during this time
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Thanks very interesting
Has this issue been treated by Columbia nationalethical committee in terms of gender medicine?thanks.
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I tried to find but I haven't found any article discussing this issue. I've noticed that in most online psychological surveys, the response rate is greater for women (in my own research, the sample was about 65% of women). 
I'm looking for something that talks about this issue to cite in my own discussion. Unfortunately, I've found nothing about this. 
Thanks
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Hi Rafael, I had a feeling there was something else on this: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED501717.pdf.
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Please, can you recommend any modern American novel dealing with feminism?
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Hi. You could try Marilyn French The Women's Room (1977) .
Excellent take on women's lives in American Society at particular time- probably before /during Feminist outpouring .   
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What test should I do with SPSS to identify whether a categorical variable (e.g. gender) is confounding variable or not if my iv & dv are all continuous variables?
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You could take different paths.
One of them is to use a model (ie. some kind of regression) and include your confounding variable into the model and see if it changes parameter estimates.
Second one may be doing similar analysis (ie. regression) through different categories of that categorical confounding variable and see if parameter estimates changes. From this you will get a subjective understanding of degree of confounding while from the former you could get more precise.
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Hello all. I am after research with a particular interest in male to female transgender and breast feeding.
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Joy Noel-Weiss is a retired La Leche League Leader, an RN and IBCLC, and an assistant professor at the School of Nursing, University of Ottawa, in Canada. Her nursing background includes working with families in community and hospital to provide postpartum and breastfeeding support. Professor Noel-Weiss has researched newborn weight loss, self-efficacy and breastfeeding, and ethical dilemmas among lactation consultants. Joy collaborated with Trevor MacDonald to lead a team from community to complete a research study that explored transmasculine individuals experiences with pregnancy, birth, and infant feeding.