Science topic

Gardening - Science topic

Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
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Anyone has experience/tips on which sensors are good for gardens or plants care? Off-shelf or self-built!
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take a look at the gardena smart system: https://www.gardena.com/se/
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I saw very different works during my researches. For some people, a species can be considered exotic in Europe when its native range is quite far from the continent, i.e. North America. Others prefer to consider it exotic when the native range falls in a different biogeographical region, i.e. a species from the Mediterranean Basin found in Germany.
If we are talking about phytophagous arthropods, things get worse, because their movement usually depends on their host plants, and therefore, on their introduction in different areas for gardening and horticulture purposes.
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Dear Dr Alice Casiraghi . See the following useful link:
CITE: Ramirez, K.S., Snoek, L.B., Koorem, K. et al. Range-expansion effects on the belowground plant microbiome. Nat Ecol Evol 3, 604–611 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0828-z
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Home gardening is the basic unit of food security, it can help in maintaining food security from the grass-root level, whey the scientific team and scholars are not paying attention to it what are the prospects and challenges in this regard.
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Yes I think that
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This is a climbing shrub grown in houses for the fragrant flowers in Salem, South India. I request the expert members for the species id of this Jasminum.
Thank you.
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It looks close to Jasminum azoricum L. of family Oleaceae.
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Looking for sources of literature that contain information about the technical details about food production on non-allotments plots in the time period 1850-1980. Methodology, heritage seeds, gardening methods, vegetables, flowers for sale, growing protein sources such as rabbits, swine, cattle, cheese production ect.
Calories demands of miners, industrial workers, spouses, children, and elderly
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A little off topic with respect to research methodologies, but I am interested in knowing what kind of plants, organic vegetables and flower our RG community likes.
If anyone of you undertakes any form of gardening, planting of vegetables or trees; please do share.
Moreover, guidelines and tips for the aforementioned activities will be more than appreciated.
Thanking you in advance!
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I've studies them in their natural environment, so you have to replicate the same conditions
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I am doing research that based on the impact of backyard food gardening on women empowerment. i want know more about the role and impact of change through this backyard gardening on women and poverty alleviation.
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Hi Nixolo,
A few years ago, I wrote an article which was published by the Nutrition Exchange about achievements of a group of women who collectively and individually do gardening in The Gambia. I hope you can get some points by reading the article in this link - https://www.ennonline.net/nex/4/en/womens
I also attached the file.
Best wishes
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I planted a couple of cypresses (Cypressus sempervirens pyramidalis). They grow well, but they are rather "slim" (narrow). I intend to plant a few more (1,5 metre high); I was told that if I cut the top of the plant, it will produce stronger branches (and become wider); it will also produce a new top. Is this correct?
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I thought the point (no pun intended) was to allow these cypresses to grow tall and thin, like a pencil. My impression is that these are not really meant to be trimmed or sculpted. If you are interested in wider cypresses or a cypress that's more adaptable while sculpting, maybe you could consider getting another variety.
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Hello all indoor gardening scientists and researchers. I wish to grow vegetatables in indoor 2000 sqft area.
I wish to know how... Name of vegetables, yield, approx investment and profit loss ratio. Which technology is best for... Commercial production?
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Tomato, chilli, capsicum, Broccoli, Mungbean, Cowpea, etc are easy to grow.
For the 1st time the investment will be more and less profit will be there but once it is established the profit wil be increased.
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Hello, as part of my research I am looking into the wellbeing of those employed in horticulture. Gardening is used as a restorative exercise, my question is gardening as a job as beneficial as doing it as a hobby?
I am going to use the Warwick Edinburgh as part of my research, can anyone recommend other questionnaires that would be useful in terms of questions to ascertain socio economic status etc
Many thanks
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Gardening as a job as opposed to a hobby? And you need to refine for socio-economic status? Not quite clear on the "etc." The first thought that comes to mind is where are they gardening and for whom? the for whom does not always have to be for a job, it could be for a charity, yet it is still 'a job, even if you do not receive remuneration? Unless, you have a separate category for charity work? What is the job description at the place of employ? Have you contemplated how a professional 'job', or even a 'charity' job align with the role a hobbyist gardener might have? You see, a job description places a certain degree of stressor on an individual because you have an obligation to perform, meet goals, to obtain your wage. A hobbyist would not necessarily have the same type stressor set; unless, they are supplementing their income by providing food stock for themselves or other family - especially children. A hobbyist might be a competitive grower - flower, fruits or vegetables - to take to show? The act of providing quality competitive materials might place a performance stressor on the individual; yet, it is not likely to be of the same effect or intensity of job performance.
When contemplating job performance - either professionally or as a hobbyist, it might help to consider the reporting level. For example a hot-headed boss or demanding, goal driven superior might possibly be as challenging as a nagging wife depending on the individuals constitution.
There are different types of gardens so it might be helpful to ask if it is ornamental gardening? food crop gardening? public gardening? private gardening? You could further refine for leisure or profit? State (as in government entity, hospital, etc) or NGO (as in open and available to public)? Private employ or NGO?
Level of professional certification or degree - University degree and the area of specialization - not every gardening is a doctor or farmer; RHS certification; landscape or garden design - either certificate or workshop? Societies or social groups - RHS? Orchid growers? Dahlia? Arborist? etc. Familial background - did mom or dad garden? grandma, grandfather? Did any of them grow up in or post depression? War - post-war? refugee? resettlement?
I suppose you could also enquire about personal and professional goals related to their gardening? Either in the form of advance planning each season, or in yields, or research, or advanced education?
Location - I think this might be telling in terms of income. Particularly if you ask for the post code of where they are gardening? Obviously certain post codes are going to be for affluent sections of the city, others not so? A suburban and country post code could also define income level. Although these numbers would end up being broad, it should still give you enough information to either infer or fine tune the variety of qualifiers.
Another unique question might be to ask if they are raising any form of livestock with their gardening. I am not thinking in terms of large scale livestock - like cows, swine or large chicken operations. I am thinking bees? rabbit? specialty chicken or specialty nubian or pigmy goats? Maybe quall, maybe pheasant? All of these speak to the upper-middle to affluent gardener.
I hope this might be of some help to you. Best - jody
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My understanding for a documentary I watched a while ago is that vegetables/crops grown in polluted soil have higher concentrations of toxins.
I know of a farmer who sells carrots grown on his farm that is in the vicinity of iron ore mines. the soil and water in the area is known to be polluted. How safe are these vegetables? Are there any publications / research papers on this topic?
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Some countries who are using treated waste water for irrigation obligate the farmers not to use such type of water to irrigate vegetables that its edible parts not to be in direct content with irrigation water (tubers, root vegetables ect.) . this is to reduce the contamination with microorganisms. but heavy metals are not avoidable if the soil is already contaminated with it.
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women preferences of private greenspace features/elements/facilities.
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from my research into cottage gardens in 19th century Scotland : women possibly excluded from "serious" gardening, ie growing veg, but not because it was too arduous as they were employed in the fields. But in fact they did engage in this kind of gardening. Flowers were certainly regarded as a feminine preoccupation in Victorian times. Medicinal plants too (witch connection)
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Number of gardeners, Area (total or average), Lot size, Garden types. Data per country or totally in Europe.
Thank you
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You find a lot of Information in this books:
Simon Bell; Rundrid Fox-Kämper et al. (Hg.) 2016: Urban Allotment Gardens in Europe
: COST Action 1201. London: Routledge.
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Rooftop gardening is very much important phenomena in urban areas for getting more fruits, vegetables and other crops. It is needed to low cost inputs for every one to practice rooftop gardening.
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Use of plastics in avoid leakage of water
Hydroponics can be used
To avoid weight on roof mixture of growing media such as vermiculite, perlite and cocopit can be used
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I am looking for the name of these vegetal species in the city of Beni Mellal in Morocco at the foot of the High Atlas mountains. The pictures 1,2,3,4 are taken in Mohamed V boulevard in the month of May. The pictures 5,6 are from the garden of Aïn Asserdoune.
Thank you.
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Plants are not identified by their vegetative structures like leaves and stems, rather they are identified by their reproductive structures such as flowers and fruits. Reproductive structures are missing from most of the posted plant specimens. Nevertheless, I have attempted to identify some of the plant specimens which are as follows:
C1 & C2: It may be Populus nigra of family Salicaceae
D1 & D2: This plant is Ficus benjamina of family Moraceae
F1 & F2: It looks Melaleuca viminalis (= Callistemon viminalis) of family Myrtaceae
H1 & H2: It seems Ficus retusa of family Moraceae
M1 & M2: This plant looks Eucalyptus camaldulensis of family Myrataceae
X: I am not sure about the identity this plant specimen. I would guess it as Populus angustifolia of family Salicaceae
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Dear researchers,
What do you think about Roundup herbicide that caused cancer to a gardener who decided to take the chemical giant (Monsanto) to trial??
The jury agreed that Roundup contributed to the cancer and decided then to award 289 million $ to the gardener (2 days ago).
It should be noted that Roundup is used by farmers for over 40 years for more than 100 crops and accounts for 25% of the global herbicide market in 130 countries.
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Dear Dr. Ali Alhayany, Dr. R. K. Sarkar, I agree with your views. Like Dr Amrit Lal Singh noted based on his experience in using Roundup (glyphosate) since 37 years now, I think there is need for an independent studies free from political interference to ascertain the toxicity level of it. If it does causes or stimulate the cause of cancer, maybe the market can be regulated. A total ban may not be given but some form of regulation.
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The diagnostic keys in most floras distinguish Catalpa and Paulownia by the position of their leaves. Catalpa: part of the leaves in whorls of three. Paulownia: leaves opposite.
A few days ago I encountered a young Paulownia tree with all leaves in whorls.
The European Garden Flora, vol, VI, p. 344 is the only reference I have found so far admitting Paulownia with leaves "occasionally in whorls".
Without flowers and fruit beginners often mix up Catalpa and Paulownia.
Any experience with Paulownia?
Should the keys in floras be corrected?
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Kumasi, the second capital town of Ghana was formerly known as 'the garden city of Africa', a fitting brand given to it by the Queen of England in the hay days of colonialism. Today, sadly, due to massive anthropogenic activities, the greenery of Kumasi is gradually being scrapped off. Policy makers are thinking of a massive afforestation project. Is this the only way to go to avert the wanton destruction of the greening? What other effective strategies do you think must be undertaken to green the community? Any practical suggestions from the eco-humanistic approach? Kindly share your great views, respected colleagues. Thanks in advance.
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It is difficult to change in the short term, care attention to long-term concern for the cultural development of local people, greening effect can be presented.
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We have had rain almost on every alternate day in Kathmandu Valley since last one month. Interestingly, last night rain water is turbid. Most of the vegetation leaves are covered with kind of clay that may contain in rain water. Couple of vegetation pictures from my garden are attached herein too. Everywhere in KTM valley after rain is in same observation!
Expecting your opinion in this regards.
Best!
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any sand storms or vulcanic activity that could explain it?
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I am doing a research regarding urban sprawl. And the general attitude of the population (large house garden swimming pools) cars traffic etc are the norm. I know these though because I live here. I need to develop a questionnaire that can describe/ prove these.
Can you please help?
thank you
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- One possible question: Do you prefer living in a good location inside city, close to everything (where you do not even need to own a car) or do you prefer a rural location next to/ outside the city/ at the city edge, where you can have a larger house and garden, but depend on your car?
You can add the two answer options and maybe a section for comments.
- Maybe add in your form questions about age/ number of family members to live in the house, size and location of their house (always provide options, try to list categories).
- I would also prepare a semi structured interview (or a few talks with locals on site) to understand the cultural patterns, behaviour, reasons for this choice. Why do they choose to live outside the city? (e.g.: city is noisy/ polluted/ housing not available or affordable/ no playgrounds and they are families with kids/ housing not suitable for their family size/ needs/ what are their needs or dreams). Also ask what is the uncomfortable side of living in the more detached location.
You can add points to your questionnaire based on the finding to validate the identified reasons (with yes/no questions?).
- You might need to refer in parallel to data/ statistics about your case and maybe research on the city growth stages or main structural changes in the urban systems and form. Also, comparison with other cases might also be help.
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I need suggestions on questions that can be added to a questionnaire that is aimed at checking the level of understanding of a populace with respect to an urban garden (ecosystem services)
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Dear Fadeyi, please:
-Try to simplify questions.
-Use short synthesis.
-Start by a mind map.
-Imagine question aim to future (sustainable) based on the past (errors).
Best regards
Fatima
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A plant need a good growing media.
We have ample quantity of wet waste as MSWOF.
In around of me, in Metro and urban culture, there is lack of availability of good growing media, and fertile soil. To grab this opportunity, i wants to convert the available wet waste as a resource for making growing media of a plant for city farming/gardening.
Que 1- What should be content of good growing media, if i use the compost made in separate process?
Que 2- Is it possible to composting and growing of plant at a same time? ( I will start piling of wet waste + microbial cultures, after piling enough, will do plantation in a same pot). in this case how should i configure/ arrange consortium of my microbial culture, which will help in composting as well as support plant growth also.
I shall take care for enough moisture, optimum pH, EC, and nutrients level. And next to this, Please guide me, how can i make this happen, or share any literature.
Regards,
Dinesh joshi.
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Wow, great answer,
Sir, will reply shortly to you with mind mapping inclusive of all aspects of the subject as mentioned you.
just while reading the text, the thought came in my mind.
Thanks and regards,
Dinesh joshi.
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I have 15 sites and from each site each site material were taken from variable number of genotypes (3,4,5. The trial was carried out as common garden provenance test glasshouse protected conditions in 3 replications in RBD.How the data can be arranged to efficiently analyse with SPSS as genotyeps are variable in number.
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Dear Jaipal,
First - call me Alex, it is accepted.
Second - My impression and comment on environmental variability came from the data I observed. So, if each record of the height is the average value of at least 10 plants, already calculated, I would advise you also to keep additional columns, e.g. "Height, nr plants", "Height, mean", "Height, SD", because these are critical values you will need to make statistical comparisons, but also when you prepare your report, or article etc.
Still what I did not liked in the data is that the height is too different between the replications of the same genotype at the same site, e.g. Site=2, Genotype=3, the replicates values are 42,2 / 103,0 / 84,0. So, if these are mean values of at least 10 plant height values, assessment by Student t test surely will give you significant differences between plants of the same genotype cultivated in the same site.
Hopefully, I understood correctly, and could explain you what disturb me in the data.
Kind regards,
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If we collect genotypes from series of sites from west to east than what type of patter of growth (Ht, leaf length, diameter etc..) we may get when these are tested for provenance trial in common garden test?
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Most of the plant species display more of an upright growth with reduced internodal distance while moving from from west to east.
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I am interested in two specific themes:
1) Research in Healing Architecture (including nature, e.g. stress gardens)
2) Research on Cultural Identity and Landscapes (with focus on existential aspects of a certain landscape and identity)
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Good question. Lots of references under my name on here. Landscape and nature rank highly under the factors creating wellness. Do come back with any questions
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I'm looking for good examples for the creation of artificial nesting sites for ground-nesting bees, in nature reserves, gardens, agricultural strips or green roofs. Which soil type was used, what was the thickness, how about inclination, ...
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You might find this of interest:
Also, Jim Cane's (1991) study on soil types from native bee nests might be of use.
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Drought is suspected
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I agree with you Dr Malhotra , the fungus could be finding within the comfort zone with the presence of crops like mango and guava , as rightly said by Ali.
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Termites tunnels were found at a house, coming from the walls, when I went out to the garden where I looked for an evidence of the colony . Dead tree was found and was heavily infested with subterranean termites .
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I think its Microcerotermes championi (Snyder)
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Due to intensification of housing (NZ cities have a lack of housing at the moment), there is often not room for the traditional garden. Instead artifical roof gardens, wall gardens and pot gardens are becoming more common, where gardening is done at all. The "soil" in these are bought from garden stores and could be anything - not regulated as far as I know. Obviously, no potting mix company will stay in business if its potting mix kills its clients plants. Still, something to be considered.
Matthew
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  • Mônica, you can attach to your research the issue of the "fashion" of each period in the use of vegetables;
  • Another possibility is the way it is being used according to plant specificities;
  • The introduction of medicinal herbs.
  • Are you raising the question of green roofs and walls?
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IBonjour every one,
in a herbarium (Gandoger, LY) we have a lot of sheets with the name "Fürth", collected in Prag Botanical Garden around 1870-1880. Does any one have some biographical details about this botanist?
thank you
marc P
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"Fürth" sounds like a German name, maybe a locality (a community near Nürnberg i Germany) or a person named after that place. In the latter case I can bring no further information.
Greetings,    Hans
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Hi all
I desperately need your help as I am a German student that never did a regression analysis before (learning by doing and with some books).
What happens when doing a multiple linear regression but there is positive autocorrelation?
Because first I assumed that there is a linear relationship between the variables.
Also, I get completely different results than expected from my descriptive statistics. I am looking at real estate and especially how long it took to sell them. The dependent variable is the time till sold, and independent variables are several such as price, number of rooms etc. Furthermore, for the different regions I used dummy variables and also for the quarters when they were sold.
Especially those dummies seem wrong as I got completely different results in my descriptive statistics. I left out the ones as a reference (region 4 and quarter 2)
Observations over 2’000
R2 = 0.057 but obviously so small because some information was not given such as balcony garden etc.
Thanks so much for helping me out.
Tanja
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Hi Tanja,
If the data are time dependent, you should use time series analysis and not regression (which corresponds only to the linear trend component of the time series). When the coefficients of the independent variables seem to have "wrong signs", this is usually an indication of multicollinearity (inter-dependency between the independent variables).
The time until the first success follows the Geometric Distribution. Try to learn about this distribution so that you can better do the modeling.
Good luck.
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Habitat/Location: Salvador de Bahia, Brazil. The plant seems to have grown naturally in a semi-natural ecosystem/urban garden at the University campus. I think this is not I. tricolor/purpurea/indica... Can you tell me what species/variety is this, please?
Thank you very much for your help!
Best regards
Juanma
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Dear, Juanma, 
Maybe, 
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Convolvulaceae
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Good morning,
I am studying anthropology in Switzerland (university of Neuchâtel), and I am interested to work in Bolivia next year, for a small research of 4 months. But I don't know yet exactly who to contact there. I am going to be a trainee of Kokopelli Suisse, a small organisation in Switzerland that you may know (the French association is quite well known), they deal with seeds, they reproduce and sell organic and reproducible seeds, for gardening mainly, with old varieties.
Would you have any advice to give me ? I am searching for an association or any local group which is dealing with seeds or food sovereignty more broadly,could be a group of peasants, or people into town interested about those subjects. My idea is not clear yet, so I am very open for opportunities to show up.
I really liked your work, so I thought I might ask you advice.
Indeed, I have read some of your articles and I see that you an exepert of La Via Campesina, so I guess you have many contacts.
I understant and speak spanish, but I don't know Quetchua or Aymara.
If you have the time to answer me, I can give you my email address to make contact. If not, I wish you all the best for your new reasearch, and I am looking forward to read you again.
Best Regards,
Ophélie Jobin
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Dear Katherine L. Turner and dear Aaron Eduardo Caravajal Tapia,
Thank you so much for your advices. I'll see who I contact and what can be done. I'll keep you inform if you wish. Thank you very much for your answers, it is really helpful.
Best regards,
Ophélie Jobin
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I want to carried out wash performance analysis for various enzymes. i used 3 types of stain material among them one is garden soil. I stained a cotton cloth using garden soil now i want to measure % reflectance of it but i didn't get any specific wavelength for it in literature.
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Please find enclosed some literature to facilitate you to carry out your wonderful study...Good luck...
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I am planning to modify a Rocky Hillock into Garden?? For this i am inviting open Suggestions and literature availability. 
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Yes, you can test the species Olea europaea subsp. europaea, Punica granatum that grows in Greece, Turkey, etc in very arid areas.
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I'm doing a reiciprocal transplant of plants and soil in the field. Pots with soil and plants will be buried into the natural soil at each site and followed for phenology / growth / etc. I know folks have done this type of thing before, but wondered if anyone could point me toward literature comparing soil water status inside and outside the pots -- does it equilibrate pretty quickly? The pots will have drainage holes (covered in mesh).
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You can try to use  a dialysis tubing kind of bag or something related to act as a semipermeable membrane. For you to have something close to equilibrium, you need a semipermeable membrane
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We have twenty clones in our garden and we wish to determine their true characteristic, hence the need for purity test.
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  Since  the  garden has twenty Clones,look  at their past history first (gene library),from that you identify the gene in each groups of the twenty Clones. Base on that ,you can do chemical analysis and get rid of the purity ,and able to identify which instrument to use.
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I am particularly interest in the incorporation Indigenous land management practices into ecological restoration projects (ecocultural restoration).
Examples of these include clam gardens, prescribed fire, marsh gardens etc. Examples for Canada are of particular interest. Thanks Marlow  
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First, I recommend that you consider the Ecological Site Concept  to get a reference or target for your restoration efforts/projects.
Parks Canada has two projects in the Grassland (Mixed Prairie, Grassland National Park) and in the Forest-Fescue Grassland tension zone (Prince Albert National Park). In both cases grazing employing  the indigence  Bison and  prescribed burns as management tools.  I believe Parks Canada maintain the data and reports from those ares.  Best wishes.  
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This plant grows in my garden.
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Botanical Name: Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Common Name: Arrowleaf Elephant's Ear
Family: Araceae
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I want to conduct a small survey on the importance of homegarden on food security and improving health states in selected localities in eastern Hararghe Ethiopia.  Can you suggest some study designs for my study? 
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Dear Semu:
 For a first approach to your research interest I recommend you a small purposive sampling strategy and a qualitative research methodology. You must include: 1) an ethnobotanical survey to characterize the ecological context of food gardens (physical characteristics, inventories and maps), 2) in-depth interviews with the household’s primary gardener (preferably in the garden itself), and 3) participant observation during the growing season. Success in your project.
Carmen María Pérez
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What is the role of green land in cities and rural areas? the role of botanical gardens and sanctuaries?
What is the role of forest extension officers and land restorators?
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Botanical gardens act as a way of conserving some of the useful and endangered plant species. In so doing the land cover controls soil erosion in addition to conserving some of the highly valued but threatened species
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It is brown in color and size of a horse-gram. Shape like a beetle but no appendages!
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Dear Rajesh:
Looks like a species of Coccus (Coccidae).
Best regards
José Gabriel
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I need to know about suitable plastic which can withstand theseconditions without any cracks or damage
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For usage in the direct sunlight, it is recommended to add UV stabilizer or add at least 2.5% carbon black.  With the UV stabilizer, HDPE, PP, etc can be used under the sun.
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like in EU, Latin America, Asia and Africa?
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You can find some information on European Federation of  Green Roof Associations link:
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the green blotchy tomatoes are sweeter than the red ones.
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Actually, Powell et al. (2012; linked below) suggested that increased chlorophyll accumulation in fruits resulted in elevated carbohydrates. I have some reservations about the materials and methods they used, but the reviewers at Science thought the study was acceptable. Powell's conclusions support yours, Conyashie.
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I have started a research on trees at small sacral architecture in the rural landscape last year (within a larger work on rural green infrastructure) as a partial aspect. So far, I have evidence of 8 small sacral elements, which are accompanied by old trees (there are many other without trees or with young trees). These are located in 6 municipalities (cadastral territories), accompanied with in total 19 old memorial trees. In the compositon of 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 trees at a particular object. An interesting finding is, that all these trees are horse chestnuts Aesculus hippocastanum L. I will extend this research in the coming summer to more cadastral territories in order to cover a larger area with more sacral elements and I am wondering, if someone would like to join me in a different region, country, culture, etc. It could end up in a nice paper and after some years even in a book. Looking forward to your questions and interest.
Best regards from Nitra,
Attila
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 Dear Attila,
recently, we finished the project about Landscape character assessment in Central Serbia. We collected numerous data about ancient trees (Zapis), small wooden churches, and all other evidence of cultural heritage. If you find it interesting, and useful, feel free to contact me about the research.
Best regards,
Dragana 
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Im working with dragonfruit stems under shadow to see his response.
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Mr. Calero,
Apart from the responses of plants to shading which were already mentioned (by Mr. Zervoudakis and Mr. Chhogyel), in addition, shading can cause decreased flowering (general rule) and increased specific leaf area. Regarding the better response of plants to shading, in terms of the appearance and growth of new stems, as you referred, please have in mind that plants adopt their strategy in order to increase their competitive ability under reduced light regimes. The latter may help you to interpret your results. Also, the attached files may be useful to your research.
I wish you quick progress in your research. 
Best Regards,
A. Matsoukis
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I from Mexico. I evaluated the diversity, determine the socio-economic importance and characterize the structure of home gardens. Thank´s.
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Dearest German,
                                 sustainability of home gardens requires that the wellbeing of community or society - the combination of community liveability, environmental sustainability and economic prosperity - is maintained or improved over time. Measuring sustainability is about monitoring how each of these is tracking over time.
As part of the Measuring Sustainability of home gardens, the set of sustainability indicators to look out for include:
social and human capital (skills and education; health; employment; security; institutions, governance and community engagement)
natural capital (climate and atmosphere; land, ecosystems and biodiversity; natural resources; water; waste)
economic capital (wealth and income; housing; transport and infrastructure; productivity and innovation).
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Looking for information on the benefits of community gardens and evidence on whether they do influence the levels of social engagement.
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I think community gardens increase a sense of community ownership and stewardship, foster the development of a community identity and spirit, bring people together from a wide variety of backgrounds (age, race, culture, social class), build community leaders, offer a focal point for community organizing, and can lead to community and efforts to deal with other social concerns.
It can also provide opportunities to meet neighbors, build block clubs (neighborhood associations), increase eyes on the street and recognized by the many police departments as an effective community crime prevention strategy.
These gardens offer unique opportunities for new immigrants (who tend to be concentrated in low-income urban communities) to: Produce traditional crops otherwise unavailable locally, Take advantage of the experience of elders to produce a significant amount of food for   the household, Provide inter-generational exposure to cultural traditions, Offer a cultural exchange with other gardeners, Learn about block clubs, neighborhood groups, and other community information, Offer neighborhoods an access point to non-English speaking communities and allow people from diverse backgrounds to work side-by-side on common goals without speaking the same language.
Shoaib
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How can I determine a type of study in tropical home gardens? I am interested in applying the principles of permaculture. Thank you.
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Dearest German,
                                      it depends on the size of the home garden, but with permaculture principles, you can begin with chickens, a small fish pond containing and your vegetable gardens. This can be integrated in a way that, the fish waste can be filtered as it runs through the soil substrate and back into the pond while you can cage the chickens on plots you need to prepare for the next cultivation. Depending on the size of the home garden, you can include other beneficial animals and insects to help break down garden waste for humus and etc
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In order to refresh our garden dormice colony at Vienna, I'm searching for few genetically new individuals either issued from another colony or caught in the field from anywhere in Europe (preferentially north).
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Dear Gerhard,
Thanks for your reply!
Yes we do have one in Vienna, with a lot of animals :-) However, I'm looking for a couple of new individuals to breed with our animals in order to keep the genetic diversity within our colony.
Best wishes, Sylvain
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I believe this researcher published an article in Developmental Rehabilitation in 2004.
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Or this one which is a direct link to the research that you're looking for.
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I am working on my doctoral dissertation on Green Infrastructure of the Rural Settlement and its Surrounding Landscape, while considering all components of the rural green infrastructure - (green spaces in school gardens, cemeteries, church gardens, town centre, streetscapes, lakesides, accompanying vegetation of watercourses and roads, trees at objects of small sacral architecture in the landscape, etc.). I have done literature reviews and bibliographical research since 2012 but I do not want to miss any good recent journal articles or books. Do you know some? Maybe you have recently published something on the same or similar issue.
Looking forward to interesting references,
Best regards from Vienna,
Attila
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Hello Attila Toth
Vous pouvez consultez entre temps intéressantes. Je vous indique quelques articles ou ouvrages que vous pouvez consulter:
www.gallimardmontreal.com › Catalogue › Arts › Architecture/urban studies  
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I have seen this video from BBC "Fire Ants and Techno-Chaos" which states that fire ants (mainly Solenopsis invicta) will attack electric equipments in the US, causing considerable damage and havoc. I have been working with fire ants for almost 10 years, but never in the US. I have made many observations in the field in  South America (French Guyana, Uruguay, Brazil), and I have never seen them attacking electric installations there in their native range. On the other hand, I have observed some species of Camponotus, such as C. rufipes, making satellite nests in power boxes in gardens however I am not sure if they were really attracted by the electricity (dead power boxes also got colonised). My aunt lives in a heavily saevissima-infested region in Rio de Janeiro, and never had one equipment colonised by fire ants.
Thus I would like to ask US residents if, from their personal experience, they feel fire ants will enter equipments any more often than other local ants?
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Eduardo: It is common in the US. In College Station Texas (about 30 years ago) we did a lot of work on this and they attack nearly every box that controls traffic signals. These  boxes have a relay switch that the ants enter and fill the switch so full of ants the contacts can't close and the traffic light fails to operate. We fixed the problem by sealing the switch so the ants couldn't enter it. This is an area with high infestation rates, much higher than I have seen in Mato Grosso do Sul and surrounding areas (several hundred nests/ha). They also invade modems and other electrical equipment. A nest of Solenopsis bicolor invaded my laptop in Colombia and ruined it. All of the ants (several subfamilies and genera) we tested were attracted to electrical fields. I can send you reprints if you are interested.
Bill
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This year I have many chillies that spllitted in my garden. I tried to find causes of it, but not seen. This may be a researchable issue for agricultural experts working in vegetable crops or spice crops. Please let me know if you have any answer to this problem.
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Respected sir I am a Ph.D student in dpt. of Vegetable Science at UHF Nauni-Solan. I am working on tomato & I have also seen many cracked fruits during my research trial. Its either due to heavy rains after a prolonged dry period or due to Boron defficiency. I think similar is the case with chilli fruit cracking. So i suggest borax spray on your chilli crop vis a vis maitain optimum moisture level in soil during whole growing period of crop.
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What is the best sub-soil drainage technology for use on roof gardens and why? 
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Modern green roofs present a drainage layer obtained with porous media or plastic profiled panels. In particular, the plastic profiles have a lower weight, a easier installation and are stable over time if compared to porous media. Savi et al. (2013) investigated the effects of modifying drainage plastic profile on plant establishment. However, in future recycled materials must play a central role in drainage layer, for example Perez et al., (2012) evaluated the possibility of using recycled rubber from tires as a drainage layer in green roofs, substituting the porous stone materials currently used (such as expanded clay, expanded shale, pumice, and natural puzolana).
Pérez G., Vila A., Rincon, Sole C., Cabreza L.F., 2012. Use of rubber crumbs as drainage layer in green roofs as potential improverement material. Applied Energy, 97: 347-354.
Savi T., Andri S., Nardini A., 2013. Impact of different green roof layering on plant water status and drought survival. Ecological Engineering, 57: 188-196.
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I am looking for best practices about how the neighborhood could be involved with (public) university campus facilities such as using the green areas as community garden or urban farming. I started a community garden in Politecnico di Milano campus two years ago as a result of a research project involving the design students and the community in a co-design process and then in co-managing and I am wondering if there are any other projects like this in other international universities.
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TU Darmstadt has re developed a communal garden in its city centre campus, which was opened recently. It is situated in the trenches round the castle ("Schlossgraben"). Its been developed with an interdisciplinary team of students (including biology and history) and with fundraising from many actors involved.  
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I've tried using a water spray gun, but I end up with too much water in my pot (since I need to save that soil). I'm thinking a pressurized air hose of some kind is the answer here, but I want to know other solutions. I want to preserve the soil immediately surrounding the roots because the soil is spiked with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and we believe the concentrations should be highest in the root area of our plants (French Marigold, Garden Verbena). Would love any stabs at an answer!
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Pierre, i'm very serious, the ultrasonic cleaner allow to separate the soil from the finest roots. I worked on metal bioaccumulation of halophytic plants by past (Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr). We measured metal contents on aerial parts and roots and the ultrasonic cleaner was helpful. Type "ultrasonic roots cleaning" on google scholar if you don't trust me :)
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What is the procedure?
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