Science method

Gait Analysis - Science method

Explore the latest questions and answers in Gait Analysis, and find Gait Analysis experts.
Questions related to Gait Analysis
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
I am looking for a valid and reliable wearable sensor system for gait analysis, for both clinical and research settings, what are the good brands and companies you recommend?
Relevant answer
Answer
For simple gait analyses, I would recommend using the BTS G-WALK® (BTS Bioengineering S.p.A., Garbagnate Milanese, Italy) inertial sensor (https://www.btsbioengineering.com/products/g-walk-inertial-motion-system/). The BTS G-WALK® sensor delivers valid ( , , ) and reliable ( , https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jetr/issue/56637/737232) spatiotemporal gait parameters (including gait speed, stride duration, stride length, stance time, swing time, single support time, or double support time), is very simple to use, and has different clinical tests integrated (including timed up and go, and six minute walking test).
If you are interested in more detailed spatiotemporal gait parameters (sample report see https://research.gaitup.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Gait-Sample-Report.pdf), asymetric gait (e.g. hemiparetic gait), or investigate populations where there is only limited vertical movement in the center of mass (e.g. shuffling gait), I recommend using the Physilog® sensors of the company Gait Up (https://physilog.com), as already suggested by Luigi Borzí .
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
In the context of a Master Thesis project we are analysing EMG data.
We want to extract the time of toe off/heel strike, the time of start and end of squats and other features like the "tap-tap" on the sensor that allows us to distinguish different tasks.
Do you have any advice/suggestion?
Thany you very much
Relevant answer
Answer
  • We have worked on the exact same problem using inertial sensor data. You can follow our publication titled "Stride segmentation of Inertial sensor data using statistical methods for different walking activities" available here 10.1017/S026357472100179X
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
Im trying to write a code that allows me to detect the tap on an IMU sensor from the accelerometer data during gait analysis.
I need as an output the time instant of the taps (in the ellipses), is it somehow possibile to do it in a pretty simple way?
We've tried to find the associated peak with findpeaks, but it's quite a mess..
Thank you for your help
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
Hello!
For my internship I'm looking to do an experiment which involves the analyses of step speed and step length and variabilities in these properties. I'm looking to use a camera system for ease of use (we want to keep setup time for each participant as low as possible) though simple markers can be added.
Which (preferably cheap or free) software would be able to analyze footage from (multiple) camera's and determine the earlier mentioned factors? Ideally the software is relatively easy to use and is able to export the data to MATLAB.
Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Kinovea is one of good software for gait Analysis. It contains all essential motion analysis tools including slow motion  and reverse playback. 
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
We are seeking to develop our agile biomechanics lab for the purpose of in-the-field biomechanical data capturing, where the access to a portable instrumented treadmill [fitted with force plate(s)] would be a privilege.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are many version of this kind of treadmill is available in market with force platform. Pressure-pad-embedded treadmill (Model Gait analysis FDM-TDSL-3i, Zebris Inc.®, Germany; belt length: 150 cm; belt width: 50 cm; maximum incline: 15%; maximum speed: 24 km/h), which was used to record VGRF at a sampling frequency of 50 Hz. You can use this type of treadmill also. Although you need to mention the exact need of yours. Pls go through the following Article for reference -
Pathak, P.; Ahn, J. A Pressure-Pad-Embedded Treadmill Yields Time-Dependent Errors in Estimating Ground Reaction Force during Walking. Sensors 2021, 21, 5511. https://doi.org/10.3390/ s21165511
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
7 answers
for those who are teaching Biomechanics, Kinesiology, Gait analysis; what is your fav part or topic that you like to teach, and you feel like you are awesome in this part ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Field biomechanics investigation with wearables.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
Hi everybody
I am simulating a static analysis of a prosthetic foot which consists of 10 solids:
- A pyramid adapter
- Three carbon fiber plates
- Two screws that join two plates with the pyramidal adapter
- Two pins that connect two plates to each other
- A polymeric base where everything is assembled
- A heel wedge that serves as a shock absorber
Attached of the ensemble (in Spanish)
The analysis consists of applying a vertical force on the pyramidal adapter of 2240 N, it also has bolt preloads of 10 N and 20 N in the respective screws and pins, and the polymeric base is fixed.
The question would be to choose the types of interactions and constraints in the model.
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting. will it help in running also.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
A lot of variations in spatiotemporal parameters during gait performance among stroke survivors have been recorded. Studies have slso shown that such variations in gait paramets during gait performance have strong (confounding) influence on the outcome/results of gait analysis conducted among these individuals.  A number of factors have been pointed out as contributing factors to the observed variations in gait performance. Such include fear of falling, fatigability/post stroke fatigue and environmental factors.  It is therefore of serious concern to me to find out how these variables could be assessed objectively as this would help me immensely in my current study.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good Afternoon Dr. Ezenwankwo---
If the individual is at a higher functional level, I would utilize the Falls Efficacy Scale - International to measure fear of falling. I might employ the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) to measure balance confidence. Both are easy to administer in gait studies and demonstrate sufficient validity and reliability properties.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
Hello all,
I am trying to do an agreement analysis to verify how similar are the time-series measurements taken by two devices. Basically I have 2 curves representing values measured over time with each device, and I want to say how similar these measurements are.
I have other metrics in my analysis, but I was looking into CMC (Kadaba, 1989) to be a global metric. I know it is often used in gait analysis literature for reliability analysis, where curves taken by the same measurement device, but in different days, are compared. This coefficient represents similarity between two curves, so I was considering using it as a metric of agreement between the two time-series measurements I have, one from each device. I was wondering if there is any statistical assumption behind CMC that prevents me from doing that, I couldn't find much about it.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Completely in agreement with the magnificent answer of the also magnificent researcher Dr. Pervaiz Iqbal; curiously I was going to hang something similar.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
7 answers
I am working on gait analysis using a feed-forward NN. When I use data from the accelerometer (3 columns for each axis if stored in a data frame), I get an accuracy of 95%, and when I used data from the gyroscope (3 columns for each axis if stored in a data frame), I get an accuracy of 85%.
Now, when I try to use data from both of these above mentioned sensors (6 columns if stored in a data frame), the accuracy drops to 66%. Being quite new to this, I am not sure why is this happening? Shouldn't accuracy be in the same range as before?
What can be the possible reason for this?
Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Glad to have been of assistance.
As you are a newcomer to the field, always keep in mind that machine learning is data-driven, hence data quality should be the first concern.
Also, by all means do not try to learn machine learning from software users' manuals, such as the above-mentioned Pytorch, and many others. Machine learning is science, but it tends to become a bag of tricks. Read scientific textbooks and articles written by scientists. Keep away for tricksters who will almost invariably lead you on a wrong path.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
I want to work on gait analysis for normal walking and abnormal walking. Is there any gait database available for the same from which i can extract gait acceleration?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello!
I don't know any on that topic, but maybe you can find something useful here: https://datasetsearch.research.google.com/
Best and good luck!
Cristina
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
7 answers
We are currently looking to recognize not only steps but detailed gait data (e.g. Shape Context and Linear Time Normalized) based on smartphone accelerometer data. We appreciate hints to existing software solutions (Android, iOS or device independent) as well as related work on the topic. Also, we would like to connect with other groups working on that subject.
We will use this data to support movement training as well as everyday walking activities of older adults (typically aged between 60 and 85).
Relevant answer
Answer
For sure you may consider using a combination of BLE sensors combined with a smart phone app ... both MbientLab (https://mbientlab.com) and NOTCH (https://wearnotch.com) provide developer resources and examples ... Im using them to pilot study movement/gait analysis in connection to rehabilitation ... hope this helps ....
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
8 answers
Hello to everybody,
I am new to the field of the Gait Analysis, but I did lots of study to explore this topic as this is the first part of my project proposal. Thus, the second part consists of developing a system that can extract gait features (like cadence, stride time etc) from a video, but I have no idea where to start because I have not found any source code yet. The main idea is extracting gait features related to PD from healthy people (Training Set) and, in a later moment, from PD people (Test Set), so that new gaits will be classified as abnormal.
Basically, here is explained the main idea: a classifier takes in input a video of one healthy person performing his/her gait, and the classifier extracts relevant features; this is executed multiple times with different people (generating the Training Set). At the end of the supervised learning, the classifier takes in input a new, unseen person gait and it has to evaluate if the person is healthy or ill (if ill, what disease); this is executed multiple times with different people (generating the Test Set).
Do you know any projects available that can carry out my task, or suitable to my situation? Of course, any programming language is accepted (Python and MATLAB are very welcome) as well as any datasets (either existent or self-made).
Thank you for your availability and patience.
Kind regards,
Luigi Manosperta
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Dear all,
I have some gait lab data which contain position of lower body markers.
If I calculate Sacrum markers acceleration, could I assume this acceleration as linear acceleration that an inertial sensor measures?
is there any references?
Relevant answer
Answer
your comment was really helpful... so, second derivation of a marker position could be an standard acceleration of a point. an accurate accelerometer could measure it so I can use marker position instead of accelerometer data.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
7 answers
We are currently collecting sEMG data during gait of young healthy adults. We noticed that some levels of asymmetry exist even in this population.
Did anyone else notice such asymmetry? What is the expected values of asymmetry that one can expect, without questioning the reliability of the measurement? Did anyone notice anything interesting regarding this matter in large vs. small muscles? (i.e., quadriceps, glutei vs. peroneal or tibialis muscles?)
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Uri Gottlieb
As I do not work much with EMG's, possibly I can be of assistance as I can apply my experience with lower extremity kinetics, kinematics and kinesiology to offer that the most important muscle engines to monitor are posterior tibial and peroneus longus for your study. These are the primary balance and stabilizing muscle engines of the feet.
Too often, Gastrocs, Anterior tibial and Soleus are monitored. Unfortunately, these muscle engines are compensatory and would be late to tell tales and be a good location for treatment and monitoring.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
What are the outcome measures that determine if the patient eligible for 3 D gait analysis or not?
For example if the patient must be able to walk independently or must has good cognitive ability, so what is the outcome measure by which I can accept the patient for gait analysis using evidence based practice.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am not sure that you need an article providing evidence, I would say that you need and should apply common sense! With clinical gait analysis, you want to HELP PATIENTS in their conditions which may be impaired in some way.
If a patient is not able to walk far/long/independently enough to fulfill your requirements for gait analysis (depends to some degree on your lab situation, i.e. how far to walk, how many trials...) it might not be ethical to 'force' him/her through the procedures as you might do more harm than help by applying your technology. So you should look at the potential benefits against the risks imposed by the gait analysis.
Of course, you can and should adapt to the patient by shortening the walking distance, allow rest period, using less trials and similar measures in order to reduce the burden. Whatever you do, you should keep it in mind when you analyze the data and report it later, in order not to over-interpret is under the given circumstances.
So in essence, there is no easy cook-book or recipe advice but you have to decide based on the patient and situation.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Hello All
I'm trying to synchronize imu sensor with the Motion Capture system. Is this possible? If so, how?
thanks for answering
Alireza
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Alireza,
First, what is the type of motion capture system do you have? Most of them actually have their own synchronization box, which serve as trigger in or trigger out for other external device including IMU. However, if your IMU sensor is a standalone sensor without any base to connected, then you can try an option to synchronize it by using some movement that cause spike on IMU signal like jumping.
Hope this helps you
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
a data set of gait analysis of an autistic person given along with ankle angle .
stride length and walking speed etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, of course you can get the data
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
Could anyone who is expertise process and analyse G-Walk raw data tell me what statistical test or which steps I need to do?
I'm facing great challenges in processing the raw G-Walk data.
Relevant answer
Answer
We compared Rumen liquor & faeces for in vitro gas production from animal feeds. lot of statistical information, good read to start with...see attached...
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
1 answer
I'm currently do my research about stability for gait analysis by using Lyapunov Exponent. Can I calculate the Lyapunov exponent based on the ankle angle and ankle moment? Currently I'm still confusing with the the code steps on how to calculate the Lyapunov exponent. Can someone guide me. Thank you so much.
Relevant answer
Yes, you can practically use any kinematic time series as long its long enough (at least 100 cycles per recording). For more info on the process the following paper is very detailed:
  • Bruijn Sjoerd M.
and
  • van Dieën Jaap H.
Control of human gait stability through foot placement15J. R. Soc. Interfacehttp://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2017.0816
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
I want an initial direction, like how can I use IMU sensors on knees (e.g upper leg and lower leg ) to estimate body state e.g running, walking, climbing, etc. The basic idea I have is to use 2 IMU sensors on knee position (upper and lower leg) , and to get data or make a data set of it. Then process it using deep learning e.g CNN or ANN etc. But point is..are there data sets available on which I can test CNN etc to see either it works or not. Need guidance about data sets, from where could I get IMU knee based data sets, so that I can focus on my algorithm only.
Relevant answer
Answer
It seems you are trying to solve a classic problem of human activity recognition based on body-worn sensors. A very good starting point for different datasets, mainly based on acceleration only, is this paper:
I wouldnt recommend using a naked CNN for testing. A classic machine learning approach with a proper preprocessing, some good extracted features (e.g. simpe statistical features, PCA or Codebook) and a classification that supports the understanding of the problem (e.g. kNN or SVM). Good luck and have fun trying :).
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
10 answers
I am planning a study on freezing in patients with Parkinson’s disease. I need basic parameters including and especially time taken to initiate walking.
What is the most affordable way to conduct such gait analysis? Insoles? Affordable gait mats?
Thanks for your response in advance,
Siddharth.
Relevant answer
Answer
The cheapest is likely to be either a 2D video camera and free software.
The trouble you will find is placing a camera in the correct location. Using a treadmill is unlikely to be a good move with this patient group, therefore you will need multiple cameras to catch more than a step or two initiation of gait.
You could try an app on a mobile phone, you can either find one that tracks movement or one that streams data via Bluetooth. Most phones have both at least one triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope included, so depending on your skills with signal processing this could be a reasonably cheap approach.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
Hi all,
In my search for the best way to select 30 strides/gait cycles within datasets with up to 100+ strides, I am looking for a proper approach. Does anyone know a method to find the 30 best representatives or has reasoning for randomly select those strides? My research is about variability so a method like: select the 30 strides with the smallest SD compared to the middle value, doesn't sound correct to me.
Thanks in advance.
Lieke
Relevant answer
Answer
I can see what you mean.
But I think explaining a large variance in number of steps would be easier than explaining why you decided to omit some of your data.
Statistically speaking, you will probably reduce the number of steps to a single number (average, variance, etc.), so it has no meaning from which number of steps this parameter was calculated.
I do think you'll have to mention the variance in number of steps between subjects, but that can be regarded to technical problems resulting in non valid steps (which also needs a definition and explanation - why 70% of your data was invalid)
Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
Hello,
My weakness is statistics and I could use some advice.
My research proposal is comparing 1 group sample of people, and testing pelvic range of motion in the sagittal, frontal and transverse plane using 3D gait analysis. Each participant in the group will be tested with 3 different conditions (different types of cast).
After reading it seems as the data will be quantitative, a 'two sample special' and comparing before and after (pelvic angles whilst barefoot, then with cast, then with another type of cast) - would a paired t-test be appropriate?
Reasons why I am confused is reading t-test they talk about hypothesis (type 1 errors), but I was told you either have a research question, or a hypothesis not both. I went for a research question. I thought it may be a paired t-test as another source mentioned this measures the difference, good for before and after data (for example subject 1 barefoot compared to subject 1 with cast compared to subject 1 with 2nd cast).
It may also be important to note that because each participant will be observed in all 3 conditions there is no randomisation, which seems to be important when determining which test.
This is very hard to explain in text but would a paired t-test be appropriate?
thank you very much.
Relevant answer
Answer
As Jochen Wilhelm said, the selection of participants should be randomized...but also, the order that the selected participants are exposed to the conditions should be randomized, too. And, if practicable, the order of condition exposure within each participant should be randomized.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
1 answer
Hello,
I will need to implement Transport Mode Detection (TMD) on a smartphone accelerometers, gps, etc. in order to detect if the user is traveling on foot, on bicycle, by car, by bus, etc. Here are my two questions:
1) Is there some public data available to train and benchmark algorithms for this task?
2) Is there some commercially usable libraries/services implementing TMD? Something under MIT licence would be great but commercial solutions could also work.
Thanks for your time,
Bruno
Relevant answer
Answer
I found the Sussex-Huawei Locomotion Dataset
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
Hi everyone
I am working on a 7 segment model of the human body to simulate a walking gait cycle (3 segments for each leg and 1 segment for upper limb).
I have a problem with this model. The order of knee and ankle joints follows the reported orders in standard data (less than 150 N.m in each one of the joints). But the order of Hip joint in each leg is much more than what I have expected. This torque value is about 600-700 N.m.
I wanted to know has anyone faced with the same problem and how should to resolve it?
Regards.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Akbar
Your results are highly dependent on the degrees of freedom definition. For instance, if you don't personnlize the axis of rotation of the knee, you may have unaccurate values. More particularly for moment which are computed with forces lever arms. How do you define this axis of rotation? Is it constant ?
And, if you wish to better understand your results you should have a look to the decomposition of the joint moment, more particularly for hips (abduction-adduction, flexion-extension and internal-external rotation moments). Or you could compute joint energies and powers.
Even if walking movement is mainly included into the saggital plane, some interesting information may be measured in the other ones.
And, depending on your objective you may also define the upper limbs. More particularly if at last, you would like to estimate muscle force production.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
1 answer
I am a veterinarian from Austria and we operated on a bearded vulture 1 year ago where a strangulation injury led to the amputation of a foot. She is the first bird worldwide where we were able to prove that osseointegrated prosthetics work for avian patients. since then she is living perfectly with it. for my future cases, I am looking for sensors that I can place on the bird leg to measure the movements of the healthy leg in comparison with the other one. It would also be useful if there are sensors that can also measure which forces apply especially when landing and walking with the prosthetic. that way I might be able to design the external prosthetic in a different shape and from other materials to make it as physiological as possible. If you know someone who can help me with that it would be awesome!
Relevant answer
Answer
If you haven't found anything yet, I'd like to suggest using a triple axis accelerometer attached to a battery powered WiFi module. You can attach the module to the bird like a necklace tracker and get real time data from the accelerometer about the birds movements. You'll be able to analyze the movement and tell which leg the bird is on and how the movement differs between legs.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
When doing gait analysis, are there any criteria for a "standard" surface to walk on? In other words, what features from the surface would affect gait, and in what ways? I suspect this might be critical for subjects who already have problems with walking, but am not sure what exactly to look out for. It'll be nice to have some advice from you.Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, Lin
In addition to the propose of M.Thomas James Cutlerand and M.Karl Siebertz, and depending to my experience during project of my thesis with the elderly, I found
The type of the surface is depending to the purpose of analyzing the gait variables, type of sample ( e.g, elderly, children ....etc) ,and the most important , to select surface required that does not affect on the variables that will be measured, flat as possible and confortable for the participants (no risk .....etc), all this if the experiences will be at grounded also is depended on the materials and devices , in below an article could be interest for you
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
I need literature how set-up for markers for 3D analysis of upper body stability with Vicon ( 9 cameras stereophotogrammetric system). Suggestion and advice please.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Dragan, E. Jaspers and E. Butler have both created an upper limb model to be applied in Vicon. The protocol developed by E. Jaspers has an open-source software toolbox (with matlab) which can be found online.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
7 answers
Hello,
I have been conducting research on gait analysis for uncovering disease specific changes in gait pattern (e.g Parkinson, diabetic neuropathy etc). Please let me know the procedure to find reserach collaboration in this domain. Thanks in advance.
Regards,
Arif
Relevant answer
Answer
I met a few people the other day who is working on something within the context. I will forward you their contact info (once I can locate where did I put their business card).
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Cats have been utilized as mammalian models for studying neural control of Iocomotion and suggesting neural prostheses by many researchers. How much cats are comparable to humans in this regard?
Relevant answer
Answer
Locomotion has been studied all the way from rodents to primates, and even in aquatic animals. They all seem to have a network of interneurons located in the spinal cord that drive the alternation between left and right and flexors and extensors that are called Central Pattern Generators.
The research that led to this : https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07251-x was first discovered and tested on rats!
I would probably say that the spinal cord networks that allow locomotion are conserved throughout the phylogeny when it it is the higher control of movement that has evolved. But to answer your question more straightforwardly I would say that bipedal monkeys would be the closest model we have to human bipedal locomotion!
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
I think that step length and step width from gait analysis can use for decide the dimension of running belt's treadmill. That's more efficient for the space of treadmill when we use it but, i'm not yet to see the research that analysis about gait cycle for it. Anybody can help me? maybe you ever see the research about that. Thanks before.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
10 answers
What process or mechanism would be taken?
We want to identify people by their gait cycle video.
Do people have a unique gait cycle?
Is there any software to simulate the gait cycle and analyze it using a video of a person's walking cycle?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that it is very interesting thought, and apparently I remember seeing that kind of scene from a movie (I cannot remember the title of movie...).
What process or mechanism would be taken?
Both kinematic and kinetic.
We want to identify people by their gait cycle video. Do people have a unique gait cycle?
I believe that people have a unique gait pattern. However, you should consider that each person have somewhat variability within their gait cycle. In other words, there are slight variations (wider/narrower/shorter/longer steps) within a person during step by step movement.
In my opinion, it is impossible but not feasible/efficient due to following reasons.
First, the variation (within person)/changes of gait cycle might be bigger than the fingerprints so that it may require constant update to an identification system. For example, a person's gait cycle can be changed due to different footwear, results of an injury, and aging. On the other hand, fingerprints are relatively stable to change (of course it changes/fades as time goes by...).
Second, fingerprints provide a reliable means of personal identification. To achieve the same level of reliability, thousands and thousands of people's gait cycle should be tested and analyzed to see the differences and similarity. Maybe at the end, you may conclude that the variation of gait cycle is not unique as much as the fingerprints (between persons).
In conclusion, I think that the combination of both can be beneficial for some closed/secured setting. To my knowledge, however, the gait cycle won't be able to completely replace the fingerprints identification.
Hope my answers are helpful to advance your thought.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
6 answers
Hi!
I'm working on a biomechanical project. In fact I'm want to design a mechanical robot to simulate human gate in positions of walking and running. So I need to record human gate in different speeds and analyze the movement of COM and some specific joints and organs after that.
Can you suggest a required way (tools, devices, software or...) for this project?
Relevant answer
Answer
Tools required for Gait-Kinematics only:
  1. 3D Motion Tracker: It can be based on Optical Active Marker, Optical Passive Marker or Marker-less technology. Choice is based on available budget and other requirements (desired accuracy, speed, latency, environment etc.) and choice depends on many factors. There are other technology solutions for 3D Motion like Electromagnetic or Hybrid (Inertial, Accelerometer, Magnetometer) but in case you also need to track humanoid Robots (Metallic), these technologies are not suitable. These are fine for tracking humans.
  2. Biomechanical (Inverse Kinematics) modelling and analysis software: This component (software) will reduce the 3D Motion tracking data of markers/sensors (placed on body segments) from 3D Motion Trackers to motions of body segments. This will help model the body segments as per anthropocentric data of subject, localize joint centers and create a hierarchical , linked multi-body model to compute kinematics like joint angles, linear and angular velocities and accelerations. There are softwares that come with motion tracking system and there are 3rd Party softwares. 3rd party softwares generally provide more flexibility and control in modelling and analysis. Software can have real-time interface to motion tracking hardware or limited to off-line.
  3. 1 or 2 video cameras with synch capability to record reference videos are also good to have.
For kinematics, these will suffice. If you also need Inverse Dynamics (joint force, torques and power), then you will additionally need 6 component force platforms (1 or more) to record GRF and COP, and of course Inverse dynamics capability in the software.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
15 answers
I am from India and we are in a verge to decide and procure the mocap system . We have three different options to purchase from:-
1) BTS mocap system, providing BTS smart DX 6000 camera along with these named software- BTS smart suite, BTS smart clinic and BTS digivec
2) Vicon mocap system, providing vero 2.2 camera system along with nexus 2.0, polygon 4 and body builder
3) codamotion mocap system, providing CODA CXS system along with ODIN software
please suggest us the best possible mocap system for our purpose.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think you should list your requirements and ask for quote from all marjot manufacturers. Vicon works fine.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
Surface EMGs (sEMG) capture myoelectric signals of muscles closer to the surface of the skin.
Fine-wire EMGs are more intrusive in nature and less flexible, but are useful in the analysis of deep muscle activity.
Are there any studies that show that sEMG is much more preferred for practical diagnosis over Fine-wire EMG?
Apart from that, are Fine-wire EMG used for modern gait analysis at all? Or is it rarely ever used in this field?
Relevant answer
Answer
as my experience, it is so difficult to use fine wire EMG on patients for gait analysis because it would disrupt patient's real gait and consumes much more time than sEMG to attach and fix it. also, there is no need of this much precision in analysis. although, we have a lot of problems using sEMG for younger patients too....
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
hey guys I'm a newbie in machine learning field. Recently i have a gait analysis project, which utilizes the data from IMU sensors in subjects' ankles to predict some parameter of knees.
In this project, each subject will have 10 trials. and in each trial, subject will walk on a pressure platform and the data will be collected. I got over 30 subjects' data. I tried to build a random forest model to do prediction. I use 70% of data as training dataset and the rest as testing dataset. and I got pretty good result. In both training and testing dataset, i got over 0.8 of R2 coefficient. But when I use it to predict the real time data, the result is very bad. i don't know if it's because my mode got a poor generalization ability.
I'll be grateful if you guys can give me some advice. Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with above answers
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
I am intersted in gait recognition.
Relevant answer
Answer
Is anyone who can help me in designing bipedal 6 dof 5 links in simspace multibody / simmechanics matlab
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
I am using Kinect (Xbox One) and OptoTrack cameras for human gait analysis. If I place the kinect in frontal plane of the subject, it is giving 3-D values (X,Y, and Z direction) for each joint. Again, it is giving different 3-D values for each joint if I place it in sagittal or transverse plane. Whereas OptoTrack gives 3-D values for each joint which represent sagittal, transverse and frontal plane data of each joint irrespective of camera positions.
Hence, I want to know, does the 3-D values returned by the kinect placed at Sagittal/Frontal/Transverse plane, represents anatomical plane data (like OptoTrack)? If so, then why it is giving 3-D data in each plane? Does OptoTrack anatomical plane data and Kinect 3-D data is same?
Relevant answer
Answer
Aparna, please explain your statement in detail with proper supported information. (your provided link is not working)
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
confused in between opinions about the relation of internal muscle moment which more linked to eccentric ms contraction and power saving not generation , but others saying that it may cause power generation ?! need explanation
gait analysis , mechanics , kinesiology
Relevant answer
Answer
Heelstrike will give an hipextensor contraction. That is partly concentric biut also the energy that will be come free, because the hip extensor is than oon his longest range and had an lot of energy that come free. But to get this action you need an heel strike.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
Dear colleague,
Hi and good day
In the 1st phase of our study, we aim to investigate the effect of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) (IV) on 3 functional outcomes (DVs: Knee flexion Angle, Pelvis Obliquity, and Ground Reaction Force) through dynamic gait analysis. In other words, we are going to determine the significant level of LLD that affect 3 above-mentioned DVs.
In a given population of wide range of height, LLD of 2cm might be insignificant for a subject measuring 180cm but could be significant for a subject measuring 150cm and vice versa. So, does 2cm of LLD significant for all? The question rises, what LLD value is considered significant for various heights?
In brief, we are going to investigate the effect of LLD on 3 DVs in accordance to the height of subjects (considering the height in our analysis) or to identify the relationship between the significant LLD and various height based on dynamic functional assessment (3 measured DVs).
We recruited 40 healthy subjects with the height ranging from 1.62 to 1.85 (Mean= 1.71, SD=.051) and imposed them to 4 different LLD (0, 1, 2, and 3 cm (4 different occasions)) that were artificially made by adding sole to one of their shoes. Then, we measured the 3 DVs through gait analysis.
So, I really appreciate if you are kind enough and guide me regarding the following questions:
1. Do we need to consider the "height" as a mediator variable?
If yes, how we should involve it in our analysis when using SPSS?
2. As all 40 subjects experienced 4 different LLD, can we use repeated measure Anova to find out the level of LLD that significantly affect the DVs? How we can include the Height?
3. Do we need to categorize the subjects based on their heights and then run the appropriate (parametric or non-parametric analysis)?
As we did the primary data analysis, we need to use the non-parametric test (e.g. Friedman test instead of repeated measure Anova due to non-normally distribution of data) if we categorize the subjects based on their heights. However, the data for 3 DVs are normally distributed for all 40 subjects (as one group).
I really appreciate if you are kind enough and guide me to find out the best possible approach.
Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
I think you can take different participants and check the responses then you can optimize these using DOE analysis (Design expert 8 or more recent version of the software by stat ease can help you). The subjects should be of different ages and heights.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Hypotherappy is one of the treatments for various diseases. how it treat Hyperactivity Disorder?
Relevant answer
Answer
The movement of the horse affects a rider's posture, balance, coordination, strength and sensorimotor systems hence helps in sensory intergration for children with sensory processing disorders. prior assessment of the child is important and also interests.experienced horse ridder assisted with ot must be involved
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
1 answer
Dear colleague,
Hi and good day
In the 1st phase of our study, we aim to investigate the effect of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) (IV) on 3 functional outcomes (DVs: Knee flexion Angle, Pelvis Obliquity, and Ground Reaction Force) through dynamic gait analysis. In other words, we are going to determine the significant level of LLD that affect 3 above-mentioned DVs.
In a given population of wide range of height, LLD of 2cm might be insignificant for a subject measuring 180cm but could be significant for a subject measuring 150cm and vice versa. So, does 2cm of LLD significant for all? The question rises, what LLD value is considered significant for various heights?
In brief, we are going to investigate the effect of LLD on 3 DVs in accordance to the height of subjects (considering the height in our analysis) or to identify the relationship between the significant LLD and various height based on dynamic functional assessment (3 measured DVs).
We recruited 40 healthy subjects with the height ranging from 1.62 to 1.85 (Mean= 1.71, SD=.051) and imposed them to 4 different LLD (0, 1, 2, and 3 cm (4 different occasions)) that were artificially made by adding sole to one of their shoes. Then, we measured the 3 DVs through gait analysis.
So, I really appreciate if you are kind enough and guide me regarding the following questions:
1. Do we need to consider the "height" as a mediator variable?
If yes, how we should involve it in our analysis when using SPSS?
2. As all 40 subjects experienced 4 different LLD, can we use repeated measure Anova to find out the level of LLD that significantly affect the DVs? How we can include the Height?
3. Do we need to categorize the subjects based on their heights and then run the appropriate (parametric or non-parametric analysis)?
As we did the primary data analysis, we need to use the non-parametric test (e.g. Friedman test instead of repeated measure Anova due to non-normally distribution of data) if we categorize the subjects based on their heights. However, the data for 3 DVs are normally distributed for all 40 subjects (as one group).
I really appreciate if you are kind enough and guide me to find out the best possible approach.
Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
We find height to be immaterial.
In our athletes over the past 45 years, a LLD of .5cm is enough to cause problems with running gait, and is the major cause of knee and low back pain.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Dear colleague,
Hi and good day
In the 1st phase of our study, we aim to investigate the effect of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) (IV) on 3 functional outcomes (DVs: Knee flexion Angle, Pelvis Obliquity, and Ground Reaction Force) through dynamic gait analysis. In other words, we are going to determine the significant level of LLD that affect 3 above-mentioned DVs.
In a given population of wide range of height, LLD of 2cm might be insignificant for a subject measuring 180cm but could be significant for a subject measuring 150cm and vice versa. So, does 2cm of LLD significant for all? The question rises, what LLD value is considered significant for various heights?
In brief, we are going to investigate the effect of LLD on 3 DVs in accordance to the height of subjects (considering the height in our analysis) or to identify the relationship between the significant LLD and various height based on dynamic functional assessment (3 measured DVs).
We recruited 40 healthy subjects with the height ranging from 1.62 to 1.85 (Mean= 1.71, SD=.051) and imposed them to 4 different LLD (0, 1, 2, and 3 cm (4 different occasions)) that were artificially made by adding sole to one of their shoes. Then, we measured the 3 DVs through gait analysis.
So, I really appreciate if you are kind enough and guide me regarding the following questions:
1. Do we need to consider the "height" as a mediator variable?
If yes, how we should involve it in our analysis when using SPSS? Can we apply Mixed-design Anova and check the “interaction between LLD and Height_cat”? (It should be mentioned that we ran the mixed-design Anova and there were neither significant interaction( LLD*Height) effect nor the significant Height-cat effect.)
I really appreciate if you are kind enough and guide me to find out the best possible approach.
Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
The issue is that the height in my dataset does not have even medium correlation with DV which is necessary for running Ancova.
In addition, I don't want to remove (control) the effect of height and just want to consider its effect (As literature suggested that the height may influence the LLD effect on DVs).
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Hi,
my name is Wolfgang and right now I am working on the evaluation of an inertial sensor system. We have validated against an optical motion capture system. I have calculated limits of agreement and now I am in search of references which state acceptable bounds for an agreement between two motion capture systems in the field of clinical gait analysis. Because right now I only can say my system agrees with another system, but is the error resolution good enough for clinical applications? Meaning for example: In clinical gait analysis limits of agreement for sagittal joint angles should always be inside ± X°...
Do you know references regarding this issue or have any other idea?
Best regards,
Wolfgang
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Filipe,
that's a very good approach indeed! Thank you very much, I am definitely going to pursue this idea.
Regards,
Wolfgang
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
I am working on Gait analysis of Dogs before and after being treated by an conservative treatment for DJD
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
gait analysis , power analysis , human gait
Relevant answer
Answer
I think the extensors muscles in LE are more involved in LE advancement due knee extension and body forward propulsion to achieve ambulation goals. in general they are more active either in concentric or eccentric moods during gait which make them good subjects to study
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
The advances with nonlinear control techiques makes it possible to minimize switching of FES and consequently muscle fatigue.
Relevant answer
Answer
From my previous experience working with Dr. Petrofsky in Loma Linda University on functional electrostimulation, I expect this goal is reachable within 5 years.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
1 answer
I currently want the measure the biomechanics of mice. Is there any available hardware / software to do so?
Relevant answer
Answer
CatWalk XT - a gait analysis system for rats and mice. 
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
1 answer
Seeking a supervised learning technique to proceed with it further.
Relevant answer
Answer
No mathematician
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Many papers in literature mention different database names when referring to the USF gait database:
  • USF Gait Baseline
  • USF HumanID
  • USF Gait Challenge
This is the only link I could find related to the USF gait database: http://figment.csee.usf.edu/GaitBaseline/
Do all the above terms mean the same thing (pointed by the above link) in literature?
Relevant answer
Answer
After a thorough review through gait recognition literature, the following is evident.
The HumanID is an initiative taken by DARPA to identify humans at a distance. USF is one of the main institutions that were funded by this programme [1].
The HumanID Gait Challenge is a benchmark problem which was made popular by Sarkar et al. in USF in their paper [2]. Their aim was to set a framework to allow researchers to compare their gait recognition algorithms. The challenge was complete with the public gait database along with gallery and probe combinations with varying difficulties.
The Gait Baseline is a primitive gait recognition algorithm proposed in [2] to set the base performance to which other gait recognition researchers can compare their results.
The USF allow their dataset to be obtained in two forms:
  1. Videos: obtained by completing an agreement form and posting it along with a 2TB hard-disk over to them and waiting for a few months for them to return it with the data.
  2. Silhouettes: obtained by freely downloading it from their site. There are silhouettes extracted using the background subtraction part of the Gait Baseline algorithm.
Their video database is technically called the USF HumanID data set, while their silhouette database can also be referred to as USF Gait Baseline data set as it is compiled using the Baseline algorithm.
Most researchers use only the silhouettes to avoid the hassle but still manage to publish their papers in reputable journals. Even the famous gait energy image (GEI) [3] was published by evaluating only with the freely available USF silhouettes.
References:
[1] Nixon, Mark S., Tieniu Tan, and Rama Chellappa. Human identification based on gait. Vol. 4. Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.
[2] Sarkar, Sudeep, et al. "The HumanID Gait Challenge Problem: Data sets, performance, and analysis." IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence 27.2 (2005): 162-177.
[3] Han, Ju, and Bir Bhanu. "Individual recognition using gait energy image." IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence 28.2 (2006): 316-322.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
7 answers
I applied on a video some calculation as position, velocity, and acceleration of the knee flexion, but I have had problems with noise. I want to apply a filter, so I can eliminate those effects on my analysis. Where should I apply the filter? One filter for the motion per each of cartesian axis (for every marker in the 3D reconstruction of gait), or directly on the knee flexion? Please consider that there are other parameters as step or stride length that do no depend on the results of the flexion of the knee.
Is there any useful library for that on C++?
I thank you all in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mario, refer to chapters 2 and 3 of this book 
Winter, David A. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
It has a comprehensive description of how the data acquisition and processing should be performed. 
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
Which are the best view-invariant gait algorithms published till date? This is with respect to view-invariance and resilience to covariate factors like carrying condition and clothing condition; preferably one that uses CASIA Dataset B.
The following are the papers that are recently published which I think includes the state of the art but is there any other publication that outperforms these values?
Author                Normal    Bag     Coat    Mean
Dupuis et al.         97.11  75.16    84.49   85.59
Choudhury et al.  99.55   87.09   69.09   85.24
Rida et al.             97.39   75.08   86.28   86.25
The above are the averages taken from all 11 angles of the CASIA-B.
References:
Y. Dupuis, X. Savatier, and P. Vasseur, “Feature subset selection applied to model-free gait recognition,” Image and vision computing, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 580–591, 2013.
S.D. Choudhury and T. Tjahjadi, “Robust view-invariant multiscale gait recognition,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 798–811, 2015.
I. Rida, X. Jiang, and G. L. Marcialis, “Human body part selection by group lasso of motion for model-free gait recognition,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 154–158, 2016.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Ramachandra and Mr. Romero,
Thank you for posting but I'm looking for articles published with results related to gait recognition using the CASIA-B dataset.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
I am looking for more recent studies developing Peter E. Bull's study of Posture (1987).  Any scientific/experimental validations of inferences of specific personality traits from posture and gait?
Relevant answer
Answer
You're welcome,
Here I attach you something related to pain inference and a recent study that develops an audiovisual deep residual network for multimodal apparent personality trait recognition.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
How can I know a gait is a knee or a hip-driven locomotion other than referring to the flexion of leg joints and the position of the center of mass? Could you suggest some literature?
Relevant answer
Answer
Pelvic motion is driven by force couples driven by kinetically load ligaments and biotensegrity.  Please see.  The sacral x axes. Location, Structure, Movement, Kinetic Loading, Function, Biotensegrity Technology and Pathology.The essential pieces of the low back pain puzzle.  Under my name.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
6 answers
Hello all,
I am looking for validated instruments that measure balance (side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance), gait (3 meter walking), chair rise (5x) and "walking - turning 180° - walking back" in people with dementia.
Unfortunately, the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Timed Up and Go Test are not validated for dementia patients. 
I would be very grateful if you could help me out!
Thanks in advance,
Corinna
Relevant answer
Answer
ONe leg standing and Monica van Eijk has in here thesis CRAMPS this test little correct esepcially in time. Rikli and Jones have test of 7 itens that all are possible by dementia p[atients and give an view what this patient can compare with even old individuals with no dementia
TUG test is possible and the BBS is possible but often to ngreat for dementia patient to do in one time
I further try to investigated the perception and the only test that was good possible was the test for the gnostic sense with an tuning fork.
succes
jan van de Rakt
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
Corticosteroid injections are almost routine for moderate knee OA. So excluding patients who have them from gait analysis and other biomechanical studies has reduced ecological validity - the study sample doesn't represent 'most' patients. 
If you exclude based on corticosteroid injection, do you set a time limit, eg within past month? What is the rationale for the time frame?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ultimately it depends on the focus of your study and whether its important to represent "most" patients or to control for the variable for intraarticular steroid injections. Then for a peer-review you'd have to justify the selection. 
This (small) study in an RA specific population suggests that a change of gait does occur: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3207977/ 
This study had short followup and was specifically in patients with acute exacerbation so obviously limited. It references a few related papers, however. That said, unless there is a specific reason not to, it seems the best choice would be to select patients who are are no longer receiving benefit from the injection. This would depend on the drug they received. 
As a guess, probably 4 weeks would be safe buffer since most done seem to last no more than that. Being that pain reduction seems to be the primary factor associated with changes in gait you could reference studies that describe the duration of action of the specific drug(s) that the patient received and develop a cutoff (timeframe of 2+ standard deviations) based off that duration of action. 
This study (Bellamy N, Campbell J, Robinson V, Gee T, Bourne R, Wells G. Intraarticular corticosteroid for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD005328) is a comprehensive review of that data that might aid in your selection.
Hope that is helpful. 
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
6 answers
Looking to review papers using GPS as a data collection technique in biomechanics. I hope to critically review such papers and investigate and possible future implications of this method of data collecting. For example; is GPS accurate enough now to analyse gait, stride length, frequency, speed, interpersonal variations etc. Could it be used do investigate the longterm real life gait of individuals outside a clinical setting?
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe you can get GPS accurate to the order of centimeters.  So any effect you are looking for would need to have meaningful effects on the order of several centimeters.  If you want to look at each individual step, it doesn't look accurate enough.  If you have a solid way to average over several steps, then you might be able to do something with the statistics.  Assuming the GPS is on the torso, the only real measurement you have is the walking speed, and you are trying to conclude things by looking at variations in the walking speed over the course of the gait cycle.  However, the speed of the torso during straight-line walking doesn't vary that much.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
Usually assessments are based on gait and balance, bladder control, and neuropsychological testings. Many neurosurgeons expressed their confusion regarding worsening after initial improvement or frequent unexplained changes ups and downs during post-shunt follow ups.
In a guideline article by Prof. Marmou with others; “Outcome of shunting in NPH and the value of assessment in shunted patients”. Prof. Marmou guideline was there is no validated, universally accepted scale for assessment of treated or untreated NPH. So there is a universal neurosurgical non-agreement regarding measuring outcome post-shunt.
Added to what mentioned above, it is well known that shunt function is notoriously unpredictable.
What are your personal observations with your patients?
Relevant answer
Answer
@ jetty: Thank you too much for the important links mentioned above. The most NPH detailed was the third one which is giving precious comprehensive knowledge.
The problem is that the different testings available at the time being are crude and not sensitive enough to achieve optimal CSF pressure adjustment without possibility of serious risks. So most neurosurgeons would rationally prefer some under drainage which is safer. This compromise is not the optimal treatment as patients might suffer significant symptoms when adjusted above optimal. The dynamic changing nature of CSF is another problem they are facing. It looks as if the optimal point is escaping easily from them in some patients. Optimal adjustment would also logically help to prolong shunt life.
I am not denying the great researches which are going on to improve hydrocephalus understanding and management. Hydrocephalus researchers and experts have used to declare these problems and controversies very frankly and honestly. I am trying to share.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
Looking for studies or personal experiences of using accelerometri to determine the deceleration (breaking) of the foot in the late swing phase of the running cycle.
What is "known": Heiderscheit BC, et al. (2005) identified, based upon the earliest indications in marker trajectories, a 130 ms period during the late swing phase as the period of injury.
I would like to know of any values in references to the actual deceleration of the foot when assessing the running technique in relation to different speeds.
Relevant answer
Answer
Cheers, Jomar.
Will try to contact them as well.
Still hoping for guidance here. :)
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
I need protocol for gait analysis of elderly people on OptoGait system?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dragan,
What specific protocol are you looking for? Treadmill or walkway gait trials? The OptoGait software has many default protocols.
I've found it's quite easy to create your own custom one, and do some pilot testing to tweak it (really only needed with treadmill walking). We have used our system for both a 5 meter walkway as well as treadmill and seen differing results/minor issues with each, however I'm preferential to the walkway setup if properly calibrated.
If your population will be using assistive devices, the OptoGait may not be the ideal system as it will occlude the sensors and may be registered as a heel strike, although I believe if you contact Microgate they could help find a solution for you. If I remember correctly, the measurement of foot length of each subject when collecting data can help mitigate or eliminate this, but I would follow up with the manufacturer. 
Hope this helps,
-Chris
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
Force platform and force plates are considered to be synonymous. But, in our upcoming survey, we intend to define them as two almost similar instruments.
Proposed definition:
  • Force plates: steel plate coated with non-slip material underfitted with transducers to convert pressure to recordable electric signals [1]
  • Force platform: similar in operation to a force plate but can be extended over a larger area to record one or more gait cycles (such as a walkway as in GAITRite)
Is this type of differentiation in definition applicable?
[1] Clayton, Hilary M., and Henk C. Schamhardt. "Measurement techniques for gait analysis." Equine locomotion (2001): 55-76.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, I don't see why not, as long as you clearly define what each is quantifying from the outset of your paper/work.
To me (or how I would define it in my head): the "plate" / "platform" terminology - the former being a single device for use during a single footfall or individual step analysis during the gait cycle, the latter an array of "plates" that could capture sequential strides/steps during many gait cycle (prolonged walk). However, this again is dependent on what the plate or array of plates are measuring, GRF or pressure.
Hope that helps
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
Pressure insoles (or force insoles) are devices made to measure the reaction forces of the ground. They are built to measure how much pressure does the body produce and how its distributed on the surface of the device, when the foot contacts the ground, and this allows to measure balance with specific parameters like the Center Of Pressure (COP).
Some studies have used these devices to meassure the COP on static(Standing position) and dynamic balance(Walk, jump, run). Activities like Walking, and running have some phases on its movements when one foot (or even both of them) is not doing contact with the ground, but still the insoles record some residual pressure in this moment. Depending on how much time are we recording, does it imply that the residual pressure recorded is going to change the outcome in a significative way? if this happens, should researchers delete this remaining data?
Relevant answer
Answer
From my empirical knowledge all data should be taken into consideration. This type of study, that implies the use of an insole, could offer information over a larger range of anthologies, because it can measure in close and open chain.
Only if the data is beyond normal limits it should be used a threshold. In this direction there is a lot to talk about because I haven't heard of such normal limits, they depend on the situation of analysis environment. All that we know is that friction is given by friction coefficient multiplied by N and the ground reaction force is mass multiplied by acceleration plus any external or internal forces that might appear. It would be interesting to find a relation between this parameters that could offer a coefficient to calculate the limits of the forces considering age, mass, and different anthropometrical values.
In conclusion, I would use those values obtained from the opened swing phase of locomotion.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
I'm trying to simulate walking speed and I need to have an idea that how walking speed is changing over very short period of time (e.g., 0.02,0.1,0.2, and 0.5 sec). I know that average normal walking speed would be something around 0.5 to 1.5 m/s. I just want to know how the speed is fluctuating. In other words, I need to know what is the maximum possible acceleration/deceleration over a short time period. Suggestions are appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Most data I've seen is related to people's acceleration rates in specific situations. For example T. Korhonen collected data on pedestrian flow characteristics and observed that the acceleration distribution "bear a resemblance" to a normal distribution with an average of 0.68 m/s2 with a maximum of  1.44 m/s2
In many models the acceleration parameter is calibrated to achieve a certain flow rate characteristic. I've seen ranges like 0.5 to 1.1 seconds for agents to achieve their maximum velocity.
A 2016 paper by Peng Lin et al., see link below, does discuss acceleration in FDS+Evac and Usain Bolt's maximum acceleration which they quote as 3.09m/s2
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
8 answers
The center of pressure (COP) is the point on a surface where the total sum of the resultant forces can act with the same magnitude of the force which is distribuited on the surface of an object. Measuring the COP has been used in biomechanics as a way to measure the postural balance in humans. There's been created variables or parameters related to the COP, in order to measure postural balance (e.g. COP Velocity, COP Displacement, COP Trayectory). Some studies have used one or more of this parameters with the purpose of investigate postural balance. But Which of this COP parameters is more usefull to reflect the COP behavior? Are there better parameters than others or maybe each parameter is better measuring balance in an specific task or context?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think it all comes down to matching your outcome measure to your research question. For instance, if you want to look at variability of a dataset, perhaps the standard deviation of the COP or even a nonlinear approach such as approximate entropy to look at the randomness within a sample.
Another example is using fractal dimension, which looks at the 'predictability' of a given path, where one would assume a more complex path represents either an altered postural control strategy, or perhaps dysfunction of the sensorimotor system.
I suggest reading this article by Prieto et al, 1996, regarding various COP outcomes, and it includes the calculations for each: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9214811
Within my lab, we use time-to-boundary, which is a derived signal that looks at the direction and velocity of the COP signal with respect to the borders of the foot. See Hertel et al, 2006: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16760569 There are other outcomes like this, and this would represent the amount of time it would take for an individual's COP to pass outside the borders of their foot (base of support), thus the assumption is made they would lose balance or be in a compromised position.
The 95% confidence ellipse is also a popular outcome, representing the locations of the COP, or another measure of COP area, if you want to look at the area of COP displacement.
Ultimately, my first point will help you best. Figure out which outcome will tell you most about your population or your balance task, and then use it. 
I hope this helps,
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
3 answers
I have a Wheatstone bridge consists of four strain gauges in a Full bridge pattern. I have a 4volt in the output of my amplifier(AD620) while there is not any force. Why this offset exists and how we can decrease it.(I used a 22megaohm after output of amplifier but it just reduced the offset by 3volts.). I appreciate your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
BRIDGE BALANCING
In the previous discussions it has been assumed that the Wheatstone bridge circuit was initially balanced with all resistances equal. In reality, this is not the case due to inherent Resistance irregularities between even the most accurate of strain gages or dummy resistances. As a result, the bridge output voltage, e, is not zero but instead may show an initial unbalance of as much as 0.1% of E, (i.e. up to 10 mV for E=10V). This may actually surpass the true strain-induced signal in many cases. Fortunately; there is a relatively simple and straightforward method for eliminating this unbalance without adversely affecting the basic bridge circuit. It consists simply of some method for adding or subtracting…
You can see the full text of the comments in the attached file on page 16.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
2 answers
I want to detect motor units and specify their recruitment thresholds during 10s ramp contractions. At the moment, during our pilot work, our participants are doing the ramp contractions with visual feedback, since we are using a transparency that we attached to the screen with a triangle. Does anyone know any other alternative for this, such as using a script to insert the triangles in the software itself? Software: Spike 2.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hei,
I am so sorry for not answering you sooner but I did not have time yet.... ☹️ It is good to hear that you managed to solve the problem! 😀
Have a nice day!
Annamaria
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
I am interested in learning about gait biometrics and the open source and commercial tools that currently exist.
My specific interest is being able to test different tools that are able to analyze large video datasets and annotate or identify key sequences that show a person walking, which could be used to generate gait signatures.
Any thoughts would be appreciated!
Relevant answer
Answer
The Vicon motion capture system
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
Research such as Rho (1995), Lozt (1990), showing a relationship between the apparent density of trabecular bone, and Hounsfield (HU) value. But the relationship between the apparent density of cortical bone, and Hounsfield (HU) have a low coefficient of determination (r^2). I need a relationship between the apparent density of cortical bone and Hounsfield value with a good coefficient of determination.
Relevant answer
Answer
The problem with the cortical bone is that if its size (i.e., thickness) is comparable with the scanner resolution, then HU values of the cortex in CT are too low due to partial volume effect. The thinner cortex, the lower CT-values. If no local measurements of the density (at each voxel or so) is needed, then one could just use "thick" cortex in CT, where HU values are not effected by the partial volume, assuming that real cortical bone density is everywhere the same. The latter assumption is true (due to equal tissue mineralization) if cortical pores are not included into the volume when measuring apparent density of cortical bone.
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
I found that there are several models using link-segment analysis that are used to model the human lower limb or human leg during walking. The models are also used to describe the human gait pattern and are also used for biped robot locomotion.
Can anybody used to human leg modelling help to explain when and why these models are used:
  1. linear inverted pendulum model / one-link model
  2. two-link model
  3. three-link model
  4. five-link model
  5. seven-link model
What are the mathematical equations that are usually used?
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Inverted pendulum model is normally used when you want to describe walking, as in walking the center of mass (CoM) of the body moves in a ballistic trajectory, with the highest position being in the middle of the stance phase, just like an inverted pendulum. One link model is the simplest model to describe walking. Two-link model describes human leg as consist of two segments, while three-link model includes also the foot. These models are used for further locomotion analysis, such as stability during locomotion using different proportion of thigh-shank-foot. I've never heard about five- or seven-link-model to model human leg only. I would expect of a model including the trunk when you're talking about five- or seven-link-model.
Below are some examples of publications that investigate stability using segmented-model:
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
4 answers
I have knowledge, not so deep, about APA, when there are internally or externally originated perturbations during standing still or during gait initiation. But when I think about obstacle crossing (simple stepping over an obstacle), I can't make what parts of this motion (either with a shorter or a longer step is preferred before crossing) include APA. Also is there any compensatory postural adjustment (CPA) involvement after crossing the obstacle? Or the whole obstacle crossing is an entirely different phenomenon, not related to APA or CPA?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ilker,
I believe you are asking whether APAs are present during more functional locomotor activities. Compared to unobstructed, overground locomotion, we know that the individuals alter a variety of gait parameters and the trajectory of the swing limb as they approach the obstacle (see some of the work from Shirley Rietdyk, Aftab Patla, and others). Changes to posture necessarily occur prior to the transition from dual to single limb stance and serve to maintain the center-of-gravity within the base-of-support of the stance limb and rotate the body over the stance ankle to maintain forward momentum. If APAs are considered compensatory muscle activity (e.g., co-contraction) or limb movement occurring prior to the execution of a focal or goal-directed behavior, then I would presume that you would observe altered muscle activation patterns of the limbs and/or axial segments in the steps preceding and following the obstacle. In order to get at your question, you could perhaps compare the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic variables (whichever ones suit your question) during unobstructed and obstructed walking to examine movement alterations that occur in response to this environmental challenge. However, in my opinion, dichotomous perspectives of motor control that treat "postural" and "goal-directed" movements as fundamentally different are unnecessary. Movement dynamics are consistently altered with respect to environmental manipulations in a manner that supports the completion of higher order behavioral goals.
Best of luck with your work!
Josh
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
9 answers
In several studies which aim is to test or evaluate static or dynamic balance, is usual that the measuring tool are force plates, platforms or pressure insoles. In order to perform the balance recording, the researchers have to set the appropiate settings, which includes the sampling rate. Some studies had reported sampling rates ranging from 200 to 1000 Hz or more, depending on the tool.
Having in count that each one of the main sensory systems involved is supose to react and modulate balance at very low frequencies (compared to the sampling rate that the measuring tools usually have in most of the studies), is it really necessary to set the sampling rate to high?
Relevant answer
Answer
The Nyquist sampling theorem dictates your sampling frequency. You first must determine the highest frequency intrinsic to the process you are trying to record. The Nyquist theorem states that your sampling frequency must be at least twice that of the highest intrinsic frequency. If you don't, aliasing will occur. Often, the ideal sampling frequency may be more like ten times that of the highest intrinsic frequency. 
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
6 answers
I want to know the difference between Spatio­Temporal and Kinematic parameters used in gait analysis. Is Spatio­Temporal part of kinematic or not ?? 
Please suggest 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Chandra,
Spatio-temporal parameters include: Spatial Parameters (Distance parameters) which are step and stride length; and Temporal Parameters (Time parameters) which are Cadence – This is the number of steps per unit time, Speed (Velocity) of gait, Single limb support- This is the amount of time spent on a limb expressed as a percentage of the gait cycle.
Kinematic parameters should be: human (usually only lower limbs) joint angles, joint velocity and joint accelerations. 
  • asked a question related to Gait Analysis
Question
5 answers
Can anyone who has already worked with these sensors share their calibration setup details? How was the calibration carried out? How were the data obtained? Was there any need of applying any linearisation techniques?
Relevant answer
Answer
I also extensivley used FSR during my PhD. Remember two points while dealing with them. 1. FSRs have a Drift when the load changes which can take some time to settle 2. the response rate is not linear if you want to work in a large range  have these two in mind and you can calibrate them specifically for the weight range of your application