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Hello,
The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database gives two velocities for each galaxy: The velocity (helio) and velocity (CMB).
I need just to know, if possible, the difference between these two velocities.
Thanks in advance.
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Dear honorable Forrest Noble,
Thank you very much for your response. I have other questions for you, if possible.
1/ Is the trajectory of the proper galaxies movement known?
2/ In a group of galaxies such as the M87 group for example, do the galaxies orbit around the center of the group?
3/ The CMB velocity of a galaxy, represents the velocity of its gravitation around the cluster ?, its proper velocity ?, or the velocity of its movement related to the Hubble constantt?.
Best regards
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Hello everyone!
If anyone working with galaxy cheminformatics server for virtual screening of compound library could help me out please let me know that:
I've screened a library of compounds through vina tool of galaxy by giving input files: protein.pdbqt, conf.txt and library.sdf (with valid chunk sizes). I opted output format .pdbqt instead of .sdf assuming to visualize the poses more efficiently. Like for sdf output, the results can be compiled as csv from galaxy, is there any way to do the same for pdbqt output format as well? Since I want all the ligands in a single tabular form to shortlist on the basis of binding energy/docking score.
please suggest some alternative.
Thank you in advance!
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No, you have to screen them by selecting sdf as a output file parameter.
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I am still an undergraduate and a newcomer to this field, so I very much appreciate any Professor answering my question.
Thank you,
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No, this is not possible. To study a galaxy in detail, one has to observe in different wavelength (optical, radio, ...), and for this different telescopes are needed. Even when you restrict to optical wavelengths, you will need different auxiliary instruments like special spectrographs etc., which may not be all available at one telescope. Also, observing time on large telescopes is very limited and valuable, and you do not need a large telecopes for all kinds of observations. Therefore, when a smaller telescope fullfils your demands you do not have to apply for time at a large telescope (which will also not be allocated if this large telescope is not needed for your observing plan). - By the way, it is not possible to determine "all" parameters of a galaxy. The nearer a galaxy is, the more details can be observed.
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I have a dataset (fastq files) of 15 fastq flies uploaded on Galaxy bioinformatics portal. I deleted them some time back to free some space. Now I want to retrieve these files. I can see these files as deleted, but not able to restore or download them. Is there any way to get these files back on my portal.
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Sure! Note the
x shown, y deleted
stats displayed just beneath the history title? Clicking on the "y deleted" part will unhide the deleted datasets in your history bar. The ones you haven't purged yet should have an Undelete it link, which will do just what it says
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I am analyzing my small RNA seq data on Galaxy, I need to remove all rRNA reads from my data. I downloaded a rRNA reference genome for mice and tried mapping with Bowtie2, but it kept failing. Apparently my rRNA reference file had multiple duplicate names. Where can I get a rRNA reference genome from?
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Hi Sanat Bhadsavle , you can download the entire SILVA LSU/SSU rRNA Database (LSU= large subunit rRNA, SSU= small subunit rRNA). For practical reasons, just merge both LSU/SSU FASTA files. Now you can (additionally) isolate all entries that belong to mice. The SILVA entries contain the whole taxonomy in the name.
The next step, map your RNA-Seq data against our SILVA database, I would recommend hisat2 over bowtie2. The resulting SAM or BAM (mapping) file can be filtered to extract all entries that do not map to your reference.
samtools view -f 4 mapping.bam > unmapped.sam
will store all unmapped reads in the unnmapped.sam file
Cheers
Roman
See here for more information:
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Have any of you used Galaxy (https://usegalaxy.org/) to analyze NGS RNAseq sequencing data to search for new splicing forms of RNA? I am looking for a pipeline for data analysis in Galaxy. Which programs are the best to use to find new splicing forms?
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Hi Robert,
The steps you need for such an analysis are:
1. align your data with a splice-aware genome alignment tool (I prefer the STAR aligner)
2. check for splice junctions that are present in your data but not in other annotations
You can perform step 1 using Galaxy (there is "RNA STAR" and other such aligners). The second step however is a bit more custom and as such not present as program. I suppose you could try to compare the junctions file from your alignment to a genome annotation file that you can download from ENSEMBL/UCSC/NCBI. You could bedtools as a tool for this, but it will be pretty tedious.
If you only have a few junctions/genes that you are interested in, you could also look "manually".
If you have some programming knowledge, I advise you to use Whippet (https://github.com/timbitz/Whippet.jl) for this kind of analysis. Their documentation is pretty good and it has a feature for finding novel splice junctions.
Best regards
Alexander
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Question1 : I would like to know if possible the distance separating the elliptical galaxy M60 (NGC 4649) and some spiral galaxies belonging to its group such as: NGC 4019, NGC 4037, NGC 4049, NGC 4064, NGC 4116 and NGC 4123 ?
Question2 : Same question for galaxy M86 (NGC 4406) and members of its group: NGC 4435, NGC 4438, NGC 4458, NGC 4461, NGC 4473 and NGC 4477.
Question3 : Same question for galaxy M87 (NGC 4486) and members of its group: NGC 4206, NGC 4262, NGC 4298, NGC 4302, NGC 4307 and NGC 4313.
I thank you in advance for any information that can help me.
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Here’s a way to do this:
Step 1: Look up each of the objects in your list by name from an online extragalactic database, such as this one: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/byname.
Step 2: Note the RA (right ascension) and DEC (declination) of each object, and convert the values to radians.
Step 3: Note the ‘Hubble Distance’ of each object. Also called the cosmological ‘proper distance’, this is what enters Hubble’s law (v = H_0. D). It is basically the present distance to the object from Earth, calculated by ‘freezing’ the expansion of the universe.
Step 4: Since the Hubble distance vector satisfies Hubble’s law, the following must hold:
D_12 = sqrt( (D_1)^2 + (D_2)^2 – 2.D_1.D_2*cos(theta) )
where D_1 and D_2 are the proper distances to objects #1 and #2 respectively ; theta is the angle between the unit vectors pointing to these objects ; and D_12 is the proper distance between these two objects that you wish to find.
You can find ‘theta’ like this:
r_1 = [sin(DEC_1), cos(DEC_1)cos(RA_1), cos(DEC_1)sin(RA_1)]
r_2 = [sin(DEC_2), cos(DEC_2)cos(RA_2), cos(DEC_2)sin(RA_2)]
theta = arccos( r_1.r_2 / (|r_1| |r_2|) )
where r_1.r_2 is a dot product between two unit vectors, r_1 and r_2, pointing towards the objects #1 and #2 respectively, constructed in 3D spherical coordinates.
Repeat these steps for every pair of objects that you wish to find the proper distance between. Hope this answers your question!
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I want to perform RNA-Seq data analysis for DEG's, by taking RAW reads from the NCBI-SRA database, of DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, DENV4. I want to perform this analysis on a galaxy web server. I'm a bit confused about the datasets from SRA. My confusion is, in this accession no from GEO-database- GSE69602, there is a total of 116 data are present. and I took only Total cell lysate data. In total cell lysate, there are two biological replicates at each time interval, like 6hr, 12hr, 24hr, 48hr, 72hr, and the other one is mock. I performed one analysis by taking two biological replicates of 72 hr and two mocks. workflow is, FastQC-Trimmomatic-RNA-STAR, StringTie, DEseq2. I want to know that is the right way or I'm doing anything wrong & if I have to take all the data from the respective time intervals, what is the protocol to specify those data at DEseq2?
All datas are singel-end data,
if you need to see my galaxy history I can share it with you.
A big thank you in advance
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Hi, The workflow created by you is correct you can also try EdgeR for Differential expression.
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Do you think that man will ever leave our solar system?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Well, it seems like a utopia to me, but why not? Primitive man did not imagine that airplanes were created and one day could fly and it was achieved. So perhaps, within centuries, this purpose can be achieved as well.
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Will as a result of the continuation of technological progress in the twenty-first century more perfect telescopes or other astronomical instruments that will allow to know what is on the surface of the nearest exoplanets, and above all the guilty star systems similar to the Earth exoplanets located in other planetary systems circulating around other suns?
Please reply
Best wishes
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I think may be
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I have been investigating astronomical reference system inversion effects for an article on astrophysics. I need to find examples of "shrunk space".
This would manifest itself as an increase in star counts per unit volume of space. It should be found at the center of large galaxies like the Milky Way and M87. Inversion effects would be accompanied by intense radio and infrared emission.
Stars are normally separated by a few light years. I am looking for examples where the interstellar distances are much less than expected, and preferably in the central portions of large galaxies.
Can anyone help?
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The observed quantity astronomers use to define the light within a given radius or annulus of a galaxy is called surface brightness, a 2-D quantity. To determine the 3-D stellar density within a given radius or annulus requires a model since the light detected is the integrated light from the front to the back of a galaxy. The type of galaxies you seek are called high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies. These are found among spiral, normal elliptical, giant elliptical and compact dwarf elliptical galaxies. Some are luminous radio galaxies, some not. There is a very large volume of papers on these objects, as well as on low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies within these morphological types. There are also some HSB globular clusters found in other galaxies. BTW, the Milky Way is not an HSB by any measure. You very likely have a lot of reading to do to extract from data tables the kinds of objects of interest. Much of this data has been available since the mid 1990s.
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Suppose we have data of a region of the sky. And the galaxy we are looking for is in the center of this region. We have data like ra, dec, pmra, pmdec, parallax, etc of every object. How can we create a "subset with all the objects of that Galaxy" from these data using different parameters?
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Thank you for correcting me. I should have written that objects with measurable proper motions are in our Galaxy or some very nearby galaxies.
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Supposedly Pioneer 10 will fly to the nearest Alfa Centauri constellation for about 10,000 years.
Will humanity manage to build a new generation of space ships that will be able to overcome such huge distances in the galaxy many times faster?
When could this happen?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Yoshinari Minami,
Thanks for answering the question:
If and when will humans be able to explore other planetary systems?
Thank you very much for providing interesting publications describing important issues of the discussed issues.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Do you think that there is life beyond our Solar System?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical life which may occur outside Earth and which did not originate on Earth. Such life might range from simple prokaryotes (or comparable life forms) to intelligent beings and even sapient beings, possibly bringing forth civilizations which might be far more advanced than humanity. The Drake equation speculates about the existence of sapient life elsewhere in the universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is known as astrobiology. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extraterrestrial_life
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Why in spite of the many years of listening to radio waves emitted from various parts of the cosmos, did not there appear such, which would mean the possibility of existence in another cosmos of intelligent creatures?
For several dozen years, various astronomical programs have been running radio-frequency listening programs of various emission ranges to diagnose those that could be a testimony that somewhere in another constellation there is or has existed the civilization of other intelligent beings.
However, up to now, it has not been possible to diagnose such waves that could confirm the existence of other intelligent beings in the cosmos and thus other, developed forms of life.
Why has not it worked so far?
Why in spite of the many years of listening to radio waves emitted from various parts of the cosmos, did not there appear such, which would mean the possibility of existence in another cosmos of intelligent creatures?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Gerges Francis Tawdrous,
Thanks for the links to interesting publications on the topics discussed in this discussion. Yes, you indicated the key determinants related to the question: What contract can we obtain from other civilizations?
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Black Holes out of a galaxy: do they exist??? ➣➣The question is as follow.
Are there black holes outside the confines of a galaxy{*}, in the spaces between one galaxy and another??? 
{*}Galaxy is not meant only the Milky Way but any type of galaxy. In what way can be identified and/or measured these hypothetical extragalactic black holes???
➢➢Il quesito è il seguente. 
Esistono buchi neri al di fuori dei confini di una galassia{*}, negli spazi tra una galassia e l'altra??? 
{*}Galassia non viene intesa la sola Via Lattea ma qualsiasi tipo di galassia.
in che modo possono essere individuati e/o misurati questi ipotetici buchi neri extragalattici???
Previous POSTS:
►https://www.facebook.com/SalVi.SalvatoreVicidomini/posts/2378526012179048
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Is dark matter real, or have we misunderstood gravity? PHYS June 22 2021.
For many years now, astronomers and physicists have been in a conflict. Is the mysterious dark matter that we observe deep in the Universe real, or is what we see the result of subtle deviations from the laws of gravity as we know them? In 2016, Dutch physicist Erik Verlinde proposed a theory of the second kind: emergent gravity. New research, published in Astronomy & Astrophysics this week, pushes the limits of dark matter observations to the unknown outer regions of galaxies, and in doing so re-evaluates several dark matter models and alternative theories of gravity. Measurements of the gravity of 259,000 isolated galaxies show a very close relation between the contributions of dark matter and those of ordinary matter, as predicted in Verlinde's theory of emergent gravity and an alternative model called Modified Newtonian Dynamics. However, the results also appear to agree with a computer simulation of the Universe that assumes that dark matter is 'real stuff'.
The new research was carried out by an international team of astronomers, led by Margot Brouwer (RUG and UvA). Further important roles were played by Kyle Oman (RUG and Durham University) and Edwin Valentijn (RUG). In 2016, Brouwer also performed a first test of Verlinde's ideas; this time, Verlinde himself also joined the research team.
Matter or gravity?
So far, dark matter has never been observed directly—hence the name. What astronomers observe in the night sky are the consequences of matter that is potentially present: bending of starlight, stars that move faster than expected, and even effects on the motion of entire galaxies. Without a doubt all of these effects are caused by gravity, but the question is: are we truly observing additional gravity, caused by invisible matter, or are the laws of gravity themselves the thing that we haven't fully understood yet?
To answer this question, the new research uses a similar method to the one used in the original test in 2016. Brouwer and her colleagues make use of an ongoing series of photographic measurements that started ten years ago: the KiloDegree Survey (KiDS), performed using ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile. In these observations one measures how starlight from far away galaxies is bent by gravity on its way to our telescopes. Whereas in 2016 the measurements of such 'lens effects' only covered an area of about 180 square degrees on the night sky, in the mean time this has been extended to about 1000 square degrees—allowing the researchers to measure the distribution of gravity in around a million different galaxies.
Comparative testing
Brouwer and her colleagues selected over 259,000 isolated galaxies, for which they were able to measure the so-called 'Radial Acceleration Relation' (RAR). This RAR compares the amount of gravity expected based on the visible matter in the galaxy, to the amount of gravity that is actually present—in other words: the result shows how much 'extra' gravity there is, in addition to that due to normal matter. Until now, the amount of extra gravity had only been determined in the outer regions of galaxies by observing the motions of stars, and in a region about five times larger by measuring the rotational velocity of cold gas. Using the lensing effects of gravity, the researchers were now able to determine the RAR at gravitational strengths which were one hundred times smaller, allowing them to penetrate much deeper into the regions far outside the individual galaxies.
This made it possible to measure the extra gravity extremely precisely—but is this gravity the result of invisible dark matter, or do we need to improve our understanding of gravity itself? Author Kyle Oman indicates that the assumption of 'real stuff' at least partially appears to work: "In our research, we compare the measurements to four different theoretical models: two that assume the existence of dark matter and form the base of computer simulations of our universe, and two that modify the laws of gravity—Erik Verlinde's model of emergent gravity and the so-called 'Modified Newtonian Dynamics' or MOND. One of the two dark matter simulations, MICE, makes predictions that match our measurements very nicely. It came as a surprise to us that the other simulation, BAHAMAS, led to very different predictions. That the predictions of the two models differed at all was already surprising, since the models are so similar. But moreover, we would have expected that if a difference would show up, BAHAMAS was going to perform best. BAHAMAS is a much more detailed model than MICE, approaching our current understanding of how galaxies form in a universe with dark matter much closer. Still, MICE performs better if we compare its predictions to our measurements. In the future, based on our findings, we want to further investigate what causes the differences between the simulations."
Young and old galaxies
Thus it seems that, at least one dark matter model does appear to work. However, the alternative models of gravity also predict the measured RAR. A standoff, it seems—so how do we find out which model is correct? Margot Brouwer, who led the research team, continues: "Based on our tests, our original conclusion was that the two alternative gravity models and MICE matched the observations reasonably well. However, the most exciting part was yet to come: because we had access to over 259,000 galaxies, we could divide them into several types—relatively young, blue spiral galaxies versus relatively old, red elliptical galaxies." Those two types of galaxies come about in very different ways: red elliptical galaxies form when different galaxies interact, for example when two blue spiral galaxies pass by each other closely, or even collide. As a result, the expectation within the particle theory of dark matter is that the ratio between regular and dark matter in the different types of galaxies can vary. Models such as Verlinde's theory and MOND on the other hand do not make use of dark matter particles, and therefore predict a fixed ratio between the expected and measured gravity in the two types of galaxies—that is, independent of their type. Brouwer: "We discovered that the RARs for the two types of galaxies differed significantly. That would be a strong hint towards the existence of dark matter as a particle."
However, there is a caveat: gas. Many galaxies are probably surrounded by a diffuse cloud of hot gas, which is very difficult to observe. If it were the case that there is hardly any gas around young blue spiral galaxies, but that old red elliptical galaxies live in a large cloud of gas—of roughly the same mass as the stars themselves—then that could explain the difference in the RAR between the two types. To reach a final judgement on the measured difference, one would therefore also need to measure the amounts of diffuse gas—and this is exactly what is not possible using the KiDS telescopes. Other measurements have been done for a small group of around one hundred galaxies, and these measurements indeed found more gas around elliptical galaxies, but it is still unclear how representative those measurements are for the 259,000 galaxies that were studied in the current research.
Dark matter for the win?
If it turns out that extra gas cannot explain the difference between the two types of galaxies, then the results of the measurements are easier to understand in terms of dark matter particles than in terms of alternative models of gravity. But even then, the matter is not settled yet. While the measured differences are hard to explain using MOND, Erik Verlinde still sees a way out for his own model. Verlinde: "My current model only applies to static, isolated, spherical galaxies, so it cannot be expected to distinguish the different types of galaxies. I view these results as a challenge and inspiration to develop an asymmetric, dynamical version of my theory, in which galaxies with a different shape and history can have a different amount of 'apparent dark matter'."
Therefore, even after the new measurements, the dispute between dark matter and alternative gravity theories is not settled yet. Still, the new results are a major step forward: if the measured difference in gravity between the two types of galaxies is correct, then the ultimate model, whichever one that is, will have to be precise enough to explain this difference. This means in particular that many existing models can be discarded, which considerably thins out the landscape of possible explanations. On top of that, the new research shows that systematic measurements of the hot gas around galaxies are necessary. Edwin Valentijn formulates is as follows: "As observational astronomers, we have reached the point where we are able to measure the extra gravity around galaxies more precisely than we can measure the amount of visible matter. The counterintuitive conclusion is that we must first measure the presence of ordinary matter in the form of hot gas around galaxies, before future telescopes such as Euclid can finally solve the mystery of dark matter."
More information: Margot M. Brouwer et al, The weak lensing radial acceleration relation: Constraining modified gravity and cold dark matter theories with KiDS-1000, Astronomy & Astrophysics (2021). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202040108 ----- ABSTRACT. We present measurements of the radial gravitational acceleration around isolated galaxies, comparing the expected gravitational acceleration given the baryonic matter (gbar) with the observed gravitational acceleration (gobs), using weak lensing measurements from the fourth data release of the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS-1000). These measurements extend the radial acceleration relation (RAR), traditionally measured using galaxy rotation curves, by 2 decades in gobs into the low-acceleration regime beyond the outskirts of the observable galaxy. We compare our RAR measurements to the predictions of two modified gravity (MG) theories: modified Newtonian dynamics and Verlinde’s emergent gravity (EG). We find that the measured relation between gobs and gbar agrees well with the MG predictions. In addition, we find a difference of at least 6σ between the RARs of early- and late-type galaxies (split by Sérsic index and u − r colour) with the same stellar mass. Current MG theories involve a gravity modification that is independent of other galaxy properties, which would be unable to explain this behaviour, although the EG theory is still limited to spherically symmetric static mass models. The difference might be explained if only the early-type galaxies have significant (Mgas ≈ M⋆) circumgalactic gaseous haloes. The observed behaviour is also expected in Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models where the galaxy-to-halo mass relation depends on the galaxy formation history. We find that MICE, a ΛCDM simulation with hybrid halo occupation distribution modelling and abundance matching, reproduces the observed RAR but significantly differs from BAHAMAS, a hydrodynamical cosmological galaxy formation simulation. Our results are sensitive to the amount of circumgalactic gas; current observational constraints indicate that the resulting corrections are likely moderate. Measurements of the lensing RAR with future cosmological surveys (such as Euclid) will be able to further distinguish between MG and ΛCDM models if systematic uncertainties in the baryonic mass distribution around galaxies are reduced.
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"THIS IS AN ABSOLUTELY SCIENTIFIC QUESTION"
Planets considered habitable by researchers are located in a region relatively far from the star only so that water is in liquid form. However, it can't be too far away to freeze water. That's how we've been doing research to look for life and habitable planets.
However, could it be that this is not absolutely true?
Extremophiles here on Earth find ways to survive in unimaginable places.
Tell us your original opinion, without the "Google Genius" or other people's opinions, just be yourself!
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In fact, when searching for life in other planets, scientists follow the principle (follow the water), in order to reduce and limit the search process, not necessarily liquid surface water, but even the water in the ground because even the water under the surface of the earth can contain life, and indeed, because not only higher or sophisticated organisms need it, but even microorganisms, in our study there is what is called the water activity. Every microorganism needs this percentage when it is less than that, it cannot continue its life activities... So in order to be water exists, there must be an atmosphere that pushes it to the surface, as well as there is sufficient heat in the interior of the planet to keep water liquid underground. In addition, the existence of life is also related to the distance of the planet from the sun. In our solar system, the possibility of life was limited to an earlier time only on Mars because of the evidence of the presence of liquid water on its surface for long periods, and there may also be water under the surface due to its volcanic activity... In fact, research and studies are still ongoing to determine the harshest conditions in which a living creature can live in space, So scientists send water bears and they are the toughest creatures in terms of endurance on earth to explore that... On the other hand, what the creatures on the surface of the earth need may be different from others, this is very possible, because the organisms usually adapt to their surroundings and this is what we find with the microorganisms there whoever kills them is salt, and there are organisms that halophiles, the same is true of acid and heat, even there are organisms that live in volcanoes, did we ask ourselves why?? (my supervisor always said in the sense that they agreed to live in a very harsh atmosphere in order not to die). So from this, we conclude that it is possible to find forms of life in the harshest conditions in which we cannot expect them to exist... My sincere gratitude to everyone.
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There are several tools such SExtractor, GALFIT, ALADIN, SALSAJ etc., used by different researchers for the photometric analysis. Which tool do you recommand for the photometric analysis of the galaxy structures?
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For decomposition either Galfit or Imfit. Galfit is more frequently used, there is even a Facebook page devoted to it, where you can get an answer to any question within a day. But, you will also need a tool for 2D fitting of light profile - IRAF's ellipse beeing the golden standard. It has been recently rewritten in Python and is a part of a Photutils package (https://photutils.readthedocs.io/en/stable/isophote.html). Eventually, you need to overplot 3D (Galfit) results over 2D points (ellipse fitting). That's why you need to master both.
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Does the Solar System move in a meaningful pattern?
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Dear Professor Watanabe,
To reflect the complexity of your question, I would like to suggest the following articles
“Does the Solar System move in a meaningful pattern?”
Yes, the pattern is well determined if we agree about the nature of forces and the distribution of different forms of matter. Unfortunately, as we see from the first paper we are still far from the commonly accepted theory.
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I have use HISAT2 for alignment . Now i want to obtain contig sequence from from BAM file in galaxy server?
I have used Samtools View. That is giving me some sequence but I am not sure whether it is contig or not?
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Yuxin Yang please recommend me proper tools present on galaxy server to obtain contig or consensus sequence from a BAM file?
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Just think of a photo sent by the Chandra x-ray telescope clicking a large galaxy
at a distance of 100 million light years and it be true ? aren't we seeing a virtual galaxy
whose light travelled 100 million years in past ? to reach us now
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Light travels at around 300,000 km/s; that's about a foot per nanosecond. Since my television is about 8 feet from my couch, when I watch tv, I'm seeing light that it emitted 8 nanoseconds ago. That doesn't make it a 'virtual television'. It's just that it takes that long for its light to reach me.
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According to a scientist, who is affiliated with the California Institute of Technology, and appeared on a documentary one-hour program in 2019 under the auspices of the NOVA Public Broadcasting Station series on "The Planets: Jupiter," the Milky Way galaxy is on a "collision course" with the Andromeda galaxy.
This pronouncement sounded very frightening until another scientist gave a different perspective on what was presented as a scientifically-based future event. He said that it will be a beautiful sight to behold, or words to that effect, because we will be able to see a greater multitude of stars from our perspective as we behold the night sky from here on Earth!
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Thank you so much for your answers to my RG question " Why do some scientists think that our Milky Way galaxy will merge with Andromeda? "
Is there any reason to think that this seemingly inevitable coalescence of Milky Way and Andromeda will not happen?
Is there any possible way in which the merger will proceed like clockwork because it is simply demonstrating the validity of Newton's First Law of Motion, or possibly, Newton's Third Law of Motion? In other words, the cosmos of the solar system is the basic model that may be used to illustrate how Newton's gravitational laws function, especially Newton's First Law of Motion (inertia).
I may have missed something you already stated in your above replies, so to what FORCE OR PRINCIPLE OR THEORY OR LAW would you attribute this Milky Way and Andromeda Galactic Merger? You have convinced me that the merger is "All Points Go!" What is the power point where it all began? What is causing it to proceed like clockwork? Are scientists learning new things from observing it?
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The greenhouse effect is gradually progressing on Earth. Consequently, the risk of new climate disasters increases every year.
Currently, technologies are being developed with the help of which space ships will be built to enable a manned space mission to Mars.
In the 21st century, will man be able to overcome greater distances and get to know some other planets of our solar system?
Is it possible to develop on Earth a technology that a man can leave the solar system and, for example, one day he can reach the nearest Alpha Centauri constellation?
In connection with the above, the question arises: Will man manage to create technologies thanks to which he will leave the planet Earth, the Solar System and reach other planetary systems?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Nice discussion. In this case, the mission of voyager 1 and 2 can be mentioned. The two spacecrafts have been sent to the space with close time distance of each other 42 years ago to explore the solar system and its beyond. Still some parts of voyager 2 is functioning and sending data to the stations on earth and it is passing the heliopause and entering a new era and thereafter a new constellation. It is surprisingly sending unexpected news from beyond our planet and the whole solar system. In my opinion first of all such missions can be designed and performed to receive and send us the accurate data of the meta space outer our blue lively planet, then researchers can decide to manage sending existing humans to outer planet or better to say to plan building a new residential area on other planets. As an example after moon and mars the next destination can be the titan the moon of the planet Saturn. Titan with a thick atmosphere is a negotiable opportunity.
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I have 4 fastq files. From some earlier post I tried to analysethrough Galaxy sever.
I used "fastp", "clip adapter" and also "trimomatic" separately three different times to trim adapter.
As I have paired end data, I then joined the output of R1 and R2 using "FASTQjoiner" , "fastqjoin" , and "fastqinterlacer" separately three different times.
Then I aligned using Bowtie2 (against all three time) and compared using "EdgeR" and "Deseq2" separately from three different output.
I also annotate after I got differential expression both time using mice genome .gff file.
But I am not able to get a excel file having Gene name and Q-value. I am getting html with tabular result having gene ID, log2fold change, p value, st error etc. but NO Q value and gene name.
Also when I am trying to make heat map using ggplot or heatmap2 it is showing weird plot.
Can anyone tell me if I am doing wrong in work flow, and whether for that the gene ID and heat map problem is occuring.
Thanks in advance!!
Best,
Somenath
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Thank you so much.
Could you tell me a work flow to use in galaxy server?
Like adapter trimming, then joining of paired end reads, next is alingning....
Also if you can please mention which one in galaxy to use for each step, like for adapter trimming there's fastp, trimmomatic, etc is there. Which one you recommend for each step.
RNA was sequenced in Illilumina NOVA Seq.
Thanks in advance
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I want to work on galaxy analysis using GALFIT, 2D fitting algorithm. I need point spread function of the source.
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PSF is a property of an image, not just a source. In order to construct it you can use a cutout of a bright point source in your image normalised to 1 at the maximum, or even better the average of several such sources. If you don't have any such bright point sources in your image, then it is more tricky. Probably you would need to use another image where such source is located taken with the same telescope and instrument.
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Just curious if someone can provide a good explanation.
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With respect to galaxy formation, many astronomers believe in the “bottom-up” model of how matter came together. In this model, small clumps merged repeatedly to form protogalaxies, and further, that many small protogalaxies clumped together to form the larger, normal galaxies we see in the nearby universe today. But others believe giant sheets of matter formed in galaxy superclusters and then broke apart into smaller units. Either way, no one yet knows whether the gas and dust that came together to make galaxies preceded star formation or whether stars formed simultaneously as the first units of matter fell together to form the earliest protogalaxies.
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I wanted to learn R and Python for genomics work and i have experience in using GUI platforms like Galaxy and CLC for NGS analysis. I am now looking to expand my knowledge in coding based NGS analysis and looking for online courses to learn.
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Agreeing with Abhijeet, I may suggest you to look for "Cookbooks" for the specific objectives you are trying to solve. As the name says, it's more like a recipe, where you can read workflows that will guide you through every step. (Other tip may be googling for "subject/software tutorial".
Here are some pages that I believe can help you:
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We are working on a thesis on simulating the effects of electromagnetic waves on the human body
As part of our research, we want to examine the effects of mobile phone waves. Since Samsung has the best rate of sar , we chose the Galaxy A6.
Who can send me antenna type and electrical specifications including power
Thanks
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Samsung Galaxy A6 SM-A600F NFC Antenna
Product no.: GH42-06092A
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I have more than 500 Datasets of RNA-sequencing data (both FASTA and FASTQ format) and I'd like to analyze gene expression and differentially expressed genes.
files with FASTA format are in my PC (windows OS) and with FASTQ format are imported to the galaxy website (usegalaxy . eu).
I'm not familiar with gene expression analysis (GEA) and recently installed R and I'm working with Bioconductor packages (like DESq2,edgeR, biobase and etc..) to learn how to use them for GEA. IDK how much, but it seems it takes a long time to learn and use them.
Here my question is could anyone let me know what is the best and fast way for GEA.
is R the best software for GEA, is yes, is any simple tutorial for GEA by R?
Regarding the huge mass of RNA-seq data and my pc may not be able to analyze them, is there any software on Galaxy website for GEA.
Any guide is warmly apriciated
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Hi Ali,
first of all, I would suggest starting with a smaller dataset when learning how to analyse RNA-seq data. This will reduce a lot of headache and will give you an easier time bug-fixing and testing stuff.
Second, if you are serious about doing bioinformatics you will need to switch to Linux/MacOS at some point. You can keep Windows and install a virtual maschine running Linux to circumvent this. You will also need to dive deeper into bioinformatics to understand and build on what you are analysing (which is all possible but this goes beyond the scope of what you want to read here).
So to make it short, you can use galaxy and R for GE analysis of RNA-seq data. As you already have your data in galaxy, you can use "salmon quant" to quasi-map and quantify transcript levels (input are FQ files from one sample and a reference cdna you need to provide). Then you can use the salmon output to run DESeq2 and analyse differential gene expression between conditions (you need to specify you used salmon for mapping and provide a transcript ID to gene ID mapping file). Depending on what organism you are working with, it should be rather easy to find the cdna reference (just google) and a transcript ID to gene ID mapping file (you can use biomart, also just google).
Hope this helps!
Alexander
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I have a joint flagged tab VCF in which are reported the annotations and variants of 69 samples. How can i extract information for a single sample or chromosome in Galaxy?
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If you are looking for a commandline based tool for VCF data extraction; this may be helpful https://github.com/everestial/VCF-Simplify
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I have a list of reference SNPs IDs (rsid) and I need to retrieve the associated diseases ... what are the suitable bioinformatics tools or databases?
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This one is quite good
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How can I directly upload GEO data set from NCBI to galaxy?
I've used Get data-EBI SRA tool. But couldn't find a way to upload the DATA.
Kindly, suggest.
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Use Faster Download and Extract Reads in fastq format from NCBI SRA (Get Data Menu). You can give SRA ID here.
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Now I have a problem, my PDB structure contains 4 chains. I want to remove 2 of them and the co- crystallized ligand, how can I do this if I'm following nearly the same steps as this tutorial ? https://galaxyproject.github.io/training-material/topics/computational-chemistry/tutorials/md-simulation-gromacs/tutorial.html
The second problem is that there are missing residues in one of the chains, I tried modelling them in Chimera but I don't know how to keep the model of a certain chain with the other chain of the native PDB structure as 1 structure PDB file, can any one help me please?
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To perform the first step, you can also use the visualizer of the Discovery studio.
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As the "distribution lecturer" from the once cult film "Carnival Night" said: "Is there life on Mars, is there life on Mars - this is unknown to science." 66 years ago, when the Eldar Ryazanov took off his famous tape, any other answer would not give a synod academics. And what does today's science say, and not only about the Red Planet? If you ask the question a bit, are there other residences of life in the Universe?
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so it needs a time
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Dear all, I am new to Galaxy (software for buiding backend largely used by the community of computacional biology). I was wondering if somebody has experience with Galaxy also for front end, as so, it would be possible to do all the work in just one platform instead of several different languages. Best regards, Jorge,
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To whom it may concern,
It has been about 4 months since I did this question, I have been hardly working on back-front end methodologies. My current reply is ‘no’. Galaxy is a backend-like tool, in fact, if we really take into account the theories out there regarding back-front end design, Galaxy is not part of it! Building a website is much more than making available tools like Galaxy, maybe in the past, we could think this narrowly, but now we have several easy to use tools for back-front end design and development.
We have nowadays several tools for building back-front end platforms. I am using what is called “MEAN stack”. We have Mongo, Express, and Node as backend and Angular as front end. They do not have space for Galaxy; however, since Node is a single-threaded system, it is not ideal for heavyweight calculation, wherein I believe we shall need Galaxy!
Notwithstanding, one may want to feed the mongo database or similar with computational related results, and this is my current challenge, should you have an insight, please, do not hesitate!
Have a nice new year!
Best regards,
Jorge,
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Hello, I am a PhD student and during the analysis of sequencing data of miRNAs in the Galaxy project online tool an error occurred in the final stage of the analysis, when using the DESeq2 tool for the comparison of deregulated miRNAs between the two study conditions , the following error appeared:
Error in `levels <-` (` * tmp * `, value = if (nl == nL) as.character (labels) else paste0 (labels,:
   factor level [2] is duplicated
Calls: factor
The sequence I followed for the analysis is as follows:
Upload files----FastQC----Trim galore----trimmomatic----Hisat2----Bedtools convert from BAM to FASTQ----DESeq2
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Check if any of your gene or the attributes which u have taken on the first column is getting repeated?
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They have been proposed as the cause of the abnormal movement of the most distant galaxies in the observable Universe.
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@R. Guy Grantham Can we discuss about your research?
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What I think I need to know is:
1) What is the current accepted shape of the Milky Way galaxy, and its sub-parts, such as core, halo, etc? Some documentation shows a sphere for dark halo, but other documentation shows models suggest some disc shape.
2) What percent of total mass is found in each sub-part, such as core, halo, etc? If this number isn't actually available for the Milky Way, what reference for another galaxy would be appropriate to use as a stand-in until we know?
3) Recent reports suggest that the mass of the entire galaxy is 1.5 Trillion solar masses. Does the mass of dark matter, which might make up 90% of this mass in the dark halo, affect objects within the halo the same as any other lit mass? For instance, does a particle of dark matter pull objects just like a neutron of equal mass?
4) What is the current accepted density of each subpart? Is this somewhat standard for barred spiral and spiral galaxies? Are globular clusters counted in any sub-part, or do they need to be factored separately? I would prefer to have them separate.
5) Can some sub-parts be rounded to homogeneity, or are there very important filamentous regions that must be accounted for? I read that the spiral arms are barely more dense (max 5%) than the region medium in which they exist.
6) Relative to a central black hole, within a relatively circular total circumference of the galaxy, and another reference point in the plane, what is the approximate location of the Sun in the overall X-Y plane of the galactic disk? I'd like for the other reference point defining the general plane to be maybe a globular cluster or important mass feature I need to calculate anyway.
7) I also want to make a map of mass-induced gravitational effect on earth, relative to a person standing anywhere on Earth.
If I model each subpart and define its density in a 3D shape, and then trace a ray through each shape beginning at Earth and ending at the limits of the dark halo, I want to sum the gravitational effect of each section at each of any number of spherical coordinates. Is it sufficient to run an integral though each subsection based on distance and average sub-part density until I reach the next sub-part?
So if my ray passes through one part, the total would be integral of start to end of part, and the formula within the integral would be the gravitational effect associated with mass at the point on the ray. The sum of each sub-part integral should give the total gravitational effect from edge of galaxy to the point of earth, correct? I mean just from mass alone, not from other force interplay, or mass-like effects of photons. I realize almost all mass in the galaxy has zero effect on Earth, or nearly zero, but I need the sum for my model. The sum of that many not-quite-zeros is not zero.
If I do it this way, should I just calculate at an interval of kpc and sum the parts, or take the real integral return?
8) How do I take the Earth as a reference system and project the external mass map or gravity map as a sky? I know the sun is tilted relative to galactic center, and the Earth is tilted relative to the sun.
Assume I have a map of the Milky Way with the equator being the galactic plane, projected onto a sphere (skybox), what angle(s) do I need to apply to a skybox to make it accurate from Earth? Another example: If I have created a mass or gravity map as a sphere with the Earth at the center of the sphere, ignoring daily rotation of the Earth what angle do I rotate the sphere to make the galactic plane match what we see in the sky?
9) A basic calculation suggests that the general projection of the milky way stays generally in the same 1% arc of the sky for 640k years as we move around the galactic center (230Ma orbit time/360°). Is this relatively reasonable? Is a linear account of our changing sky acceptable, or are we much closer to the galactic center at some point of our transit, causing the projection of the Milky Way to change faster on the other side of the galactic orbit?
I love references. So far all the galaxy shape astrometry text and images I've looked at give zero references. Example: https://content-calpoly-edu.s3.amazonaws.com/evolution/1/images/3universe/0MilkyWay/Milky-Way-structure-table.jpg.
Any help with any of the sub-questions, or even just the method itself, is very much appreciated.
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For your Q8, to map the correct relative inclinations and intersections of the axes/planes/systems, you just need to know the celestial coordinates (RA & Dec) of their 3 "North poles":
  • Earth's spin axis: North Celestial Pole, Dec = +90° [by definition]
  • Earth's orbital plane about the Sun: North Ecliptic Pole, RA = 18h 00m [by definition]; Dec = +66° 33′.
  • Milky Way's Galactic plane: North Galactic Pole, RA = 2h 49m; Dec = +27.4°.
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I've been aiming to do BSA-Seq analysis and was trying to upload 4 SRA files through accession-based approach, according to Galaxy it's fasted compared to use FTP or directly load the data from local machine, to Galaxy for downstream analysis. I've found that even after one day with a very decent institutional internet connection, I couldn't make it.
Does anyone has experience to circumvent such large data file uploading challenges?
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Using FTP file, you can skip that uploading burden of large data files. Install FTP uploading system, such as Cyber Duck, File Zilla etc. on your computer. Reminder: mention "usegalaxy.org" as Host, then your username and password same as Galaxy.
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I have noticed that there are days which run faster or slower. I have always noticed this happening on days that are warmer (meaning the relative heat is higher or more energy output from the sun). So does time move as a wave (I assume time moves and it is not some a fixed point of the four-dimensional space-time continuum). I have read that solar output is not consistent as the solar system travels through the galaxy because changes in gravity, or gravity waves affecting the sun. If gravity travels as a wave, it would mean that time is a separate force from space, and just like gravity produces a wave which can be compressed or distorted. While time is considered a part of the four-dimensional continuum, it begs the question is time another force like gravity? Then comes the question if a time wave exist how does one measure it?
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The difference between ground level and the GPS satellites at an altitude of over 20 thousand km is 38 microseconds per day. Any ground effect would be much less than that. The experience was completely one of perception, not a physical change.
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Theories in science will be almost constantly changing. Earlier, atoms were considered as indivisible in Dalton’s atomic model. As new theories emerge, old theories will be modified or rejected. But if an experiment is done in hurry and wrong results are announced without analyzing, then it leads to creating a hurdle in progress of science. Some examples:
1] A galaxy having no dark matter was claimed to have been ‘found’ making big news. But now it is debunked.
2] In an experiment, it was concluded that neutrinos will travel faster than speed of light in vacuum. Later it was termed as experimental error.
In my view, experiments must be conducted several times in different methods and results should be announced after complete analysis to avoid confusion. What is your view?
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Dear Jayaram!
I think we have to differ between wrong theories and wrong experiments.
If an experiment leads constantly to the same results this experiment can not be wrong. If the results are in contradiction to the theory than the theory is wrong.
In my opinion only wrong theories drailing the progress of science and only experiments leading to new insights and they can be repeated flawless.
But if an experiment is very complex and very expensive nobody can repeat it and examine the results. In this case some scientists hold a monopol of faulty science resp. incorrect knowledge and we have to belive them.
Some predictions in science founded on theories which are unproven. You should be cautious to follow certain theories like "dark matter" etc.
My Regards! Hans
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In Newtonian mechanics, this relation is derived simply by matching the gravitational force to the centrifugal one. How can one get such a relation in GR? Is it derived from Einstein's equations of motion or from the geodesic equations?
A reference with detailed calculations would highly be appreciated.
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Using GR to model rotation curves of spiral galaxies has been explored by
but not without serious challenges: https://inspirehep.net/record/690135?ln=en
There are more recent, and apparently more successful, attempts by Rodrigues et al.: https://arxiv.org/abs/0911.4967
There are many other technical papers using variants of, as well as modifications to, GR to fit rotation curves.
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Technological advances have amazed all of us. Do you think that is it or will it be possible to build a time machine?
Any discussions are welcome. But please give justifications for your opinions and discussions.
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Dear Quan,
No, a "time machine" (I assume you mean by this a "time travel machine") is not feasible now, and never will be. For an explanation, please see my essay 'On the Impossibility of Time Travel,' which will be found at the following link: https://fqxi.org/data/essay-contest-files/Smith_IOTT6.cwk.pdf .
People who hold that time travel is possible fail to understand the fundamental nature of time. I hope you'll find my essay helpful in this regard.
Best,
J. C. N. Smith
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"Fundamentals of Hydrology" Book Review
By: Maryellen Elizabeth Hart
Geology 110 Summer 2018 Bz 220 Evolution
June 24, 2018 and June 12, 2019
Quick summary: Edited version of my book review of "Fundamentals of Hydrology" By Tim Davie, and my hypothetical assertions that earth's revolution within the galaxy and the galaxy through the universe affects climate and biological evolution creating periodic cycles in climate and evolutionary trends.)
"Fundamentals of Hydrology" is a required textbook for all Hydrology and Climatology majors. Tim Davie's thoughtful, sequential approach in presenting the basic concepts of Hydrology are extraordinarily clear, factually supported and well explained. Excellent diagrams and data.
Tim Davie raises extremely provocative evidence contained in his presentations of Paleoclimatology (historical geological records of earth's climate from the beginning of time). Tim Davie's evidence points to challenging perspectives of atmospheric carbon being affected by earth's force majeure (volcanoes, plate tectonics, meteor impacts, etc.), more than the given human being's careless mismanagement of by-products of civilization.
Tim Davie's presentation of earth's historic temperature variations reveals challenging perspectives of cyclical (regular periodic) variations between earth's ice age and tropical atmospheres, with a subordinate effect of atmospheric carbon influencing the earth's biosphere's temperature. Tim Davie's paleoclimatological evidence reveals that the temperature changes of the earth's surface (Biosphere) is impacted by something greater than carbon emissions. (Yikes, what could that be???) The evidence points to earth's revolution (three hundred plus some million years) through the universe periodically pulls earth away from the sun and causes regular periodic climate change. The other influencing variables: carbon emissions, ozone, various pollutants, regular periodic meteor impact, volcanic activity, plate tectonics are subordinate variables influencing earth's surface temperature (and resulting climate and resulting evolutionary trends.)
Meteor impact not only caused great clouds of dust and ash, but also causes volcanic activity and an increase in the degree of crustal movement (called plate tectonics.) Resulting in the movement of earth's continents and re-positioning the continents toward new climatic zones (ex. equatorial tropical, temperate or polar freeze). Dust clouds created by meteor impact clears within a decade, plate tectonic movement affects the climate of the continent across many millennium (in contrast with the three hundred plus some millions of earth's revolutionary path around the sun). Distance from the sun is the greatest factor influencing planet earth's biosphere and temperature. And the distance from the sun is also influenced by meteor impact (earth is slightly moved (shifted) from its' axis and from its revolution around the universe.) Meteors are in earths' revolutionary path around the universe and earth regularly passes through meteor belts, and those impacts influence the climate (temperature) and biological evolution. Biological evolution may be regularly set back by these periodic revolutions through the universe and the resulting force majeures and patterns of evolution cyclically restarted for both microscopic and macroscopic evolutionary origins as earth travels with its galaxy through the universe.
The greatest influence of climate change is earth's distance from the sun (force majeure) affected by a three hundred plus some million year revolution. (With periodic change in climate flip-flop occurring about every one hundred fifty to two hundred million years (tropical>ice age>tropical>ice age.)) However, human being's stewardship of planet earth requires human beings to monitor and adjust carbon emissions, ozone, atmospheric toxins, etc. appropriately with great care. Tim Davie's research shows the cyclical climate changes evidenced in paleoclimatology and earth's geological record are influenced in subordinate ways by human life's emissions, waste and management.
Paleoclimatology and Evolutionary Trends
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Well,
I quote from the attached pdf (Evolution on Planet Earth).
Temperature and its geological controls Although the direct effects of high temperatures on physiology, populations, and chemical cycles in the biosphere have important implications for evolutionary potential, as discussed in the preceding section, the full story of the role of temperature in evolutionary history can be told only when we have taken full account of the geological factors that control temperature on the Earth's surface. Surface temperatures in the photic zone, that part of the biosphere where primary production of organic carbon through photosynthesis is taking place, are affected by the movement of materials and heat among the atmosphere, water, soil, crust, and mantle. These movements and relationships, which involve a host of positive and negative feedbacks, are far from being understood completely (for a review see Raven, 1998). Instead of dealing with this subject in all its complexity, I shall try to show that the geological processes and conditions which bring about an increase in temperature or a broadening of warm belts magnify the effects of the higher temperatures themselves on evolutionary opportunity. One mechanism that can trigger global warming is the addition of such greenhouse gases as carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, where these gases trap heat (see Crowley and North, 1991). The mantle is the principal source of new CO2 for the biosphere. Volcanic eruptions, underwater hydrothermal activity, and the metamorphism of carbonate rocks as the latter sink and are heated in the mantle, liberate CO2 into the ocean and atmosphere. These mantle sources become increasingly important during times when continental blocks break apart and then separate along mid-ocean ridges (see McLean, 1985; Larson, 1991b; Kaiho and Saito, 1994). As heat rises up through the mantle into the crust, the mid ocean ridges displace large amounts of seawater onto low-lying parts of adjacent land masses, with the result that sea level rises (see also Arthur et al, 1985; Nance et al, 1986; Veevers, 1990). In these shallow coastal or inland seas, sediments collect rapidly and productivity is high. Meanwhile, the open ocean receives relatively little sediment and may become relatively unproductive (Fischer and Arthur, 1977; Hallock and Schlager, 1986; Garzanti, 1993).
Regards
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300 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy; the solar cycle takes 300 billion milliseconds - extrapolate for other galaxies
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1) the number of stars in the Milky Way is of order 10^11. That's all we can say. Affirming that there are exactly 3*10^11 or 4.75*10^11 is stretching it a bit too far.
2) the solar cycle is *not* determined at all by the number of stars in the galaxy. The internal workings of the Sun do not care at all about how many stars are there in total in the galaxy, or how far it is to the center. It is determined by how the internal solar dynamo works, how long does it take the generated magnetic fields to rise to the surface, how do those magnetic fields travel to the poles, etc.
3) the previous answer by Ray Butler is totally right. Neither galaxies nor the solar cycle care too much about which man-made time measurement we use or if there are any numerical coincidences.
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A picture was published a few days ago. It shows ostensible a "Black Hole" within the galaxy M87. Looks like an explosion of a nova or an explosion of a whole cluster of this galaxy.
The interpretation of this stitched picture is strictly according to the theory. The astronomers have to justify the enormous costs of their monitoring stations etc. There is no idea about other causes.
We have to take note of the fact, that the universe exist within eternal cycles of matter. The material matter densify more and more in the centre of any galaxy. It happens from time to time a gigantic explosion in or close by the centre. Material matter annihilates to radiation (=energetical matter). The radiation condensed to material matter peripheral. The cycle starts again. Remains to mention that annihilation and pair production
γ ↔ e+ + e−
are the most fundamental processes in particle physics and in the whole universe.
(Bild: ESO)
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The image is of course a false-color image since it was collected by radio telescopes, but the data collected along with the image itself confirm the predictions of the nature of the black hole based on Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. It should be noted that the black hole itself is of course not visible, nor should it be, by definition. All that is visible is the inner edge of the accretion disk, and even that is obscured by a shadow effect caused by the time dilation that occurs as material nears the event horizon, so that the dark region, which is both the black hole and its 'shadow', is 2.5 times the size of the event horizon.
The paper associated with the image will soon be published, and should include all the details of how the image was obtained, what other data were acquired, how the telescopes were linked, and all the other details required by those who would like to try to replicate the study. And given the reputation of the institutions and previously known individuals involved, I feel certain that it is as good a representation of the situation as possible without an even larger interferometric array. It is very unfortunate that because one of the more important members of the team was an attraction young woman, instead of an ugly old fart, that internet trolls are doing their best to destroy her life and deny the study the appreciation it deserves. It is true that it doesn't "tell" us a lot that we didn't already know, but it did confirm a number of things that we already suspected, and it is the first image of a black hole that is not merely an artist's impression, so it is quite an achievement, and while not 'earth-shaking' news, does deserve to be appreciated..
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Is not it amazing to look at galaxy as if it were a huge Madun tornado swimming in Madun fluid, and contains billions of stars, planets and moons?
Please, see
"A new alternative theory of gravity where gravity is particles behaving as a fluid forming two types of swirls Annular swirls and oval swirls".
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Ahmad,
So, in answering Ray's question, you suggest that this fluid pushes all objects together.
In which case, how does the Cavendish experiment work?
Two masses, separated horizontally, are brought into proximity. A force is measurable between them.
Your fluid would exert the same pressure - irrespective of the distance between these masses - would it not?
How would that fluid *know* that the objects were close to each other, and thus increase its 'push'?
Please tell me how to detect the presence of this fluid. Can I buy some from you?
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Logical Contradiction of Theorem 2 of Thermodynamics
Second Theorem of Thermodynamics: The natural process of isolated system always proceeds in the direction of increasing entropy, and the equilibrium state corresponds to the state of maximum entropy.
The second theorem of thermodynamics has a limitation on the object of study: isolated system. The following is an isolated system, but the second theorem of thermodynamics has some problems in its application: there are two cups of water A B on the table, there are a lot of charges suspended in the water, and the outside world treats them.
Without effect, they can be regarded as isolated systems as a whole. According to the second theorem of thermodynamics, the system should have a stable equilibrium state. We can see from part: For example, A, which is affected by B's electricity, can not be regarded as an isolated system, whether it has a stable state, it is very problematic. The same is true of B. Different research results may exist in the same research object, which can only explain the shortcomings of the theory for such research object.
Whether the system is stable or not depends on the physical equation and experimental determination. The physical equation should include heat and electricity.
1) Poisson equation
2) p=A*exp(-qu/kT)
Solving the equation is difficult, it is non-linear, intuitively speaking, the possibility of solution is small. This shows that the second theorem of thermodynamics can only be applied to systems without long-range interactions.
However, the interaction of gravity between celestial bodies cannot be ignored. It will also destroy the isolation of the system. Any galaxy is disturbed by other galaxies, and the second theorem of thermodynamics is not applicable. When the second law of thermodynamics was just established, people applied it to the universe and obtained the theory of cosmic thermal death. From the above discussion, the cosmic thermal death theory is meaningless, because the second law of thermodynamics is a finite law.
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The second theorem of Thermodynamics is correct in the place where no negative entropy collectors, i.e. the factor collecting entropy to become into energy or matter so that decrease the entropy. If while there are negative entropy collectors, then the theorem maybe reformed. As for in cosmic there exists a huge number of negative entropy collectors, hence the second theorem of Thermodynamics is not suitable obviously, unless redefined it again.
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Has anyone done RNA Seq analysis in Galaxy? The files have to be in fastq or fastqsanger format ? Is it very essential to trim the reeds?
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yes. its easier and doesnt need any script material. do some tutorials. it helps alot as it helps me
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The orbital speed of earth is about 30 km/s. Our solar system moves in the Milky-Way Galaxy at about 200 km/s when measured with respect to the Galactic Reference Frame. It is estimated that the Milky-Way Galaxy itself moves at about 600 km/s when measured with respect to a Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame. The velocity of earth with respect to the CMB rest frame may be within a range of 400 km/s to 800 km/s. With astonishingly advanced levels of Technology available in 21st century, we should be in a position to measure the actual velocity of earth. I just want to know the current efforts being made by the Scientific Community in this direction. I am intending to start a Project to measure the velocity of earth with an accuracy of +/- 1 km/s.
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There is an anisotropy in the CMB of a dipole nature, appearing 'warmer' in one direction and 'colder' in the opposite direction, consistent with a Doppler shift caused by a motion of the Earth at 368 +/- 2 km/sec in the direction of the constellation of Leo. This is based primarily on WMAP data. By taking the motion of the Earth relative to our galaxy and our galaxy relative to other nearby galaxies, the motion of the Local Group relative to the CMB is estimated at about 627 km/sec, with an uncertainty of about 22 km/sec. The motion is nearly at right angles (to the East of) the direction to the center of our galaxy, and about 30 degrees above the galactic plane.
These measurements are strictly based on the dipole anisotropy. There are also random anisotropies of various sizes but very low amplitudes, thought to be random variations in the density of the gas at the distance (about z = 17) where the CMB originates (namely, at the distance corresponding to the time when the Universe became transparent to light).
One result of this is that in using the Hubble velocity of distant galaxies to estimate their distances, we should perhaps take into account the Earth's motion relative to the CMB; but the peculiar velocities of galaxies (non-Hubble expansion motions relative to their neighbors) are typically about the same size as our motion relative to the CMB, and taking our motion into account would require spherical trigonometrical calculations corresponding to the difference in direction between our motion and the direction to the galaxy in question, as well as some way of estimating the peculiar velocity of the galaxy in question. So usually, our motion is ignored in calculating redshift-dependent distances.
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Two conflicting theories suggest on the one hand that the complex biological nature of Earth is rare or even unique in the universe or conversly that life is inevitable just about everywhere, given a few constants.
Are we alone in the universe or are there countless planets with complex life and intelligent species within our astronomical neighbourhood?
How likely is it that that not very far away in our own galaxy that there are sentient beings asking this very same question?
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Dear Barry,
I lean on the side that life on earth is very typical. Our sun is typical, planets like us are most likely typical, life on earth did appears as soon as water was liquid. I expect life to take about 3 billion years to become multicellular on all these planet and to take about 500 million years to become intelligent and about half million year either to become stable and extinct. In the case of the planet where intelligent life become stable, I expect it to become planetary integrated life form within a few thousand years. I expect to be typical as well. I also expect these planetary life form to become integrated at a higher galactic level with instantaneous communication channel as soon as they reach the planetary life form level. The answers to all your question are only sure at that level where communication is established. But I think we have it built in in our life form already the compulsion to go towards this normal life development at the higher level of life scale. The Universe is still very young and I am not sure if the integration at the galactic level is already established or if we will be among the first member cell of this life form.
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Are there any astronomers out there who can point me in the right direction for tabulated data on galaxy rotation curves and luminous mass data.
Preferably data which does not include or presume DM.
Thanks..
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The numbers are the tangential speed relative to the centre of the galaxy and have been corrected for both the overall motion of the galaxy towards us and the inclination of the disc.
NGC 224 is the Andromeda galaxy.
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Millions of stars and plants are there in the milky way galaxy itself, but why life exhists only on Earth?
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First, define what you mean by "life". If such things as reproducability are included, I think "life" can and must be found throughout the universe. We need to expand our horizons.
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Hi All, need your valuable comments please.
We are talking about fate of universe, as per below hypothesis, it is always yet undergo changes
This post is deleted..Thanks
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Thanks Larissa for the wonderful insights, i am planning to take this as PHD subject..
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If so, when will new telescopes be constructed, thanks to which you will be able to see what is on the planets of other planetary systems in other constellations?
Every now and then more and more perfect telescopes are being built thanks to which photographs of other constellations and other galaxies are created.
Thanks to these photographs, the cognitive abilities in the field of astronomy are increased, among others the estimated amounts of stars, planetary systems and planets in specific constellations, galaxies.
Besides, thanks to these photographs, more and more perfect maps of the blue vault, collections of galaxies and specific segments of the cosmos are created.
For example, studies conducted in recent years based on new cosmic photographs show with previously unattainable accuracy the distribution of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, in which there is a solar system with our Earth.
In April 2018, astronomers prepared a much more accurate than the current three-dimensional map of the Milky Way Galaxy.
This was done as part of a research project with a million dollars budget. As part of this research project and thanks to the space mission launched in 2013, the Gaia probe was developed a very accurate map of the Andromeda Galaxy and a new research material was created for the purposes of research into the analysis of the past and future of our Galaxy.
The research project was implemented by the European Space Agency. Based on this research project, the latest astrometric data set containing positions and self-movements of over a billion stars was made available.
Placed on Earth's orbit, the Gaia Probe has two optical telescopes and three scientific instruments that also allow to determine the brightness, temperature and chemical composition of individual stars.
In addition, the latest data set contains star colors that provide vital information about their surface temperature and age.
The Gaia probe also provided new data in the area of ​​13,000. asteroids circulating within the solar system.
In view of the above, the current question is: If so, when will new telescopes be constructed, thanks to which you will be able to see what is on the planets of other planetary systems in other constellations?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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First let me offer a minor correction: "Constellations" are configurations of the stars that appear in the night sky from the surface of the Earth that were grouped together by the ancient Greeks to symbolize mythological and other creatures. Constellations have no physical significance but they are very handy ways to locate astronomical objects in the night sky.
Other than the planets of our own Solar System I doubt that there will every be on planet Earth a telescope capable of resolving the surface of a exoplanet. All we can do is analyze the light we receive directly from the parent star and that reflected by the star's exoplanet.
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Waves are cyclic, seasons are cyclic, life is cyclic. A cyclic theory of a Big Bang ending up at a Big Crunch could easily explain why older galaxies closer to the Big Crunch are accelerating faster away from us.
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Karl,
After reviewing some of your work (as well as your above two comments), I believe we may be describing a very similar construct, and approaching into the realm through two alternate doors. Within my mechanism "Unit" discovery, I not only see the operation described in your "collapsing and re-extending dipoles", but easily follow your description of particle interactions becoming "irregularly fluctuating constituents of the filled space" when combining these Units into what I show as the kinematic Manifold of space-time. All of this is accomplished and verified by way of the mysterious and foundational charge, simply by utilizing integers 1 through 9. A simple beginning foundation, yet leading to a dynamical "IN/OUT" process you also describe, continuing further into the N/S, +/- and particle/anti-particle aspects. The dynamo which runs this manifold is simply its desire for a highest state of geometric symmetry, nothing else.
With this said, I would be very interested in your review of my Geometric theory of the Unified Field project once submitted.
- J.L. Brady
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The so called dark matter is pictured out side the galaxy. What is the reason? why cant it be a part of the galaxy itself ?
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"Why so called dark matter is outside the galaxy?"
Most dark matter models propose a very large amount of dark matter. A few galaxies are thought to have little or no dark matter. Based upon observed velocity rotation curves for most spiral galaxies at least 80 to 98% dark matter is needed to bring the rotation curve anywhere near what is being observed. The Milky Way, for instance, is thought to have 30 times more dark matter than observable matter for its rotation curve to come anywhere near what is observed. That is only 3.3% observable matter. Naturally most of this dark matter must be outside the observable galaxy if matter were distributed according to the inverse square law of distance from the galactic center which is the dark matter model most often used.
There is only one well-known group of alternatives to dark matter for spiral galaxies. These are changing-strength-of gravity models like MOND. There are dozens of these proposed models but few alternatives can also explain the excess rotation rates of galaxies in a cluster, the excess bending of light (gravitational lensing), or motions of galaxies as a whole in the observable universe, without also proposing vast quantities of unseen matter. For this it is believed that unobserved dark matter is the most likely answer.
There have been other alternatives to all observations, but few can get published since all must meet the publishers criteria of reasonableness, and most of the well-known publishers will not even consider alternatives involving changing-gravity like MOND, or what they consider more speculative models. I have been writing such an alternative-model paper for the last 2 years and hope to get it published in a well-known journal before the end of this year.
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In another thread some researchers were discussing Hubble constant and distant galaxies calculated to move faster away from us than our standard light speed. Also publications can be found describing this.
It seems unlikely that the galaxies were moving faster than their local light speed at the long ago time light left them coming to us.
Was Light Speed Faster In The Past?
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Interesting query. I loved reading this news article: Was the Speed of Light Even Faster in the Early Universe? | Smart News
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Hi all,
I am trying to construct a fungus (about 31Mb) genome assembly using paired-end reads (300 bp each) from Illumina Miseq and some of resultant contigs using the programs SSPACE, GapFiller and Pilon in Linux. 
I was able to run SSPACE and GapFiller successfully, but failed to run Pilon due to failure of obtaining indexed BAM.
Can anybody tell me how to make input for Pilon with outputs from GapFiller?
Eventually, I want to compare results from these work flows in Linux and Unicycler in Galaxy. Any input regarding to this would be appreciated.
Thank you,
Kyung
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Problem solved! Thank you Seth.
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Special Relativity states that there is no absolute reference frame, and the physical laws are really independent on the reference frame. I was always wondering why if you look at the Universe you do not have this feeling?
At the university, studying physics, I have learned that this is because Universe is (mostly) homogeneous, isotropic, and finite. And expands. It almost seemed ok.
But if all reference frames are equal why there are no galaxies travelling with close to the speed of the light from left to right (or opposite)? Why almost all momentums of the (distant and big) masses are (close to) radial? So why the speed distribution is not homogeneous in the Universe?
Since Universe is finite one should be able (at least in principle) to measure (or estimate) the momentary speed of all particles in Universe within a limited (local) time frame. (I know that it will be a different local time for every mass, but it does not matter). Then it is also possible to calculate (since there is a finite number of measurements) the total momentum or kinetic energy of the Universe. You can repeat it in any reference frame and rank the reference frames according to the number you got.
I think this series of numbers have a finite limes which gives you the absolute reference frame for our Universe.
What is wrong with this argument? Please do not say that practically it is not possible to fulfill!
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Dear Ed,
you may not accept the arguments for an absolute reference frame as trustworthy, your choice. But if there exists one in reality or not is certainly not a settled question.
The visible distribution of matter clearly defines a preferred system of coordinates. The question if this preferred system of coordinates has some fundamental importance or is simply an accident is something we cannot know up to now.
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Astronomical measurements in the early 1990s on COBE FIRAS found that the cosmic microwave background is isotropic to better than one part in 100,000. Since the universe is roughly, perhaps, 50 to 90 billions of light years in diameter, that degree of uniformity still leaves a lot of room for clumpiness, such as in galaxies, stars, and organisms. What is the source of the clumpiness?
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A temperature fluctuation ΔT/T ~ 10 -5 is known to exist in microwave background radiation. This anisotropy is observed by KOBE and later by WMAP, PLANCK experiments. In theoretical models it is directly related with gravitational potential at the surface of last scattering.
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Hi everyone! This paper keeps getting rejected, and I could really use some help. Is there anyone who could help me out with a quick peer review? The manuscript is available as a preprint here:
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
Thanks for your help in advance:
Sándor:
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Sándor:
I would suggest limiting the scope of the paper. You are proposing a mechanism for gamma-ray bursts to alter the structure of a galaxy. Whether or not you can prove that theory, by extending it to dismiss the effects of dark matter you are introducing a completely unrelated topic that is bound to make it seem like you are over-reaching. Theories of galaxy formation and shape are generally treated as being due only to their mass and interactions with other nearby galaxies (when there are such galaxies); and the question of whether that mass includes "dark matter" does not enter into "standard" theory at all.
Of course, you may be conflating the two different types of dark matter -- dark matter in galaxies, which certainly exists but has unknown nature, and dark matter between galaxies, which is believed to exist but may or may not, depending on who you talk to (most cosmologists believe it exists, but there is a sizable minority who suspect that something else may be involved). So if you feel that you absolutely must include the topic of dark matter, you should clarify which kind you are trying to do away with.
I should admit that I have not read your entire paper -- just the abstract and enough of the start to see where you are going -- but I doubt that reading any more of it would change my comments. I must also state that although I help this hopes, I am too busy with other things to actually help "edit" your paper.
Finally, I would recommend that you ignore the comments by Mr. De Mees. Though I am sure he can make statements that seem to confirm his theories, they are as far from generally accepted physics as anything I have ever read. I do not mean to insult Mr. De Mees, who is entitled to his opinions; but since you are trying to get your paper accepted, you need to realize that you should move your proposals in a direction that is closer to what the general scientific community considers acceptable, if you want that community to take notice of your work.
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I'm a newbie in doing bioinformatics using cloud. I had uploaded my data files to my OwnCloud account. How do I link this to my Galaxy workflow/account so I can begin the data analyses. Thanks!
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Thanks much, @Abhijeet!! Yes, this can be a good jump-off point for me to figure out how to upload my files into the Galaxy server. Thanks much!
@Sambit Kuma Mishra, the Galaxy I was referring to is the Galaxy servers/website for bioinformatics analysis and not the Samsung brand of electronics. Thanks!
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I asked this question in relation to specific issues in RG forums. I would like to bring it to a more general attention.
One cannot adequately understand the quantum phenomena based on the world view of modern official theoretical physics; be it Newtonian, “continuous field” of Minkowski-Einsteinian and quantum fields; or the path integral based Quantun Electrodynamics (QED) of Feynman. All of these (including all of natural science generally known so far) are based on a world view (epistemology), which G.W.F. Hegel called “the view of understanding” or very crudely speaking “causality"; to differentiate it from another world view, which Hegel termed as “the view of reason” or simply dialectics. Dialectics represents a qualitative leap in epistemology – a discrete and quantum jump and not a continuous transition from one to the other!
The classical and Newtonian dynamics deals with matter and motion that are the gross, averaged out or a crude representation of the internal micro-level processes that are defined by totally different and even conflicting laws conforming to the laws of quantum physics and dialectics, but are absolutely meaningless or senseless from the point of view of causality and “good old commonsense” of everyday life experience. Through historical or evolutionary processes, we (or any form of life) are instinctively tuned (at human level) to “the view of understanding” or causality; that is based on certainty, continuity, determinism etc., that conform to formal logic, obeys the laws of conservation of energy and mass, the principle “Ex nihilo nihil fit” and is mediated by a cause followed invariably by an effect.
Classical mechanics and to some extent Newtonian physics works in the terrestrially bound human scale and can be understood (at a gross level) as a satisfactory representation of objective reality. But beyond the narrow human scale, i.e., in the realm of the cosmic macrocosm and sub-atomic microcosm causality breaks down and is totally useless for any understanding of these realms. Only the dialectical world view based on chance and necessity can deal with these realms. But official theoretical physics (conforming to theology and economic class society) insists on extending causality to the macrocosm and microcosm; using contrived and arbitrary theories and mathematical tricks and “proving” these theories with equally contrived “experiments” to give these (causality based) fantastic theories the veneer of “science”. The epistemology of this world view jumps from one polar end of one extreme to the exactly opposite extreme end: from absolute chance to absolute necessity; but not the two together like dialectics!
For more than a decade; I have criticized the official theories (except the early version of QED of Heisenberg, Dirac et al., which conforms to dialectics) in various publications (books, journal articles, comments in various public forums including RG) from a dialectical world view: referred to in my RG profile including the following two current forums of RG; in which I have taken on some experts of (mainstream) official theoretical physics: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Is_Any_Effective_Refutation_of_Einsteins_Theories_of_Relativity_Possible https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_special_relativity_be_categorized_as_metaphysics
The dialectical world view is the exact opposite of causality; most importantly at the quantum level. Also, dialectical laws do not obey the conservation laws. Instead of cause and effect; dialectics is mediated by chance and necessity. The quantum phenomenon is an aspect of objective reality that nobody, no thinkers or philosophers could even anticipate in their wildest imagination; before its discovery at the turn of 20th Century. Only Hegel’s philosophy of Space and Time very vaguely anticipated the quantum phenomena. I have attempted a QED interpretation of Hegel's philosophy of Space-Time-Matter-Motion based on the "Virtual Particles" of the quantum vacuum in my booklet: “The Philosophy of Space-Time: Whence Cometh Matter and Motion?”
In few of my works in the realm of cosmology and quantum physics I have used the quantum interpretation of Hegel's philosophy and a materialist dialectical perspective drawing inferences, which are in direct contradiction to the officially and generally accepted theories like Relativity, Big Bang etc. Please see for example my article, "Ambartsumian, Arp and the Breeding Galaxies:
The whole causality based Big Bang cosmology of modern physics is negated by the dialectical view of the Infinite:
The characterization of objective reality as "continuous fields" ("Matter is a Myth") both at cosmic level ("Spacetime") and at quantum level (Quantum field theories) and the use of arbitrary mathematical idealism to describe those fields, is a gross violation of materialism - the very foundation on which natural science was built.
Even matter particle based QED of Feynman’s path integral is an arbitrary rationalization of a situation that anti-dialectical modern official theoretical physics (using idealized mathematics) has no clue about. It uses equally arbitrary “renormalization” - a trick that seems very ingenious, but it is a crude trick none-the-less – you cancel a set of so-called infinities by invoking another set of infinities to get a result that you wanted to have in the first place; or the one you really want! Paul Dirac referred to this sleight of hand as "brushing infinity under the rug."
In contrast to Feynman’s arbitrary “path integral”, I made a humble attempt to interpret wave/particle duality based on dialectics:
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Dear Vivian
Maxwell equations do not fit the Newton's and Galileo's relativity. You cannot join Newton physics with quantum mechanics. They are not compatible! You cannot join also the classical version of Maxwell equations with quantum mechanics. They are also not compatible! Unless you quantize MEs. You have no fundamental principle, no data, no symmetries, no conservation laws, no fundamental kaws, no physical elements to allow such kind of "theory of (almost) everything" as said by Malek. It makes no sense. When you say that in your opinion "Newtonian mechanics give a better description of reality than both quantum mechanics and general relativity" it makes no sense. It is not a matter of opinion. Physics do not work this way. Theories in physics must fit fundamental principles, fundamental laws, and data!
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A long-standing question is why only a small fraction of supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies are active. Supermassive black holes are present in almost all galaxies, so why are only a few accreting matter and shining brightly? These results reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the black holes can be fed.
General thinking seems to be that the AGN is the cause and the activity in the galaxy is the effect. To me it was more obvious that AGNs are due to matter events in galaxies. What do you think?
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It's against the mainstream, but there is a reason why the strength of gravity might decrease for masses with mass/radius ratio approaching c^2/G. If incoming matter approaching the centre of a galaxy reaches this limit the gravity reduces and the pressure forces an ejection perpendicular to the disc.
http://vixra.org/abs/1802.0167 Appendix B3. After the ejection the mass/radius ratio is reduced and so the ejections only happen periodically, that's why only a few galaxies appear to have AGNs.
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Electrons and photons have helicity. Helicity implies chirality. Therefore, if you have two entangled photons and they are non-superimposable mirror images, it does not matter that you detect the right hand one at the other end of the galaxy! the other one is the left hand one! Ergo, no need of superluminal singnaling. Why if this rule out?
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Dear Cesar, I wrote "Matter and Light in Flatland" on 2004. I used Mikio Kaku ideas of extra-dimensions. I figure a particle model which uses those ideas. In a nutshell, I am proposing that the electron and the photon are spinors built as hypertoruses. All our quantum weirdness comes from our inability to see a four dimensional object. We are constricted to observe only its intersection in a 3-D plane. Imagine that you have an object that can be in two different places at the same time. Can you explain correlation experiment results with this quality?
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Can galactic rotation curves be explained in higher curvature theories?
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@Abdul: The objective reality has not a basis and at least of all theories like 'spacetime'. We shuold not confuse the reality with our theories about the reality.. To claim: 'Spacetime “continuous field” as a basis of the objective reality ...' is a contradiction in terms.
@Razieh: Dark matter is a invention of the theories resp. a theoretical necessity. It was never observed.
status and not the level of an exact science.
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Kepler's third law yields correct orbital periods for the planets of the solar system
however, orbital period of the Sun in the Milky Way is computed with the relation    P = 2*pi*r/v.  Analysis given in the article "Periodic relativity: deflection of light, acceleration, rotation curves." shows that we can obtain same result by introducing proper time in the form of deviation factor into Kepler's third law. This deviation to flat Minkowski metric satisfies Einstein's field equations and also provides solution to rotation curves of galaxies.
Progress in Physics, 2015, v.11(1), 43-49.
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