Science topic

Gait - Science topic

Manner or style of walking.
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Basically I have a great interest in brain signal processing and analysis. It would be great if anyone can help to find out an open access EEG or fNIRS dataset of hand movement or human gait.
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Check with the Georgia Tech Behavioral Medicine department. I know they were doing studies on individuals' gaits.
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Greetings!
I, Darshan Prakashbhai Parmar, MPT student, from Government Physiotherapy College Jamnagar, am conducting a survey on 'EFFICACY OF PELVIC PNF TO IMPROVE TRUNK CONTROL, BALANCE AND GAIT PATTERN IN NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS' as a part of my Evidence Based Study(EBS) under the supervision of my Guide, Dr. Karishma Jagad (MPT-NEURO), Sr. Lecturer at Government Physiotherapy College Jamnagar.
We therefore request physiotherapists practicing in India to kindly fill this questionnaire, which will hardly take around 10-15 minutes. The link for the survey is provided below. The responses will be kept anonymous.
I further request you to forward the link to your friends or colleagues.
*(In case the link does not open, please copy and paste the link in your web browser or you can whatsapp me on +917984377793, I will share the form link there.)*
Thank you for your time and participation.
Take care and stay safe
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answer submitted
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Im trying to write a code that allows me to detect the tap on an IMU sensor from the accelerometer data during gait analysis.
I need as an output the time instant of the taps (in the ellipses), is it somehow possibile to do it in a pretty simple way?
We've tried to find the associated peak with findpeaks, but it's quite a mess..
Thank you for your help
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1) Is there a code that allow to resize a 4k video to 1080p in Matlab?
We are doing gait analisys videos but, in order to import the videos in our software, we have to reduce the resolution to fit with the properties of the pc screen.
Probably we will just change the GoPro settings but I'd like to have an alternative.
2) We've tried to create a code to change (reduce) fps too, but it gives a slowed down output. Is it possible to change it without compromising the video?
Thank you all.
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In the below page, some ideas are proposed in order to resize a video that may be useful to read.
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what is the reliability and validity of using low-cost motion analysis software like kinovea instead of the 3D-motion systems ?
and are there any alternatives for kinovea that can be used to assess gait deviations in patients with Lower-limbs dysfunctions?
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Dear Beltagi,
There are many comparative studies are already available with 2D and 3D motion analysis. In reliability point, kinovea will be less accurate than 3D gait lab. But less accurate analysis we can 100% depend on this 2D analysis software because of user friendly and economic point of view.
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Hi Everybody, I'm searching for a marker dataset from transtibial amputees, if you are aware of a publicly available one please let me know, thank you in advance,
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Thank you Ramkrishna, I will check
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In your clinical or research experience: What is the variable that most impacts according to patient reports or clinical tests in a patient with vestibular disorder (peripheral or central) vertigo, dizziness, visuovestibular alterations, or instability? According to you, what could it be due to?
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What is the variable that most impacts according to patient reports or clinical tests
Patient reports are always of prime importance. In our facility we cannot have equipment all the tests / pts may not be able to afford comprehensive tests..so in that situation also patient reports gain importance.
no of episodes, duration of episode and accompanying symptoms are always helpful in making clinical decision. Then one can decide on whether to go with vestibular assessment or radiological.
issue with patient reports is, skill level of the clinician and time it takes to get all relevant information.
Regards
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Hello!
For my internship I'm looking to do an experiment which involves the analyses of step speed and step length and variabilities in these properties. I'm looking to use a camera system for ease of use (we want to keep setup time for each participant as low as possible) though simple markers can be added.
Which (preferably cheap or free) software would be able to analyze footage from (multiple) camera's and determine the earlier mentioned factors? Ideally the software is relatively easy to use and is able to export the data to MATLAB.
Thanks in advance!
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Kinovea is one of good software for gait Analysis. It contains all essential motion analysis tools including slow motion  and reverse playback. 
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Parkinson Disease (PD) is a degenerative disease that affects motor function and sequential.
At which level of H&Y stages will this improve?
Short term or long term effect?
Any evidence to help patient and client?
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Dear RG members,
I am working on finding the links between joint kinematic and EMG time series in pathological gait cycles.
The objective is to try to explain altered kinematics from altered EMG.
Do you know of any methodologies to explore that?
Do you think I need a healthy group to study the differences in kinematics and EMG?
Thank you very much for your responses.
Kind regards,
FrEd
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Dear Frédéric,
I believe that you'll need a healthy group to study the differences in kinematics and EMG, thus in order to have a reference group (here for instance the healthy one) if you should not find any value in the literature referencing normal value for the healthy patient. I also think that you could take the first value as a reference for the patients with altered gait cycles and then after treatment retest and see how the patient has improved compared to his or her initial value. I send you an article from Lencioni et al.(2019) which might be of interest to your research.
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Hello
Can I ask for a raw data for normal Gait Kinematics and kinetics that can be added to Excel sheet ?
Thanks in advance, your cooperation is highly appreciated.
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to my knowledge, this is the most comprehensive published data set treating gait:
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I am doing simulations of gait cycles in which I use a contact model to recreate ground reactions, and I try to optimize some parameters in my model to make it fit to my experimental measures.
I want to know if there is a standard for a good enough error in this particular field, or if it really depends on my application.
In other words, I want to know if there is a threshold at which I can consider my optimization adequate.
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Thank you for giving more clarifications of your project.
Unfortunately, I have not used this model. And I don't know a very good answer that helps you a lot. But here is what I am thinking:
In my opinion, it is very difficult to get a low relative difference between the prediction and the experimental measurement in such a complex biomechanical system (foot including soft tissue, bones on a contact interaction with a comparatively rigid body like the ground). Although the relative difference depends on how you define your validation metric, I think the difference of less than 20% is very good in this kind of experimental setup and modeling.
But In your case, if you want to use the model in the optimization, you can consider your model as a surrogate (a computationally efficient model that we replace with a complicated one like the full meshed FE model). So It is enough for us that the surrogate points out the local minimum and it does not necessarily need to predict the cost function with very high accuracy. So I suggest you build up your model with an approximately good predictive capability (error of less and 20%), solve your optimization problem, and then at the end, do the experiment with your optimized setup and show how much did you reduce the cost function in your optimized structure. And more importantly, what was your computational efficiency compared to the FE model (in fact, running the FE model of Foot with a contact interaction at least takes 17 hours using a computer featuring Core i7-6700 CPU @ 3.4 GHz and 32 GB RAM. You can see the reference that I mentioned in the previous response. So this computational efficiency would be your achievement).
I hope it would be helpful for you
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Hi everyone, I'am a BME student interested in Bio mechanics .I'am confused about ankle joint power analysis ,the units for ankle joint power are w/kg .I wonder how this units are taken and what do they represent
2)I have come to know that a force plate is used for gathering the data can someone explain to me briefly how the force plate capture the ankle joint data?
Thanks - Pranitha
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I have collected data on ankle angular velocity for different human subjects. I need to normalize the curve for time as each and every subject completed the gait cycle at different time intervals. How to normalize the gait cycle for time?
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Hello Prashanth,
it is called interpolation (or extrapolation in some situation), if you work with MATLAB, I wrote a simple script that you can easily work with. the script for normalization in MATLAB is as follow:
begin_point=0;
end_point=100;
new_data_length= %What ever you want;
method='spline' %or other function;
Data_size=size(input,1);
orginal_data_len=linspace(begin_point,end_point,Data_size);
new_data_length=linspace(begin_point,end_point,new_data_length);
Interp_Dataset=interp1(orginal_data_len,Input,new_data_length,method);
...
Alireza
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Could be the data in .xls? If couldn´t, and it´s in C3d, please illustrate how I can transfer it.
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Hi Pilar, I suggest you search in public databases as figshare, mendeley, etc. Also, we've been done some work about that, and we are commonly presenting the study's dataset as supplementary material. I think the ISB work group (gait probably) has something else.
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There exists a considerable body of literature on the application of exoskeleton as an assistive tool in the area of gait or balance therapy. I am interested in finding out more about the utilization of such warable technology as a training modality for applying load on or perturbations to wearer.
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Though too late, thank you for your providing the links.
Cheers,
Soran
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Hi all,
I want to measure/calculate foot kinematics and kinetics (midfoot moments and power) using a multi-segment foot model during walking with and without foot orthoses. I was looking at the available literature and I think my two best options would be the Oxford Foot Model and the Rizzoli Foot Model.
Which one is better suited? I'm using the Optitrack/Motive system.
Thanks for your time,
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Thanks for your answer. The problem with this model is that it requires to put plates on the foot. These plates would be hard to fit within a shoe.
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I am currently searching for a good database to classify normal and abnormal gait from RGB 2D image sequences or RGB 2D videos. Could anybody suggest me anything? If it is based on human pose estimation that would be even more beneficial for me.
N.B: It would be a bonus for me if anyone could also suggest a good Gait Phase classification Database from RGB 2D videos or image sequences along with the answer to my original question.
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Dear researcher
I see in this page an important relationship to your question, I hope you read it.
Best regards
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I am doing research for Parkinson's disease gait analysis. Where can I find a database based on the acceleration of gait from Parkinson's disease patients?
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Hello Experts,
Excuse me :)
Is there any locomotor specific control for maintaining gait and balance other than or beside the interaction of nervous system and the musculoskeletal system?
What I have learned that mainly the balance or gait control are mainly regulated in the supraspinal mechanism, from the top region of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, midbrain, and hindbrain, and including vestibular and cerebellum system for initiating and planning, and the lower region of spinal cord where the timing and pattern of locomotion is executed by limb and body muscles.
Is this already complete mechanisms?
Or, is there any other mechanisms that I can mention in the context of nervous system and muscular system (neuromuscular control)?
Thank You in advance, Experts :)
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Hi Fakhruddin,
I'm not sure if I follow you exactly, but I will at least attempt to provide some level of feedback. There are several locomotor control theories that provide additional perspective on how the integrated effects of the nervous system and musculoskeletal systems interact to control movement. For example, Sparrow and Newell (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1998, 5 (2), 173-196) proposed a metabolic energy expenditure component to regulating movement. In my work with individuals with a spinal cord injury we used an extension of their theory, and the fact that walking may be an emergent phenomenon (co-authors went on to publish a good review on this: Gollie, Guccione, Overground locomotor training in spinal cord injury: A performance-based framework). I would suggest trying to be more specific with your question, especially if you're asking something mechanistic in nature. I hope this helps.
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A lot of variations in spatiotemporal parameters during gait performance among stroke survivors have been recorded. Studies have slso shown that such variations in gait paramets during gait performance have strong (confounding) influence on the outcome/results of gait analysis conducted among these individuals.  A number of factors have been pointed out as contributing factors to the observed variations in gait performance. Such include fear of falling, fatigability/post stroke fatigue and environmental factors.  It is therefore of serious concern to me to find out how these variables could be assessed objectively as this would help me immensely in my current study.
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Good Afternoon Dr. Ezenwankwo---
If the individual is at a higher functional level, I would utilize the Falls Efficacy Scale - International to measure fear of falling. I might employ the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) to measure balance confidence. Both are easy to administer in gait studies and demonstrate sufficient validity and reliability properties.
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I currently have collected Gyroscope/Accelerometer data (X/Y/Z) for my dissertation, but not very knowledgeable on how to process my data and apply Machine Learning?
Can anybody help?!
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Thank you.
I will look into this further. Do you have any suggestions on what is recommended to preprocess my data before applying any DL techniques?
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Maybe I am using the wrong search words, but I can’t find any work on this topic.
Here’s what I am looking for and how I got in this corner. I use a physics-based system-level model that combines an automated Spring Mass model with a generic rotational model to compute a subject’s total Mass Specific Power (MSP, W/kg). The combined model replicates the typical 4% minimum in MSP or O2 consumption that is observed near a runner’s Preferred Step Frequency (PSF, Hz).
The combined model also predicts a decrease in PSF with increased height. (I found this effect in some reprocessed data from a paper by Rodger Kram and a dataset that I kindly received from John Rasmussen.)
I feel that the model might help explain why the observed PSF(v) dependence generally has a positive second derivative.
If you know of any research in this area, I would appreciate a citation.
Sincerely,
Ted Andresen
The combined model with the basic mathematic formulations is shown in the attached diagram
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I am not sure if this will be of any help, but we have found that Western and Japanese marathoners have a vertical oscillation 50% greater than East African marathoners. East Africans are known to consume less oxygen than Westerners while running. We believe this is due to their smaller vertical oscillation. The vertical oscillation of Western and Japanese marathoners adds an additional 2.48 miles to their marathon.
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I would like to analyze gait cycles (running) - is there a smart way for cycle detection and calculation of the angles for each joint (average/maximum) for a certain amount of cycles - without writing a AMTLAB-routine?
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Given appropriate gait event detection (e. g. by foot switch or marker dynamics), you could use the software ProCalc which is supported by Vicon! Here you can extract joint angles (and many other gait parameters) per step cycle in an automated way.
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In order to study bone fracture in patients with osteoporosis, I need patient's exact muscle forces magnitude, location and direction (as FEM boundry conditions), while it is difficult to get such subjects to a MOCAP lab and get their data.
1. Is it possible to get a body-matched subject perform our tasks of interest (gait, stairs decent/accent, etc) and use their MOCAP data to run our multi-body dynamics simulation (using OpenSim software)?
2. How reliable would be the calculated muscle forces in terms of magnitude and direction?
3. Is there any other way to derive these patient's muscle forces? how accurate would be the results of these alternative methods?
Best regards
Yunus.
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As far as I read, it's okay to get a body-matched volunteer do the tasks,
but you should consider differences between muscle attachment sites which may slightly differ force directions
and muscle's max force capacity which relies on muscle volumes.
Modifying Musculoskeletal model with respect to patient's MRI may do the trick.
Of course, level of accuracy needed depends on your research question.
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I have used Vicon Nexus 2 for a walking trials with the lower body plug in gait model. However, the ASCII data exported has a column title Rknee angles and contains angles in X Y Z columns. Is there a way to directly output flexion/adduction/rotation angles instead ? Or am i missing something in the understanding of these XYZ outputs ?
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Dear Dr. Washeem,
Nexus (Plugin Gait - Helen Hayes model) calculates the Euler angles for the 3 joint rotations (Hip and Knee), but it is only possible to view the graphs in this software. Vicon uses Polygon software to generate reports (graphs, images, videos and texts) :
Another option for printing graphs and extracting information is the software Report Generator (Motion Lab Systems Inc) - you can try to evaluate a demo version of the software :
Best Regards,
Wagner de Godoy
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Hi all!
I'm curious to know whether any of you have used head acceleration to investigate balance control. Particularly, if there is any interesting variable from head-mounted 3D accelerometers that can pinpoint changes in postural control during gait, or differences between young and older adults. Any comment will be helpful!
Stay safe and thanks for the contributions!
Anderson Oliveira
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Including acquisition of bioelectrical signals (EMG,EEG), in addition to IMUs, could be of help, if the assessment of CNS strategies for balance control is of interest. A recent paper about that:
Best Regards
--
Jorge Airy Mercado
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Hello all, I am working on Gait related data which has sequences of joint trajectories in x, y, z axis. I want to know how to calculate joint angle lets say Knee Angle if I have 3 coordinates of hip, knee and ankle?
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Dear Rahul, in accordance with Maxime, could you precise your question please?
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I want to work on gait analysis for normal walking and abnormal walking. Is there any gait database available for the same from which i can extract gait acceleration?
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Hello!
I don't know any on that topic, but maybe you can find something useful here: https://datasetsearch.research.google.com/
Best and good luck!
Cristina
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Hey Guys,
I am currently conducting a broad scope systematic review on the effects of gait aids on stroke patients (looking at a wide variety of outcomes to improve generalisability).
Every single study that exists on this topic is of a pre/post quasi-experimental nature. The parameters are typically measured and reported the same way e.g. with accelerometers or validated balance assessments etc. To me this screams meta-analysis, however, I am concerned that my findings will be subject to a large amount of compounded bias if I complete a meta-analysis and forest plot using RevMan5 given the inherent lack of internal validity of these studies.
Has anybody successfully completed a meta-analysis of this nature, if so, what was your rationale?
A bonus additional question. A lot of my studies have the 'control' group (walking without gait aids) and then two 'intervention' groups (walking with a different gait aid for each group). Combining groups for meta-analysis in controlled trials is simple. Has anybody done this for pre-post design studies? If so How
Looking forward to hearing from you all
Cheers, Ryan
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Performing a meta-analysis with numerical findings of pre-post studies is not advised and the main reason is that scores at baseline and post-test results are not independent of each other. For a full methodological explanation of why pre-post effect sizes should be avoided in meta-analyses, take a look at this paper:
If I was in your shoes, I would check whether there is a sufficient number of relevant controlled trials on the topic, and then I would only pool their results (post-test/change-from-baseline scores of intervention groups vs post-test/change-from-baseline scores of comparison groups), thus excluding uncontrolled studies from the quantitative synthesis.
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Kindly I.am going to search on lameness and limb function after fractures repair in rabbits ,and for that I. am going to estimate an (limb gait score) in which evaluation of the fractures repair post operation done by the clinical observation of animals lameness and the character of the of the animals attitude during fractures healing processing .
With my respect and thankful if I receive an scientific paper for that.
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We are currently looking to recognize not only steps but detailed gait data (e.g. Shape Context and Linear Time Normalized) based on smartphone accelerometer data. We appreciate hints to existing software solutions (Android, iOS or device independent) as well as related work on the topic. Also, we would like to connect with other groups working on that subject.
We will use this data to support movement training as well as everyday walking activities of older adults (typically aged between 60 and 85).
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For sure you may consider using a combination of BLE sensors combined with a smart phone app ... both MbientLab (https://mbientlab.com) and NOTCH (https://wearnotch.com) provide developer resources and examples ... Im using them to pilot study movement/gait analysis in connection to rehabilitation ... hope this helps ....
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Hi everyone,
I could identify the people by their color of clothes, but this is not enough. I would like to find a good code python to identify the people by their gait or legs using the human following robot.
my sensor is Kinect camera, real robot (turtlebot 2)
please help me or any suggestions
Thank you in advance.
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I am currently running an EMG analysis for gait activity. During the processing the data, I have found that there is a spike at 0 Hz, as shown in the attached.
Furthermore, I am trying to remove power line noise at 50 Hz but woudln't I lose valuable information within the frequency?
Any comments will be really helpful
Thanks,
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I suggest applying a bandpass filter between 10-400 Hz, so the 0 Hz will be removed. for the notch filter, you can change the 'bw' of filter to make it more precise around 50 Hz.
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Hello,
I would like to calculate knee moments (for drop jump and one-leg jump for distance) using Vicon. How should I build the Dynamic Plug in Gait Pipeline? Force Plate Data are availabe + 15 markers.
Thank you in advance.
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Dear Wagner de Godoy,
The processing was successfull.
We took a static trial, labelled and used the static plug-in gait (run static gait model + static subject calibration) and then did the dynamic trial. After labelling and processing (core processing + gait cycle events + butterworth filter-model outputs) we received the model outputs we were looking for.
Thank you very much for your support.
Kind regards,
Lara Wolff
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Though the effect of trees or forests on water is well known, is the effect considerable when it comes to larger scale, basically at basin level? Taking the example of Ganges basin, Do you think forest affects the water availability of basin or only makes a change spatially?
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Water availability – both now and in the future – is of the utmost importance.
However, the role of forests, their impact on precipitation, water yield and the hydrologic cycle more generally remain hotly contested. Afforestation strategies to ameliorate dry season flows have come under increasing scrutiny and attack.
Several major articles from the past decade and beyond conclude the impact of reforestation or afforestation on water yield is negative: additional forest cover will reduce and removing forests will raise downstream water availability. A second group of authors argue the opposite: planting additional forests should raise downstream water availability and intensify the hydrologic cycle. Obtaining supporting evidence for this second group of authors has been more difficult due to the larger scales at which the positive effects of forests on the water cycle may be seen.
Tree type can also impact the local water balance. Eucalyptus trees in particular have been criticized in the more arid regions of Africa for their heavy drain on available water supply. Deciduous tree species typically generate less ET than evergreen, potentially mediating forest impact on the local water balance. Overall, however, regardless of the tree species, the effect on the water balance is typically assumed to be negative.
Forests also have the ability to passively ‘attract’ or ‘catch’ atmospheric moisture, in particular, humidity in fog and clouds. Condensation on plant surfaces provides additional moisture for tree growth. Estimates suggest that anywhere from 200 mm year−1 to 425 mm year−1 additional moisture can be obtained through fog condensation. Some also find a positive correlation between the surface roughness of forests (varied age class) and drag coefficients, a precursor for potential precipitation. Equally important, a share of the moisture captured from the atmosphere in this way is again returned to the atmosphere as ET and remains available for vegetation growth in other areas.
Changing land-use patterns, both in the developing and in the developed world, should be subject to increased scrutiny. Progressive deforestation and wetland destruction have direct implications for the global hydrologic cycle. In this regard, maintaining and/or significantly increasing current levels of forest cover seems advisable. Deforestation, due to its impact on the ET regime, on soil degradation and loss, and reduced soil water retention represents a significant threat to planetary survival. Increasing forest and wetland cover is likely to have beneficial feedbacks on regional water budgets. Thus, along with accepted forest ecosystem functions (such as carbon sequestration, climate mitigation, biodiversity preservation and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy), forests play an important role in helping manage the world's water regime.
Finally, Forests … play a major role in the atmospheric circulation and the water cycle on land and may have a role in mitigating regional climate, desertification and water security problems.
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Dear all,
I have some gait lab data which contain position of lower body markers.
If I calculate Sacrum markers acceleration, could I assume this acceleration as linear acceleration that an inertial sensor measures?
is there any references?
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your comment was really helpful... so, second derivation of a marker position could be an standard acceleration of a point. an accurate accelerometer could measure it so I can use marker position instead of accelerometer data.
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We are currently collecting sEMG data during gait of young healthy adults. We noticed that some levels of asymmetry exist even in this population.
Did anyone else notice such asymmetry? What is the expected values of asymmetry that one can expect, without questioning the reliability of the measurement? Did anyone notice anything interesting regarding this matter in large vs. small muscles? (i.e., quadriceps, glutei vs. peroneal or tibialis muscles?)
Thank you!
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Uri Gottlieb
As I do not work much with EMG's, possibly I can be of assistance as I can apply my experience with lower extremity kinetics, kinematics and kinesiology to offer that the most important muscle engines to monitor are posterior tibial and peroneus longus for your study. These are the primary balance and stabilizing muscle engines of the feet.
Too often, Gastrocs, Anterior tibial and Soleus are monitored. Unfortunately, these muscle engines are compensatory and would be late to tell tales and be a good location for treatment and monitoring.
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Hello All
I'm trying to synchronize imu sensor with the Motion Capture system. Is this possible? If so, how?
thanks for answering
Alireza
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Hi Alireza,
First, what is the type of motion capture system do you have? Most of them actually have their own synchronization box, which serve as trigger in or trigger out for other external device including IMU. However, if your IMU sensor is a standalone sensor without any base to connected, then you can try an option to synchronize it by using some movement that cause spike on IMU signal like jumping.
Hope this helps you
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We are working on a protein that is predicted to contain a zinc finger (ZnF). Could someone share your experience working with ZnF proteins? Should we add Zn during expression in E. coli? If so, which chemicals (ZnCl2, Zn(OAc)2, etc.) and how much? For purification, do we have to add Zn in the lysis buffer and how much? Is it okay to use Nickle column? What are other cautions we should be aware of? Thank you very much! _Gang
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Interesting
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La mise en oeuvre de toute recherche est l'action permettant de résoudre un problème identifié, dont la démarche expérimentale appliquée permet d'obtenir des résultats. Cependant, je me questionne sur la possibilité ou non d'autres démarche pouvant conduire à une nouvelle compréhension ou la résolution du problème. 
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Thank you for this very important information for me as a graduating student, who has not yet published on research Gate (RG). So budding researchers should watch out for these groups of people you just mentioned. I did not know as such if we could constitute a mafia on the network to extract money. Know that your comment will serve me as a lesson when I have to start by publishing my articles.
Good work!
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How could I access to such a data?
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For those who may be interested, we have recently published an open access dataset of kinematic (including joint angles), kinetic and EMG individual data of 50 healthy subjects (age range 6 - 72 yrs) during different locomotor tasks: walking at different speeds, stiars ascending/descending, toe/heel walking. The dataset is published on Scientific Data Journal and can be freely downloaded at this link:
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How to determine gait patterns by gait characteristics/parameters among older adults?
like we have a conservative gait pattern that adopted to increase gait stability and decrease fall risk, is there the other patterns?
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Yes, and if i am correct with what exactly you want, if you want to differentiate gait pattern from elderly population then you need another group for comparison so that you can run statistical analysis between those two groups from the any parameters you have calculated. You can refer some study for that: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003999300900388
However, the current trend for differentiating between gait pattern was changed to faster and more accurate method like using machine learning or deep learning with data from wearable sensors.
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I'm working on a project which should identify problems in the human gait.
After a research I've made I decided to use an IMU sensor comprises from an accelerometer and gyroscope. I've attached it to my foot and to my knee and I'm getting x,y,z values of the accelerometer & gyro.
My question is - what next?
I red in some articles that I should combine the x,y,z of the 2 sensors or use Kalman filter, but actually I need some guidance about how to proceed from here.
my hardware is - Arduino Nano 33 IOT (with built in IMU)
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What is the problem you want to solve in human gait with accelerometer/ IMU?
Gait event detection? or maybe gait pattern classification?
After you decide what problem in gait you want to solve, then you can go for specific data processing and analysis.
There is a lot of paper discuss about detect gait event using IMU or classify gait pattern with IMU.
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I am a bio-mechanic engineer and I want to analyze human different movements like gait and jump.
I had written a code based on Christopher L Vaughan book: dynamic of human gait.
It was good because of calculation of instant center of rotation in joints and it was complicated due to this advantage.
Is there any other useful and detailed reference for calculating joint forces and moments?
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ISB recommendations on the reporting of intersegmental forces and moments during human motion analysis
Journal of Biomechanics - Volume 99, 23 January 2020, 109533
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I am using optitrack motion capture system to calculate the Maximum Lyapunov exponent from kinematic gait data .Different retro reflective markers are placed on trunk and feet of the subjects.
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No clear consensus exists about the best methodology to compute MLE. Regarding motion capture methods, many studies use the C7 or T6 markers to compute trunk velocity. Others use hip/knee/ankle angles. A very good reference to have an overall survey of existing methods is the recent systematic review by Sina Mehdizadeh. Check the supplementary file that gives details about the methodology of each study.
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Ideally, I would be able to synchronize the device/system with other systems such as motion capture and EMG systems and force plates. Thanks
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I would be careful to state that there is a "best" device but rather suggest to try to find the "right choice" depending on the research question/application. Therefore, you should know about the technical specifications and properties of the different devices which will inform you about advantages and disadvantages or certain limitations.
Agreed, the F-Scan is thin but you have to realize that it is based on a Mylar sheet that is flexible in one bending direction but does not conform well to 3-d curvatures as you might find them in foot orthoses. The F-Scan will crinkle which may cause artefacts. (We have investigated and described these issues in our 2006 Clin Orthop & Rel Res paper, Martinelli et al.)
Therefore, even though the Pedar is thicker, it is better suited because their capacitive insoles adapt to the shape of orthoses quite well without crinkling. I have been using Pedar insoles for a long time and in even more extreme loading situations and have often observed how well the insoles "mold" over orthoses even with more pronounced 3-d shapes..
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I'm looking to get a better sense of whether gait speed is mostly used as a research tool, or if people are using it in medical practice, based on real experiences. My initial research seems to indicate that it's indeed a research tool, but it seems it is also used in cardiology/thoracic surgery to assess post-operative risk.
What have been your experiences with gait speed? How are you currently measuring it? (Any relevant references or links are also greatly appreciated!)
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It is simple, reliable but forgotten method to predict frailty. Just you need to know distance and Stopwatch
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I have a sample of Lokomat walking therapy data. the data consis of 75000x4 time sequence data for 5 minutes of recording (refer excel file); time - column 1, Gait index - column 2, hip angle - column 3, knee angle - column 4. The plots for whole recording are as in the pdf file; about 100 cycles. I plotted for a few cycles to see the patterns.
Gait cycle identification can already be viewed from the gait index that repeats from 0-1000 (ramp pattern) for each gait cycle. It does not need feature extraction to determine the cycle because the gait index can be used to determine a cycle.
How to segment each cycle (get the data for each cycle) then get average cycle while every cycle has different numbers of data? For each cycle the data counts is different, so to find the average, need to interpolate each cycle data to the same number of data (101 points - 0% -100%). How to use MATLAB to do the operations? How can I separate the data into 70% to find the average and another 30% to test it?
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You can use the Matlab function interp1 to perform spine interplation. It will preserve signal's shape with the desired number of points.
See my article that applied this method for modifying stride durations within acceleration signals:
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We have measured EMG during walking in two different population, and would like to compare their muscle activity.
While some former studies have used statistical inference (i.e. t-tests for max values), we would like to assess the whole time series. Our aim is to show difference in or near specific events of the gait cycle.
Any advice regarding how to perform a statistical inference for time series? or where should I obtain more information regarding this topic?
Thank you!
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Thank you all for your responses!
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I am planning a study on freezing in patients with Parkinson’s disease. I need basic parameters including and especially time taken to initiate walking.
What is the most affordable way to conduct such gait analysis? Insoles? Affordable gait mats?
Thanks for your response in advance,
Siddharth.
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The cheapest is likely to be either a 2D video camera and free software.
The trouble you will find is placing a camera in the correct location. Using a treadmill is unlikely to be a good move with this patient group, therefore you will need multiple cameras to catch more than a step or two initiation of gait.
You could try an app on a mobile phone, you can either find one that tracks movement or one that streams data via Bluetooth. Most phones have both at least one triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope included, so depending on your skills with signal processing this could be a reasonably cheap approach.
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What percentage or how many minutes of a healthy human's day is spent on different biomechanical activities such as sitting, standing, walking, lying and so on?
in case of load analysis
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This article studied a 12h period of THA patients' daily activities.
In this case, HIP98 compact disk also has valuable data.
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I am looking for a reliable algorithm to detect gait events in patients with moderate to severe gait impairments. Whereas some existing algorithms work satisfactorily in good to moderate walkers (e.g. Zeni-Algorithm for kinematic analysis), they are often prone to errors in patients with more pathological gait patterns. Force/pressure-based methods are considered the gold standard for automated gait detection, however, they are not really feasible during free overground walking.
Can anybody recommend an algorithm for robust detection of gait events during treadmill and overground walking in patients with severe gait pattern deviations?
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great, thanks for the hint. Looking forward to seeing the results of the mentioned paper.
Best regards,
Linard
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  • Is this to reduce the risk to nursing staff or for physiotherapists?
  • I have been trying to find literature on the risk of using gait belts for the nirse or therapist and am having difficulty finding anything realted to the WHS concerns
  • I look forward to hearing from you
  • Dilly
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Hello Dilly de Silva
Gait belt is an assistive device and is meant for easy ambulation of the patients and to prevent falls. The force and the body weight transfer during gait is facilitated by the use of this belt. The griping power of the therapist increases and thus prevent the risk of fall. Same time the energy of therapist of preserved due to the assistance by gait belt.
Best Regards
NR MOHANTY
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Hi all,
In my search for the best way to select 30 strides/gait cycles within datasets with up to 100+ strides, I am looking for a proper approach. Does anyone know a method to find the 30 best representatives or has reasoning for randomly select those strides? My research is about variability so a method like: select the 30 strides with the smallest SD compared to the middle value, doesn't sound correct to me.
Thanks in advance.
Lieke
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I can see what you mean.
But I think explaining a large variance in number of steps would be easier than explaining why you decided to omit some of your data.
Statistically speaking, you will probably reduce the number of steps to a single number (average, variance, etc.), so it has no meaning from which number of steps this parameter was calculated.
I do think you'll have to mention the variance in number of steps between subjects, but that can be regarded to technical problems resulting in non valid steps (which also needs a definition and explanation - why 70% of your data was invalid)
Good luck!
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How can I find the direction of muscle forces during gait cycle?
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I think you can use this plugin.
Best regards,
Pierre
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I observe that the majority of researchers in the human following robot use many features such as the color of clothes, height, width, gait, etc.
when they evaluate their approaches first, evaluate every feature separately, then integrate them so that performance is high in an integrating case.
why evaluate them separately whereas that integrating case always is best? please, l need to know the academic purpose of this?
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David Oulton Thank you so much for your answer, it has removed some of ambiguity
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Please I would like to get recommendations and advice regarding setting a new Gait and Posture Lab!! suggestion of company !
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Dear Dr. Elsayed,
You can find references of gait analysis systems (optical and inertial motion capture, electromyography and force plates) at the link below :
Some recommendations on the construction of a facility for the gait laboratory are described in the two attached files.
I hope this information is useful.
Best Regards,
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Hi,
I am looking for complete data of Marketization Index (MINDEX) of regional development in China, till 2014 or latest available. I guess it is compiled by Prof. Fan Gang of Peking University.
I will be highly obliged If anyone can share this data.
Thanks in anticipation.
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I contacted him even before asking a question hear. Have not heard from him/ his team yet.
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Is it possible to measure COP of a single leg using a force plate to identify stability during walking.
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It is possible if you have a dynamometric force plate,but not on a piezoelectric plate. But you have to measure one foot and after the other foot in two different tests. And it is easier to measure the COP on a balance test than in a walking test.
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I have this Lokomat data from its recording for one therapy session. It consists of 75k rows of data of many parameters for 5 minutes recording (0 - 299.996s). The frequency of sampling is 250Hz (thats why in 5 minutes producing 75k rows).
Lokomat uses gait index (0-1000) to identify a complete cycle but the start of cycle is different from standard normalized gait graph which normally starts from heel strike. The gait index 0-1000 can be normalized to gait cycle 0%-100%.
Approximately in 30s there are 10 cycles, so in 300s there should be about 100 cycles. I tried to plot them with normal plot and scatter plot; the pattern is there. I want to have one cycle plot for the whole therapy session. See attached graphs :
1. hip position vs time and gait index vs time for 30s
2. whole data from 300s plotted with normal plot (left) and scatter plot (right)
3. one cycle plot
Thank you.
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I have kinematics data based on gait index which defines gait cycle based on 0-1000 gait index. One cycle consists about 546 data (not quite exact as due to sampling, data for new cycle might start after 0 and may also ends after 1000).
0 to 1000 may be normalized into 0% to 100%. If for example I have data that starts from 1.687262 and ends at 1000.866499 inclusive in that 546 data, how can I reduce the data into 101 data ranging exactly from 0% to 100% (0%, 1%, 2%, ... 100%)?
Thank you.
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When doing gait analysis, are there any criteria for a "standard" surface to walk on? In other words, what features from the surface would affect gait, and in what ways? I suspect this might be critical for subjects who already have problems with walking, but am not sure what exactly to look out for. It'll be nice to have some advice from you.Thank you!
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Hi, Lin
In addition to the propose of M.Thomas James Cutlerand and M.Karl Siebertz, and depending to my experience during project of my thesis with the elderly, I found
The type of the surface is depending to the purpose of analyzing the gait variables, type of sample ( e.g, elderly, children ....etc) ,and the most important , to select surface required that does not affect on the variables that will be measured, flat as possible and confortable for the participants (no risk .....etc), all this if the experiences will be at grounded also is depended on the materials and devices , in below an article could be interest for you
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How to choose and prefer between different companies?
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At the core of the question interfaces like Qualisys and Vicon all do the same thing as they're just tools. You should consider things like generating reports, easy integration with matlab, compatibility with other wearable sensors e.g. IMUs. I use Vicon and both the interface and support are great.
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I need literature how set-up for markers for 3D analysis of upper body stability with Vicon ( 9 cameras stereophotogrammetric system). Suggestion and advice please.
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Hi Dragan, E. Jaspers and E. Butler have both created an upper limb model to be applied in Vicon. The protocol developed by E. Jaspers has an open-source software toolbox (with matlab) which can be found online.
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There are many methods to establish a gait database with experiments done when the sampled person walks for a few minutes. Thats means the person walked repetitively for some gait cycles (one complete cycle is 100% gait cycle) as it only takes between 1-2 seconds to complete a gait cycle (either from a heel strike to next heel strike of the same leg or from toe off to next toe off of the same leg).
As there are many gait cycles involved in the experiment duration, how is the gait data obtained is pre and processed to finally come out as data between 0 - 100% gait cycle only? I mean, the data is only plotted over 100% gait cycle. Is the whole cycles data averaged to only one cycle? If so, how? For examples joint angle vs 100% gait cycle, joint torque vs 100% gait cycle.
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Great question. You’ve actually outlined most of it in your post.
First, you are right, there is essentially an averaging of all the different gait cycles. This is done to try and get a more robust estimate of the joint angle or moment over the gait cycle.
To do it, we identify all of the individual gait cycles of interest from the data collection. So, if you have lots of data, you could identify all of the heel strikes and take the data between each of the heel strikes as Individual gait cycles. Let’s assume you do this for 10 gait cycles. You now have 10 curves showing your outcome of interest (joint angle, moment, etc.) over the gait cycle. One potential problem with this is that each cycle has a different duration. To overcome this, people will normalize the curve to span 0-100 (representing 0-100%) instead of the original time. If all of the curves are normalized in this same way, it means that every curve is now the same number of points across it (101). Now that all of the curves are the same length, we can calculate the mean and standard deviation for every point on the curve. Finally, we can now plot the mean values from each point along the curve to get the mean curve. We can also using the standard deviation at each point to calculate a confidence interval for each point along the curve.
The described method is for a single person, but the nice thing about this approach is that you can normalize each person to the same length and can do the same mean type analysis across all people.
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In addition to my own experience with patients having torsion dystonia, I have come across mention of two patients whose ambulation forward was quite impacted, while walking in reverse was absolutely normal.Are there any other disorders where this has been observed?
Bill Jankel
Grand Canyon University
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Thats the problem. I believe they are still alive. They had been treated with
Parsidol and Tegretal for the co-contractions so I am trying to reverse engineer starting with the diagnosis and then looking at a possible stereochemical clue to indicate the possible network and structures involved and how they could induce the co-contraction state. I'm tracking down a copy of the Pathology of the midbrain reticular system and a copy of the Cerebellum in movement.
I started in the era of "Foringer" boards and multi-pole switches to run lab equipment, and wonder if if similar, multi-stimuli, or multi inhibitory activation may also be a clue. I already have sleep EEG's on these patients as well as applied behavioral analysis for a number of behaviors. But the gait disruption, in only one direction, seems to be a lead that should be followed. Thank you for your response.
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The next step in concussion care should involve objective measures of oculomotor, gait and voice pattern abnormalities with therapy targeted at specific injury patterns. For example if a ocular device such as Neuro-Kinetics I-PAS identifies convergence insufficiency, abnormal saccadic intrusions to the right and pupillary reflex injury, therapy should concentrate on these primarily. The same idea should apply to gait and balance (look for laterality of injury, specific injury patterns) and treat these first or at least more often than general therapy. Voice pattern analysis is a new area that I did not know overlaps with gait and balance. It will be very interesting to have Speech Pathologists look at the type of data developed by Dr. Daniel Hannon at MIT's Lincoln Labs and create treatments based on this.
We know we can diagnose concussion with various devices now, the trick will be to take objective, sometimes very subtle data and turn it into more effective therapy.
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Looks promising “Using artificial neural networks to identify patients with concussion and postconcussion syndrome based on antisaccades “
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how we calculate lumbosacral loads during single stance phase in gait with one force plate?
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Hi, Redha Taiar
Thank you for your answer
good luck
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What is the best wall color of the lab to use with a IR cameras MoCap system (Qualisys, Vicon, Optitrack...)? We have always used white walls, without any problems. I read that blue color is the best option to use with the IR systems/spectrum. What is your opinion? Any color in particular? (please add pantone-color number)
Thanks
Best,
Jose Heredia-Jimenez Human Behavior & Motion Analysis Lab. HubemaLab. University of Granada in Ceuta.
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Thank you for the answer Dr. Jokstad
Best,
Jose Heredia-Jimenez
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Can anyone say whether bipedal walking (gait) characteristic is exactly same as human walking (gait)?
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Here is an article on the bipedal animals, and their differences from humans.
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Timed up and go (TuG) and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) both seem to look into the same area; balance, functional mobility and gait.
If I'm looking into elderly/older adult population (age >70years), is there one that is more specific to the population yielding accurate results?
I'm looking to justify the use of one of them as outcome measure of an elderly who had a recent mechanical fall at home for discharge planning. Thank you!
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Hi Sarah Mingels I was looking at a 'healthy' elderly other than having history of falls :)
As for Jo Nolan thank you for the insight! I was concerned if there were any of these tests that included stairs assessment as the elderly lives in a two-storey house and being able to clear stairs in her own home would be needed. I've seen EMS but not DEMMI and i'll check that out, thanks!
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I need the data separate for sprains and fractures and to able to compare them. I have only been able to find normal gait data. How could I access such data?
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DEAR
I had some papers dealt with gait analysis, data was accumulated reflect all gait factors in different cases. Please look through the following published articles, you may find some help
1. Gait characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus Jerrold Petrofsky, Scott Lee, Salameh Bweir
European Journal of Applied Physiology 2005; 93 (5-6), 640-647
2. Towards an objective method of gait analysis Jerrold Scott Petrofsky, Salameh Bweir, Ailene Andal, Jennifer Chavez, Andrea Crane, Julie Saunders, Michael Laymon British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 2003; 10 (10) 463-472