Science topics: Fuels
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Improper disposal of waste plastic has led to a growing number of environmental problems. Thermal pyrolysis is a promising method for valorizing waste plastic and obtaining value-added fuels. Waste plastic pyrolysis fuels are substitutes for fossil fuels. Operating conditions, e.g., temperature, residence time, heating rate, etc., have complex effe...
Article
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Global warming, climate change, air pollution, and harmful exhaust emissions for human health are highly associated with the burning of petroleum fuels at a huge level. In the beginning, biodiesel fuels have been introduced as a promising alternative fuel to mitigate these problems. However, poor atomization, low energy content, high viscosity, and...
Article
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Biofuel is one of the leading global alternatives to fossil fuels, particularly in the current scenario where energy sources are rapidly depleting. Petroleum fuels endanger both the climate and public health through releasing greenhouse gases during combustion. Nanoparticles acting as catalysts can improve selectivity, quality, and yield with curre...
Article
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In the present work, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and the binary mixtures 20 % CH 4-80 % H 2 , 80 % CH 4-20 % H 2 , 25 % CO-75 % H 2 (by volume) were considered as fuels of a naturally aspirated port-fuel injection four-cylinder Volkswagen 1.4 L spark-ignition (SI) engine. The interest in these fuels lies in the fact that they can be obtained...
Article
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Ethanol, as the most produced renewable biofuel, is considered a promising low-carbon alternative to petroleum-based fuels in the transport sector due to its high energy density and auto-ignition resistance. The lean-burn combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines has the potential to further improve thermal efficiency in regard to knock mitigation...
Article
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Fuel obtained from waste plastic has been used in this study due to the lavish consumption, and non-stop price hiking made the researchers focus on finding a suitable substitute for conventional fuel. The plastics were non-biodegradable, and also its continuous usage in our daily life together created awareness about waste plastic management among...
Article
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Today, the increase in fuel consumption with the increasing number of vehicles has increased the efforts to make the engines more efficient. Diesel engines are subject to severe restrictions due to the emission problem. Although there is an emission problem, it is widely used especially in freight transportation. Many studies on diesel engines emis...
Article
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An interdisciplinary approach involving the production and engine testing of a fuel blend containing upgraded bio-oil and fossil-derived solvent has been investigated in this present study. First, a novel 3-stage process of solvent-assisted catalytic upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was used to obtain a fuel blend with nearly 18 vol% biofuel con...
Article
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Black carbon is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuels and has significant adverse effects on climate change, air quality, and human health. China has been a major contributor to global anthropogenic black carbon emissions. This study develops a black carbon inventory in China, using 2015 as the base year, and projects annual...
Article
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Powdered magnesium (Mg) having high specific energy and reactivity has been widely utilized in pyrotechnics, advanced propulsion, and power systems. In recent years, it has received significant attention as a clean and renewable energy carrier due to their potential to release considerable amount of heat energy without carbon dioxide emissions duri...
Article
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Chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) process, involves the use of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors, where oxygen carrier particles are able to release O2 at the fuel reactor operation conditions. Cu-based oxygen carriers containing a kaolin-reinforced MnFe mixed oxide as magnetic support, were prepared by granulation to improve t...
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Direct air capture (DAC) is gathering momentum since it has vast potential and high flexibility to collect CO 2 from discrete sources as "synthetic tree" when compared with current CO 2 capture technologies, e.g., amine based post-combustion capture. It is considered as one of the emerging carbon capture technologies in recent decades and remains i...
Article
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Biomass‐derived degraded lignin and cellulose serve as possible alternatives to fossil fuels for energy and chemical resources. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass generates bio‐oil that needs further refinement. However, as pyrolysis causes massive degradation to lignin and cellulose, this process produces very complex mixtures. The same app...
Article
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Today, with the progress of technology, the world is facing an increasing growth in power consumption. Since the fuel of most power plants is supplied from fossil fuels, it has caused an increase in global fossil fuel consumption and environmental degradation. ّFurthermore, the volatility of fossil fuel prices and unstable energy security have prom...
Article
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Biomass-derived liquid fuels with low greenhouse gas emissions are an integral part of decarbonization plans. Three pathways for enhancing production of methanol from biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW), natural gas, and renewable electricity are explored using hydrogen produced from water electrolysis, natural gas pyrolysis, or combinations of...
Article
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Vehicle electrification is considered a pathway for on-road transportation decarbonization in China. Different from the conventional gasoline vehicles whose emissions are mainly released from vehicle tailpipes, emissions of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are from the upstream processes of electricity generation and vehicle manufacturing, thus a c...
Article
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Background: The fuel used for cooking is a major source of indoor air pollution because of inefficient combustion and inadequate ventilation. This study was conducted to see if there is any association between the type of cooking fuel and common health problems in light of inadequate ventilation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study; 688 subje...
Conference Paper
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Several studies have been developed worldwide to find alternative fuels that can contribute to minimizing global warming impacts. In addition, most of the population in rural areas in developing countries uses firewood as the only source of energy due to the lack of gas, electricity, or distilled fuels. The exposition to smoke released during the c...
Article
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The production of ecologically compatible fuels by electrochemical water splitting is highly desirable for modern industry. The Zhang-Rice singlet is well known for the superconductivity of high-temperature superconductors cuprate, but is rarely known for an electrochemical catalyst. Herein, we observe two steps of surface reconstruction from initi...
Preprint
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Providing sustainable energy storage is a challenge that must be overcome to replace fossil-based fuels. Redox flow batteries are a promising storage option that can compensate for fluctuations in energy generation from renewable energy production, as their main asset is their design flexibility in terms of storage capacity. Current commercial opti...
Article
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The influence of the zeolite framework type on the conversion of dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrocarbons (DTH) was investigated for *MRE, MFI and TON zeolite catalysts. Remarkable differences in the catalytic performance of the materials were observed. In particular, the *MRE zeolite showed an exceptionally high yield of olefins (90%) with a substanti...
Article
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Terrestrial fuel spills that contaminate groundwater occur frequently. A small volume of fuel can pollute large volumes of groundwater so they cannot be used as drinking water source. In the 70s' and 80s' national surveys in the United States found 5,700 hydrocarbons in groundwater, originate from fuel leaks. Those hydrocarbons consider as toxic an...
Article
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Alternative fuels are renewable sustainable and address socio-economic and environmental concerns. In this circumstance, this work is conducted in two stages. The first stage of the work involves, the preparation of nanoparticle (NP) blended fuels by adding 20, 40 and 60 ppm of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) particles in dairy scum oil methyl...
Article
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Smouldering combustion is emerging as a valuable application for many environmentally beneficial purposes, including waste-to-energy. While many applied smouldering systems rely on small fractions of fuel mixed within inert porous media (IPM) like coarse grain silica sand, there is also an opportunity to pursue co-waste management with much higher...
Article
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The study examined different types of fuels used in rural Pakistan. A total of 108 respondents in 12 villages were randomly selected to collect information on socioeconomic factors and fuel used. The average household size was seven and fuel wood was most common source or domestic energy. Approximately 95% of the households were using fuel woods. O...
Article
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Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a highly efficient CO2 separation technology with no direct contact between combustion air and fuel. A metal oxide is used as oxygen carrier (OC) in a dual fluidized bed to generate clean CO2. The use of solid fuels, especially biomass, is the focus of current research, because of the possibility of “negative” C...
Article
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Determining the development of Germany's energy system is the subject of a series of studies. Since their results play a significant role in the political energy debate for understanding the role of hydrogen and synthetic energy carriers, a better discussion is needed. This article provides an assessment of published transition pathways for Germany...
Article
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In this study, we investigate how households' choice of energy source is influenced by the status of the local forest resource. We assume that households choose between clean fuels (e.g., kerosene, LPG, solar, and electricity), dirty biobased fuels (e.g., firewood, animal dung, crop residues, and charcoal), and mixed fuels. We integrate socioeconom...
Article
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Waste rice straw biomass and its burning in open fields have become a serious issue of greenhouse gases emission and air pollution, which has a negative impact on public health and the environment. However, the environmental impact of burning this agro-waste can be mitigated by diverting it towards green biorefinery through the sustainable producti...
Article
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Coupling renewable energy with the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals and fuels has been proposed as a strategy to achieve a new circular carbon economy and help mitigate the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Liquid‐like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs) are composed of polymers tethered to nanoparticles and are previo...
Article
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The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) nuclear fusion reactor concept is an innovative approach to fusion power generation prioritizing low neutron production and small size. A combination of analytical modeling and numerical simulation shows that the novel heating approach generates an FRC with closed field lines. Simulation data from a...
Article
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Low-temperature solid fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) hold remarkable promise for the cooperative corporation of small- and large-scale applications. However, the meager oxygen-reduction retort of cathode materials mires the low operating temperature conditions of SOFCs. Herein, we have developed a perovskite structured LaFeO3 by the co-doping of Gd and Ce i...
Article
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Ship emissions contribute substantial air pollutants when at berth. However, the complexity and diversity of the marine fuels utilized hinder our understanding and mapping of the characteristics of ship emissions. Herein, we applied GC × GC-MS to analyze the components of marine fuel oils. Owing to the high separation capacity of GC × GC-MS, 11 cla...
Article
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Citation: Alahmer, H.; Alahmer, A.; Alkhazaleh, R.; Alrbai, M.; Alamayreh, M.I. Applied Intelligent Grey Wolf Optimizer (IGWO) to Improve the Performance of CI Engine Running on Emulsion Diesel Fuel Blends. Fuels 2023, 4, 35-57. Abstract: Water-in-diesel (W/D) emulsion fuel is a potential alternative fuel that can simultaneously lower NOx exhaust e...
Article
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This study seeks new insights into how vegetable farmers in a developing country can beneft from using modern agro-technologies to induce their farm performance and family livelihood. The results based on a structural equation model on data from the fnal sample of 192 Bangladeshi vegetable farmers suggest that (1) the use of modern agro-technologie...
Article
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Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide into fuels or chemicals with two or more carbons is very attractive due to their high energy density and economic value. Herein we demonstrate the synthesis of a hydrophobic Cu/Cu 2 O sheet catalyst with hydrophobic n-butylamine layer and its application in CO electroreduction. The CO reduction on this...
Article
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In order to be able to use the full potential of regenerative fuels, a comprehensive characterization is necessary to identify the differences between conventional fuels and regenerative fuels. In the current work, we compare OME 3−5 and 1-Octanol with diesel-like Dodecane in terms of mixture formation under ECN Spray A conditions for single and mu...
Article
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International climate goals imply reaching net-zero global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by roughly mid-century (and net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by the end of the century). Among the most difficult emissions to avoid will be those from aviation given the industry’s need for energy-dense liquid fuels that lack commercially competitive substit...
Article
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In recent years, the reports presented on climate change and its consequences highlight the need to create public policy agendas that address the problem of adaptation and mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Globally, the energy sector is responsible for a significant percentage of GHG emissions, while it is one of the most...
Article
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Direct conversion of methane into fuels and chemicals remains a major challenge in modern science. Formic acid is one of the most promising platform molecules. Photocatalysis proposes an attractive route for methane partial oxidation under mild conditions. The radical mechanism of methane photocatalytic oxidation restricts the selectivity to target...
Preprint
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Biomass burning (BB) is a major source of reactive organic carbon into the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, these organic BB emissions, in both the gas and particle phases, are subject to atmospheric oxidation, though the nature and impact of the chemical transformations are not currently well constrained. Here we describe experiments carried ou...
Article
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The use of batteries as primary energy storage for aircraft is explored with emphasis placed on differences between their behavior and that of liquid fuels from the perspective of the conceptual aircraft designer. A simplified battery performance model is presented sufficient to capture what is needed for conceptual aircraft design. A series of kno...
Article
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The wall-to-wall prediction of fuel structural characteristics conducive to high fire severity is essential to provide integrated insights for implementing pre-fire management strategies designed to mitigate the most harmful ecological effects of fire in fire-prone plant communities. Here, we evaluate the potential of high point cloud density LiDAR...
Article
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Climate change and global warming, caused by excessive carbon emissions from transportation and other environmentally hazardous activities, are serious problems for many countries nowadays. Therefore, while some countries are not making optimal use of their resources, others are working hard to preserve a green and clean environment in order to fos...
Article
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Since plastic and food waste are both types of non-lignocellulosic biomass, these must be handled and managed correctly to avoid pollution problems and damage to the environment. Bio-oil, made from recycled materials, including plastic and food waste, is one focus of these attempts. The co-pyrolysis method is being investigated in this study as a t...
Article
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The dual carbon targets and environmental quality constraints have released a clear transition signal for the green and low-carbon development of the cement industry. This study builds a CDI model based on the terminal sector forecasting method, predicts the cement demand in Shandong Province from 2020 to 2035, constructs a CO2 emission scenario in...
Article
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Superhydrophobic conjugated microporous polymer-coated sponges (CMP@sponges) were synthesized in one pot by an in situ Sonogashira coupling reaction of silyl and amino group-containing monomers in the presence of melamine sponges. The water contact angles of the superhydrophobic CMP@sponges reached 154.9°. Introducing a small number of amino groups...
Article
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In recent years we have seen a growing number of applications that use various sensory measurements of physicochemical features. Within the research project “Research on the identification of combustion of unsuitable fuels and systems of self-diagnostics of boilers combustion solid fuels for domestic heating”, the authors tested and evaluated the p...
Article
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Global climate policy commitments are encouraging the development of EU energy policies aimed at paving the way for cleaner energy systems. This article reviews key decarbonization drivers for Italy considering higher environmental targets from recent European Union climate policies. Energy efficiency, the electrification of final consumption, the...
Article
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The replacement of hydrocarbon fuels by ammonia in industrial systems is challenging due to its low burning velocity, its narrow flammability range, and a large production of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide when burned close to stoichiometric conditions. Cracking a fraction of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen prior to injection in the combustio...
Preprint
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Cooking and heating using solid fuels can result in dangerous levels of exposure to household air pollution (HAP). HAPIN is an ongoing randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of a liquified petroleum gas stove and fuel intervention on HAP exposure and health in Guatemala, India, Peru, and Rwanda among households that rely primarily on soli...
Article
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The world’s population is projected to increase by two billion by 2050, resulting in food and energy insecurity. Oilseed crops have been identified as key to address these challenges: they produce and store lipids in the seeds as triacylglycerols that can serve as a source of food/feed, renewable fuels, and other industrially-relevant chemicals. Th...
Conference Paper
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Control model training is an essential step towards the development of an engine controls system. A robust controls strategy is required for engines to perform reliably and optimally under challenging conditions, such as using low cetane number fuels (vital to achieving a single fuel concept). Developing such a control strategy through physical exp...
Article
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Prescribed fires are an important management tool for reducing fuels and returning fire to the landscape. However, rarely are changes in fuels fully quantified using pre to post prescribed fire measurements and those studies that do exist show variable results. In the southern Rockies little literature exists on the impacts of prescribed fires, thu...
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The continuous combustion of conventional fossil fuels leads to undesirable environmental consequences. Increasing CO2 emissions and depletion of fossil fuels are two major concerns in today’s society. To combat these problems, we need to find an alternative source of energy that meet the current demands and at the same time has minimal effect on t...
Article
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Electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) using clean electric energy provides a sustainable route to generate highly‐valuable chemicals and fuels, which is beneficial for realizing the carbon‐neutral cycle. Up to now, achieving a narrow product distribution and highly targeted product selectivity over Cu‐based electrocatalysts is s...
Article
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Combustion of fossil fuel produces emissions and is one of the major environmental problems leading to climate change. Diesel engines are highly efficient but produce particulate emissions. These particulate emissions are considered dangerous to human health because inhaling particulates may cause respiratory and heart disease. Substituting fossil...
Article
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Heavy industry can face challenges in choosing applicable climate change mitigation measures due to a lack of technical background and practical guidance. A better understanding of these determinants is needed to design region-specific climate policies that most effectively enable more ‘successful’ low carbon transitions. Set in an emerging economy...
Article
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This article provides an overview of biofuels, which are the main fuels now and in the future, the capabilities of biofuels, their main raw material (biomass) and its composition, types of biofuels: boigas, biobenzene, biokerosene, biodiesel, biomethanol, information on bioethanol, biobutanol and other biofuels
Article
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Non-conventional torrefaction under partially oxidative conditions is an emerging cost-effective thermochemical pre-treatment method to improve the quality of biomass for energy applications. The literature lacks data on the combustion of biomass torrefied under oxygen-deficient atmosphere with actual reactor conditions (inevitable non-uniformities...