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Gender Roles - Science topic

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We would like to ask permission if we can use the MGRS scale for our Thesis Requirement to begin conducting our research. We are rooting to use the scale on our study but I am having a difficult time finding it.
Thank you so much!
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Google has articles using both the full scale and the short version. The scales are in the appendix of the articles.
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hello ..
thank you for reading my quistion and i will appreciate any help. i am doing my master dissertation now which i am investigating gender represenatation in textbooks. my method is content analysis and i will collect data which includes genders of poets, scientists, authours, leaders and so on. i also will look at the appearance of each genders in varied areas. the data will be gathered from texts and pictures and i will interpret it (after analising) in charts and diagrams.
my quistion is does this process considered as qualitative or quantitave or mixed methods? and about the data is it qualitative data or quantitative ?
thank you
Fatema
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Mixed methods requires two sets of results, one qualitative and one quantitative, as well as the integration of the those sets of results. A straightforward content analysis such as you propose would not meet this definition.
Instead, it sounds like you want to do a quantitative content analysis (i.e., based on counting things), but you want this analysis to be essentially descriptive (i.e., you will not be testing any hypotheses).
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Hello   my research belong to gender studies. i m working on high school teachers' psychosocial pressure risks from gender perspective. My MA research is about  Gender and high school Teachers' Psychosocial  Pressure Risks. the aim of  my research is  to invistigate whether male &  female  teachers have face the same psychosocial pressures ,during their  teaching career, or because of  gender(how man & woman are perceived, gender roles,cultures) they have differents problems? what are the causes of male/female teachers psychosocial pressures? during my research i m going to rely on some developed countries' experiences  in the field and  how  they have dealt with this issue in  order to  reduce teachers' psychosocial pressures taking into  account male's and femele's different.needs.thanks in advanced
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Yes. Female teachers are more likely to suffer from psychosocial pressures than male teachers. The reason behind this is their effort to strike a balance between professional and family life which is very difficult to do.
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Hello all,
I am a third year Human Resource Development student and I am currently writing my final year project.
I have done my research on work-life balance but my supervisor advised me to find more gaps in research regarding the work-life balance of male employees with relation to gender roles.
I hope there are some that could provide me with insights and advise.
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Dear researchers,
I'm going to look at gender roles in a few novels from a sociolinguistic standpoint. What approaches do you recommend to analyze such roles?
warm regards,
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Very good question. As I understand that there are six main theoretical approaches include: “(1) the welfare approach; (2) women in development (WID); (3) women and development (WAD); (4) gender and development (GAD); (5) the effectiveness approach (EA); and (6) mainstream gender equality (MGE). You can opt as per you study perspectives.
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Sandra Bem's famous Bem Sex Role Inventory has been used since the 1970s to profile masculine and feminine gender roles. Bem argued that those scoring above the median of a sample for BOTH masculinity and femininity are classified as Androgynous and that these are the paragons of mental health because they can adapt to the needs of diverse demands. By contrast, those scoring below the median for both masculinity and femininity are considered undifferentiated and at the highest risk of mental health problems. This is because they score below the social status quo for positive personality traits that predominate the behaviors and expressions of both sexes. So my question is: "who are undifferentiated people"? What characterize them? What contributes to this profile? What can we do to help them? Any thoughts and/or articles would be most appreciated!
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Sandra Bem introduced in 1974 the idea that gender roles do not necessarily have to be one or the other, and that the person can be highly feminine, highly masculine or neither, thus introducing the concept of androgynous or undifferentiated personalities; So, according to the Bem Sex Roles Inventory (BSRI) individuals can be classified as male, female, androgynous (both male and female) and undifferentiated (neither predominantly male nor predominantly female).
This inventory consists of 60 adjectives of which 20 are stereotypically masculine, 20 are feminine and another 20 do not have gender typification.
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Hello everyone,
I want to research gender issues and I got as
IV: Sexual orientation, Gender role conflicts, Male norms
DV: Distress
I got 3 options:
I am between Hierarchical regression model, Mediation Analysis and Path Analysis.
I know that there I might be facing multicollinearity problems, what would be the best to choose between the 3 tests?
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Selection of the test would depend on the objectives of the study and the theory you have built upon. If your study model requires mediation effect the you can go for it still you need to use either Multiple Regression/Structural Equation Modeling/Path Analysis.
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Hello all,
I am currently looking for someone adept in Gender Studies to assist me with a body of research with the hope of publication on comparing LGB couples Gender Roles to Heterosexual couple traditional Gender Roles. My current research shows that LGB couples fair slightly better than Heterosexual couples because of the egalitarian roles as opposed to the slightly more patriarchal hierarchy in traditional heterosexual couples.
This research will be heavy on LGBT research and Theology to support equality in the marital hierarchy. I will be submitting this article to a Christian Scholarly Journal on Biblical Equality.
I currently live in Japan, so by the off chance someone is in Japan, that is preferred.
Thank you!
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Hello Chris,
I am interested in you research but I am having a little trouble pinning down your argument. I have a counseling degree but would hardly consider myself an expert on LGB gender roles, but willing to share an opinion.
You mentioned that your research shows that LGB fair slightly better, but fail to define what they are slightly better at exactly. Anyhow, if you offer up some parameters for an argument I can certainly offer a perspective.
Have a good one,
Lucas
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Childhood maltreatment may lessen the self-esteem of adolescent/young adults, which in turn may influence traditional gender role attitude and decision making autonomy in adulthood. Please share relevant literature/articles, If somebody is aware of any research regarding this subject matter.
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During adolescence, the world expands for boys and contracts for girls. Boys enjoy new privileges reserved for men; girls endure new restrictions reserved for women. Boys gain autonomy, mobility, opportunity, and power (including power over girls’ sexual and reproductive lives); girls are systematically deprived of these assets. Adolescent girls’ homes are not just residential bases; they are also the loci of powerful familial forces that shape every aspect of girls’ existence, including their time use, access to school and paid work, and social status. Many adolescent girls are virtually entrapped in the domestic sphere. This confinement serves two purposes: it keeps girls out of the public arena (see “Social and physical mobility”) and it keeps them in the household, where they undergo their apprenticeship for adulthood— an intense training for a lifelong role as wife and mother . In contrast to girls, boys are encouraged to develop some degree of autonomy and independence from the family, even in societies that stress filial obedience . Adolescent girls’ ability to move beyond their home and family-defined identity has profound implications for their development. Girls’ autonomy and skill levels are substantially limited if they are not at liberty to leave home to visit friends, places, or institutions outside the family; participate in female solidarity groups; and identify themselves publicly as students, workers, and citizens
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In an article Dr. Blaire suggested that until there was contact with western societies, many societies had a more fluid notion of gender roles https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/inclusive-insight/201809/has-gender-always-been-binary
I am not sure that I agree with this idea. Gender is culturally defined, and is an eidos related to sex, as I suggest in
But that does not mean that gender is likely to be fluid. From what I can see, it is not that gender roles were fluid, but rather that there are simply a number of cultures with ternary and quaternary gender divisions. For instance, many Native American tribes expressed the concept of “two-spirit” people. This established a quaternary gender system. But I don’t think that people easily existed outside of those four roles or that the roles were not well defined. It’s just that there were more of them.
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Given that cultures exist/are concentrated in certain geographical places at particular times in history, am not sure what you are implying. And, patriarchy was a Western system, not a native Indigenous one.
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Dear researchers,
I have a data set " 503 filled questionnaires" on 25 items " variables" . All variables are categorical .
The dependent variable of interest could be treated as binary or 3 categories , each assumption would reveal some needed perspective.
What I am trying to do is to analyse those data from a gender perspective.
as said those 25 questions cover demographic , attitude, behavior and practice. I am considering to check if gender is a significant independent variable towards attitude, behavior , practice.
Attitude, behavior, practice each item has few questions of the 25 to be tested in categories?
What sort of analysis could answer this question about gender role ? any other suggestions to tweek this research question though I really like mine ,but I am so open for suggestions.
My supervisor suggested ANOVA and multi-level analysis ?
For me , as far as I remember the outcome variable .eg practice " dependent variable " need to be numerical not categorical? I need your help.
Thanks
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With your data and the R Fisher Exact Test the p-value is around 0.67.
Something has probably failed with your SPSS trial. As I am not a usr of the software, I can't tell what. The native Fisher Test was initially built for 2x2 contingency table, it has been expanded for larger table since but is much more demanding. You should check how SPSS handle this.
Attached find a brief R code and results for a trial by Monte Carlo approximation of the test, now approximate and no more so "exact", but nearly so with such a large number of simulations (1000000).
Best regards.
Test for larger tables than 2x2 is also possible with GLM. If you are interested, tell me, I may send you a some lines of code in R to do that.
Code
####
## get the data
mydata <- read.table("Data.txt",h=T)
## reshape the data as a contingency table
mytable <- xtabs(data=mydata,formula=Freq~SubType+Age)
## perform the test
fisher.test(mytable,simulate.p.value=TRUE,B=1000000)
Results
#######
Fisher's Exact Test for Count Data with simulated p-value (based on
1e+06 replicates)
data: mytable
p-value = 0.06784
alternative hypothesis: two.sided
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Any political affiliation will suffice, however anarchist or communist affiliations would be preferred.
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Presume you are already sourcing this, but perhaps not, some helpful resources from the "Mujeres Libres" archive on the "Free women of Spain".
- Toda la Vida - Mujeres Libres CNT (video)
(Lisa Berger y Carol Mazer, 1986)
- Indomables, una historia de Mujeres Libres (video)
Some related text in this book at https://tinyurl.com/twesrvt
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My IV is score on gender roles (higher score means femininity and lower means masculinity) , its one single score. My DV is resilience score. My linear regression equation is significant 64.54+5.14 . I need help in interpreting the coefficients and how exactly it needs to be reported ?
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Currently in Poland, a very lively debate on the issues of gender is taking place.
Opponents speak even of "gender ideology", using arguments that are difficult to accept calmly by the man who knows even the basic issues related to the topic.
Main opponent of gender theory in Poland is the Catholic Church, some of its representatives do not mince words.
Even in the Polish parliament the parliamentary group for the fight against gender ideology was formed.
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Hi Marta
In India the situation for women is terrible. There is very meagre parliamentary representation and even the anti dowry and anti-violence legislations have been receiving backlash. In fact what is sad is the law is complicit in enforcing these hegemonies. Recently the Indian Supreme Court said that women are committing "legal terrorism" by "abusing" the anti-dowry and anti-domestic abuse Act. All statistics point in the opposite direction. The second article also talks about lower caste and vulnerable minority women in particular
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I am trying to find some theoretical evidence for the fact that on personal-self construal level western nations(egalitarian) are less stereotypical when it comes to gender roles, if compared to eastern nations , but i couldn’t . Can you please help me in this regard and recommend some reads. 
I found : own gender beliefs is higher (vs. lower) in eastern (vs. western) countries when considering other-stereotyping and when social comparison is salient, but the reverse was found when considering self-reporting, that is self-stereotyping.
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Natalia Krzyzanowska Thank You for your esponse !
Its related to Asia and Arab world being east .
I am looking into your reccomendation .
Thanks alot.
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I working in indian context . It would be very grateful if someone can give me guidance. 
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I generally use the Attitudes Towards Women Scale. Here is a paper we wrote on attitudes towards women in Latin America.
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Are there any studies which relate personal values (e.g. Schwartz Theory of Basic Human Values or Rokeach) to gender ideologies? In particular I am looking for studies that relate personal values to attitudes towards gender roles within the family.
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Dear Carlos,
Thanks for your reply. There is considerable evidence that there are universally accepted values. Particularly see the work by Schwartz and Bilsky. The values are admittedly very abstract and do not map onto specific behaviors across cultures.
RE the original discussion topic:
Matějŭ, Petr, Michael Smith, and Simona Weidnerová. 2018 “The Role of Basic Values and Education in the Formation of Women’s Work and Family Preferences across Europe.”
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I am researching Masculine Gender Norms and resulting role stress for my Doctoral Project. I am hoping to use the scale in my study but am having a difficult time finding it.
Thank you.
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Hello Jamie, and yes, you may obtain the MGRS from me. Send an email request to skidmore@spu.edu, and ask your doctoral faculty advisor to also send a note of confirmation (since permission for psychometric use needs to be given to either a licensed psychologist and/or university psychology faculty member. Then I will send you or your advisor all the MGRS materials with a letter of permission for research usage.
Best,
Jay R Skidmore PhD
Professor Emeritus
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I am still collecting survey tools used by researchers who have used in studies of transgender men and women. The tools will be used to inform the development of a new survey tool that may be added to CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) survey set. If you are willing to share your survey tool (and have not already done so) please do so.
All the best,
Stephen 
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I follow the question
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Please help me in this. I am working on PhD synopsis titled "Gender roles, health behaviors and Diabetes management in Type 2 patients in Pakistan"?
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Hello,
These also might be helpful, some more than others:
Hawkins, J., Watkins, D. C., Kieffer, E., Spencer, M., Piatt, G., Nicklett, E. J., ... & Palmisano, G. (2017). An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Gender on Health Behavior Among African American and Latino Men With Type 2 Diabetes. American journal of men's health, 11(2), 344-356.
Rosiek, A., Kornatowski, T., Frąckowiak-Maciejewska, N., Rosiek-Kryszewska, A., Wyżgowski, P., & Leksowski, K. (2016). health behaviors of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their influence on the patients’ satisfaction with life. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 12, 1783.
Shrestha, A. D., Kosalram, K., & Gopichandran, V. (2013). Gender difference in care of type 2 diabetes. Journal of the Nepal Medical Association, 52(189).
Burner, E., Menchine, M., Taylor, E., & Arora, S. (2013). Gender differences in diabetes self-management: a mixed-methods analysis of a mobile health intervention for inner-city Latino patients. Journal of diabetes science and technology, 7(1), 111-118.
Compeán Ortiz, L. G., Gallegos Cabriales, E. C., González González, J. G., & Gómez Meza, M. V. (2010). Self-care behaviors and health indicators in adults with type 2 diabetes. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem, 18(4), 675-680.
Kautzky-Willer, A., Harreiter, J., & Pacini, G. (2016). Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrine reviews, 37(3), 278-316.
Very best wishes with your PhD,
Mary
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I would like to look at Hazel in The Fault in Our Stars and Margo in Paper Town using feminism theory. I would be more than grateful if there are suggestions on literary analysis and recommendations for reading. Thank you.
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It strikes me that you're talking about Young Adult Fiction (YAF) in respect of those two novels, and therefore the the feminism you're talking about is a feminism potentially formulated, and directed toward, a Young Adult. In that respect, you might find it useful to either read Scott Westerfeld's Uglies - also a YAF novel with feminist resonances - or, at the very least, search for critical essays (and there are many) which talk about Uglies. From there, you'll be able to pick out some references to larger feminist books and YAF books that discuss feminism in the terms you need.
Best of luck
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I couldn't find a theory that include both genders for me to investigate representation of gender roles in young adult literature. Please suggest me an appropriate theory which is able to anchor masculinity and femininity in young adult literature. Thank you.
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If you are working with fiction, with characters who are young adults, maybe the theories on the apprenticeship novel (Bildungsroman) will help. Part of the process of formation is to achieve a stable identity, and this, in turn, demands achieving some clarity on the gender roles the character must perform, the ones the character will not perform no matter what, and the ones the character looks forward to performing. 
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Writing a short paper on hyper-masculinity in the presidential debates. Why is it displayed? For whom is it put on display? 
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Gender has always is a crucial factor in presidential politics because for decades presidential campaigns have become the center stage for  manhood, a quadrennial referendum on what type of man—or one day, woman—embodies not only the  ideological beliefs, but the very identity of any nation. Every year in every country the Presidential debate offers a fresh approach to understanding the role of identity politics in presidential campaigns. Even when examining popular discourse and attacks on the masculinity of some candidates or the fears of appearing weak and vulnerable end up shaping candidates’ actual policy positions, how the terrorist attacks in parts of the world shape presidential debates attacks, campaigns have pushed candidates to assume an increasingly hypermasculine posture. Though the stage is context-specific. In the American sense candidates are assuming we are witnessing , or the historic quality of Hillary Clinton’s runs for the presidency a paradigm shift in how to understand the very nature of the American presidency
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I'm working on a project evaluation for a maternal health project with ethnic minority women in Vietnam, and would like to conduct a gender analysis to understand gendered roles and access to resources in the community. Moser's framework is a good guiding approach, but could anyone recommend a more succinct tool that is appropriate for the Southeast Asian context?
Thank you in advance!
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Brownwyn. Have you looked at the Gender Analysis Frameworks booklet Oxfam published many years ago? (http://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/a-guide-to-gender-analysis-frameworks-115397). Naturally they need adapting to your needs, but I believe that to be the case for all 'tools and frameworks'> Good luck . Ines
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I want to know the perceived change in perspectives of women in the contexts of gender roles after transformative traveling experiences using TLT,
I dont have the time to do a pre-trip and post-trip research, I will do a perceived change on perspectives.
However, I dont know how to select my participants who should be already transformed, any ideas?
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I guess you have to go for a qualitative analysis. So regarding sampling refer to the work of Janice Morse. Start with convenience sampling. Your first interview is with a woman which is easy to access, from whom you know that she has transformative experiences, who is intelligent and communicative to be helpful for your study. Go on with snowball sampling. You ask your first interview partner if she knows other women eager to talk about their transformation. Use the constant comparative method. Your sampling should become more and more selective as your anlaytical (strtat from the very first interview on wards) deepens. Use self-perception and self-narration as a criterion. Elminate those women who are negative about transformation.
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My niche area is the performance of the no human. Still trying to refine my specific research questions but they have to do with the non human and agency or lack thereof. I am a bit overwhelmed by what communities would prove fruitful to study in Second Life and the SIMS. Any suggestions would be appreciated?
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(1). There are communities that are in a transitinal period, in their cultural change by religion, or globalization. (2). Also, there are communities that are in a stable, but drench in an autoritatian political system, impacting on the culture. (3). Finally, there are communities that are living in stable freedom of choice in performing of gender and sexuality in second life. As a result, it would be the researcher's choice to choose from.
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I would like to discuss the culture of men footing the bills in today's culture as a form of misogyny and I would like to have scholarly research that discuss this topic.
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Thank you very much for all the assistance. 
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I am really interested to see if there has been any work on this in the UK. I have read a lot of work done further afield but am coming up with nothing over here. It's such a different context, does anyone know if it's been studied? I would be grateful if anyone could point me in the right direction....
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Nothing to thank me for! I have some information in Spanish about gender meanstreaming in the pentecostal religion. I attach you two papers about this question but in Spanish language. I hope you find it useful.
You must know that my English is a little bit basic, but I have good friends helping me in all my translations.
Greetings
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Looking for studies conducted with focus groups or individual interviews.
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Dear Raul;
Look also in these papers, maybe it help you in your exploration of the subject.
If you tell us other details about your subject we try to help you, on focusing our research on your exact topic.
Best regards
Soufyane
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I had to reframe the question because I want the answer grouped into social, political and economic challenges. Sorry for the inconvenience caused but again, who can help me out?
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Culture reigns supreme as an impediment for a female scientist as the study of science is expected to be for males (though women have had in road to science for a while, yet the enduring stereotype continues). 2) The Academic Environment with the Patriarchal Structure; 3) Lack of specific funding for women scientists overall.
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The traditional paths to elected office are well documented in the discipline of political science and often they tend to imply a linear progression where actors play key roles in the development of becoming politically informed. These actors include parents, schools, and to some extent the media. But almost all of these studies have been based on the white male experience. The more gendered studies have framed their findings in terms of barriers to access, or the social aspect of family structures, roles and responsibilities of women through time and others are based on gender discrimination and bias . Regardless of the hypothesis developed by these scholars the majority of the literature is lacking the dimension of race in studies of the under representation of women and political leadership. In view that, women of color comprise only 4.5 percent of the 535 members of Congress, with similar representation in state legislatures, and even less across statewide offices one would think there would be less deficiency in the available literature on this subject. Women are not a static group, they are diversified not only by race but by class, ethnicity, sexuality, and religion to name just a few and future research must include these distinctions between women.
Therefore, what models should be developed that would persuade women of color to run for elected office?
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I echo the need for structure noted by Dr. Bermudez  in the research of women in political office.  This is an area of study that could benefit from a cross-cultural, international study, and I would be very interested in partnering with others to accomplish the task.  There is merit to the assurance of seats in Parliament exclusively for women.  Some nations assure that a % of slots on the ballot will be held by female candidates.  It appears that most successful female candidates follow the path mentioned by Dr. Bermudez and/or begin in grassroots-type campaigns and offices.
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My goal is to get a cross-disciplinary perspective.
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The most influential article on gender and archaeology was probably Conkey, M.W. and Spector, J.D. (1984) Archaeology and the study of gender. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 7, pp. 1-38.
It is still an essential contribution today. Besides this I would recommend the following books in order to gain an overview on topics, methods and results:
Dommasnes, L.H., Hjørungdal, T., Montón-Subìas, S., Sánchez Romero M., and Wicker N.L. (eds) (2010) Situation Gender in European Archaeologies. Archaeolingua minor series 29. Budapest: Archaeolingua.
Gero, J. M and Conkey, M. W. (1991) Engendering Archaeology. Women and Prehistory. Social Archaeology. Oxford and Cambridge: Blackwell.
Pyburn, K.A. (ed.) (2004) Ungendering Civilization: Reinterpreting the Archaeological Record. London and New York: Routledge.
Stig Sørensen, M.L. (2000) Gender Archaeology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
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Is capitalism the main source of explanation or are there other explanations which outweigh capitalism? 
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 Hi Con Your question has cheered me up today - thank you!  
Some women committed to redistributive feminisms might say that gender inequalities are caused by the patriarchy, alongside sexisms intersection with racist, disablist and homophobic discrimination and barriers to equality, that create inequalities experienced by women.  That's not to say capitalism isn't patriarchal too, but the two explanations are different, from a feminist perspective.  Depending on which gender inequalities you are concerned with, would depend upon the explanations you looked for (e.g. are the gender inequalities  you seek to explain linked to violence, health, income, education, housing, transport, welfare, crime etc)?/ I think we are much too nuanced now as a movement to think that one explanation of inequality can suffice in every context.
If you are new to the discussion between feminisms and capitalism, try starting with Nancy Fraser:http://www.ssnpstudents.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Feminism-Capitalism.pdf
If you are more advanced and want to think about gender inequalities in the current recession, try Sylvia Walby's awesome new book, Crisis.  
I suspect every feminist, socialist and capitalist will have a different answer to your question and you may have restarted a vibrant century-long debate!  Do send me a copy when you write on this subject and in the meantime, join us in trying to wear our privileges lightly!
Hope that helps,
Susie
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It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles, cultural and traditional values. Is important given to the gender equally? Are the women treated as they are being praised by the traditional values? Have they gained their values truly? 
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From the non-profit groups I attend the non-academic street view of this question is:
At different times different genders gain prominence in the justice systems of various nations. At one time, in the west, men got everything during a divorce, now in many instances women get greater control. It tends to fluctuate back and forth until some kind of fair equalibrium is reached. In Canada men are now demanding fairness in the courts, and slowly they are being listened to, as I said it has to be fair and this takes time.
Sexual assault used to be common on dates without much of a consequence to men or the offender, but not anymore, it is now a criminal offence. For instance, the downside of this new defence for women is that honourable men feel uncomfortable walking through playgrounds populated by mothers and children. However as more men care for children this discomfort should ease.
Of course in developing nations these transitions to fairness are yet to begin or are in a very early formative stage. All genders are more or less conscious of what could be or are struggling to formulate or achieve it.
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I read some papers and found that they have same conceptual content.  I wonder if there is any difference. Why did people use the two different terms?  
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Dear Mr. Zang, gender is a social construct. I'm agree with Miss Jaggi answer. Could be good for you, read some paper by  Gayle Rubin. She's the precursor of this terms and you have access to those on line.
Best regards
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This question is actually on behalf of a friend from a different academic background.  She figured that since I was an anthropologist I might have a better knowledge of sources on the topic.
More broadly, does anyone have any good sources for pre-contact gender roles from an anthropological perspective?
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The classic normative ethnographic view is that Inuit men hunted, fished, and were responsible for most of the subsistence work. Women did the critical tasks of clothing manufacture, butchering game for storage, cooking, and childcare. Women did help with fishing and collected some plant foods in places where that was possible. If your non-anthropology colleagues is interested, the Vilhjalmur Stefansson reference below is a fun non-technical read (no quantified data), and is commonly available in a re-issued paperback edition. There is a very large ethnographic literature on Inuit peoples. Some of what is below represent common and classic descriptive references that address the question you are asking about men's and women's roles and there are some quantified data (esp. Smith). These only scratch the surface of the Inuit literature that is particularly relevant to gender roles. The Nelson 1983 is a descriptive ethnography about Athabaskans in central Alaska, nit Inuit, but also discusses men's and women's activities in the subarctic environmental zone. 
Boas, Franz, 1888. The Central Eskimo. Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Americna Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. (re-issued 1964,Bison Books, Univ of Nebraska Press, Lincoln)
Guemple, Lee, 1995. Gender in Inuit Society. In: Women and Power in Native North America, L. F. Klein & L. A. Ackerman, eds., pp 17-27. Univ of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Murdoch, John, 1892. Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition. In: The Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1887-88, pp. 3-441.                                     Government Printing Office (re-issued 1988, Smithsonian Institution Press), Washington.
Nelson, Edward William, 1899. The Eskimo About Bering Strait. In: The Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1896-97, pp. 3-518. Government Printing Office (re-issued 1983, Smithsonian Institution Press), Washington. 
Nelson, Richard, K. 1983. Make Prayers to the Raven: The Koyukon View of the Northern Forest. Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago. 
Oswalt, Wendell, 1967. Alaskan Eskimos. Chandler Publishing Co., New York. 
Savishinsky, Joel S. 1974. The Trail of the Hare: Life and Stress in an Arctic Community. Gordon & Beach Science Publishers, Inc. New York. 
Smith, Eric Alden, 1991. Inujjuamuit Foraging Strategies: Evolutionary Ecology of Arctic Hunting Economy. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1922. Hunters of the Great North. Harcourt, Brace , New York. (reissued in 1992, Paragon House, New York
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Is gender difference linked to employment barriers for youth? If yes, what type of barriers in Pakistan?
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In my opinion, the public sphere is as engendered as the private spaces of home and family. For instance, the discourse around certain professions is extremely gendered.  Youngsters are trained in such a manner throughout their academic journeys that they believe in the legitimacy of gender as a key factor when they make professional choices. I am cautious that the constructs of gender, profession and discourse are not monolithic and assume different meanings in different socio-cultural context. 
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I'm currently preparing Polish publiacation about development of children from single-parent families and I'm looking for research on gender identity and identifaction with gender roles among children raised in single-parent families. I'm looking for research and publications from around the world. Thank you for any support.
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Hi Kamil,
Alldred P (1996) ‘Fit to parent’? Developmental psychology and ‘non-traditional’ families. In E Burman, P Alldred, C Bewley, B Goldberg, C Heenan et al. (Eds.) Challenging women: Psychology's exclusions, feminist possibilities. London: Open University Press
Andenæs A (2005) Neutral claims – Gendered meanings: Parenthood and developmental psychology in a modern welfare state. Feminism & Psychology 15(2): 209–226
Lawler S (1999) Children need but mothers only want: The power of ‘needs talk’ in the constitution of childhood. In J Seymour & P Bagguley (Eds.) Relating intimacies: Power and resistance. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan Press
Morison T & Macleod C 2015 Men's pathways to parenthood - we review some of the SA and international literature
All the best.
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Hello, I need articles about codependence of the woman on the engagement after having sexual intercourse, or topics as nearby as possible, thank you.
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Does focusing on gender roles in narrative analysis negate gender differences?
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It is important to first understand that gender is not a monolithic concept. It is, in fact, constructed to mean something in a context. Varied contexts attribute varied definitions to the concept of gender. hence it is a socially constructed category, fluid and polysemic. While I may have not understood your question completely, I think that studying gender roles in a narrative can address or negate the idea of gender discrimination depending on many factors - your perspective as the researcher, the structure of the narrative, reception of the audience. Hope this helps! 
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How society and through which lens society sees the role of female as a whole but particularly as an entrepreneur?
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They can be about gender roles and their framing in Young Adult Novels, comparative studies on local vs foreign Young Adult Fiction/Novels, or reflection of the society or young adult social group in Young Adult Novels.
*By local I meant local to any country/society. 
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Dear Alexandra Fernando,
I hope the following references may be of help.
Kind regards,
Paul Chaney
Kokesh, Jessica; Sternadori, Miglena (2015) The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: A Qualitative Study of How Young Adult Fiction Affects Identity Construction, Atlantic Journal of Communication, Volume 23, Number 3, 27 May 2015, pp. 139-158. Publisher: Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group
Sara K Day, ‎Miranda A Green-Barteet, ‎Amy L Montz  (2014) Female Rebellion in Young Adult Dystopian Fiction, Ashgate Publishers http://www.ashgate.com/isbn/9781472431493
Glaus, Marci  (2014) Text Complexity and Young Adult Literature, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Volume 57, Number 5, 1 February 2014, pp. 407-416. Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Bean, Thomas; Harper, Helen (2007) Reading Men Differently: Alternative Portrayals of Masculinity in Contemporary Young Adult Fiction, Reading Psychology, Volume 28, Number 1, January 2007, pp. 11-30. Publisher: Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group
Belbin, David (2011) What is Young Adult Fiction? English in Education, Volume 45, Number 2, Summer 2011, pp. 132-145. Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell.
Susanne, Greenhalgh (2012) Secret Stratford: Shakespeare's Hometown in Recent Young Adult Fiction, Critical Survey, Volume 24, Number 2, Summer 2012, pp. 22-38. Publisher: Berghahn Journals.
M Rothbauer, Paulette; McKechnie, Lynne E.F. (2000) The treatment of gay and lesbian fiction for young adults in selected prominent reviewing media, Collection Building, Volume 19, Number 1, 2000, pp. 5-16. Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Clark, R.; Kulkin, H. (1996) Toward a Multicultural Feminist Perspective on Fiction for Young Adults, Youth and Society, Volume 27, Number 3, 1 January 1996, pp. 291-312. Publisher: Sage Publications
HS Crew 2000 Is it really Mommie dearest?: Daughter-mother narratives in young adult fiction, Scarecrow Press
Marsha M. Sprague,Kara K. Keeling (1998) Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature, Publisher Twayne Publishers, 1998, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0805782206, 9780805782202
Charles William Sullivan – 1999 Young Adult Science Fiction, Greenwood Press.
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The focus could be historical or contemporary. Many thanks.
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Thank you Tobias, I'm working on the gendered dimensions of Swedish rural civil society and these references look very interesting 
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how do I statistically test for a difference b/w male and female response to a question e.g fathers will prefer VE (vocational education)for the male child than mother?
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I think neural network model will be best to compare gender because a neural network is a powerful computational data model that is able to capture and represent complex input/output relationships. 
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I wish to work towards a minor, possibly more, or transgender issues. My location and commitment at this time does not give me the freedom to attend other institutions so I'm searching for reputable online classes. Any recommendations or suggestions are appreciated.
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Good luck to you Sherri, we need motivated, knowledgable and transpositive people in all transoriented organisations I know of. 
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I'm part of a keynote panel session at a conference in early June on Why we should champion equality in the IT workplace.  We will explore the definition of equality and the root causes of inequality in our industry, and the ethical and operational benefits of championing equality and I would like to have the most recent statistics possible. This panel will pose questions such as - are we limited by stereotypical gender roles? Do we take an open enough approach to demographics such as age and ethnicity? 
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Hi Simone, I'm not sure if you are looking for international figures or only for the USA?
In case you are looking for international data, have a try on Eurostat's data base: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database
You'll find the "Information Society Statistics" under the Link "Industry, Trade and Services". In the drop down menues you can specify besides age classes also the variable "sex".
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I want to measure peoples' conviction that typically "male" and typically "female" behaviour and skills are biologically based and fixed vs. culturally determined and malleable. It could be something akin to racial essentialism measures like the one below... 
No, S. et al. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans’ responses toward American culture. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 95, 991–1004 (2008).
The Lay Theory of Race Scale
1. To a large extent, a person’s race biologically determines
his or her abilities and traits.
2. Although a person can adapt to different cultures, it is
hard if not impossible to change the dispositions of a
person’s race.
3. How a person is like (e.g., his or her abilities, traits) is
deeply ingrained in his or her race. It cannot be changed
much.
4. A person’s race is something very basic about them and
it can’t be changed much.
5. Races are just arbitrary categories and can be changed if
necessary.
6. Racial categories are constructed totally for economic,
political, and social reasons. If the socio-political situation
changes, the racial categories will change as well.
7. Race does not have an inherent biological basis, and thus
can be changed.
8. Racial categories are fluid, malleable constructs.
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Hi Gosia, we have used the scale in the paper below:
Coleman, J. M., & Hong, Y. Y. (2008). Beyond nature and nurture: The influence of lay gender theories on self-stereotyping. Self and Identity, 7(1), 34-53.
It's 11 items, rather reliable, and did a nice job for us.  On the face of it the items are quite similar to the examples you've posted and so I think it's the one you want.  
Cheers!
Robbie
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Please go toward ethical ontology.
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I wonder if you are referring to the dichotomy of ontology in that truth can be observed but also experienced. 
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I suppose there must be some kind of mechanisms, racism or whatever that discourages women from vindicating a post in school leadership and explains the very low percentages of women school leaders in the educational system.
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The journal Discourse has as it's paper of the month Jill Blackmore's "Doing 'emotional labour' in the education market place" free for March. 
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I am conducting a study which aims to explore attitudes towards help seeking for mental health among Irish adults. I was hoping to explore conformity to the masculine gender role and how this effects attitudes towards help-seeking. I was hoping to do this using the CMNI-22; Mahalik et al 2003, but I am having difficulty finding a copy. 
Would anybody be able to advise me on where I could find a copy?. 
Thank you in advance 
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Hi maya I received an email from Dr Mahalik last night with the permission form so happy days. Thank you for your response. I would be interested in your self scoring spreed sheet if it is not to much trouble,that would be great as im behind schedule now so would be very helpful. My email address is 2010118@allhallows.ie. Thanks again 
Niamh 
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Universities have long traditions of offering staff and students the freedom to do research – but what are the pressing issues and perspectives, especially for women? I would be grateful if you can share your experiences, stating in which country you work and in which part of the higher education sector you are a member of staff or a student.
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I see the leaky pipeline is still with us .... we still have a long way to go ... need flexible working conditions, life-work balance, for both women and men !!! and not only in the academia.
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Recently a bearded transgender performer's victory in the Eurovision song contest, made me think about the validity of the concept of a "third gender", the Hijra of India, the "two spirits" of First Nations, etc. Other than the physical conversion (transsexualism) what shall we think about people who feel "in-between"?
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I think, it would be better to part from Butler's perspective of a broad variety of genders. Between "male" and "female" (and beyond), there is a infinite variety of possibilities of how to live gender and sexuality. So, the victory of Wurst may be a sign of the breaking down of the old perspective.
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A core concept in sociology, political science, organizational behaviour and business, social capital is relatively new in the context of sport governance. In exploring the boundaries of both sport and social capital in theory and practice, one can see sport as a form of positive (bridging) social capital that promotes social cohesion, trust, social ties, etc. Could it also be perceived as a social space that promotes dark or exclusonary social capital since sport politics do not always deliver the social benefits they proclaim due to commercialization, doping, gender discrimination or institutionalized gender personification, the leaky pipeline and the glass ceiling in SGBs and in competitive sports.
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In my Ph thesis I explored the concepts of social capital related to socioeconomic status in competitive youth sport. We found social mobility expectations, individual either familiar, and that sport could be a familiar strategy in disadvantaged youth sport in Mexico. I was focused from the social capital theory and, in my opinion these families believe that their sons or daughters being successful in sports could exchange their sport capital into social capital and therefore in economical capital.
Social capital and it measurement especifically in sports interests me a lot. I am working now in some projects about these constructs.
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Do you know any studies which confirmed such hypothesis?
I am waiting for your recommendations (regarding specific reports, articles you know).
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Dear Aysha, your passion is admirable and it is this passion that no doubt has been responsible for the support that shelter victims have received. I understand the concern that the recent attacks on issues such as women's health have made it clear that gains achieved in the late 20th century are not as stable as young adults perceive them to be. However, where there are statements that might feel true based on lived experience they are not supported by research studies. I've provided some cites for the many of the observations I've noted below.
IPV rates have declined in the US, while lower, it is at a rate comparable with crime in general (including assaults). Among college students females engage in more IPV than males.
Regarding "Backlash" this isn't coming solely from men. There are many women whose experiences are not consistent with those in shelters or murdered/attempted murder, particularly women who either experience only psychological IPV or mild-moderate physical IPV I have spoken with some and they feel that the traditional IPV advocates are overlooking their needs in order to provide support to shelter victims. To ignore these women's experiences is counter to the origins of feminist research. Because traditional IPV advocates are feminist's doesn't mean that all of their positions reflect feminist research principals.
Unfortunately, the evidence continues to mount against the traditional IPV model that "power and control" causes IPV among those who have been arrested for IPV or in the community. In fact, comparing outcomes for individuals who are arrested with no treatment and those who are arrested and receive treatment -- they have essentially the same outcomes. Instead of blaming this on men's resistance to treatment, substance abuse offenders had similar problems yet a treatment model was developed that gets results (Motivational Enhancement Interviewing). My concern is that unless traditional IPV advocates are willing to explore a more nuanced model and target funding for victims in their niche (shelters, hospital emergency room, protection orders) they are going to loose the VAWA funding as well as community funding becuase they blamed "blacklash" and tried to convince people to ignore research findings after 1995 instead of adapting their theory to accommodate the research in the past 15-20 years.
I began my Ph.D. program (recently) with similar views and it sounds like i grew up in the same timeframe as yourself. But as a researcher, I need to follow the data and explore the disconnect between the data and personal experiences/traditional IPV theory. Perhaps as researchers we have to become comfortable with holding paradox while following a theoretical position while continuously scanning the research for shifts.
Warmly, Kathy
Cho, H., & Wilke, D. (2005). How has the violence against women act affected the response of the criminal justice system to domestic violence. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 32(4), 125-140.
Catalano, S. (2007). Intimate Partner Violence in the United States. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://library.softgenx.com/Children/DV/ipv%201993-2004.pdf
Straus, M. A. (2008). Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 252–275, doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.10.004.
Langhinrichsen- Rohling, J., McCullars, A., & Misra, T. (2012). #10 Motivations for men and women’s intimate partner violence perpetration: A comprehensive review. Partner Abuse, 3(2), 1-33.
Stover, C. S., Meadows, A. L., & Kaufman, J. (2009). Interventions for intimate partner violence: Review and implications for evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(3), 223-233. 10.1037/a0012718
Stith, S. M., Smith, D. B., Penn, C. E., Ward, D. B., & Tritt, D. (2004). Intimate partner physical abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10(1), 65-98. 10.1016/j.avb.2003.09.001
Bohan, J. (2002). Sex differences and/in the self: classic themes and feminist variations, postmodern challenges. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 74-88.
Weisstein, N. (1993). Psychology constructs the female, or the fantasy life of the male psychologist (with some attention to the fantasies of his friends, the male biologist and the male anthropologist. Feminism & Psychology, 3:2, 195-210.
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I am working a project evaluating the effects of inequality of women PRIOR to conflict - along the lines of Dr. Hudson et al.'s "Women and Peace Theory."
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I have found the data required for the project I was working on. Thank you for all the responses.
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What is the symbolic content and meaning of finger nails?
The performance, figuration and manipulation of the body seem to be crucial or at least high relevant for the doing gender through the body. Following Bourdieu, the habitus is written down in the body and the body practice is an important part of the economics of symbols.
Painting or enlarging finger nails is a very common practice of the traditional body expression.
A lot of solitary body practice like sitting, viewing, moving, etc. or body parts like hair, legs, skin, mouth, foot, etc. are described concerning their gender relevance and their symbolic meaning.
But I have heard only very few about the gender related meaning of finger nails.
One idea is an analogy to the white skin as a symbol for not to need manual work in the sun. From this point whiteness is a symbol of nobles and richness. Maybe the painting and enlargement of nails are a similar expression of the absent need to do handwork.
Another idea is that the limitation of the “natural” function of hands and fingers is comparable with the limitation of running and moving like the bandaging of women’s feed in japan. High heels, skirt and dress as a framework which limit the freedom of moving and mobility on one hand and leading and fulfill to the conception of the “right” female body language on the other hand, are interpreted in this way too.
So does somebody have ideas about the gender specific symbolic of finger nails?
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Hi Cecile,
Thanks very much for your elaborated statement.
I am not sure if I understand everything completely so I have to think about some aspects you indicated. But a few other I liked to commend:
… the nature (which always continues to be)… The consequence of this thought would be that there is no place without nature and furthermore there is quit nothing without nature. This makes me remembering the term that nature is the force which try to fill the nothing. I like that.
Anyway and beside this basic principle I agree that nature and culture are only thinkable together. And yes, our logic is strongly based on separation: “either or” instead of “both”. These generate all the inclusions and exclusions which are very practicable but often linked with painful experience and not at least in science more and more just wrong.
On the other hand I look a little skeptical or maybe fearful to the multi reality approach. I know well the modelling of language based perceptions, meanings and assessments of reality and this maybe individual. From my point of view that would means an atomization of reality and in a way a kind of arbitrariness and wrong omnipotence. Everything seems to be changeable without borders, universal values and physical facts.
It is difficult for me to image that if someone perceived the reality in an individual way that this has to be accepted in the same way than all other perceptions. (eg. sexual harassment is what someone feel as harassment) I am fear that would be a way of losing the differentiation of truth and false. In a way my understanding of science –and I confess it may be influence from the natural and technology disciplines of sciences I mostly do- is to ask my colleagues if s/he measures or perceive the same than me and if s/he agree I can start to assume this piece of reality could be more than just an individual perception. And yes, I believe that is the way how the value and the robustness of statements and findings can rise.
Another point is the timeline you mentioned. I agree fully that nature always changing species but I would like to add: in which timeline. My thesis is that the time of generating will give us an impression of the time we need to changed it – or deconstruct it we some named this process. And if so we have glue how long it will takes to overcome sexual dimorphism or to use a common gender related phrase to overcome hetero normativity.
I agree that culture is a pressure but isn´t nature be a pressure too? You know to idealizing nature is also an often mentionable phenomena.
At least to your double work thesis. I am not sure if I understand it right but I thought the idea was to share the work. The men take half of the care work and the women half of the breadwinning and vice versa. (That means not only to take but also to give up the former domains)
I am sorry but in consequent that means half-day motherhood -and fatherhood too- that might be hurt the idealization of motherhood.
Oh and I love to be a grain of sand in big discussions. Thank you for this picture.
Have a nice day.
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Any theoretical or empirical analyses can work.
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Dear Pr Gartaula,
As I have received a PhD. in gender studies, I have developed further research in gender and entrepreneurship.
Recently, I have been very interested in gender issues concerning Mid-Eastern women in the context of entrepreneurship and management. Therefore, I would recommend you two interesting papers:
-Jamali, D. (2009), Constraints and opportunities facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries: A relational perspective, Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24 (4): 232-251
-Syed, J & Özbilgin, M. (2009), A relational framework for international transfer of diversity management practices, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20 (12): 2435-2453.
These two papers elaborate a very interesting cultural, strategic, and political framework that reveals the interactions between women and business world in a given context. Similarly, from a psychosocial point of view, in 2009, I have tried to analyse the interactions between women business owners and their employees and stakeholders in order to see how they elaborate their strategic and managerial decisions. However, I have overlooked the cultural and political context. If I would develop a new research on gender in the context of strategic choices, I would use Jamali's framework. At the same time, I have the impression that Jamali's framework should be more critical...here are the references of my paper:
Redien-Collot, R. (2009), «Female Entrepreneurs’Authority: Is the Creative Aspect of Authority a Masculine Fiction in Managerial and Entrepreneurial Paradigms? » , Journal of Enterprising Culture, 17 (4): 419-441. http://www.worldscinet.com/jec/17/1704/S0218495809000448.html
I can send you this paper if you are interested.
Best Regards
Renaud
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Research Questions are:
Q1. How frequent was male gaze used in portraying female image in the movies?
Q2. What was the direction of the messages? (Sexual, social, domestic gender roles, etc)
Q.3 How intense were the male gazed messages regarding female portrayal in the Bollywood movies?
Q4. How much space was given to the aforesaid messages?
Q5. Is there any relation between the inclination of Pakistani university students to watch Indian movies and female presentation?
Q6. What changes have Indian movies created in Pakistani university male students towards female image?
Q7. What is the relationship between Indian movies and female students’ perception of themselves and other females?
The model of theoretical framework is attached
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Dear Amir,
There are several grammar mistakes in the questions, so please correct them. Then it will be easier to understand. I send back the framework. I put in red; the things that need explanation, so that the reader can understand your thesis in future.
The part I am familiar with is Social Learning Theory, but I'm not familiar with several things; it doesn't mean that it's not appropriate.
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How do men and women differ in expressing their desirability in social situations?
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@Sonia: Thank you so much for your suggestions, I will definitely check out the references you've mentioned. :D
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I'm looking for some pointers on internalized sexism. Here's a scenario: A female who wants to fit in with a group dominated by males (e.g., the gaming community, alternative music scenes, sports, etc.) denigrates femininity by saying that she's "not like those other women/girls." Of course, in doing so that female is endorsing misogynistic attitudes. Is there a name for this strategic derogation of one's group in order to appeal to or identify with a different group? Any advice on previous research on this would be greatly appreciated, especially those relating to social identity theory & social psychology.
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Hi Jennifer, The phenomenon of 'internalised stigma' or 'felt stigma' has been witnessed over many years in the psychiatric disability field; while some individuals increasingly self-isolate others act as you describe - they distance themselves from what they perceive as their own (disempowered) group affiliation and try to join a/the more powerful group. This leads to (sometimes unintended or insightless) perpetuating or furthering of stigma towards one's own disability group.
A resource that might be useful:
Mason, M. (1992) ‘Internalised Oppression’ in Rieser, R. and Mason, M. (eds.)
Disability Equality in the Classroom: A Human Rights Issue, London: Alliance for
Inclusive Education.
Good luck - interesting topic!
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This was simply an observation, but I'd like to know if any research has been done in this area. Professions like teaching, psychotherapy or nursing are dominated by women - both in employee and employer roles. Is the worth or value of these professions associated to the number of women in them? Consequently, when men enter the game, does the economic worth of these professions rise?
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Agreed, which is why I hope it makes/made for an interesting research question too :)
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Can someone guide me in order to get an outline for a term paper for MA development studies?
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I would recommend you the book by Henrietta Moore (1988, Feminism and anthropology) which is a really good introduction and could -even if it's not up-to-date- contribute some insights. The classical essay "Is female to male as nature is to culture?" by Sherry Ortner could also be interesting.
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In 2008, colleagues and I published a book entitled Sex Differences (Psychology Press) which summarizes the literature up to that date. I plan to publish a second edition within the next five years. If anyone would have an interest in being a coauthor, please let me know. However, before deciding, please note how the book is physically structured. The book's first edition cited over 13,000 studies. The second edition is likely to add an additional 7,000 studies.
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I'm not able to open the file. send it to me at lee.ellis@hotmail.com