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Gender Equality - Science topic

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When I embarked on this journey of exploring more on exploring the condition and status of gender equity and equality in architecture, or public spaces, or urban design, I found very little literature is available. Would be great to discuss on this topic. I have started to get an impression perhaps this topic is irrelevant or not trending at all. But I have strong feeling that has an importance, but very little research has been done on this. Would be great if you know of some documents or share some light on this.
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Designing Gender Sensitive Public Spaces – Cidco Smartcity (niua.org)
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Hi everyone!
I´m writing my bachelors thesis and originally wanted to study the effect of tuition fees on socioeconomic/intergenerational mobility. I couldn´t find any suitable theory so I´ll have to figure out a new subject.
I´v now thought about the following themes and would be extremely thankful for recommendations on theory or another interesting subject/viewpoint.
  • The effect of an additional year of schooling on intergenerational mobility; the relations theory and actualization during years 19XX-20XX. (I`ve found a dataset for mobility and would like to use STATA or R for the empirical chapters)
  • The effect of compulsory secondary/upper secondary education on intergenerational mobility
  • Interrupted work careers and subsequent earnings; gender earnings gap
  • The obligations/binding nature of unemployment benefits and its effect on the employment rate( comparing Finland, Switzerland, Sweden, USA, Denmark. Obligations on a scale from 1-5)
I`ve studied each subject, but am most familiar with economics of education and social/socioeconomic/intergenerational -mobility.
Stay safe!
Br,
Koskelo Sara
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Thank you for your question. Not finding a "suitable theory" doesn't mean that you have to change your topic. Just start with the empirical part and then figure out the theory on the fly. For a Bachelor thesis this should suffice.
Good luck!
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Please cite an info-source supporting your view.
Many thanks for sharing your thoughts/expertise.
Stay safe,
Ale
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Health care appears to be well represented by both genders. Biological positions are being compromised since the beginning of the ongoing financial crises. I believe this is making it difficult for any new entrants to environment health related jobs, not any gender in particular.
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I am interested about application of LCA (Lifecycle Assessment) and cost benefits analyses to revise the environmental policies and associated taxes.
(https://www.advocata.org/commentary-archives/2018/9/23/the-cost-of-being-a-sri-lankan-woman). The content in this article may not 100% accurate, however, by experience I know the basics points mentioned here is true.
"The taxes on baby diapers and sanitary napkins are high as 71.2% in Sri Lanka (It is only 12% GST in India). According to SAARC (South Asian ...) Chamber Women Entrepreneurs Council, out of 5.2 million menstruating women, only 30% can afford sanitary napkins in Sri Lanka.
These taxes are not only affecting a women's cost of living but also has negative effects on girl's education and menstrual hygiene."
Hence, I wonder the following points;
A. LCA and cost benefit analyses and Environmental policy making (If you have some case studies please share).
B. How to dispose baby diapers and sanitary napkins? (Is controlled incineration the only solution?)
C. How developing countries manage the issue (if there is any case study).
D. Readers may add any other interesting information or questions.
Thanks.
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Sur le plan politique dans plusieurs pays comme le Mali ce type de déchet (serviettes hygiéniques) est classé comme déchets spéciaux donc potentiellement dangereux, d'une part à cause des liquides biologiques d'autre part à cause du plastique. Presque aucun Pays en Afrique de l'ouest n'a élaborer spécifiquement des texte pour pour sa gestion.
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how is gender and cinema for phd?
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I think, your results would greatly drpend on methodology. Just elaborate rigorously, what are the selection criteria? What is the ligic behind selecting certain films?
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There are times when I think that articles are rejected or comments are too mean based on ethnicity and just being female.
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Good responses here from all. Talking specifically about culture (might we also be talking about region/geographical location here?) as I agree with Amin that, related to gender, there is a much better balance of female authors (maybe not always as leads - but as part of teams - and that might be another discussion) in todays academic climate.
So I come back to location/culture here. It is, as I see it, a 'double-edged sword'. If I see good quality research coming out of 'emerging' research cultures/locations then I feel it should be championed over the 'usual' Western-centric research of the same quality. I will make a point in my comments that it is useful to have a 'truely' international perspective of the issue - not just from a Westernised perspective. On the other hand, I would argue that 50% (or so) of 'cultural' manuscript submissions are not of a good enough quality. There are common pitfalls i.e. the national context is stressed too much over the international context (as is the data). That makes it hard to compare and, often, the cited national literature would be hard to access/interpret. Secondly, and more avoidable, is if their are multiple grammatical, language, typo errors throuhgout that distract the reviewer and make it more difficult to interpret findings.
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Me planteo si en las revistas científicas existe interés por aplicar políticas de igualdad de género del mismo modo que se van aplicando en las convocatorias para la financiación de congresos o proyectos de investigación.
A mi no me suena haberlo visto, ¿alguien sabe?
______________
Is there any scientific journals applying gender equality policies? In the same way that they are applied in the calls for the financing of congresses or research projects.
It does not sound like I've seen it, does anyone know?
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Quizás las revistas con misión de igualdad, expresado directa en el político de redacción, por ejemplo OIT Organización Internacional de Trabajo, si tu profesión o tus investigaciones están vinculado con los temas de revistas de OIT.
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Creating binaries - "Menstruating Women" vs "Semening Men" :
The women have been enslaved by creating exemplary binaries. Women are defined between binaries, like – Mother vs Whore; Virgin vs Vamp.
Being a student of Sociology, I also believe in being an Activist.
They have created a phrase “Menstruating Women”, so I have created a phrase “Semening Men”.
Let us use this phrase “Semening Men” in our discourses, debates and discussions.
One example –
Throughout 2018, the two words that remained hot with “semening” men are – “Cow” and “Menstruation”.
Is this the final mental limits of which “semening” men are capable of?
Please let me know your thoughts.
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Interesting thread here. What do you think about the move to remove the word woman completely from these discussions and activism? I keep seeing activism that just calls women 'menstruators' or 'ovary-havers' 'cervix-havers' but refers to men as 'men'. This is being argued as a nod to gender ideology, but I cannot understand why removing the word woman is so prevalent whilst the word 'men' is still being retained in everything. Just wondered what you thought.
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I working in indian context . It would be very grateful if someone can give me guidance. 
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I generally use the Attitudes Towards Women Scale. Here is a paper we wrote on attitudes towards women in Latin America.
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I am conducting a  multivariate panel study how climate change affects health gender disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa.  The dependent variables are a calculated ratio of the difference between life expectancy between men and women and another ;mortality rates. One of the independent variables is a drought index/continuum with minus values  (drought) to plus values (no drought). I am not sure what that unit change in x would be, would it be from minus to plus in the drought scale?
If one in general has an independent variable or control variable such as Polity IV (from -10 (low democracy) to 10 (high democracy) how does one explain this with a one unit change in x? Thanks for your help! 
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Thanks for the previous conversation, slightly help. I just constructed a scale for one of my independent variable through PCA (principal component analysis) and have many of my values as negative ( range from -8 to 7) . I am studying two independent variables with ( uncertainty avoidance and social trust) and dependent variable antibiotic use to see if increase in uncertainty avoidance, increases consumption of antibiotic and on the other hand, if increase in social trust decrease antibiotic use. I am yet to decide the type of regression to use. Any insight, all be helpful too. Thanks, all appreciate timely response.
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Is there any inequality in wages?
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Women and the war for talent
“Science is a great leveller and from a gender perspective we have some very smart women in STEM ...
Making gender diversity happen has plenty of advocates on both sides of the do it on merit or do it by quota schools of thought...
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I am working on the failure of USAID in promoting the universality of gender mainstreaming policy. I only doubt whether there are any activities or projects funded by USAID failing to promote gender equality? Any examples or readings? Where could I find this kind of information? Any suggestions? Thank you
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@Gladys Thank you very much for your recommendation!
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The Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC) at Curtin University, together with the Economics Society of Australia’s Women in Economics Network (WEN) are pleased to announce the Australian Gender Economics Workshop.
We are also delighted to confirm our keynote speakers: Professor Alison Booth (Australian National University) and Associate Professor Betsey Stevenson (University of Michigan).
While substantial progress toward gender equity has been made over the past decades, key gaps in various life aspects relating to family, education, employment, wealth, security, voice and agency remain. There is a need for new insights to better understand the role and impact of gender on all economic and social domains, and to translate these insights into actions. The workshop aims to help fill this gap.
This workshop will provide researchers with a forum for presenting and discussing innovative research incorporating gender analysis in all areas of economics. We invite both theoretical and empirical contributions to the workshop, but priority will be given to papers that can inform policy-relevant questions.
The workshop will include a special policy session involving senior influencers from government, research, industry and not-for-profit communities. The purpose of this session is to draw research insights from the workshop together in ways that will actively shape policies to enhance the status of women across the full spectrum of economic and social outcomes.
Submissions
Researchers interested in participating in the workshop should submit an extended abstract or a full paper by email to Astghik Mavisakalyan (http://bcec.edu.au/about/people/astghik-mavisakalyan) by November 17, 2017. Notifications will be sent by November 24, 2017. If accepted, the authors will be required to email their full paper to Astghik Mavisakalyan by January 19, 2018.
Practical information
Authors who are invited to present their papers are expected to participate in the entire two day workshop. There is no registration fee for presenters however they will be responsible for covering their travel and accommodation expenses. Practical information will be emailed in due course. Meanwhile, inquiries related to travel to the workshop and other practical matters should be addressed to Kelly Pohatu (http://bcec.edu.au/about/people/kelly-pohatu).
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Best wishes for the conference. I can send paper on Promoting Gender equality in LDCs through sharing domestic work by the use of electronic instruments.
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Welcome,
I'm starting a discussing in regards to martial arts, more specifically Karate and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu but all experiences are welcome, and it's aggressive connotations it brings. I have practiced Shotokan Karate for many years now and have realised that different disciplines and their ways of teaching can be more aggressive however, how do you perceive it to be? 
Additionally politics within my particular association is something that has been very apparent, what do I mean by politics within martial arts? Well, in various martial arts you are graded; put through a series of movements, kata's and sparing; so you can progress onto the next belt colour (not the case for BJJ; being the reason I would state this discipline to be less politically orientated). I have witnessed various people that have been placed in these political agendas that shouldn't even be imposed on them, resisting could mean a lessened likely-hood of progression. 
Additionally on the argument that martial arts is gendered, I also have seen classes in which this works both ways; only women or only men; whether through intimidation or club rules. Though the gendered embodiment this martial arts brings to all kinds of people, but in this case women, is something I want to discuss. What is your stance on female empowerment within the martial arts society. 
I hope I have been clear and that the examples used were of any assistance. Please share your knowledge and experience with me and be as direct as you like If you would like to contact me personally please do; kevincantanhede@hotmail.co.uk
I am basing my work predominantly in the UK but this does not mean that ethnography's or experiences from elsewhere are not welcomed. Please do share.
I appreciate your time. Thank you.
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Good Luck for your idea which is thought provoking,Martial Art is best phenomena for women empowerment.
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I am writing a dissertation on "Ethnographic Study of Gender Inequality and Racial Discrimination within UK Private Sector Prison Services" I am looking for journals relating to violence, conflict , and gender inequality in the private sector of prison  Services
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Tony Walker on Ethnography.com has written quite a bit on the ethnography of California prisons, and the racial dimension of conflict within the CA prison system...he can be contacted on academia.edu, and you can check out his posts on ethnography.com on his prison ethnography. Hope this is useful to you.
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Is Western Art history the story seen from the male point of view?
What about women artists?
Where's their story?
What was their influence in art at the time?
Are they lost for art history?
Or has art history to be rewritten?
Are they all forgotten?
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The classic answer to this question is in Linda Nochlin's 1971 article, "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists." Definitely read this if you genuinely are interested in the question. 
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I need to rank the various methods, that can be used to improve financial literacy, according to their importance using the Relative Importance Index (RII). Please help by identifying possible ways.
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With   rapidly   changing   financial   markets   and   increasing   individual   responsibility—in particular  for  retirement  income—being  able  to  make  informed  financial  decisions  has become of paramount importance. The gender gap in financial literacy continues to persist even after taking into account marital status, education, income, and other socioeconomic characteristics. Gender differences occur not only in objective measures of financial literacy but also in self-reported financial literacy measures. We  also  show  that  financial  literacy  can  be  linked  to  behavior:  Those  who  are  more  financially literate are more likely to plan for retirement, to invest in the stock market and pay attention  to  fees and  to  borrow  at low  costs. To  evaluate  financial  literacy,  respondents  were  asked  three  simple  questions  covering  fundamental  concepts  of  economics  and  finance,  expressed  in  everyday  terms  that  require simple interest  rate  calculations  and  an  understanding  of  the  workings  of  inflation  and risk diversification.
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What are some ways in which, we can encouraged female participation in development in the society, ways to empower them to do things and voice their thoughts. Promote gender equality. 
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we should educate our students in terms of gender equality.We need to raise our sons to respect and value women . 
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wish to find out how women representation in public enterprise is still at its lowest, can i get some literature or studies to this effect?
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I guess this paper can be seen as a good example for the gender relations in African agriculture.
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I'm looking for qualitative methods to evaluate policies concerning gender equality.
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Hi Helen,
I recommend a report on behavioural change measurement by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission: http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC83284.pdf. Behavioural science can be useful when designing a new policy, implementing it or evaluating it. Hope this helps.
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Nowadays, more and more female have opportunity to engage a variety of occupations, not only working in the traditionally female jobs, also can be a manager or other important post in the workplace. However, still have some information shows the opportunity for female have some limits, I want to know why female still have some limits in the workplace and is it common.
hope you can help me to complete this questionnaire, please click the link below.
many thanks :-)
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Dear Ji, 
As a woman with a career it is easy to identify some of the obstacles besides the male fear that keeps us in an inferior position: 
Szameitat and coworking: "Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job."
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I need a validated/standardized questionnaire to assess the forms of and factors that contribute to gender inequalities or discriminations within the context of community development.
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Dear Charles,
You may find that the Dutch Gender Imapct assessment instrument does give you very valubale information on the forms of and factors that contribute to gender inequalities or discriminations within the context of community development. 
It is an instrument that hs been used several times, but do keep in mind that is a qualitative instrument!
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I am particularly trying to find an instrument that will measure employees unconscious mindset bias when thinking about promoting women and minorities to executive level positions in the workplace.
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In Network Rail
  • The diversity and inclusion team met with local management to agree a course of action that would support behavioural and culture change.
  • Regular monthly meetings are now in place with staff and managers, which is starting to generate good debate and actions.
  • Around 90 staff attended a briefing about the importance of diversity and inclusion and behaviours to our business.
  • The management team attended our Inclusive Leadership Programme.
  • Local diversity champions have been identified to promote diversity and inclusion and provide support/guidance to people.
  • Trade Union Equality Representatives have been appointed.
These activities have led to a substantial improvement in the unit’s performance, a more collaborative, safer-feeling environment and greater awareness of issues, such as the part that unconscious bias plays in relationships.
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I am in need of any articles which identify traits, behaviors, etc... that heterosexual women should, or should not, possess in order to be deemed romantically desirable. Any articles which connect romantic desirability to prescriptions or proscriptions for women would be especially helpful. 
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Since this is highly individual -- as in: what a certain person desires can be so very different from what another person desires and differences across the gender spectrum are probably less distinct than differences within certain areas of the gender spectrum -- I'm not sure this is done anymore and if, I would take it with a huge grain of salt.   What is the context you need it for and are you saying academic articles or articles addressing the general public?
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gender equality is an issue at all levels of education in Nigeria. it has a free and compulsory universal basic education with 2 per cent of the nations consolidated revenue fund dedicated for it. Coverage is not complete and gender disparities still exist with many children out of school and girls in particular. I want to find out if complete participation of school aged children and gender equality is possible when the basic education financing is gender responsive. Is gender responsive budgeting the only framework for such analysis? These are the issues I am exploring to aid my research. Thank you
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What do you mean by equality? Getting the same education or having the same level of access? Or do you mean performing the same at the end? 
If we use money to force equality, we shall never succeed to have equality. May be, we can enforce to equity (referring to access)!
As Michelle put in her writings above, gender equality in education is largely affected by culture. Money can never solve it!
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Does anybody has articles about femicide and media coverage?
Thanks
Ariana
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Dear Ariana,
Kindly check these articles
1. An Examination of the Media Portrayal of Femicide–Suicides: An Exploratory Frame Analysis. Available athttp://fcx.sagepub.com/content/9/1/24.abstract
2.Exploring News Coverage of Femicide: Does Reporting the News Add Insult to Injury?http://fcx.sagepub.com/content/6/3/178.abstract
3.The Media and Gender-Based Murders of Women: Notes on the Cases in Europe and Latin America.https://eu.boell.org/en/2014/07/24/media-and-gender-based-murders-women-notes-cases-europe-and-latin-america
4.Online Newspaper Coverage of Femicide in Chile and the US. available athttps://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/handle/1808/12257/NeiraMellado_ku_0099M_12889_DATA_1.pdf?sequence=1
5.The Prejudices of Portrayal: A Study of Femicide Reporting in Select Indian Newspapers. available athttp://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:am&volume=7&issue=1and2&article=016
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I am currently teaching a course in moral education. And I am on the look out for ideas and resources to enrich the course menu. I found in the ongoing debate on indices that signify quality of life recurrent references to satisfaction of various human needs. Similarly, my lecture notes give attention to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, among others. That realization brought up this question for which I seek answers:Is there a connection between a person's moral life and their quality of life? 
Rose.
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It turns out that this is a question I am in the early stages of researching (which of course is not very helpful for the course you are now teaching, but will be great if you get a chance to teach it again in a few years!) Work I've seen so far suggests the answer is yes. For instance, spending money for the sake of others predicts increased happiness, living up to value commitments leads to satisfaction, and performing moral acts increases both happiness and sense of purpose. I've found less work about the mechanisms that drive these results and the long term effects, which I hope to remedy in the near future. Citations for a few relevant articles are below.
Dunn, Elizabeth W., Lara B. Aknin, and Michael I. Norton. 2014. “Prosocial Spending and Happiness Using Money to Benefit Others Pays Off.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 23(1):41–47.
Hitlin, Steven. 2007. “Doing Good, Feeling Good: Values and the Self’s Moral Center.” The Journal of Positive Psychology 2(October):249–59.
Hofmann, Wilhelm, Daniel C. Wisneski, Mark J. Brandt, and Linda J. Skitka. 2014. “Morality in Everyday Life.” Science 345(SEPTEMBER):1340–43.
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I am doing research in rural villages in Cambodia and exploring issues of gender, migration, labor and poverty. If you can refer me to any good research, I would much appreciate it. I am particularly interested in push/pull factors for informal migration, notions of self-worth and self-esteem on decisions to migrate, and gender factors on perceptions of community issues, vulnerability, and agency.
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Robert, I take up similar issues not in my research but in my teaching, and I have found useful the work of Rhacel Salazar Parreñas on female migrant labor (Children of Global Migration, Intimate Labors (on care work), Asian Diasporas (edited volume), in addition to the following:
Andersen, Michelle J. . (1993). A License to Abuse: The impact of Conditional Status on Female Immigrants [The Yale Law Journal, 102(6).
Bonacich, Edna, Alimahomed, Sabrina, & Wilson, Jake B. (2008). The racialization of global labor. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(3), 342-355.
A little dated, but articles in: Barbara Ehrenreich & Arlie Russell Hochschild (Eds.) (2002) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Henry Holt and Company.   
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I am interested in researching gender equality curricula in early education. As a guiding principle, I argue that social gender equality will not be attained without an educational component whereby children are not only taught, explicitly, gender equality curricula, but also incorporated into an environment where gender equality is practiced.
I have been disappointed to find little academic research in this area that is not primarily concerned with gendered responses to inequities (for example, how to encourage more girls to participate in mathematics, and how to help boys improve their reading skills).
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Dear Kristen Liesch-Goodkey
Just a short email to inform you that I could recommend a book by Glenda McNaughton (2000), "Rethinking Gender in Early Childhood Education," Unwin Hyman. I think might help to you.
Best regards
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Is capitalism the main source of explanation or are there other explanations which outweigh capitalism? 
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 Hi Con Your question has cheered me up today - thank you!  
Some women committed to redistributive feminisms might say that gender inequalities are caused by the patriarchy, alongside sexisms intersection with racist, disablist and homophobic discrimination and barriers to equality, that create inequalities experienced by women.  That's not to say capitalism isn't patriarchal too, but the two explanations are different, from a feminist perspective.  Depending on which gender inequalities you are concerned with, would depend upon the explanations you looked for (e.g. are the gender inequalities  you seek to explain linked to violence, health, income, education, housing, transport, welfare, crime etc)?/ I think we are much too nuanced now as a movement to think that one explanation of inequality can suffice in every context.
If you are new to the discussion between feminisms and capitalism, try starting with Nancy Fraser:http://www.ssnpstudents.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Feminism-Capitalism.pdf
If you are more advanced and want to think about gender inequalities in the current recession, try Sylvia Walby's awesome new book, Crisis.  
I suspect every feminist, socialist and capitalist will have a different answer to your question and you may have restarted a vibrant century-long debate!  Do send me a copy when you write on this subject and in the meantime, join us in trying to wear our privileges lightly!
Hope that helps,
Susie
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It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles, cultural and traditional values. Is important given to the gender equally? Are the women treated as they are being praised by the traditional values? Have they gained their values truly? 
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From the non-profit groups I attend the non-academic street view of this question is:
At different times different genders gain prominence in the justice systems of various nations. At one time, in the west, men got everything during a divorce, now in many instances women get greater control. It tends to fluctuate back and forth until some kind of fair equalibrium is reached. In Canada men are now demanding fairness in the courts, and slowly they are being listened to, as I said it has to be fair and this takes time.
Sexual assault used to be common on dates without much of a consequence to men or the offender, but not anymore, it is now a criminal offence. For instance, the downside of this new defence for women is that honourable men feel uncomfortable walking through playgrounds populated by mothers and children. However as more men care for children this discomfort should ease.
Of course in developing nations these transitions to fairness are yet to begin or are in a very early formative stage. All genders are more or less conscious of what could be or are struggling to formulate or achieve it.
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I am interested in exploring questions pertaining to the possibility of realizing gender equality within marital relationships and happy family life of couples in the age range of 20 to 55 years. I am thinking of gender here as the socially constructed roles, behaviors, feelings and attitudes expected of girls and boys, women and men, in a given society. I am also thinking of it in terms of the rights, power and privileges accorded or denied as well as the restrictions and taboos imposed on any sex. I make a distinction between sex (the condition of being male or female) which is biological, natural and fairly constant, and gender which is social, cultural, human-made, learned and therefore changeable. Furthermore, I think of gender equality as a situation where girls and boys, women and men, have equal opportunities for participation and enjoyment of rights, responsibilities and privileges in their society without any legal, cultural, political, economic, religious, or social hindrance on the basis of their sex. How is gender equality expressed in terms of distribution of roles, responsibilities and opportunities among family members? What role do educational attainment, religious beliefs and attitudes or the lack thereof, play in influencing such distribution in matters of: participation in family leadership/decision-making (about finance, recreation/vacation, child-bearing/rearing/caring, child-spacing, keeping a job or letting a job go, etc); who calls the shots? participation in home-making, cooking, serving, cleaning, etc; cultural/social symbolizations and ritualizations: that is who does what, why, when, where and how, based on whether they are boy or girl, woman or man? Who leads the family devotion for example? E.g who drives the car when the couple travels together? Who sits where at table? Who speaks and who must be silent? How are these symbolizations and ritualizations justified? Are the gendered practices around participation in roles, responsibilities and opportunities in family settings contributing to the overall wellbeing of humanity in light of the United Nations sustainable development goals? The questions raised here are not concerned with LGBT issues. Rather they are concerned with gender issues that are a matter of life and death for many women and girls in many world contexts. So please if anyone knows of real life examples of couples and families, anywhere the world, who are living on a basis of gender equality or if someone has any literature related to the subject of this research interest, I will be very grateful if they can share with me.
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My answer is yes, but the larger question is about cultural gender norms. Heteronormative gender norms are deeply policed within every culture throughout the world (for the most part because of the legacy of patriarchy and colonization). While you say this has nothing to do with LGBT people, it actually does. Gender norms restrict everyone's abilities to flourish in the world in the way that they were meant to be, straight women, straight men, cis-gender women, cis-gender men, and lgbti people. Gender norms are strict in order to maintain power for the patriarchal structures that exist in most cultures. Look to cultures that are matriarchal (some American Indian cultures & Akan in Ghana, etc.). Anyway, this is a very important question that you are asking as we know....as the health and well-being of women in the world go...so goes the health and well-being of the world
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Thank you everyone for your comments and ideas. The survey is now live and I would be very grateful if you pass it on to your networks! Dawn
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It looks like a fascinating subject. I play the guitar (though not as much as I would like to) and occasionally compose. On reading your research subject I dived into the Internet and discovered a wealth of women composers I had never heard of - with a few exceptions such as Clara Schumann and Hildegard von Bingen. After that, there is a huge jump to pop music and some wonderful compositions by Carole King.
Are there any composers you would like to recommend to me?
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I am doing a research on the role of communication in addressing gender-based violence in Ghana, with the view of the use of strategic communication  to modify social norms and attitudes that sanction male dominance.
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I agree with Susan's comments about intersectional theory.  
Another resource that would be useful is Westlund 1999 - she talks about the use of modern and postmodern power in the context of domestic violence. 
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I know Hills' chapter in the Azzarito's book about visual method (Routledge), but is it the unique work abuot diversity/masculinities using this new methodology?
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Can't help you there with a specific reference but I think it would make a great study. I have used visual methodology, with a colleague, to explore our teaching of outdoor education  which in New Zealand is a PE context. We look at the way we have used experiential learning in our teacher education for outdoor education.
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I Operate on Gender Responsive Budgeting: GRB in Thailand. I found that the key issue of dealing with the GRB in Thailand is the lack of evidence or technical documentation or research papers supporting the outcome of GRB that could reduce the disparity and inequality in society, including Best Practices. Such experience-based information would enable the mandate that plays a major role in determining the form and method of budgeting of the country to become aware of GRB’s significant benefits, and would possibly agree to modify the format of the public sectors’ budgeting across the country as GRB. Although I examined so many research documents from multiple databases, unfortunately, found no such information. So Please recommend the articles, books, research or academic documents that can confirm or indicate that Gender Responsive Budgeting could reduce the disparity and inequality in society.
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Dear Bamboo Allcen,
Could you read Spanish? If yes, I recommend you to go tohttp://www.juntadeandalucia.es/haciendayadministracionpublica/planif_presup/genero/preguntas.htm
The Junta de Andalucia is using the GRB since 2003 and there you can find answers for your questions and solutions. 
where you can find a lot of bibliography in Spanish but also in English.
Good luck!!
Gloria
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I am looking for statistics on the representation of female technical staff in the German Tech sector, companies like Deutsche Telekom, BMW, SAP, Software AG, etc.
Tracy Chou maintains a list for a number of Silicon Valley firms in the US:
however, I have been unable to find a similar list for Germany.
Any assistance would be appreciated.
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Dear Richard,
Thanks.
By BIBB, do I take it that you mean the Bundesinstitut für Berufsbuildung, http://www.bibb.de?
Mark
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I am doing a case study research about gender relations analysis of tea plucker
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Hello Kralawi
These might be helpful, but I’m not sure whether some of them are new enough to be appropriate for your research:
Summer, A., & Sun, M. (2014). Towards Gender Equality through Fairtrade? A Case Study on Small-scale Tea Farmers in Nandi Hills, Kenya.
Luke, N., & Munshi, K. (2011). Women as agents of change: Female income and mobility in India. Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 1-17.
Onduru, D. D., De Jager, A. D., Hiller, S., & Bosch, R. V. D. (2012). Sustainability of smallholder tea production in developing countries: Learning experiences from farmer field schools in Kenya. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 1(3), 714-742.
This is a thesis:
Banerjee, S. (2014). Nurturing resistance: agency and activism of women tea plantation workers in a gendered space.
I think this might be relevant but I have not been able to access the full text and the date is 2004:
Ruwanpura, K. N., & Humphries, J. (2004). Mundane heroines: Conflict, ethnicity, gender, and female headship in eastern Sri Lanka. Feminist Economics, 10(2), 173-205.
This - see p.26 - discussed a 2005 paper:
Mikkola, A., & Miles, C. A. (2007, April). Development and gender equality: Consequences, causes, challenges and cures. In UNU-WIDER Project Meeting on" Gender and Food Security," May (pp. 17-19).
Very best wishes
Mary
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I'm conducting a research to see how recruitment promotion and leadership processes can enhance gender equality in higher learning institutions.
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This might also be of interest.
Regards, Jackie
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I'm part of a keynote panel session at a conference in early June on Why we should champion equality in the IT workplace.  We will explore the definition of equality and the root causes of inequality in our industry, and the ethical and operational benefits of championing equality and I would like to have the most recent statistics possible. This panel will pose questions such as - are we limited by stereotypical gender roles? Do we take an open enough approach to demographics such as age and ethnicity? 
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Hi Simone, I'm not sure if you are looking for international figures or only for the USA?
In case you are looking for international data, have a try on Eurostat's data base: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database
You'll find the "Information Society Statistics" under the Link "Industry, Trade and Services". In the drop down menues you can specify besides age classes also the variable "sex".
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I want to measure peoples' conviction that typically "male" and typically "female" behaviour and skills are biologically based and fixed vs. culturally determined and malleable. It could be something akin to racial essentialism measures like the one below... 
No, S. et al. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans’ responses toward American culture. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 95, 991–1004 (2008).
The Lay Theory of Race Scale
1. To a large extent, a person’s race biologically determines
his or her abilities and traits.
2. Although a person can adapt to different cultures, it is
hard if not impossible to change the dispositions of a
person’s race.
3. How a person is like (e.g., his or her abilities, traits) is
deeply ingrained in his or her race. It cannot be changed
much.
4. A person’s race is something very basic about them and
it can’t be changed much.
5. Races are just arbitrary categories and can be changed if
necessary.
6. Racial categories are constructed totally for economic,
political, and social reasons. If the socio-political situation
changes, the racial categories will change as well.
7. Race does not have an inherent biological basis, and thus
can be changed.
8. Racial categories are fluid, malleable constructs.
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Hi Gosia, we have used the scale in the paper below:
Coleman, J. M., & Hong, Y. Y. (2008). Beyond nature and nurture: The influence of lay gender theories on self-stereotyping. Self and Identity, 7(1), 34-53.
It's 11 items, rather reliable, and did a nice job for us.  On the face of it the items are quite similar to the examples you've posted and so I think it's the one you want.  
Cheers!
Robbie
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I am working with the assumption that experiential learning  methodologies enable people with diverse experiences, such as different levels of education or variations in formal power, or gender to equally meet set  learning objectives in training situations. A woman member of a village leadership coalition attending a particular training situation,  for instance, observed that  she had learnt a great deal  from EASUN's training compared to many other situations where they are given a lot of papers (handouts) but end up internalizing extremely little (she used the expression: "where we end up learning nothing"). 
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Marginalized including
  1. Structural vulnerability
  2. Environmental vulnerability
In girls
FOR
DEVELOVELOPMENT
AND
IMPLEMENTATION
OF
MONITORING
FRAMEWORK
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For example, a woman being interviewed by a panel of men, or a man being interview by a panel of women. Note:In situation where there are only men or only women, any journals on the subject would be appreciated. Or, write what you think.
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Hi Daryn
Focus groups could be used in a number of ways but given the nature of your interest you would need to avoid creating bias in the study overall. I'd suggest some kind of design where you have one single-sex group of males, one of females, and one mixed addressing each focal topic, backed up by a broader sample of single interviews. If you do within company studies, then you could include in your sample companies that have already been recognised for their exemplary equality policies (Judy Wajcman did this in her 1998 study Managing Like a Man, and she found that even in these companies it is not the policy that makes a difference but the culture that interprets and conditions the application of the policy).This concern with policy activation through attention to process and culture is a recurrent theme of the reports of the Equal Opportunities and Human Rights Commission in the UK (called Sex and Power, they come out every two years - one is due this year) where despite greater workforce presence by women, presence at board level still languishes below 20% for most types of organization.
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Specifically, I would like to measure the participants' judgments of merit and deservingness of affirmative action beneficiaries (quotas, for instance) after they read some scenarios.
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Thank you, Arin, we will measure the participants judgments about quotas. But we need some items to measure also the participants judgments (or perceptions) of beneficiaries' abilities, competence, or merit.
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I suppose there must be some kind of mechanisms, racism or whatever that discourages women from vindicating a post in school leadership and explains the very low percentages of women school leaders in the educational system.
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The journal Discourse has as it's paper of the month Jill Blackmore's "Doing 'emotional labour' in the education market place" free for March. 
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Gender studies and advocacy have been understood to proceed from the premise that women and girls are victimized by various forms of discrimination which adversely affect their individual and collective development and depreciate their societal value. Therefore gender advocates seek to correct the imbalances. The question is: where both boys and girls suffer similar abuses, how should gender advocacy be adjusted to accommodate all interests?
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I believe the fundamental premise behind gender studies (and anything that flows from there) is recognition of the differentiated burdens and benefits placed on different genders. While one could argue who suffers greater burdens but I think men suffer in different ways from patriarchy and enjoy a different set of benefits as opposed to women/girls; and unless this fact is acknowledged I suppose problem resolution and/or transitioning towards equity is difficult (whether we choose to refer to it as gender equity/feminism/substantive equality and so on). Even in respect to the specific burdens women shoulder, integration of men into the dialogue is imperative (for the flows take place men and women) and along with it a dialogue on the burdens men shoulder is also imperative (such as, the great burden of being masculine at all times/ repression of display of emotions, inherent expectations to be the bread winner and so on). Also, so many issues affect both men and women, say CSA, and in some ways the burden on boys is greater for in many cultures it is unacceptable for boys/men to talk about sexual abuse. I think it is only ethical to do so, I believe this shall also make both groups more sensitive and open to examining how gender plays out in their lives/community.
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1. how to construct observation schedule
2. suggest any schedule
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I suggest using ground theory approach (inductive). From the observation and a small interview of experts you can design your schedule. I agree with ethnographic methodologies
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When working in environments where cultural or religious opposition to women's empowerment is comparatively strong, do donors and international agencies (e.g., UN Women, ILO, UNDP) adopt a more conservative tack or charge ahead? In either case, do they run into government opposition and how is this manifested? Are they able to stay below the radar and achieve progress on the ground or, conversely, do they purposely adopt a proactive stance as a way to affect government perceptions of gender and the value of women's empowerment? Do they adopt coping strategies such as focusing on less controversial issues, such as education and employment or selecting politically powerful CSOs as partners?
I have a student working on a thesis on this topic relating to a specific situation in the Middle East and we are not finding much research on donor strategies (as opposed to either a) self-serving promotional pieces on gender programs or b) discussions of women's status in the region. None of these address the question above, however.
I'm looking for references but will also take opinions expressed by professionals or academics working in this area.
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Being completly familiour with Middle East, first of all, it is very important,NOT to see the Middle East as a one;  this area or this sub- continent has a very different divisions of cultures in it; Also, donors have their ownmany levels and degrees in their plans and purposes. Therefore, by law of probebality, it would be very confusing to categorize all those conditions in a couple of gender- related hypothesis; perhaps, a Case study, or a comparative study of two, would be more informative, and productive, as a source of study or as a citation- source for others.
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Anybody working on muslim women, sport and leisure in Europe, and how local governments are managing cultural and religious diversity in a gender perspective? I'm looking for qualitative studies carried out in South EU countries. 
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Your most welcome, Maria. I am so pleased to find others who are interested in gender studies.
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In Africa, urban people are commonly more supportive of girls’ education as well as women’s labour force and political participation. This relationship between place and gender beliefs is statistically significant when controlling for level of education and media exposure.
I suspect this rural-urban difference is because higher population densities in urban areas enable (1) exposure (to a critical mass of counter-stereotypical women in cities, demonstrating their equal competence) and (2) association (and collective reflection on shared experiences). I plan to undertake some research with rural-urban migrants in Zambia to ask their perspectives on this. 
Would be very grateful for suggestions for similar, comparative rural-urban studies. These needn't be limited to gender. Thank you.
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I can only speak from my experiences in Mozambique but it seems to me labour force and political participation are both culturally constructed practices  and while they do overlap, they don't tend to fit into western categories of what constitutes labour force and political participation. 
Let me back up and first address the question of education. In Mozambique, while it is true that girls in rural areas often leave school at greater rates, the presumption that this is because rural parents don't value education is historically and currently false, or at the very least a gross generalization. Historically, educated women were considered more attractive brides because of their greater capacity to contribute to family income, even in rural areas. The contribution of women to family economic well being was important enough that parents were/are willing to risk that education leads young women (and men) to leave rural areas for better paying jobs in urban centers, although their movement back and forth may be rather fluid.  Rural families in general tend to be morally more conservative in many areas including dress. Women wear ankle length capulanas or wraps. Since the state has instituted uniform policies, young girl must now wear uniforms that show their ankles and therefore do not conform to the dress codes of the community. While this alone has made parents reluctant to send girls to school, the greater issue is the fact that the schools in rural areas are very poor quality and there is a very high rate of sexual assault of female students by their male peers and teachers.  To have their daughters morally corrupted AND come out illiterate makes no sense to most parents. In some areas that are predominately muslim, while the official statistics indicate a high attrition of girls from the public schools, a closer look shows that many parents withdrew their daughters and sent them to koranic schools instead. In other parts of the country, parents belief that rituals and rites of passage are education and so in some instances, it isn't that they don;t value education but a kind of education not recognized in our western conceptions of mass schooling.
As for political participation and gender and place, at least in Mozambique, the problem has been that much of the research has imposed western definitions and understanding of power and political participation.  In many regions of the country, people express dismay when democracy experts insist that individuals in the same family can vote for different people and western scholars have interpreted this as a lack of understanding of democratic participation. But really what goes on is that families may have very heated discussions about how they will participate in elections and in many areas democracy is considered women's work (that is, the women of the family decide). In some instance the family may decide to split their votes: half goes to have tea and vote for one party and the other half goes to have tea and votes for the other party. This is not for lack of understanding but their attempt to avoid anyone winning by a huge landslide and causing the kind of political asymmetry that historically has led to wars.  Moreover, in rural areas, the idea that women are the keepers of democracy comes from their association with agricultural production (and thus their proximity to the land and to the ancestors and their wisdom). Westerner observers note women's reluctance to comprise 50% of the poll watchers (a western understanding of gender equity in political participation) and not understand that this is meaningless expression of political participation when they could be in the field working the land that DOES give women their power in political participation.  I hope I have not muddied the waters too much ; )
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Wage could differ by gender. At identical work, identical tasks but the payment is various. It is correct? Maybe your answer will clarify this common, ordinary historical fact in many organizations and countries.
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I will give my contribute based on the tourism sector and its reality. Unlike what you may think, employment is mostly filled by women candidates. The majority of tourism jobs are held by women who, in most cases, may even have more academic qualifications than their bosses. And yes, their bosses are precisely men. Men who decided to invest and somehow made it on top and now became bosses. I say bosses because it has a different concept than being a manager or a leader. To sum up, women are the ones whose personality and attitudes are closest to being leaders by nature. Men hold the best positions and women the worst and when compared, men bosses earn more than their female counterparts. There are significant differences in terms of those salaries. However, when it comes to employees there are also differences but those tend to be slight less significant than when compared with bosses. But still, men earn more than women and the fact is that every gender is capable of doing a perfect job and in a smart way.
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There are projections for an increase in the frequency and intensity of disasters such as floods, cyclones, and droughts in the future due to climate change (depending on locations). Women in third world countries are responsible for food production (agriculture, livestock and fisheries), collection of water and bio-fuel and management of natural resources. They are caregivers of children, sick elderly, the home, and assets. More deaths among women were recorded during disasters (cyclones, Tsunami) than men. Does it mean that women in poor countries are more vulnerable to disasters than men? If yes, what measures can reduce vulnerability of third world women from disasters while allowing them to produce food, take care of children and the elderly, the home, and their assets?
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Dear Prof Nageswara Posinasetti, the links and publication you referred to were helpful
regards
Golam
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see above
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Thank you sir its really helpful.
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Do you know any studies which confirmed such hypothesis?
I am waiting for your recommendations (regarding specific reports, articles you know).
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Dear Aysha, your passion is admirable and it is this passion that no doubt has been responsible for the support that shelter victims have received. I understand the concern that the recent attacks on issues such as women's health have made it clear that gains achieved in the late 20th century are not as stable as young adults perceive them to be. However, where there are statements that might feel true based on lived experience they are not supported by research studies. I've provided some cites for the many of the observations I've noted below.
IPV rates have declined in the US, while lower, it is at a rate comparable with crime in general (including assaults). Among college students females engage in more IPV than males.
Regarding "Backlash" this isn't coming solely from men. There are many women whose experiences are not consistent with those in shelters or murdered/attempted murder, particularly women who either experience only psychological IPV or mild-moderate physical IPV I have spoken with some and they feel that the traditional IPV advocates are overlooking their needs in order to provide support to shelter victims. To ignore these women's experiences is counter to the origins of feminist research. Because traditional IPV advocates are feminist's doesn't mean that all of their positions reflect feminist research principals.
Unfortunately, the evidence continues to mount against the traditional IPV model that "power and control" causes IPV among those who have been arrested for IPV or in the community. In fact, comparing outcomes for individuals who are arrested with no treatment and those who are arrested and receive treatment -- they have essentially the same outcomes. Instead of blaming this on men's resistance to treatment, substance abuse offenders had similar problems yet a treatment model was developed that gets results (Motivational Enhancement Interviewing). My concern is that unless traditional IPV advocates are willing to explore a more nuanced model and target funding for victims in their niche (shelters, hospital emergency room, protection orders) they are going to loose the VAWA funding as well as community funding becuase they blamed "blacklash" and tried to convince people to ignore research findings after 1995 instead of adapting their theory to accommodate the research in the past 15-20 years.
I began my Ph.D. program (recently) with similar views and it sounds like i grew up in the same timeframe as yourself. But as a researcher, I need to follow the data and explore the disconnect between the data and personal experiences/traditional IPV theory. Perhaps as researchers we have to become comfortable with holding paradox while following a theoretical position while continuously scanning the research for shifts.
Warmly, Kathy
Cho, H., & Wilke, D. (2005). How has the violence against women act affected the response of the criminal justice system to domestic violence. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 32(4), 125-140.
Catalano, S. (2007). Intimate Partner Violence in the United States. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://library.softgenx.com/Children/DV/ipv%201993-2004.pdf
Straus, M. A. (2008). Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 252–275, doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.10.004.
Langhinrichsen- Rohling, J., McCullars, A., & Misra, T. (2012). #10 Motivations for men and women’s intimate partner violence perpetration: A comprehensive review. Partner Abuse, 3(2), 1-33.
Stover, C. S., Meadows, A. L., & Kaufman, J. (2009). Interventions for intimate partner violence: Review and implications for evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(3), 223-233. 10.1037/a0012718
Stith, S. M., Smith, D. B., Penn, C. E., Ward, D. B., & Tritt, D. (2004). Intimate partner physical abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10(1), 65-98. 10.1016/j.avb.2003.09.001
Bohan, J. (2002). Sex differences and/in the self: classic themes and feminist variations, postmodern challenges. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 74-88.
Weisstein, N. (1993). Psychology constructs the female, or the fantasy life of the male psychologist (with some attention to the fantasies of his friends, the male biologist and the male anthropologist. Feminism & Psychology, 3:2, 195-210.
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I am writing an article about women who work in the veterinary field, mainly with farm animals. The intention is to evaluate the occurrence of gender discrimination practices against these professionals and analyze what is the main type of preconception suffered by female veterinarians in the field.
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I feel this study requires an emperical study. As far as i know there are very less women in this field
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I am working a project evaluating the effects of inequality of women PRIOR to conflict - along the lines of Dr. Hudson et al.'s "Women and Peace Theory."
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I have found the data required for the project I was working on. Thank you for all the responses.
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I live and do research in Sweden, a country well-known for promoting gender equality in both the workplace and in the home. Although women in Sweden work, to similar extents as men, fathers do not do as much child care as mothers.
I recently flew on Norwegian Airlines around Sweden. They played a video about how to buckle-up and turn your phone off. In their video they showed a mother and child working together to accomplish these tasks. Despite having three seats in the row, there was no father involved.
This Scandinavian airline commercial seems indicative of fathers either being absent or uninvolved. So I wondered--to what extent do we, as a society, really try to involve fathers into the routine daily life like child care?
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Yes, "instinct" is a catch-all word, like "virus." Every time I see the word "instinct" used, it has a different referent, particularly when referred to human behavior. I suppose one can refer to a mother´s biological instinct toward her babies, but how to explain the drive of the father in some animal species to kill his own cubs? Is this instinct? Is every act instinctive?
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Any theoretical or empirical analyses can work.
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Dear Pr Gartaula,
As I have received a PhD. in gender studies, I have developed further research in gender and entrepreneurship.
Recently, I have been very interested in gender issues concerning Mid-Eastern women in the context of entrepreneurship and management. Therefore, I would recommend you two interesting papers:
-Jamali, D. (2009), Constraints and opportunities facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries: A relational perspective, Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24 (4): 232-251
-Syed, J & Özbilgin, M. (2009), A relational framework for international transfer of diversity management practices, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20 (12): 2435-2453.
These two papers elaborate a very interesting cultural, strategic, and political framework that reveals the interactions between women and business world in a given context. Similarly, from a psychosocial point of view, in 2009, I have tried to analyse the interactions between women business owners and their employees and stakeholders in order to see how they elaborate their strategic and managerial decisions. However, I have overlooked the cultural and political context. If I would develop a new research on gender in the context of strategic choices, I would use Jamali's framework. At the same time, I have the impression that Jamali's framework should be more critical...here are the references of my paper:
Redien-Collot, R. (2009), «Female Entrepreneurs’Authority: Is the Creative Aspect of Authority a Masculine Fiction in Managerial and Entrepreneurial Paradigms? » , Journal of Enterprising Culture, 17 (4): 419-441. http://www.worldscinet.com/jec/17/1704/S0218495809000448.html
I can send you this paper if you are interested.
Best Regards
Renaud
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Developing data collections instruments like questionnaires needs to be considered in our research. What are the standards / guidelines to develop a questionnaire to capture gender bias perceptions in workplaces?
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Often questionnaires are added by the researchers in the appendix of their reports. I would suggest you to check relevant literature (deals with gender bias) and find whether any instrument is added in the appendix. You may visit www.ifpri.org and www.odi.org to find relevant grey literature.
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The recent appointment of a female President at Imperial College is very welcome, but still the exception. Only 11% of English pre-1992 universities have a female VC and that's despite a large growth in the female academic community. Any thoughts on why this might be?
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In reponse to point 1 above, indicating that some women academics have children - might not this observation also apply to some men?
For a scholarly view on the topic of gender balance in univesities, read:
Fotaki, M. (2013). No Woman is Like a Man (in Academia): The Masculine Symbolic Order and the Unwanted Female Body. Organization Studies.
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There is no true definition to the two words "gender" and "equality" and together it makes no sense, unless we start discussing the true meaning of the words and applying them.
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The main problem is, I guess, that gender is necessarily plural - not a dichotomy between male and female, but rather a big range of different identities, roles, aspirations and so on. So, if you talk about equality, you are not only talking about women's emancipation, but also about the creation of equal position for minority identities (like the famous topos of the black, lesbian communist with a disability).
Concerning this complex, it results hard not to fall into gender mainstreaming -that is, an approach with a considerable theoretic development but that remains reduced to women's emancipation and participation and does not really address the issue of gender at all.
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I am looking for international data on gender shares in the labor market. Does anybody know if there is international data on the gender share by occupation, preferably according to the ISCO-88 classification? I basically need to know how many women are working in each occupation for each country. I am particularly interested in the OECD countries.
Data sources with limited geographical coverage are also very welcome.
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You can use ILO database: http://laborsta.ilo.org/
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I'm beginning my research in this topic and I'd like to improve my literature review.
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Thanks Volker and Richard, I'll begin to read this books. Joaquín
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Environmental problems affect women differently than men because of the role they play in their communities.
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Fist things first, Africa is not a country but a continent. There will be differences in schooling depending on among other things, which country you are investigating, its geography, cultural values about educating girls (and boys) and social spending on education. Of course climate change may and probably does play a role, but the question is too general to provide a theoretical/methodological approach to solving it.
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My paper with Ani Mitra and Arnab Biswas suggests that it does, on average, but that it may not have any impact in countries where women are worst-off, and in the worst cases media freedom may even worsen matters. In highly unequal societies, increasing educational attainment overall, along with other strategies to promote development and economic growth seem to matter more.
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Thanks for sharing
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Many writers in social science use 'her' to show they are being considerate to gender, but in fact we are still prioritizing one sex over another (just the other way round) and for no clear reason. In these 'modern' times and in a societal context where there is no relevant difference, should we be either gender-neutral (they/their) .... or accurate in our references to he/she and show some real equality ?
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The generic "he" has been basically unacceptable in good academic writing for at least three decades (the issue first arose in the 1970s—read Robin Tolmach Lakoff's "Language and Woman's Place" and Miller and Swift's excellent "Handbook of Nonsexist Writing"). In my academic English writing courses for social scientists, I tell the participants to do one of three things:
First, if possible, convert the sentence into the plural (e.g., change "The average Dane drinks his coffee black" to "Most Danes drink their coffee black").
Second, as others have mentioned, when the plural form is inappropriate, use "he or she"—never "he/she" or "(s)he" because they are unpronounceable, and most readers "hear" the words in their heads as they are reading. The use of a blanket "he" or "she" for men and women alike is simply sexist writing, no matter what the intent.
Third, avoid the use of a great deal of "one," even when writing for a UK journal, for the simple reason that most non-native speakers of English use "one" incorrectly (many Americans do, too). I tell them to use "one" for the occasional sentence or paragraph, not for the entire paper. (I could go into this issue in detail but don't think that this is the place.)
One other point I always stress is that a good writer should never use "he" or "him" when discussing two males (or "she" or "her" when discussing two females), because the reader won't be able to tell which man the "he" is referring to. In English the solution to vagueness is always repetition: it's better to repeat the name and be clear than to use unclear pronouns.
I like Henk's comment about the Italian "Andrea"—or even the English "Pat" or "Lee," either of which could be male or female. Always do your homework.
In the end, perhaps the wisest choice is to pay attention to the language used in the papers published in the journal to which you plan to submit your paper. My observation is that the writers in the best journals always use either the plural or "he or she" as appropriate. In my 10 years of consulting in the social sciences, I have yet to run across one good journal that uses "she" across the board as some sort of antidote to the earlier generic "he."
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I've read Dyer & McCann (2000) and want to know if there's anything recent. It appears female custody litigants will score higher than males on scales 4, 5 and 7 since the BR scores are weighted differently for men and women, and I'm looking for recent research that may have built upon Dyer & McCann's child custody litigation norms to avoid false-positive diagnoses on these three scales.
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There are several studies that you need to review. McCann et al (2001) was the first that addressed the gender bias issues, with females scoring significantly higher on the Histrionic, Compulsive and Narcissistic scales, respectively. Halon (2001) also noted the normal "quartet" in custody, with elevations on the Desirability, Histrionic, Compulsive and Narcissistic scales. Hynan (2004) discusses the lack of support for females having higher scores on the three elevations (i.e., Histrionic, Compulsive and Narcissistic) in the general population. Even the MCMI-III manual [4th edition] discusses the problem with these three scales. The major problem, as noted by Craig (2006) is that the research does not support the interpretation of the Histrionic, Compulsive and Narcissistic scales; they do not measure those three concepts. I have added to the McCann et al (2001) database, and now have an n of 850. In my opinion, the MCMI-III should NOT be used in child custody evaluations due to the high probability of false positive elevations on theHistrionic, Compulsive and Narcissistic scales and inappropriate interpretations.
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If a training program is to be organized for women ULB officials, what should be put up as training components.
Following the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act in India, it has been made mandatory to reserve 33 % of ULB positions for women. In quantity the demand has been fulfilled, but there is certain lack of qualitative input by these women officials. Hence as part of Capacity Development Program for ULB, a training program is to be organized. Women in India have been holding a relegated position in society, not much aware of the development issue. Some require extensive awareness and training/capacity building programs. Are there any suggestions for a groundwork for such a program?
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1-planning and organizing to action for women's civic services
2- participation, team working and communications
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People are more caught up in the media with sexism and racism but we do not really hear how it affects the individual. Most people look at television commercials or ads and focus on what the ad says, but how about the person who actually has to be in the ad. Do you think that psychologically this person is affected.
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It causes a lot of insecurity. Many women are obsessed with being thin or being 'white'. Imagine the huge amounts of money spent on whitening products or getting rid of 'excess' fat. The concept of beauty has now been redefined by women and men themselves. I do not know who benefits from this and at whose expense.