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GHG emissions - Science topic

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Whether Agro-Forestry is Considered as Permant Mitigation Strategy ? for reducing GHG emissions and reducing carbon foot Print ?
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Agroforestry plays a key in climate change mitigation and GHG reduction and the first contributor has provided a link to a document highlighting the multiple ecosystems benefits of Agroforestry. However, Agroforestry is not the "silver bullet". Agriculture expansion is a major cause of deforestation. I developing countries, deforestationn is happening at a rapid rate, driving a larger share of tropical GHG emissions. Agriculture expansion is likely to limit the prospects of Agroforestry in agrarian economies. Therefore, Agroforestry should be linked to agriculture modernization and energy transition efforts for accelerated Impacts.
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We all know that the Haber Bosch process produces CO2 emissions. I am looking for the quantitative number as to the GHG emissions of 1lb of nitrogen fertilizer. However, we must also include the amount of GHG produced from over-fertilization. We are using a 25% uptake of synthetic fertilizer and therefore 75% goes into the soil and the waterways. Is there a way to quantify, or at least estimate, how much GHG is produced from the fertilizer not being used by the crops?
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Thank you Paul for your response. This is in line with other sources I have been gathering. From a high level, synthetic fertilizer has a significant GHG emission factor for production and a large one for application (primarily due to over-fertilization and the nitrification of unused fertilizer), but transportation and storage are minimus. Organic fertilizers, such as that coming from compost, have a much larger GHG from storage (since GHG continues to off-gas as the compost ages), however, transportation is low because of the small distances anyone is willing to transport compost (primarily a local product from local waste). The one thing, which is certain in all of the papers I have reviewed, is that determining GHG emissions is not yet a science. It is still an art that depends upon the ability of the researcher to define the vast number of variables needed as input into the equation.
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some literature considers soil erosion as the source of GHG emissions, particularly, CO2 and N2O while others mention soil erosion as a sink for GHG, so I want to be clear on that issue.
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Have a look at this useful RG link.
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I'm curious about knowing the potential to reduce GHG / increase C sequestration across different cropland uses (for example, dairy, wheat, corn).
Have you heard of reliable and attainable targets for different agricultural commodities and locations?
And to anticipate some answers, I know that it depends on a lot of factors.
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Soil act both as source and sink of GHGs, it's the land use changes turn this balance either way. Soil have a potential of 2500 Gt CO2 sequestration. To know more about C sequestration in croplands refer Professor Ratan Lal's papers.
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If a lightbulb manufacturer buys its own lightbulbs to use their offices, do they account for downstream emissions from product use as scope 3 as well as the scope 2 emissions from using the bulbs? This seems like double counting, so I'd like to know is there a standard way of excluding this?
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Hi, I think the emissions from product use are not included in scope 3. For a light bulb manufacturer, scope 1 includes direct emissions from the manufacturing process, scope 2 includes indirect emissions due to the use of electricity and heat. In this case, the use of self-produced bulbs belongs to scope 2. Scope 3 includes indirect emissions from activities supporting the manufacturing process, such as the production of raw material for bulbs.
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Aim is to optimize the fuel and routes used by the Johannesburg Metrobus fleets based on various bus technology according to lowest cost, least greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, environmental footprint, and technical suitability
This will be done by quantifying and ranking the least costs and least greenhouse gases (GHGs), and the lowest environmental footprint of bus technology on each route.
1. Data for each bus technology and route type
1.1. Each bus technology
-Trip length
-Emission profile in different stages
-Operating costs (i.e., fuel cost per bus tech)
-Fuel efficiency.
-Travel time
1.2. Route type
-Fuel refilling station
- Route distance
-Route traffic
-Route depots
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Depends on the methodology.
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I am a graduate student in City Planning at the Indian Institute of Technology currently researching 'Planning Strategies towards Low Carbon Developments in the City with a focus on urban design heuristics. I am conducting expert opinion surveys to improve the quality of the ongoing project. As you are an expert in the subject, It is my humble request to kindly allow me for a brief session sharing your viewpoints on the need for low carbon developments in the urban regions, current progress in this sector and the possibility of a relationship between urban form, energy performance and GHG emissions.
I thank you in advance for your time, efforts and consideration. It should take less than 10 minutes to complete. Your response is highly appreciated!
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I answered and encourage others to do so as well. It is interesting and will hopefully produce useful data.
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Dear all,
I would like to present my work on an aircrafts GHG emissions calculation model in an international conference. I would like to have an interesting feedback from experts (whether in environmental assessment or in aviation). Do you know of any conferences that might meet these criteria and whose submission deadline has not yet passed?
Thank you !
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Thank you for your feedbacks.
Kiprotich Kiptum I had already looked at this site but it refers to conferences that do not exist. Have you ever attended a conference listed in waset?
Jochen Hack the summit looks very interesting but if I'm not mistaken it does not allow you to submit a paper or an abstract, which is my objective
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Hello Robert !
In your calculations, there are not enough numbers for ordinary (basic jet fuel), please send them if you have them, so it will be right.
For clarity, I made a picture.
Thanks !
Sincerely, Ivan Antipov.
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Good afternoon!
These links contain a lot of valuable information on alternative fuels. I am looking for information on the percentages of emissions from the production of ordinary hydrocarbon fuel. It's not in Robert's article. On the graph, this is the first line with question marks.
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I want to calculate the GHG emission reduction in transport after replacing diesel with Hydrogen or biomethane fuel made from green sources.
I want to find difference in GHG emission with various types of feedstocks i.e. manure, maige etc.
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Consider this research article for exhaustive combustion, performance and emission analysis.
It will be helpful.
"Combustion investigation of ternary blend mixture of biodiesel/n-butanol/diesel: CI engine performance and emission control"
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We know the beneficial effects of residue retention in soil. But both the system ( residue in surface and residue incorporated) have some pros and cons, in the point of GHG emission which one is sustainable.
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Yes! returning the residues to the soils is very vital to improve the levels of soil organic matter since inherent OM is influenced by C addition and decomposition rate. When I came to your question incorporating plant residues into the soils can aggravate the decomposition process and thus, C in the form of carbon dioxide will escape to the surrounding environment therefore surface retention is more suitable to minimize GHG emission.
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We are conducting a study on some textile factories and we have the energy usage data (diesel, natural gas, electricity) of those factories. Is there any possible way to calculate the amount of CO2 or other GHG emission from these energy data? Is there any empirical equation or anything?
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EPA has provided a calculator on their website, where you can calculate GHG emissions by either emission data or your energy consumption.
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I have life cycle impact categories data based on ReCiPe method but I am wondering if it is possible to use the characterization factor somehow to convert the data according to CML.
Thanks!
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ReCiPe, a method developed in 2008 between universities is to transform long list of life cycle inventory into limited number of indicator scores. These indicator scores express relative severity on environmental impact category. It is determined at two levels – 18 midpoint indicators and 3 endpoint indicators. Each of them include factors to three cultural perspectives – Individualist; Hierarchist and Eglitarian (long term). The major disadvantage of this method is that it does not include future impacts as it is presumed to be already incorporated.
CML 2001 restricts quantitative modelling to early stages in the cause-effect chain to limit uncertainties. Results are grouped in midpoint categories according to common mechanisms (e.g. climate change) or commonly accepted groupings (e.g. ecotoxicity). CML 2001 is developed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Normalisation factors for CML 2001 are available for EU and the World. The normalisation factors are calculated via total substance emissions and characterisation factors per substance, and are hence following the substance level updates as described.
Since the objectives and factors considered are different, it will not be wise to convert as it would lose the entire theme of interpretation.
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I attempt to simulate how the greenhouse gases emission from soil surface under the set of determined crops (e.g. wheat, apples, citrus, sugarcane) depends on geographical position (it is the first step of simulation). The second step must be the analysis of changes because of climate change or irrigation.
Next, I'd like to compare GHG emission intensity with potential yield of crops for various countries of the World. The last is available on the web-site of Global Agro-Ecological Zones v3.0.
Can anyone advice, how I can get the data of GHG emission only from soil surface (but not because of fuel combustion by soil-tilling machines) for the major crops and for different country of the world.
I prefer the description of calcution method rather than ready for use online tools. Online tools often give uncertainties, which I can't trace under the following analysis of results.
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Very good question. Please have a look at these:
ELUM: A spatial modelling tool to predict soil greenhouse gas changes from land conversion to bioenergy in the UK.Environmental Modelling & Software ( 2016).
84 : 458-466.
Highlights :ELUM models soil greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy land-use change in UK to 2050. It is based on the ECOSSE model, but quick and easy to use, with added features. It is able to support life-cycle assessments and policy making for bioenergy. Consultation with anticipated users guided usability and functionality. Greenhouse gas balance is highly dependent on initial land use and new energy crop.
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One of the best option to reduce climate change impact is the promotion of renewable energy. To protect global environment and reduction of GHG emissions promotion of alternative energy is essential. If we assume except GHG emission from renewable energy resources, fossil fuel combustion will be reduced in 0-10% globally our climate change burden will be stopped. So, can it will be possible handing together all nations to replace the fossil fuel combustion completely?
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I think it not possible to replace all fossil fuel combustion systems with renewable energy systems. First of all, most of the renewable energy system’s construction cost is comparatively higher than the conventional ones. Secondly, some of the renewable energy system (such as solar and wind energy system) depends on environment and weather conditions. So, it can not be able to provide a stable output throughout the day. Thirdly, it is too difficult to produce a large quantity of energy from renewable energy sources quickly.
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I am doing research on GHG emission in Bangladesh
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Using the carbon concentration of rice, calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide
that is taken up.
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The idea is to look at how the Reuse of construction waste components can address circularity and urban sustainability. I intend to look at the overall construction demand and projected demolition rates in a city, and thereby calculate the embodied carbons savings for reuse of building components that can be linked to climate mitigation.
Are there any papers that define LCA studies for urban building stocks?
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Ms Sharma,
I am also doing a similar study. I would suggest you look at two concepts
Material flow analysis and resource decoupling. You can combine these two academic umbrella to accomplish the goal you stated.
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For example, in a livestock production system, a sustainable GHG emission is until xx kg / ha / year.
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Bernardo Villalba there may not be the direct effects and might be many indirect effects on the livestock.....
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I am working on LCA for transport infrastructure, railway in particular. I already assessed GHG emissions and energy demand associated to production, construction and operation of railway infrastructure - paper will hopefully be available soon.
Currently, I am conducting a literature review to find out which other impact categories and gases I should include in a next step. What is your approach on that?
Also, I want to monetize the environmental impacts afterwards. This is already possible for GHG emissions. Does some of you have a viable approach for other impact categories?
I am looking forward to an interesting and helpful discussion!
Thanks,
Matthias
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Matthias Landgraf That's really a great question and a difficult one. I usually look at all 16 impact categories unless I am performing a comparison with a previously published report. You can make spider plots and normalize LCIA numbers to see your most affected categories. It also depends on who you report to and the technology you are studying. Are researchers in your field concerned about a specific impact of your technology? Most readers love to read about climate change and human health others are more concerned with depletion, land and water usage. In any case, good luck.
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Dear collegues,
Do you think reasonable to measure field CO2 emission without a frame inserted into the soil where to place a static chamber?
The majority of protocols suggest to insert into the soil a frame in order to support the static chamber, avoid leakages and limit soil disturbance. However, agrotechnics, in many cases, needs to remove and replace frame along cropping season involving high field labor.
There is any alternative protocol or system to have a reliable measure of field CO2 emission without soil frame?
Thanks in advance for your comments.
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I don't like soil collars for several reasons (cutting roots, affecting moisture, shading etc. ). We published a paper on this in the European Journal of Soil Science some years ago) - best to avoid it. You can prepare the ground to fit a chamber without a collar , or you can fit a sealant around the base of the chamber (use bubble wrap, foam, etc.). Key is to be inventive.
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It requires higher electrical energy to produce primary Aluminium . Most of the energy source is fossil fuel responsible for GHG emissions. Hyro power is also another source for many.
Solar is emerging as a viable and reliable source of green energy. Can electricity produced through Solar route be made useful and practical source of energy for primary Aluminium making.
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Mila Ilieva
-Thanks .
Piotr Olczak -Thanks for your response. I did not mean efficiency ...it was efficacy ...I wanted to mean effectiveness... If one can share if he/she comes across any info whether Solar power has been effectively used in Electrolysis (Hall & Herault process ) for making primary Aluminium. Thanks again for mentioning PV etc.
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" The IEA report looks at changes in greenhouse gas emissions between 2018 and 2019. It finds that energy-using activities increased in 2019, but the emissions did not increase because of a variety of factors including renewable energy, energy efficiency (the second largest contributor), coal-to-gas conversions, nuclear energy, and weather. " As illustrated in the attached graph, how could you explain that weather is a factor with such contribution in keeping the same level of GHG emissions?
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The report states:
"More temperate weather in key parts of the world reduced the need for coal, gas and electricity for heating and cooling, which so energy demand was over 10% lower than would have been expected from economic activity."
It also states:
"This final factor – weather – is critical to properly interpreting what first appears to be an improvement in global energy intensity in 2019. Correcting for the weather, the energy intensity improvement rate in 2019 (1.6%) was almost identical to 2018 (1.5%)."
see page 14 and 15 of the report (https://webstore.iea.org/energy-efficiency-2020)
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An international and governmental organization must look on a reconstruction of environmental policy and its interface with the tasks of economic development which will ensure a reduction in pollution and the creation of new jobs in Life Conserve Industry as an only sole way to a sustainable development. In such way, a spread of algae global scale cultivation can promote new design and building of biological systems as well as an opening possibility for the shift from non-efficient protection of the environment to its cultivation in a large scale with mitigation of GHG emission and waste as well as generating of O2 and value-added products. This is the non-alternative path with significant longer-term effects.
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Our theory includes generalized explanations of how nature works, confirmed by pieces of evidence, cover predictions for further technological developments towards economically and environmentally sustainable industrial processes as well as provides the role of bioenergy accumulation and transformation for improved understanding about evolution, influences of anthropogenic activity, decision-makers errors, technological choices, pandemics prevention and the necessary skills toward the innovation algae-based system. The possibility of origination and evolution of the landforms of life were the results of bioenergy accumulation by microalgae and at present, the contribution of algae remains dominant in reducing CO2 and maintaining O2 level in the atmosphere. Population growth stimulates the accumulation of air carbon and bioenergy. The production and application of fertilizers originated large GHG emissions and it is a big conceptual need to shift on organic agriculture including algae fertilization of soil to contribute long-term sustainability. The used technologies for 1G biofuels production, as well as microalgae to biofuel based on biomass phototrophic growth by the use of fertilizers, are induced aggressively increasing GHG emission instead of their mitigation. Microalgae biofuel has big potential in case the use of wastewaters and food waste for biomass growth. The priority strategy for dealing with future pandemics treats such as COVID-19, etc. must be increasing the stability of immunity system of humans and animals to infections and due to a high concentration of physiologically active compounds in microalgae they application can be the best decision. Analyses of the Kyoto Protocol, Paris Climate Agreement, etc. results provide that their application has many disadvantages. The New policy must be founded on the admitting of the Life Conserve industry as the new part of the production.
Armen B Avagyan 2020.  Theory of Bioenergy Accumulation and Transformation: Application to Evolution, Energy, Sustainable Development, Climate Change, Manufacturing, Agriculture, Military Activity and Pandemic Challenges.
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I am looking for a process that can be industrially implemented within the next 5-10 years to make the Haber process an efficient zero-carbon process. I have been exploring hydrogen combustion, and some ideas that use solar heating, but none of them seem to be up to the mark. Would a good first step would be to explore the mixing of hydrogen in the current methane combustion to reduce GHG emissions?
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Absolutely, methane or other solid and liquid biofuels definitely have a huge potential in terms of circular bioeconomy. Other energy sources like wind, tidal etc. would also be very useful in coming years with constant improvements in the respective technology.
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Does anyone have any insight into the amount of production that has slowed or halted in the last few weeks, and how that has affected the emissions of GHG throughout the world?
There are satellite images showing significant decreases, as would be expected, but I am having trouble finding any site or agency with data showing a quantitative value for the emissions to compare to other months, either globally or by region.
The only data from NOAA on this matter that I am familiar with is the Mauna Loa Observatory data, which is a mean global total concentration, as opposed to a real-time emission number.
(Edited: Sink was changed to "shrink," as it is a more appropriate term.)
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Thank you, Zia Hameed . This question was referring to anthropogenic sources, mainly transportation and industrial fossil fuel consumption. (Though, in retrospect, it would be interesting to also look at the data surrounding energy used to power homes while people weren't out and moving around.) I have altered the title of this post to replace the term "sink" with "shrink," as it was used incorrectly and was meant to imply a decrease in production. I appreciate your feedback and data.
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Methane is a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting from plethora of environments. There are a lot of literature available regarding the quantity of methane emission and reaching to atmosphere in general perspective. But the data regrading the amount of GHG emission in extreme environments is almost lacking.
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This is also a great review paper on what we know about natural methane
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Efficiency and emission reductions are two identified related factors of energy - environment topics.
How are you utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) towards more energy efficient systems while decreasing emissions?
Further, what technical challenges / barriers are you dealing with while applying AI to specific energy - environment problems?
This topic is very broad and involves convergent teams of scientists and engineers. Specific examples include: smart traffic systems that can route traffic decreasing idling or traveling time(s), design that reduces weights of vehicles, reduction of emissions from chemical and petrochemical processing equipment, and the use of mixed energy generation sources to meet demand while reducing impact.
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One of the upcoming area AI in Green Computing discusses the same. I have tried to use AI in predicting AQI values of air pollutants. I have also considered sleep modes of sensors and their switching when they are idle. Maybe these articles may help you.....1. http://www.cit.iit.bas.bg/CIT-2020/v-20-2/10341-Volume20_Issue_2-10_paper.pdf 2.
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I have some confusion about the amount of GHG emissions in 2010; that is published in IPCC 2014 [ Source: Climate Change 2014 – Synthesis Report (IPCC) (p.5) ] and the other illustrated in [IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives 2010 Scenarios & Strategies to 2050, ETP 2010, International Energy Agency, OECD/IEA, Paris, 2010. (p. 47)] .
As I observed, the former indicated 49 Gt in 2010 where the latter indicated around 27 Gt in 2010. I think that there is some misunderstanding so please advise me to find the right value for GHG emissions in 2010.
I attached the two figures and I can send the original documents to who may demand.
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In 2010, estimated worldwide emissions from human activities totaled nearly 46 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents. This represents a 35 percent increase from 1990.
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Why higher earthworm density increased CO2 but, decreased CH4 emissions during vermicomposting?
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I guess it increases the penetration of O2 leading to CH4 aerobic oxidation and promoting aerobic organic matter respiration (increasing CO2).
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May I know where can I get GHG emissions data of fertilizer production and how can I perform LCA using the data's.
Which software is best and easy to access to perform this modelling work? Kindly suggest me some articles and websites to get ghg emission data's.
Thanks and have a nice day!
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Srikanth Prakash this data from FAO has all the information that you need
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In an in press article, I estimated a CO2  climate sensitivity factor (CSF) for CO2 doubling in the atmosphere of 1.7 C which is significantly smaller than the average IPCC AR5 value of 3.0 C. My CO2 CS estimate is based on fitting an equation to the NOAA 1880 - 2015 global temperature anomaly data.
For more details, please read: J.E. Szulejko, P. Kumar, A. Deep, K.-H. Kim, Global warming projections to 2100 using simple CO2 greenhouse gas modeling and comments on CO2 climate sensitivity factor, Atmos. Pollut. Res., (2016 in press).
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Trying to get details
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is there any way to estimate GHG emission for total oil downstream flow in a country or estimating an oil refinery emission??
is there any statistics on GHG emission in any oil refinery in iran??
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You can perform life cycle analysis to estimate GHG and other environmental impacts of an oil refinery. For Iran you would need to build the inventory through local sources.
Meanwhile, following documents may help you:
1) Regionalized Life Cycle Assessment of Oil Refineries worldwide
10.13140/RG.2.2.35528.78080
2) Life cycle inventories of oil refinery processing and products - ESU-services
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Where can I get the emission factors for a particular country?
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How can trade related emission factors calculated?
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While some still consider climate change majorly caused by GHGs as a hoax, it is impossible to rule out a striking correlation between the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 and global warming. But then, I do not see the right effort to shun fossil fuels usage and consequent carbon neutrality in the future.
That being said, how do we strike a balance between limiting GHG emissions and cost the implications of drastically reducing global dependence on fossil fuels?
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I agree that man-made climate change is, as far as I am concerned, real, happening and increasingly threatening. Watch this informative interview with Dr Peter Carter conducted at COP25: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oa13KrOvE2s .
So, how to reduce the GHG emissions and natural resource depletion?
We need another oil crisis like in 1973 ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis).
Ok, it bit more seriously now. I strongly agree with Bruno Borsari . Furthermore we should, in my opinion, move away from the consumerism-based linear economy model (extract, refine, manufacture, sell, use, throw) to a circular economy (extend life span of non-food products by service and repair, re-use followed by recycling). Transport is a major consumer of natural resources and emitter of greenhouse gases, so we need to avoid shipping goods around the globe, and move back to regionally produced products. We need to live near our work and use bicycles, public transport or car pooling. We certainly can be less spontaneous in our decisions and need to plan wisely. An everyday example is grocery shopping. We cannot afford to simply jump into our car and drive to the supermarket because we forgot to buy say a loaf of bread. We may have to find out - via an app - whether someone from our community/neighbourhood is currently in the supermarket or, alternatively, whether we can borrow a few slices and return them once we have done our grocery shopping at the scheduled time.
Buildings also consume a lot of energy, so we need, through a combination of green building users, policies and smart technology, reduce their energy, material and GHG footprint.
Our forefathers have lived a more sustainable life, and there is no fundamental reason why we can't do it again too. Just try to live as simple a life as possible, in communities, with resource-sharing happening naturally.
One of the main difficulties I see at the moment is that it is very challenging at individual and state-level to impose and even more so to respect quota on fossil fuel, minerals and even renewable materials (e.g. biomass such as wood) that we know with reasonable accuracy to be sustainable. If those countries who possess large oil and mineral reserves and/or great forest reserves do not restrict themselves too, it is a recipe for disaster I think (e.g. possibility of migration, war).
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Cities across the globe adopt a target based approach to reduce their GHG emissions with limited success.
I am curious to know if any cities have achieved or are on target to achieve their emission goals? If not, have any cities experimented with other methods?
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@Juan Felipe Franco
Agree with you. That was why I only "quoted" what c40 has claimed.
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New discussion
While some still consider climate change majorly caused by GHGs as a hoax, it is impossible to rule out a striking correlation between the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 and global warming. But then, I do not see the right effort to shun fossil fuels usage and consequent carbon neutrality in the future.
That being said, how do we strike a balance between limiting GHG emissions and the cost implications of drastically reducing global dependence on fossil fuels?
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PBG,
The greater threat to humanity is the coming cold, crop failure and starvation as a result of the quiet sun and coming downturn in ocean cycle. Continued increase in irrigated area would slow and possibly prevent the temperature decline. https://watervaporandwarming.blogspot.com/
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Dear All,
I'm working on the projections of Global mean temperature change (observed data obtained from NOAA, 1959-2018) based on green house gas emissions.
For this, I have tested several regression equations but not exactly able to compare these forecasts with IPCC report (TAR and or SR15).
I want to know is there any equation which mathematically or statistically explains these changes in global mean temperature based on CO2 concentrations or CO2 equivalent concentrations in PPM.
In the Radiative Forcing terms, one known reationship is,
delta(t) = Lamdba*delta(F).
where, delta(F) = Radiative forcing = 5.35*log(C(t)/C(0)), where C(0) = 278 PPM (CO2 concentrations in yr 1750).
But issues is that when we plot the calculated temperature change using this equation with observed NOAA data of temperature change, they aren't same. The observed curve is more steep than calculated one.
One more challenge could be the value of Lambda, some are saying that this value is 0.5 or 0.4, but even both values aren't leading to correct curve of temperature change.
What are your thoughts??
Best Regards,
Abhay
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Dear Abhay,
your equation for the radiative forcing, which is based on Myhre et al., 1998, Geophysical Research Letters (and, by the way, is measured in W/m^2) results from a fit of radiative forcing to GHG concentrations based on a line-by-line radiative code. It is a simplification, but likely a reasonable one.
Your factor Lambda, which is known as "climate sensitivity parameter", needs a bit more specification. It is not an explanation (neither statistical nor mathematical), but rather an empirical fit to how much the average global temperature changes with one Watt per square metre change in radiative forcing. It can be calculated form past timeseries of climate data, but also from models. I find the explanation on wikipedia quite helpful:
Its value depends on a number of things, of which the first is whether you look at the equilibrium change in temperature or a transient reaction to a changing CO2 concentration (such as when you fit the time-series against each other). It is thus not terribly surprising that you run into difficulties fitting timeseries for just the last decades to this equation. The whole concept holds best at equilibrium. Other dependencies are the size of internal feedbacks in the earth system (such as changes in water vapour when the average temperature changes). All this makes the exact value of lambda dependent on the timescale at which you look at it, and also on the background climate state (i.e. there were different values of Lambda when the climate state was very different from today).
So briefly my answer would be: Be aware that this simplifying relation is not an explanation, but rather a simplifying fit for the temperature changes with changing greenhouse gas concentrations; the real explanation needs full climate models.
Best regards, Christoph
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It is very interesting to know the formation of N2O in the combustion chamber. The formation of NOx takes place through 3 ways and one being the most common, that is the thermal method, other two being the formation of NOx through Nitrogen oxidation through HC's and last one through the intermediate step called the N2O method.
Now the question is what happens if the N2O is not fully converted to NOx ?
When will the NOx be formed through N2O method ?
How to avoid this route for NOx formation ?
#Nitrous Oxide, #Diesel Combustion, # SCR,, # Catalyst , # NOx
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Diesel engines are one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution caused by exhaust emissions. The four main pollutant emissions from diesel engines are carbon monoxide-CO, hydrocarbons-HC, particulate matter-PM and nitrogen oxides-NOx. For perect thermodynamic equilibrium, the complete combustion of diesel fuel generates only CO2 and H2O. Bur for many reasons as: the air– fuel ratio, ignition timing, turbulence in the combustion chamber, combustion form, air–fuel concentration, combustion temperature, etc. a number of harmful products are also generated during combustion. Usually, in the diesel engine combustion process, the nitrogen in the air does not react with oxygen in the combustion chamber and it is emitted identically out of the engine. However, high temperatures above 1,600 oC in the cylinders cause the nitrogen to react with oxygen and generate NOx emissions. So the major influences of the formation of NOx are the temperature and concentration of oxygen in the combustion. The amount of produced NOx is a function of the maximum temperature in the cylinder, oxygen concentrations, and residence time. Most of the emitted NOx is formed early in the combustion process, when the piston is still near the top of its stroke. This is when the flame temperature is the highest. Increasing the temperature of combustion increases the amount of NOx as much as triple for almost every 100 oC increase. NOx are referred as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). NO constitutes 85–95 % of NOx. It is progressively converted to NO2 in atmospheric air. NO is a colorless and odorless gas, while NO2 is a reddish brown gas with pungent odor. Road transport is the most important cause of urban NOx emissions worldwide contributing to more than 50 % of the NOx. Engine out NOx levels are lower for diesel engines than their stoichiometric gasoline counterparts reflecting the somewhat lower combustion temperatures in the diesel engine. However, tailpipe-out NOx emissions are higher from diesels reflecting difficulties in reducing NOx to N2 in the highly oxidizing environment of diesel exhaust, which typically contains approximately 8% O2.
So, diesel engines are responsible for about 85 % of all the NOx emissions from movable sources, primarily in the form of NO. NO and NO2 are considered as toxic; but NO2 has a level of toxicity five times greater than that of NO and it is also a direct concern of human lung disease. NO2 can irritate the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infection. NOx emissions contribute to acidification, formation of ozone, nutrient enrichment, and smog formation, which have become considerable problems in most major cities worldwide. In the atmospheric air, NOx emissions react chemically with other pollutants to form tropospheric ozone (the primary component of photochemical smog) and other toxic pollutants. According to Euro standards (I to VI), NOx ranged between 8 to 0.4 g/kW hr. So far, exhaust gas recirculation,EGR, (exhaust gas is recirculated back into the combustion chamber and mixed with fresh air at intake stroke), lean NOx trap, LNT, (NOx-storage-reduction (NSR) or NOx absorber catalyst (NAC)), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and SCR catalysts (SCR is used to minimize NOx emissions in the exhaust gas to utilize ammonia (NH3) as the reductant. Water and N2 are released as a result of catalytically conversion of NOx in the exhaust gas. Due to the toxic effects of NH3 and to prevent burning of NH3 in the warm atmosphere before the reaction, NH3 is provided in the from of an aqueous solution of urea, or DOC with SCR. DOCs may also be used in conjunction with SCR catalysts to oxidize NO into NO2 and increase the NO2 ,are the most focused technologies to substantially eliminate the NOx emissions. As EGR technology, LNT technologies are imperfect to provide desired NOx emissions reduction. You can possible meet the current emissions standards by using SCR technology.
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Cover crops effect the soil biota and modify the soil surface moisture and temperature. So does it increase the GHGs emissions from the soil?
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Human activities, through land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities, affect changes in carbon stocks between the carbon pools of the terrestrial ecosystem and between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Which has to much extent contribute to GHG.
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I am researching on the GHG emissions from tunnels with different excavation methods i.e. Italian System for Excavation of Tunnels (ISET); Norwegian Method of Tunneling (NTM) and New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM).
But few researches on the GHG emissions of ISET are available. Could you provide related studies? If you are interested in the research, you are welcome to join in.
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Dear Jianfeng ,
there are specific studies that are contained within "a thing" called VIA (Environmental Impact Assessment - Valutazione di impatto ambientale).
You should contact the competent ministry
but I think it's complicated....
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If we save one litre of water in process industry, How can we calculate how much GHG emission is saved in this process?
article of "Water-saving measures in California have also led to substantial reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions" indicates water saving can reduce GHG emission. Do we have any claculation about one litre usage of water is responsible to how much GHG emission (emission factor)
assumption: Water in process industry is taken from local water authority and I believe when we extract water from ground we use energy and if we assume energy is coming from fossil fuel then we can have emicssion factor
Can anybody suggest any reserach articles Calculations/research on that topic?
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Water is an essential factor of all human being and lives saving of water is a duty of every human
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I think there are plenty of models for wastewater treatment processes modeling such as ASM1, ASM2, ASM3, TUD(P), AQuasim, Sinba, WEST, Efor, GPS-X, BioWin, SIMBA, etc.
I need to estimate direct CH4 and N2O emission for my case study WWTP. I am not familiar with these models at all. I need some guidance how to choose one of them. I am looking for a general estimation of amount of direct emission as I do not have that much detailed data about the plant.
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The models you mention can be extended to include GHG emissions. However, the models are very complex and the understanding (and therefore also modelling) of GHG emissions is still not really clear. If you are unfamiliar with process modelling of WWTPs I would say it is a hard task to set up and callibrate a model for a real plant well enough to give some qualified estimate of GHG emissions. An easier way would be to go for emission factors for your assessment. Of corse has a large uncertainty as local conditions and operational strategy has show large variations.
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I and my colleague trying to calculate approximate GHG emissions of several power plants. Dataset we have contains only their annual kWh and fuel type (coal, gas, etc). We wanted to use method given in IPCC guideline, but we could not find data about their annual fuel consumption. Therefore we could not use it. We also do not know their efficiency. But we want some simple and reliable method with good approximation. What do you suggest?
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Hello Yerdaulet!
I have read this paper on the subject, which I believe it might help you to solve the issue.
Best Regards!
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Based on the IPCC reports, agriculture contributes a share of 13.5 percent to global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Moreover, food processing accounted for a share of GWP which I could not find it in the literature review. In addition, methane emissions from MSWs landfills (which is mostly organic materials) accounts for 11% of total methane emissions in the world. As you know, methane has a potential of 21 times more than CO2 in global warming phenomenon. In my opinion, the share of GWP of food supply chain, use and disposal can be considered more 20 percent which is a remarkable percentage! What do you think?
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Dear Amin Nikkhah,
In my opinion agriculture is the basic sector of national economies. The technological progress that has been taking place over the millennia, including mechanization and the chemization of agriculture developed since the beginning of the 20th century, through the use of chemical plant protection products, and then genetics have increased yield per hectare. Technical and technological progress in agriculture has also contributed to the gradual decline in employment in agriculture. However, these are not the most serious problems of agriculture. However, many scientific studies and data of climatologists suggest that in the near future, in the 21st century, these will not be the most serious problems of agricultural development. Well, in the 21st century, due to the progressive global warming, crop acreages and areas of arable land can be significantly reduced. In connection with the emission of greenhouse gases in the perspective of the next dozen or so years, the process of global warming may enter the phase of acceleration of this warming and the inability to reverse this process if man in the coming years fails to implement pro-ecological reforms to implement sustainable and pro-ecological development based on national and global economy. the concept of a new, green economy. If this negative scenario was to be realized then by the end of the 21st century at the latest the average temperature at the Earth's surface will increase by as much as another 4 degrees C, which will increase and increase the scale of increasingly emerging climatic cataclysms, all glaciers and arable land areas they will decrease. As part of climate disasters, droughts, desertification and steppping of existing areas covered with greenery will appear. These processes will also reduce arable land areas. There will be problems with the boarding of a large part of the population, the scale of the national migration of people in search of places to live will increase, to survive. More and more permanent economic crises will appear and the risk of dramatic events, including wars, will increase. Humanity can not let this happen. This is the main challenge of humanity for the 21st century. In the near future, ecological innovations, renewable energy sources, streamlining the process of waste segregation and recycling, the electromobility of motorization etc. should be developed. Scientific research shows that these projects should be carried out on a large scale globally already in the perspective of the next decade. Otherwise, the process of global warming will accelerate and become an irreversible process, which in turn would lead to a global climate disaster at the latest at the end of the 21st century.
Best wishes
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Dear Scholars,
Can you advise me on where to get data concerning CO2, NOx, SOx and various GHG emissions for countries of the EU and world? I am interested for the period of 1990-2018 in order to study emission trends.
Best regards
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Data through 2017 is available here in the 2018 report from the global carbon project. http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget/
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We are planning to conduct a systematic map on the impacts of agricultural soil and crop management on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. This will search for, collate and catalogue research relating to the impacts of farming in temperate systems (i.e. relevant to the UK) on GHG emissions, identifying evidence for agricultural practices that mitigate against climate change and those that contribute to it.
It is hoped that this will inform the design of reformed agricultural subsidies, enabling public money to be spent on activities that are the most beneficial in mitigating against climate change.
As we wish the systematic map to be as comprehensive as possible please get in touch if you have suggestions of organisational/departmental reports, PhD and MSc theses and other grey literature. that provide evidence on the impacts of agricultural soil and crop management on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes.
Contact: Dr Alexandra Collins Alexandra.collins@imperial.ac.uk
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While it is well known that green house gases are naturally cycled through soil and are part of the carbon ( C ) nitrogen ( N ) cycles, it is not fully understood what effect crop production practices have on this cycling. Some research report has indicated that GHG fluxes may vary considerably with soil properties, crop type, and management and climate conditions, For more details consult www.jswconline.org -- content. and https://www.core.au.uk - download - pdf
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On the 29th 2018 November, I attended a conference “Accelerating CCUS” held in Edinburgh at the Hub, an impressive former Victorian church. The message of deliverance from the evils of global warming was received with enthusiasm by the congregation of the faithful, but it remains to be seen whether the message will lead to the conversion of non-believers. Following is the briefest of summaries of the day’s discussions.
· On October 8th 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a report requested at the Paris Agreement, “The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C”. The report concludes that to avoid the worst impacts of global warming the mean temperature rise should be limited to 1.5°C not the 2°C agreed in Paris. At the current rate of GHG emissions, on average, the 1.5°C limit will be reached by 2040 and the 2°C limit by 2052. These limits could be reached earlier depending on the interaction of various feedback loops. Current global CO2 emissions are 40 billion tonnes per year and need to become net zero by around 2050. In addition, releases to atmosphere of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon black need to be reduced markedly. All to be done in less than 30 years, the time required to count to just 1 billion. No latitude for delay, need to act now.
· For reference, the UK’s CO2 emissions are 0.37 billion tonnes per year (less than 1 percent of global total) and 90 percent come from oil and gas utilization. Eliminating the use of these fossil fuels in the short-term is not feasible, but using them to produce hydrogen and storing the CO2 is feasible.
· There is no single technological solution to reduce CO2 emissions: efficiency improvements, eliminating coal for power generation, widespread deployment of renewables, reforming methane to hydrogen, CCS, CCUS, and nuclear are all required.
· Governments will determine what solutions best fit their economic circumstances in meeting their Paris Agreement obligations. A concern is that of stranded assets; for example, many coal-fired power plants are less than 10-years old and have been costed for 25-year life spans. Similar considerations apply to other industries such as transitioning shipping from diesel to hydrogen.
· Without CCS and CCUS achieving global climate goals will be practically impossible. Because of this, the IEA has made these technologies a priority to be discussed at all Ministerial meetings.
· To achieve this Ulyssean task, negative emission technologies (NETs) will have to be deployed. Further, once achieved the atmospheric CO2 burden will maintain the global temperature at the elevated level so NETs will remain in service for many tears. The most promising is bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) whereby biomass is burned for power generation and the resulting CO2 stored below ground. An issue with this vital approach is land usage with biomass for energy competing for space with crops for food. With respect to food growing efficiency, as meat production requires a lot more space than growing vegetables, eating beans in preference to meat will help free space for biomass energy crops.
· If the populace is serious about saving the planet then some hard choices need to be made to lower personal CO2 footprints: travel less (air, sea, and auto), modify your diet, use energy and water more efficiently, etc.
Perhaps most importantly make saving the planet a ballot box issue so politicians have to take notice if they want to get elected and remain in office. Force them to make the difficult choices to lower GHG emissions with the budget available. Spend less on space research and seeking out other planets until ours is secure and safe.
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There are several large-scale CCS projects in service, so the technology is proven and technically viable although current economics discourage its widespread deployment unless additional revenue is raised by using the CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Some may have been abandoned but a lot more have progressed, entered service, and operated successfully. As nations get more serious about reducing CO2 emissions and a price is ascribed to CO2 (circa $30/tonne), CCS will be deployed more widely because frankly, fossil fuel usage is not going to disappear any time soon.
To illustrate the type of capture projects, some examples are presented of large-scale capture projects. There are other similar projects either in service or proposed to enter service in the next five years. Currently, 40-M tonnes of CO2 are being captured and to date over 200-M tonnes have been sequestered.
· The Sleipner gas development project uses an amine-based capture process (Aker Solutions) to remove CO2 from natural gas (with light oil condensates) prior to its liquefaction. The separation plant is located on a platform in the North Sea. Operations started in 1996 capturing up to 0.9-M tonnes of CO2 per year injected in off-shore geological strata. To date, over 17 million tonnes of CO2 have been injected for permanent storage.
· The Coffeyville plant uses a Selexol process to remove CO2 from syngas produced by gasifying petroleum coke. Up to 1-M tonnes of CO2 per year are removed (since 2000) mostly for fertilizer production (CCUS) with the rest for enhanced oil recovery (since 2013). To date, around 6 million tonnes of CO2 have been capture for fertilizer production and around 3 million tonnes injected for permanent storage.
· The Abu Dhabi project uses an amine-based capture process (MEA) to remove CO2 from methane steam reformer gases ahead of a steel manufacturing process. Operations started in November 2016 capturing up to 0.8 M tonnes of CO2 per years for enhanced oil recovery.
· The Petra Nova project uses an amine-based capture process (MHI) to remove CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Operations started at beginning of 2017 capturing up to 1.4-M tonnes of CO2 per year for enhanced oil recovery.
· The Gorgon gas development project uses an amine-based capture process (MDEA) to remove CO2 from natural gas prior to its liquefaction. Operations started mid-2018 capturing up to 4.0-M tonnes of CO2 per year injected in off-shore geological strata.
CO2 utilization technologies are in the early stages of development. One of the most promising is in the production of building materials such as aggregate, concrete, and wallboard. Such technologies permanently remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Other CO2 utilization technologies produce liquid fuels for transportation, and although the CO2 is re-released upon usage this approach lowers the dependence on fossil fuels. It is estimated that utilization technologies could lower annual global CO2 emissions by 5 billion tonnes. 12.5 percent of the current total of 40 billion tonnes. A significant contribution but still leaves a lot of work to do.
The current approach to lowering CO2 emissions is to eliminate coal and add wind, solar, and nuclear for power generation. The intermittent nature of renewables requires some form of reliable backup power and as nuclear cannot follow load the backup power has to have operational flexibility. The backup power will come from fossil fuels with CCS. The proportion of power from the four sources within an integrated generation system will be that which produces power at minimum cost.
In 2016 fossil energy consumption was 132,000 TWh of which 13 percent (16,500 TWh) was used to generate power, the remaining 115,500 TWh were used for heating (commercial, domestic, and industrial) and transportation (air and land). How to reduce CO2 from this much large emission source into which few inroads have been made? Some suggest going all electric, others all hydrogen; the truth will lie somewhere between. Hydrogen will be produced primarily by steam reforming natural gas with the CO2 by-product being stored below ground. For either approach, the undertaking is gargantuan. Currently nuclear and renewables produce around 2630 and 1560 TWh of power, respectively (hydro produces 4070 TWh with limited potential to increase further) so prorating, nuclear capacity would have to increase by a factor of around 30 and renewables, to cater for their intermittent nature, would have to increase by a factor of 90. Similarly, for CCS, currently 200 million tonnes of CO2 are stored per year and this would have to be increased by a factor of 200 to store the 40 billion tonnes currently released. Moreover, these large increases in designing, manufacturing, and installing a new line of equipment (constituting new sources of CO2 emissions) all have to be achieved in 20 years.
Given what needs to be achieved and the importance of succeeding, all approaches need to be set in motion. Energy efficiency improvements, reforestation, reducing usage of all fossil fuels (not just coal), widespread deployment of renewables, reforming methane to hydrogen, CCS, CCUS, and nuclear are all required. Regrettably, I believe the target will still be missed, so best invest in air conditioning or seriously start considering solar radiation management to extend the time available to achieve net zero CO2 emissions.
The link between CCS and nuclear sounds like fake news to me. Where is the smocking gun?
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I am wondering if there is any literature review or any other types of information about the consumption of different materials, e.g. cement, concrete, and steel in the construction of different building types, i.e. residential and non-residential, especially in Australia. I also would like to know if there is any literature review about the embodied energy of the different materials, and the impacts of the consumption of the different materials on energy consumption and Co2 and GHG emission the building operation phases? As you know, building materials have somehow lots of things to do with building efficiency during the operation phases by affecting cooling, heating, ventilation, and even lightning, hence have lots of things to do with Co2 and GHG emission, and have an essential role to be considered in any mitigation action plans.
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Good answer Dharmesh K. Oza ...
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Many believe that renewables are the only long-term approach to reduce GHG emissions radically. In the absence of fossil fuels with CCS, electricity has to be generated for heating, lighting, and motive power across all economic sectors (residential, industrial, commercial, and transportation), provide energy on demand and keep the power grid stable. What technologies other than wind and sun can be used or need to be developed to meet this enormous demand under stringent quality demands? Can this be achieved or does energy have to be rationed?
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Nuclear must be part of the solution but it faces a number of challenges. There are concerns over spent uranium fuel disposal (Yucca Mountain was abandoned), locating new plants (usually located on existing permitted sites), and nuclear proliferation (Iran and North Korea). Also nuclear plants are based loaded and cannot follow load, so if the remaining generation is renewables that has to match load. Should more effort be spent in developing iquid fluoride-thorium reactors to alleviate the concens over waste disposal and proliferation (less reactive waste produced)? These cannot be turned down either so when demand is low should the excess power be used for electrolysis to produce hydrogen that is used for load following? Will nuclear fusion ever be developed (can these reactors be turned down?) It apears that a lot of development is required for these new technologies to come into service, which may be later than required to limit global temperature rise to 2C. By comparison CCS is currently ready for deployment, although not without some risk, and may offer the best short-term solution to reducing CO2 emissions.
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It is known that agricultural sector is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases, specifically CH4, CO2 and N2O. Some agricultural practices are also used to reduce GHG emission or facilitate sinks. But growers are simply using any practices without know-how about agriculture versus climate change interaction. So, I want to learn and know:
* Agricultural practices that facilitate GHG emission?
* Agricultural practices that minimize GHG emission or used as sinks?
Thank you for your contribution.
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Dear sir,
1. Cultivation of rice through direct seeded methods is the best way to control methane emission (8-92%).
2. Growing or planting of trees on emergency basis is the best way to control in increasing co2 production. as we know co2 is a primary nutrient for photosynthesis. increase photosynthesis per unit area decrease co2 level.
3. N2o production is total depended on bacteria (denitrification process). if we apply some bacterial inhibitor, we can control upto some extent..
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Research works that have been carried out to reduce freight transport green house gas (GHG) emission often generally center on vehicle efficiency, reduction of idle time or downtime, high load rate, minimization of empty running during freight, training of drivers, and less fuel or energy consumption. But, how possible is it to "empirically" look into designing a package (compact size, smart shape, light weight material) such that "more product" with "less weight" can be packed into a vehicle, and with coordinated logistic routing, aid in significantly reducing the GHG emission during mass freight transport?
I believe that efficient designs of packages along this line will have a positive influence on loading factor, with a high loading factor minimizing CO2 emission. The question on my mind is how can these concepts be empirically linked together and assessed experimentally?
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yes it wil
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Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
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Apart from carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapour (H2O), tropospheric ozone (O3), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the other gases which are responsible for green house effect.
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Do you know a reliable resource or a database that can give me information on either of CO2/GHG emission, energy consumption, water consumption of objects (furniture and appliances etc) so that I can measure a baseline environmental performance for a bedroom or a room? I assume this information should have calculated the life-cycle of the objects and appliances.
I appreciate your help or any advice in this respect.
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I need to correlate GHG emissions data (given in Gg CO2-equivalent or kt CO2-equivalent) with Climate Change Planetary boundary data (provided in t CO2) and put them into same unit.
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Please consider this and then do the math:
1 G = 10^9 hence 1 Gg = 10^9 g = 10^6 kg = 10^3 t = 1000 t
For conversion of CO2eq to CO2, of course this can only be done if the gas in question is CO2 (in which case, 1 t CO2eq= 1 t CO2; since the global warming potential of CO2 is by definition 1).
However, if the gas in question is a non-co2 gas, you cannot convert it into CO2. For instance, the global emissions from livestock enteric fermentation are roughly 2.5 Gt CO2eq yr-1. However these are methane emissions, and this figure cannot be converted into CO2.
The conversion in this case can only be done from the original gas, say CH4 (or N2O in case of other non-CO2 gases) to CO2eq. Not the other way around.
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1. Statistics for the past 10 years
2. Focus area Peninsular Malaysia
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HI, you can find a time series of national emissions, 1990-2012, for each country and Malaysia, on FAOSTAT, here: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/EM. With reference to AFOLU emissions only, our time series extends to 2016. Data can be found here: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/GT (agriculture) and here: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/GL (land use). Best Regards, Francesco Tubiello
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I know a few paid services are available for this data, but is there a central database for company wide carbon emissions or greenhouse gas emissions, at the firm level? Preferably free?
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In case of countries or factories that are sharing the same resource of air,  Assume that they decide to split the cost for cleaning the air they pollute. Considering this as a multi period process, is there any way of modeling such negative externalities ?
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What is best way to measure the accuracy and precision of methods to evaluate the gas emission under field conditions?
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Preferably CO2 gases, a free publication, and anywhere within the U.S.A.
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rice cultivation
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Optimizing energy in the greenhouse production can result in a significant reduction in total GHG emission.
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Hi,
I need emission factors (CO2, CO, NOx, SO2, PM 10, N2O, CH4) in grams/MJ for electricity consumption in India and Pakistan. I would also appreciate if you could guide me regarding emission factors for Diesel and Furnace oil consumption as well (in gram/Kg) for both of these countries.
Thanks
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BS Brar
Department of Soil Science, PAU, Ludhiana
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From the long term work of Rattan Lay at Ohio State University which started in 1964 the ability of no till maize monoculture with no cover crop has a value of 330 kg/ha roughly pounds per acre of long term carbon sequestration. This is not trivial as a projection would indicate converting to no till on all tilled acreage would counteract 10% of the total present greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to long term work on cover crops at the Rodale Insitute, Beltsville USDA and University of California show long term carbon sequestration at 3 to 4 times the no till rate. In work with compost and biochar the potential for long term gains are simillarly impressive. The advantage of this approach is that it improves the enironment and the core productivity of our food systems. Likewise over twice the tillage acreage is range land which is ideally suitable for long term soil carbon and nitrogen gains counteracting the issues with greenhouse gases. In terms of Kenneth remarks about the lack of value in projections I will agree to disagree. Projections are not always completely true but they give a basis for testing and proving and evolving the thinking on how the global mechansism works and what can be done to help it work better. 
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is there any index which considers both carbon burial rates and carbon emission rates (per unit area) to define the actual characteristics of an ecosystem?
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carbon sequestration stork or carbon sequestration efficiency
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I want to measure in vivo enteric methane emission, but I dont have money for direct tecnique of measure (sf6, infrared laser, etc). I can measure indirectly through equations models? (indirectly from milk production, dry matter intake, body weight... than this information was measure in the experiment). If I can do I it, I have compare diferent models, how select the best model?. I apreciate so much the help.
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Hello Wilson,
There are relatively large number of publications on this topic and few recently published papers are listed below.
As it is clear from these papers, you could use some of the common variables generally recorded in feeding experiments involving cattle (e.g. feed dry matter intake, energy corrected milk yield, body weight, and some key parameters related to feed nutrient composition such as NDF, ADF, EE) to predict enteric CH4 production, provided that original data used for the development of these equations closely represent the management conditions, feeding practices, and productivity of the animals in your experiment. Still, there may always be some errors associated with these predictions (usually, errors in predictions could be up to + or – 30%).
The paper by Escobar-Bahamondes et al (2017) explain well, the methodology you could potentially follow in evaluating an appropriate equation for your condition.
I selected this list, assuming that they might represent your production system.
Although there are large number of equations in the literature, as they have been developed using data from specific regions, you need to be cautious in selecting a suitable equation. Hope this would be helpful for your work. If you can not access any of the papers below, I could send them to you directly. Good luck with your research.
Moraes et al. 2014 Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.12471/abstract
Patra (2017) Prediction of enteric methane emission from cattle using linear and non-linear statistical models in tropical production systems https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11027-015-9691-7
Escobar-Bahamondes et al. (2017) An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of methane prediction equations for beef cattle fed high-forage and high-grain diet DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111600121X
Stergiadis et al (2016) Equations to predict methane emissions from cows fed at maintenance energy level in pasture-based systems http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880915301973
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Hi to everyone! I would like to set up an experiment to measure CO2 and N2O effluexes from soil. In this I will sample air with syringe and then analyze its ghg concentration via gas chromatography. 
Do you know if and where I can find some instructions to produce the chambers by myself (like a manual or something like that?)
Or maybe some of you know some company that produce them.
Thank you very much for any help you can provide
Cheers,
Matteo
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There are some general pointers here:
Many build them out of common things like buckets, utility pans, or cafeteria trays. We've also had some built by a local metal working shop and then just drilled and attached foam, insulation, etc. afterwards.
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Please, I would like to know the typical concentrations (mol fraction, volume fraction, not the units in mass/volume) to decide gas mixture concentrations that should be available of the folllowing:
- methane in enteric fermentation? obvioulsly it could depends on feed diet and type of livestock, I guess milk cows produce more methane at emission levels. Is that due to the concentration or has to do with the amount they produce?
- methane for rice fields?
-Fugitive emission (leaks) in natural gas transport, distribution and storage. I found they are in the ppm range.
Thank you for your help!
Regards
Jorge
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what is alternative low emission scenarios?
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it depends on the context you are referring. In power system, if you use low-carbon technology like gas-fired units or zero-carbon technology like renewable, over time, you'll see lower and lower emissions. We are talking about carbon, SOx and NOx. I hope this helps.
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Trying to pin down a clearer picture of methane emissions from wood and wood products disposed of in landfills and over what time periods.
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Hi,  
This study is important as it provides repeat measurements (11 separate surveys) of LFG emissions using a state-of-the-art accumulation chamber method and compares the actual measured emissions against empirical LFG emission models.  It is one of the better works I have read. Onk et al 2010 also provide a very sound review of LFG emissions and dynamics. They note, as do many other workers, that the various kinetic decay models can be wildly inaccurate producing large variance in emissions for the same landfill.
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When conducting a LCA study, is there any kind of regulatory office that ascertains the validation of such studies? I'm focused on the automotive industry.
Thank you for your help. 
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Dear Andre, ISO standards, as long as I know, provide certification for LCA through ISO 14040.
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 Assessing the current tools for estimating GHG emissions from soils, accessible to general users without special education
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Dear Yurij,
You can find simple methods to estimate GHG at field, farm and landscape level in our book:
Please feel free to contact the authors for clarifications and additional material
regards,
Mariana Rufino
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I am trying to  find out the emissions from combustion stage of  cofiring of biomass with coal in existing coal power plant for power generation. Since i am a learner of SimaPro, i can not figure out how to put together biomass and coal (10% biomass) for electricity generation in SimaPro. I have some variables to put ,like biomass characteristics, coal characteristics etc. I will be very grateful if i get suggestions regarding this problem.
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Hi Iqbal,
The method I gave you in the simplest way since you said you're still learning this software.
Another method is to use the case for coal burning which is included in the EcoInvent database in SimaPro and then create a new input stream for the biomass and reducing the mass of coal for the balance. I hope that you can manage doing that since the method more experience than the first method.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil, Yale University, USA
Fellow of the University of Oxford, United Kingdom
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How bioenergy reduce concentration of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
How bioenergy reduce concentrations of other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
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Using bioenergy for useful purposes captures some of the chemical energy stored in the biofuel as the C component completes its cycle back to CO2.  It's rapid C churning, and the whole cycle needs to be reviewed, including alternative uses of the biofuel, to know the net effect
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There are several ways
1. Sample plume and perform an offline analysis of various gases e.g. VOCs, CO, NOx and estimate the emission ratio
2. By a field campaign where you perform online analysis of fire plumes with your instruments.
3. By measuring at a receptor site and estimate the emission ratio using a scatter plot for the night time data. I mentioned night time because then photochemistry will not play any role. See the attached article for example
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I'm the new learner of the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation and Distribution (FUND), the author cauculate the social cost of carbon by computing the difference between total, monetised climate change impacts of a business as usual emissions and socio-economic path and a path with slightly higher emissions between 2010 and 2019. My problem is how to introduce a higher emission pathway in the FUND model? because I find that in the FUND model, the carbon emission is determined by income, and income is also related to the carbon emission last year, if I change carbon emission in one year, all the carbon emission in the following years will be changed but not only 2010-2019.
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I have limited knowledge of the FUND data, and so this is my best guess.  The FUND data is set up to run in Visual C#.  So, you can try and export the FUND data from Visual C# to a file that is compatible with another statistical program/software, and run the data in another program to allow you to change only the variables you want to change.
But, keep in mind, as the FUND site states:
"It is the developer's firm belief that most researchers should be locked away in an ivory tower. Models are often quite useless in unexperienced hands, and sometimes misleading. No one is smart enough to master in a short period what took someone else years to develop. Not-understood models are irrelevant, half-understood models treacherous, and mis-understood models dangerous."
SO....think about why you want to introduce a different or unusual change parameter.
You might want to read some commentary on changing the FUND model: eg:
Anthoff, David, and Richard SJ Tol. "Climate damages in the FUND model: A comment." Ecological Economics 81 (2012): 42.
Which is a response to this analysis and its re-design of the FUND data:
Ackerm