Science topics: Fuels
Science topic

Fuels - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Fuels, and find Fuels experts.
Questions related to Fuels
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
As a design engineer in an engineering team whose work is developing a new gas turbine of 2 MW used for thermal power generation which is fuelled by non-carbon fuels, such as hydrogen and ammonia, your task is to analyse and design the combustion system for providing stable and efficient combustion in the gas turbine.
Relevant answer
Answer
I assume that this is an undergrad query. The solutions to analysing gas turbine cycles have been around since the 1950s and a reasonably accurate cycle assessment is easy using a spreadsheet and adequate understanding of the components of a gas turbine.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
6 answers
Hello Everyone,
Is it possible to use biodiesel fuels in aviation/ aircraft? if yes, what is the percentage volume of biodiesel that is allowed to use in aircraft nowadays? if there is any article approve that please share it with me.
Thanks in Advance,
Relevant answer
Answer
It is not completely correct to equal the biojet (aviation biofuel) to biodisel. Biodiesel is produced via catalytic transesterification of oils or fats triglycerides by low molecular weight alcohols (methanol in practice). Biodiesel is mixture of fatty acid monoalkyl esters by chemical nature. Biojet is also produced from vegetable oils (for example, Camelina Sativa), but via hydrotreating process. The latter involves decarboxilation, hydrogenation and other secondary reactions. Obtained product is the mixture of alkanes. In other words, biojet composition is more simiral to the composition of traditional petroleum-derived fuels. Similar process is also utilized to produce so-called renewable diesel (HVO, HDRD). But this is not biodiesel by definition, but different type of renewable fuel for diesel engines.
As for the biodiesel in common sense, it is principally possible to blend its small fraction with aviation kerosene. However, biodiesel unsatisfactory low-temperature properties is big obstacle, limiting both fraction of biocomponent and flight altitude. I met paper dealing with utilizatiion of blends, containing only 10 % of methyl esters on flight altitude no higher than 7000 m. Substiotion of methyl esters with esters of longer-chain alcohols (especially branched ones), characterizing by the lower clouding and pouring points, may partially solve the problem. But I do not know, wheather this was tested on practice in real flight conditions. Probably not. It is also should be remembered, that biodiesel contain about 10 % of Oxygen, which inevitabely decreses its power perfomance as fuel in comparsion with ordinary jet fuel or biojet.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
How can we have power plants that are fueled by factory waste and microorganisms?
Relevant answer
The microbial fuel cells recent research you can find here in research gate from combined dark fementations using anaerobic bactaterias to biohydfogen , use it in fuel cells new Toyato mirages 2021 and also the acids you can use photo synthetic bacteria or micro algae to clean the water capture carbon , co2 via microbial fuel cells is fast developing lower investments to get pure ware , c02 microbial proteins and also generate bioelectrical pówer generations too More information and details of recent articles too are here https://www.researchgate.net/search.Search.html?type=publication&query=microbial%20fuel%20cells
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
29 answers
In your opinion, should we target Biodiesel, Hybrid Vehicles, Sustainable Aviation Fuel, Electric Vehicles or some combination of these? Do you agree with your country's approach to this problem?
My opinion is that synthetic and bio-based fuels should be quickly adopted to bridge the gap until electric vehicles can dominate. In parallel, the electricity generation and delivery infrastructure needs to be transitioned to lower-emission methods such as wind and nuclear power.
Relevant answer
Answer
And what to do with used batteries from an electric car. Recycling them also requires energy and so on....
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
Hello scientific community,
I am working on OBODM and wanted to know if a source that is made up of multiple fuels, eg. 20% Ground Illum. Signal, Red Star, M158 + 60% Propellant, M-9 + 20% Signal, Illum, Aircraft, Rd Str, AN-M43A2 can be inputted into OBODM. If yes, can you please provide me some guidance on how to do so? If not, then would you suggest that the source be user defined with a heat content calculated using the individual fuel fractions? The purpose of using OBODM is to obtain the release height for both OB and OD operations at the facility and therefore, it would be helpful to understand if such in depth detailing of the source composition is even necessary, as it is only a function of heat content, burn rate, wind speed and stability class.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
It has been established that as a result of the combustion of plant combustible materials during the experiment, the concentration of NO2, NO in the air increases by 2 orders of magnitude from the background values, SO2 is 20 times higher than the concentration of CO. the concentration of methane was also recorded, which is due to the fact that not all methane formed in the pyrolysis zone has time to enter into a chemical reaction in the fire front. An increase in CO2 concentration is quite expected and is one of the characteristic signs of a natural fire.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
22 answers
Dear colleagues
I want to write a review paper entitled" The potential use of biogas to meet electrical and thermal loads of building" please anyone wants distribution inform me.to
1-Introduction
2-Evaluation the use of biogas in different parts of the world
3-Different usages of biogas
4-Recent progress in biogas production
5-Biogas fueled electrical power production systems
1-5-Micro gas turbine
2-5-Fuel cell
3-5-IC engine
6-Energy analysis of biogas fueled system
7-Exergy analysis of biogas fueled system
8-Economic analysis of biogas fueled system
9-Conclusion
Relevant answer
Answer
Mehdi Aliehyaei I would love to be the part of this review and like to contribute to a chapter if still time is available and you permit
I can be contacted on srinivaskasulla@gmail.com and my whatsapp number is +91 8317585217
I am from India
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
4 answers
I just posted a short Note, mostly addressed to my Linked In platform contacts, followers and interested individuals, that addresses the issue regarding the foreseeable long-term impacts of "Virtual Contact" upon the Cities, their transport infrastructure, and most importantly may be, their Central Business Districts (CBDs).
In it I hint at the set-up of a New Urban Economics Model. The use of nonlinear dynamics and exogenous shocks as fueling a new wave of spatial Schumpeterian gales of destruction is hinted in that short Note.
Also, the worlds of a Cybercity and a Location Theory on Cyberspace are briefly outlined.
I wonder if this community has any thoughts on this subject. Thanks!
The aforementioned Note is found here: (PDF) ON THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF "VIRTUAL CONTACT" UPON CITIES, TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, AND CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS (CBDs) (researchgate.net)
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting, ... share me the best answer you find.... Please
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
I am looking for the best model of route optimization to adopt on my research that I can use to assess variables such as costs of different fuels, and the surrounding along those roads.
Relevant answer
Answer
Seems like operational research methods would serve the purpose. However, it is not easy to simply define the best model given this description - you need to consider the data you have and the design of the problem itself. Also, you will probably need to compare different optimization models (apply them to your data) to effectively be able to say that your optimization is the best for the problem itself and the results, given the constraints (time, computational, etc) you have.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Thanks in advance for valuable information.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Avaz Yangiboyev, please have a look at the attached file. My Regards
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
I am looking for low heat values and air-fuel stoichiometric ratios for biofuels--in particular, values for dimethyl ether, mono oxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME1), and for biodiesel. I will check performance of their blends in an engine specifically tailored to operate efficiently with these fuels.
Relevant answer
Answer
I found the information I needed. This on-line paper has information for the entire family of OMDAEs which includes OME1
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
Hello Robert !
In your calculations, there are not enough numbers for ordinary (basic jet fuel), please send them if you have them, so it will be right.
For clarity, I made a picture.
Thanks !
Sincerely, Ivan Antipov.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good afternoon!
These links contain a lot of valuable information on alternative fuels. I am looking for information on the percentages of emissions from the production of ordinary hydrocarbon fuel. It's not in Robert's article. On the graph, this is the first line with question marks.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
8 answers
Going by the recent complain in UK about E10 fuel. Please do share your thoughts.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Toyese Oyegoke ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following paper:
-Corrosion assessment of metals in bioethanol-gasoline blends using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Libia M.Baena, Ferley A.Vásquez, Jorge A.Calderón
Helion, Vol. 6, e07585 (2021)
Good reasearch and my best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
What's the best definition you've seen? I would like to use an existing government policy or national lab/academies report. Or, how could I improve these two draft definitions below?
To start, the US Energy Policy Act of 1992 still seems to be the authority on "alternative fuel." (Thank you EERE for making this list easy to find.)
Methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols
Blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline
Natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas
Liquefied petroleum gas (propane)
Coal-derived liquid fuels
Hydrogen
Electricity
Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (including pure biodiesel (B100))
P-Series
My first stabs at "drop-in" and "non-drop-in." (Thank you CAAFI for getting me started.)
Drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A perfect drop-in fuel does not require adaptation of the fuel distribution network or the vehicle or equipment engine fuel systems, and can be used “as is” in vehicles and engines that currently operate on that particular fuel. Some alternative fuels may become “drop-in” only after blending with conventional fuel to a certain prescribed proportion.
Non-drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is not completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A non-drop-in fuel requires adaptation of (or special treatment within) one or more components of the existing fuel distribution network or the current fleet of vehicle and equipment engine fuel systems. Some alternative fuels must be carefully segregated from conventional fuels, while others may be safely blended with conventional fuels. Some alternative fuels may remain “non-drop-in” even after blending with conventional fuel.
Relevant answer
Answer
Drop-in fuel: replaceable with existing fuels, no need modification of engine or distribution system.
Non-drop-in: need some modification to adapt the new fuels
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
33 answers
The World Health Organisation is monitoring a new coronavirus variant known as "Mu", which was first identified in Colombia in January, the UN health body said on Tuesday in its weekly pandemic bulletin. WHO has classified Mu as a "variant of interest," saying it has mutations that indicate a risk of resistance to vaccines.
There is widespread concern over the emergence of new virus mutations as infection rates are soaring again, fueled by the highly contagious Delta variant.
Please share if you know more about it.
Relevant answer
Answer
The Mu Covid strain has been added to the World Health Organisation’s “variants of interest” list. Scientists are concerned that the newly identified variant may be able to evade the immunity people have developed from vaccinations or previously having the virus.
In fact, if this variant can evade the antibodies that were formed as a result of natural infection (naturally acquired immunity) or as a result of taking vaccinations (artificially acquired immunity), then this is very dangerous because this would return the situation to the starting point...And here we will be like someone who is in a vicious circle... In addition, evasion of antibodies and immunity has been previously recorded against the Coronavirus and this may be due to the mutations that it is constantly exposed to, some of which are working to develop this virus and make it more deadly... The following RG link contains many opinions for colleagues and useful sources on how the virus hides from immunity due to mutations, I hope it has been useful in relation to this discussion:
My sincere gratitude and appreciation Doctor.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
8 answers
Biomass fuels have a wide range of different physical and chemical properties. Sustainability of biomass fuels and combustion facilities are depends on the characteristics of these biomass fuels.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi guys. This is a great topic to discuss, in that way, to answer this question, I suggest reading the following articles:
and...
Let me know if they were helpful to you folks doing a recommendation and citation of them.
Best Regards.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Hello guys, I am currently working on the characterization of bio-char produced from high temperature (>1000 °C) pyrolysis of biomass. Unfortunately, I find it difficult to determine the exact char yield.
Firstly, I tried the classic ash tracer method, which was introduced by Badzioch and Hawksley in 1970 and has often been used for determining char yield during coal/biomass pyrolysis. However, I found that the experimental error was a little bit too high.
I wonder are there any methods to correctly determine char yield for my experiments?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Nicola, recently we have developed a novel-double tube configuration that enables direct determination of char yield during biomass pyrolysis. Our experimental temperature is 1300 °C, slightly higher than yours. Below is the description of our design.
Briefly, a small alumina tube (19 mm OD) was inserted through the regular DTF. Sample particles are entrained into the inner tube by 1 L/min of ultrahigh-purity (UHP) argon. Another stream of argon flow (0.2 L/min) was introduced to prevent the backflow of volatiles into the reactor headspace. A stream of UHP nitrogen was added to the annulus space between the two alumina tubes. The reactor effluent is cooled in a water-cooled N2-quenched sampling probe before being directed to a DEKATI cyclone (aerodynamic cutoff diameter, 10 μm). What’s in the cyclone are all the char samples.
For detailed descriptions, you can refer to my papers.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Hi,
Will the exchange current density be constant for the case where we use the power of a capacitor for an alkaline electrolyzer to produce hydrogen?, Or should it change when the capacitor current and voltage drop and go down to the low overpotential region.
Also, how can I determine the exchange current density when the electrolyte solution and temperature change?
Voltage and current discharge functions are attached.
I am using these references:
x
Relevant answer
Answer
The most common is the use of Tafel plot.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
5 answers
Biomass is considered a renewable and carbon-neutral resource, and is used to prevent the shortage of consumable fossil energy. Among various biomass utilization and conversion technologies, fast pyrolysis to produce bio-oil and char is an effective way to increase energy density and reduce costs. The liquid product, bio-oil, is a complex mixture of water, hundreds of organic compounds, and more or less solid particles. Because of complex composition/low heating value/high oxygen content/strong acidity, bio-oil cannot be directly used for combustion, extraction or transportation of fine chemicals.
Some researchers suggest that blending bio-oil with other solids (e.g. char and coal) can significantly improve the possibility of utilization.
I would like to ask some questions:
1.Advantages of bio-slurry fuels over raw bio-oil?
2.What are the possible utilization of bio-slurry fuels?
3.Will bioslurry be a promising renewable energy source?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes: Of course...but according to which ones!
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
4 answers
The grid extension has long been the primary means of electrification of the region. However, connection to the grid is most of the time practically impossible due to geographical remoteness, thick jungles, rugged terrains, high costs of supply, low household incomes, low consumptions, dispersed settlement of consumers, and inadequate road infrastructures. As a result, decentralized diesel generators are most often used for rural electrification in the region. However, the high costs that are associated with the transportation of fuels and the maintenance of those systems make them unsuitable for rural electrification in developing countries. On a world basis, fossil fuel resources are experiencing a rapid depletion, resulting in an ever-increasing price which tends to make them unaffordable for developing nations. The growing evidence of global warming phenomena due to the release of greenhouse gases when burning those fuels is another critical reason for reducing our dependence on them. Therefore, finding alternative energy sources to meet the growing energy demand while minimizing adverse environmental impacts is becoming an imperative task.
Renewable energy sources, namely solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydro, being inexhaustible, locally available, free, and eco-friendly can constitute potential sources of alternative energy, especially for local power generation in remote rural areas. Increasing interest has been given to their utilization since the oil crises of the 1970s.
The main drawbacks associated with the utilization of renewable energy sources are their unreliability and inability to work efficiently due to their intermittent and fluctuating nature, which generally leads to the over-sizing of the system, thereby increasing the investment cost.
How can hybrid renewable energy systems constitute a sustainable way for meeting the challenges of rural electrification in sub-Saharan Africa?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. Since it is a desert then it is full of solar energy . Using trough collecters is enough to give electricity to the whole area or by using PV cells is also another technique to produce electricity in that isolated areas.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Considering uranium & plutonium or other nuclear fuels as a radiating gray gas, can we consider absorption coefficient 'k' same for all? If no, how can we calculate for different fuels?
Relevant answer
Answer
check the attached file,
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
I want to calculate the equivalence ratio for a fuel air mixture containing two fuels methane and hydrogen and the oxidizer is air.
I am calculating equivalence ratio as, phi=[(wt. CH4+wt. H2)/(wt. of air)]/[(wt. CH4+wt. H2)/(wt. of air)st.]
Is this the correct way of defining the equivalence ratio or I shall multiply the mass fraction/mole fraction of fuels also with their respective masses to get the correct the equivalence ratio?
Relevant answer
Answer
Mass rate is better for calculation.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
A number of correlations are available for finding the HHV of solid fuels. Out of those, which suits best for Sewage Sludge?
Relevant answer
I learned from this discussion like others
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
Because i currently dont find it here (copy from webpage to inform you):
Special Issue Editor
Dr. Johannes Schaffert Website Guest Editor Gas- und Wärme-Institut Essen e.V. (GWI), Hafenstrasse 101, 45356 Essen, Germany Interests: power-to-gas; hydrogen; energy technology; energy science
Special Issue Information
Dear Colleagues,
Most of you—maybe even all of you—share my enthusiasm for hydrogen and power-to-gas technologies as key ingredients for a clean energy supply of the future, I assume.
I also know that all of you have fantastic ongoing or finished projects on specific aspects of the broad topic. Many of the interesting insights you shared with me in the past are still waiting for an opportunity to be recognized by experts around the world, as well as the public.
When Energies contacted me with an invitation to become their Guest Editor in a Special Issue completely dedicated to power-to-gas, I thought about all the results waiting for publication on your and my desks and could not say no. This is how I have come to contact you today with the kind invitation to join me and take the chance to make some noise about power-to-gas-related results from our various research projects.
The title of the Special Issue will be broad to give space for as many interesting pieces of research as possible, no matter how small or detailed they may appear at first glance. We shall invite technical as well as theoretical papers, and all suggestions, regional contexts, and technologies related to hydrogen and power-to-gas are welcome to be suggested by all of you.
I would be pleased to hear from you and wish you all the best, first and foremost good health and a strong mind to overcome the COVID-19 crisis and push forward toward a green energy transition together.
Dr. Johannes Schaffert Guest Editor
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
Keywords
  • power-to-gas
  • P2G
  • PtG
  • hydrogen
  • H2
  • decarbonization
  • energy transition
  • E-fuels
  • energy conversion
  • energy storage
  • energy system
  • energy technology
Published Papers
This special issue is now open for submission.
Relevant answer
Answer
See the attached paper
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
5 answers
Electric power producers need a low-cost, reliable power source when wind and solar generators are not able to meet the load requirement. Energy storage for backup such as hydro and batteries have limitations. A "green" renewable fuel that does not add CO2 to the atmosphere may be the best answer. Fuels being considered are:
Methane from waste (limited supply)
Hydrogen from renewable electricity (Handling and storage problems)
Ammonia from the Haber process 3H2 + N2 --> 2NH3 (Low energy and poor combustion)
Methanol from the Olah process 3H2 + CO2 --> H3COH + H2O (Low energy, burns clean)
The bottom two "green" fuels have modest cost and can be stored as liquids at ambient temperature, a very desirable quality. But, could we do better, maybe by blending?
Here is an idea: a blend of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, and methanol?
I confess, I could use some help. Is there another good choice for "green" fuel?
Relevant answer
Answer
i would say hydrogen too
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Hello to all of you,
Is there any thesis or research for the question above?
Thank you in advance,
Relevant answer
Answer
This seems to be a very unconventional way.
Choose the right orc for your heat source.
An additional heater maximize your effort. IT could bei feasible, but not sustainable.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
4 answers
Based on educated guesses, which one of the following promises a better solution to store energy for transportation and grid scale applications:
1) Fuels synthesized form CO2
2) Hydrogen (Ideally Green or Blue Hydrogen in the long run)
I am debating between which one of these two technologies can be a viable alternative to batteries as a medium to store energy.
I know the cost of producing fuels from CO2 is relatively high at present and Hydrogen comes with its own unique challenges like embrittlement and a relatively low round-trip efficiency. But considering all of these factors, which one of the two has a better shot getting a wide scale adaptation?
The idea of using CO2 derived fuels in existing infrastructure is appealing. But at the moment, there seems to be push towards Hydrogen in a lot of places, even though the technology is more expensive than batteries at the moment. Would the cost of Hydrogen would eventually come down with economies of scale and R&D?
And also the supply of precious metals used is a little unsettling once wide adoption picks up.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Given the fact that decarbonizing the planet is one of the goals that countries worldwide have set for the next decades, hydrogen could solve the issue. There is a competition between blue and green hydrogen, and the one that is more economically viable, especially in the following years, will be a sustainable choice to fossil fuels.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
Based on educated guesses, which one of the following promises a better solution to store energy for transportation and grid scale applications:
1) Fuels synthesized form CO2
2) Hydrogen (Ideally Green or Blue Hydrogen in the long run)
I am debating between which one of these two technologies can be a viable alternative to batteries as a medium to store energy.
I know the cost of producing fuels from CO2 is relatively high at present and Hydrogen comes with its own unique challenges like embrittlement and a relatively low round-trip efficiency. But considering all of these factors, which one of the two has a better shot getting a wide scale adaptation?
The idea of using CO2 derived fuels in existing infrastructure is appealing. But at the moment, there seems to be push towards Hydrogen in a lot of places, even though the technology is more expensive than batteries at the moment. Would the cost of Hydrogen would eventually come down with economies of scale and R&D?
And also the supply of precious metals used is a little unsettling once wide adoption picks up.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
I really appreciate your input Federico Zenith .
I will do these calculations and would be happy to share them with you here.
You make a good pont that starting chemical for e-fuels can be diluted for the most part if to be scaled up unlike hydrogen's water source.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
10 answers
there is a formula but asks for hydrogen and water content in the fuel, which is hard to find hydrogen contents in that fuel thank you.
these are my fuels 2-Butoxyethanol, Diethyl ether and Ethylene glycol
Relevant answer
Answer
LHV = HHV - (2.766 x W) kJ/g
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
4 answers
Someone has been able to calculate the carbon footprint of chamicals or fuels as products from carbon dioxide utilization routes?.
Please let me know your results
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
8 answers
Digital Revolution was already there, and COVID-19 has further fueled it to a great extent. Now it is the most opportune time for Chartered Accountants/CMAs and IT Professionals to act together to meet the challenges, and also reap the benefits that may arise out of this "Blessing in Disguise".
Relevant answer
Answer
According to Gartner, the term “digital” in the early 2000s only ranked among the Top 5 priorities for CEOs in 2.1% of the companies surveyed, whereas today it is a priority for one out of every five companies. The proportion of companies that have a digital strategy rose from 62% in 2018 to 82% in 2019, confirms Gartner, which considers that 90% of companies today have already been confronted with different types of disruption in their business models.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
Good day! I want to conduct research on the multi-fuel gas turbine, tell me the compositions of various biogas for modeling the composition. and assessing the effect of fuel gas on the operation of the gas turbine.For carbon-free energy, what fuels do you think will be promising?
Relevant answer
Answer
Combustion equipment overview can be studied from this link...explained in a very good way
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
Dear colleagues I want to write a review paper entitled" The potential use of biogas to meet electrical and thermal loads of building" please anyone wants distribution to inform me.to 1-Introduction 2-Evaluation the use of biogas in different parts of the world 3-Different usages of biogas 4-Recent progress in biogas production 5-Biogas fueled electrical power production systems 1-5-Micro gas turbine 2-5-Fuel cell 3-5-IC engine 6-Energy analysis of biogas fueled system 7-Exergy analysis of biogas fueled system 8-Economic analysis of biogas fueled system 9-Conclusion
Relevant answer
Answer
Good day! I am just studying the influence of various fuels on the operation of a gas turbine, it would be interesting to look at the composition of your biogas. You can jointly write an article in a magazine on the operation of a gas turbine on your train
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
5 answers
Plants use solar energy to power the conversion of CO2 into plant materials such as starch and cell walls. Plant material can be burnt or fermented to release heat energy or make fuels such as ethanol or diesel.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks for your reply. It helped me a lot and there were some very interesting points
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
I am looking for research on how consumers perceive the shift from traditional automotive fuels to biofuels, analyzing consumer behavior and the role of marketing in promoting alternative fuels. Perhaps someone is marketing in a cyclical economy. I would be grateful for any information.
Relevant answer
Answer
I don't have references for you, but I think you could look at any switching studies. Fuel is the ultimate fungible good, where brands are less important than price. In addition, most fuel buying locations are fairly close together, so buyers can easily compare the offerings, including prices. I would guess that alternative fuels will fit as another offering that competes with the other fuels.
I would guess that people won't actually switch, but will buy alternative fuels sometimes, while they go on buying what they usually buy. Good luck.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
I am currently participating on a reserach project, which aims at introduicng carbon capture technology at LNG fueled ships. But I cannot find a helpful refrence for a marine LNG enigne simulation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Why don't you use gt-suite for simulation engine?
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Chemical engineers translate processes developed in the lab into practical applications for the commercial production of products and then work to maintain and improve those processes. They rely on the main foundations of engineering: math, physics, and chemistry (though biology is playing an increasing role). The main role of chemical engineers is to design and troubleshoot processes for the production of chemicals, fuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, and biologicals, just to name a few. Chemical engineers work in almost every industry and affect the production of almost every article manufactured on an industrial scale. They are most often employed by large-scale manufacturing plants to maximize productivity and product quality while minimizing costs.
Students (max of 5 student per group) are asked to write a 10-15 page essay (inclusive picture)
emphasizing the the critical contribution of chemical engineering to a pathway to sustainability
Submit your article to the google classroom in pdf format
Relevant answer
Answer
Nor Maisurah so what is your question?
regards,
GB
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Is power-to-gas a possible solution to this issue? Storing renewable energy in the form of H2 and CH4 and using them as fuels can increase the penetration of renewable energy in the transportation sector?
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with Mohammed. In addition, sustainable H2 and CH4 (from renewables) can be stored in the Natural Gas Pipeline network and underground for seasonal balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply. Sustainable H2 and methane can also power heavy duty fuel cell vehicles year-round. When wildfires and other natural disasters crash the grid, or lead to rolling preventive blackouts, the redundancy and security of the underground natural gas pipeline network and storage fields can provide stable energy supplies to distributed fuel cells.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
10 answers
Actually I am working on a project to study the change of engine parametes of diesel engine using blended fuels like methanol and other hydrocarbons.
As I am totally new to ansys i would like someone to guide or atleast give hint how to start if it is possible.
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, but you need variable compression ratio.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
DRDO developed a Hypersonic Test Demonstration Vehicle, a Scram-jet Engine which achieved speed 6 times of sound.
Relevant answer
Answer
Omkar Singh Kushwaha Thank you Professor.
Professor, Just for your information which may help you and your students,
When we are learning to design an aircraft to fly under Earth Atmosphere,
Here TEMS ERA - WINGS OF AERO presenting you
Dr. Daniel Raymar (The Author of Aircraft Conceptual Design Book) who is going to deliver a lecture on "How to design manned aircraft which can fly in MARS"
Date: 1st October'20 Time: 08:00 PM (IST)
E-certificate will be provided.
Surely it will be very much useful professor for you and your students...
#jai_aerospace
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
I'm doing bibliographic research about chemical aplications and solutions for sustainable air transport. Following aspects are of interest:
  • jet fuels: synthetic, biofuels, fuel cell, etc.
  • airplane construction materials to reduce its weight
Relevant answer
Answer
The only important parameter to guarantee sustainable aviation is the transition to new synthetic green biofuels.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
6 answers
Biggest strange is that secondary fuels are also energy currencies but they are not primary energy sources. How?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ashish Thakur, the electricity is produced mostly based on carbon fuels (coal, gas and oil) combustion, therefore, these are considered as a primary source of energy. I once have read that diesel engine was a revolution because on the glass of oil you can drive about 2 km...
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
We are using butanol diesel blend (10,20 and 30%) for our research work. We submitted our research work to a journal, and reviewer asked to provide following properties of normal -butanol-diesel blends: Cetane number, Latent heat of evaporation, Kinematic viscosity, Density , Lower calorific value etc. how to calculate blend properties.
Is mixture rule alone is  O K?
Or any correlations can be used to find properties of blends.
Relevant answer
Answer
Lower heating value, it may be determinated using the Boei Equation (https://elibrary.asabe.org/abstract.asp?aid=30545 / Transactions of the ASAE. 30 (4): 1205-1208. (doi: 10.13031/2013.30545) @1987)
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
40 answers
Which kinds of biomass, byproducts and waste are the most interesting for new research development in anaerobic digestion and gasification?
Relevant answer
Answer
From a more generalized viewpoint, the promising kinds of feedstock for renewable fuels should:
  • Exploit energy plants of high heating value (HHV) and low moisture content.
  • Follow low carbon footprints.
  • Be cost-effective, in terms of feedstock transportation from the source to bio-refineries.
  • Satisfy energy demand to local and remote residential areas, having no stable connection to the mainland grid.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
75 answers
Brazil's big cities start to reopen, fueling fears of another deadly Corona virus wave
(June 11, CNN)
Post lockdown party infects 180 in India (June 11, BBC).
Relevant answer
Answer
It's time for us to learn how to live with Corona virus.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
We would like to measure constant liquid flow rates (no pumps, no oscillations) in a pipe in the range of 0-8(10) kg/h. The liquids to be measured are alcohols, diesel oil, vegetable oil, and similar liquid fuels. The line is pressurized (max. 2 bar(gauge)), and the liquids are at room temperature. Therefore, some corrosion resistance is required if it is invasive or to be built in line. It can be a volume flow meter as well, up to ~10 liters/s. Low uncertainty (at least <=2% at 2.5 kg/h) is a key requirement.
Coriolis mass flow meters are excellent devices, however, the best offer was net 7000 EUR to date which is excessive to our budget. The ideal price tag is up to net 3000 EUR.
Thank you in advance!
Relevant answer
Following.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
5 answers
About the flame thermal theory , exist an expression simplified to calculate the laminar flame speed for hydrocarbon fuels, its SL= (e^(-E/RT))^1/2 , i want to know in what units should go, including "SL".
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mr Diaz,
) resently presented review papera which might help you on this topic.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
8 answers
Hello to everyone,
I would like to ask everyone IF someone can help me with a research i have to make about "Production and study of the feasibility of increasing its efficiency with the combined use of conventional fuels".
I have searched many resources but i found nothing!
Any link,pdf would be very helpfull for my work!
Thank you all in advance,
sorry for my English :D
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much for the information!!!
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
Considering both above and underground storage. It is for stationary energy storage that ought to be converted back to electricity later. And is the storage idea behind the hydrogen fueling stations viable for energy storage?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dynetek Industries of Calgary, Alberta is laying the ground work for a hydrogen infrastructure by supplying many hydrogen storage solutions. This article reports on the latest progress with the company’s high-pressure hydrogen storage cylinders, which have been tested to 825 bar (12 500 psi). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-2859(02)09026-0.
Please go through the above
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
Improving the energy efficiency and environmental sustainability of anaerobic digestion and gasification is still an open challenge: in your opinion, which kinds of technologies will lead to significant research development?
Relevant answer
Answer
Anaerobic digestion
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
My hypothesis is pregnant women living in a closed environment using kerosene and bio fuels for cooking are at risk of delivering pre mature children when compared to pregnant women using emission free cooking fuels like LPG and electric stoves. I need to have matched controls.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am not a healthcare expert, but I've traveled the world over and seen many sad living conditions. I fear that you will not be able to find any data for which the only possible cause of detrimental health impacts (e.g., birth defects or pre-term births) is unsafe (e.g., kerosene or smudge pot or garbage) heaters. Where people resort to such equipment, there are other serious problems (contaminated water supply, unsafe ambient air, inappropriate building and insulation materials, lack of proper nutrition, no immunization, etc.).
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
It is observed that development of a new material (even the non-nuclear one) itself takes long time and it may also consume a lot of resources. Over that the nuclear materials (fuels, clad) need elaborate testing in the radiation and the DEC environments. This involves lots of experimental and analytical studies which consumes time. The tall claims (s.a. Fukushima could have been avoided if an ATF was deployed in those NPPs) need to be verified before they can be embedded into the fuel safety codes and the safety analysis codes. More emphasis seems to be laid on the gains in the DBA domain and SAMG, DEC safety margin gains are limited. Is the nuclear community truely aware about the ATF claims and devlopments.
Relevant answer
Answer
Is the devlopment of the SMRs related to ATF devlopment, deployment and acceptance.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
It is understood that most times the output (y) can be dependent on the input (x). My question; is it possible to predict an output with 'no given data' from a set of inputs with available data? For instance, if you want to predict the the torque of an engine (output1, with data) using the fueling level and engine speed as inputs, is it also possible to predict the emission levels (output2, without data) using the same set of inputs?
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
from my knowledge in neural networking, its not possible to predict a output precisely with only the inputs available.
since the network initially uses a set of data to get trained and understand about the process. Only then the prediction of different values tends to give proper accurate results.
so you need minimum number of output values for different combinations before which you can vary the combination to predict the results.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Hello everyone. Recently, fueled by some friends' testimony on the difficulty of getting Pogonia ophioglossoides to germinate in-vitro, I began a few pilot experiments with the embryos to see if I could induce germination. There's a thesis in the literature that says this orchid can be germinated on K400 medium with peptone, but details about illumination and time to germination are omitted. I can't find the person's contact info either. In any case, I have seeds on K400 or BM2 (which contains peptone) with no additives, either coconut water or banana powder, and both additives, confounded by bleaching time trials. due to difficulty making the medium, i lost about half of my cultures to contamination (not too problematic right now as i am only doing a pilot study). something i noticed, however, is that the embryos are green! can they photosynthesize or react to light? in the thesis i read, a related species did better in the light, even though this is a terrestrial orchid. i put my cultures all under an LED so i could try to get germination. so far, 45-60 minute bleaching and then addition to coconut enriched medium (BM2 is better it seems, and banana makes no difference) has given the largest embryos, but nothing has erupted from a seed coat yet
Relevant answer
Answer
Generally light is not required for germination
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
25 answers
Octane number and Cetane number are used to characterize the combustion phenomena in petrol and diesel fuels respectively. However, they can be extended to other petroleum fuels also. How these numbers relate to various petroleum fuels?
Relevant answer
Answer
Octane number shows the ability of a fuel to resist knock (pre-ignition of the fuel) in the Gasoline Engine that needs high compression ratios.
the Cetane number is measures of ignition delay. Higher the cetane number of fuel the shorter the ignition delay, the least time it take to burn. Thus fuel with high cetane no. (but lower octane no.) is ideal for diesel Engines.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
Fuel dyes are used to differentiate different fuels (diesel, gasoline/petrol, and jet fuels). Solvent dyes (e.g. Solvent Red 24, Solvent Red 26, Solvent Red 164) are used to colour hydrocarbon fuels. But are the fuel dyes harmful to aquatic biota and the aquatic environment if spilled into water bodies?
If you have a publication or information or weblink related to fuel dyes impact on aquatic biota or aquatic environment, please attach with your answer. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
You might want to have a look at the attached Screening assessment report compiled by Health Canada. It might be a good starting point in your research.
Best of luck
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
4 answers
It is said that fossil fuels, particularly oil & gas, comsuption is the main cause of carbon dioxide production that leads to global warming in the last 40 years or so....
If these fuels were not blamed, could any research on cleaner (greener) energies had been easily justified, being so costly? Does anyone have the idea of how much just exponential population increase impacts global temperature? It is clear that the northern hemisphere is the more affected one by this actual temperature increase. Should we start thinking of controlling expansion of human beings on Earth for the sake of the planet (pollution & contamination reduction) and our own survival? Just out loud thinking!!!!
Relevant answer
Answer
I had not read your reflection carefully. I agree with your approaches. In fact, in much of the literature, it is stated that the main global problem facing our planet is precisely the exponential growth of its population. This leads, increasingly, to a greater demand for resources for the activities of man, food and water to meet the demand of the growing population and, to satisfy those who control economic power. This scenario makes me think about the following question, will this year's fires in our Amazon have any relation to this global problem?
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
35 answers
Gas turbines use solid or liquid or gaseous fuels. Name the fuels used.
Relevant answer
Answer
Gas turbine engines derive their power from burning fuel in a combustion chamber and using the fast flowing combustion gases to drive a turbine in much the same way as the high pressure steam drives a steam turbine. One advantage of gas turbines is their fuel flexibility. They can be adapted to use almost any flammable gas or light distillate petroleum products such as gasoline (petrol), diesel and kerosene (paraffin) which happen to be available locally, though natural gas is the most commonly used fuel.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
52 answers
Lot of research is going on to invent an alternative source of conventional fuel in place of Diesel because petroluem fuels are depleting. Out of which, biodiesels are found to be reliable source of fuel however, this suffers with high NOx emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation has been used to reduce the same. Various forms of biodiesels are prepared and tested (performance wise, exhaust gases and chemical analysis) and found suitable to use in diesel engine. However, there is a limited usage. What could be its limitations in brief?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Shakir Faris Tuleab for your answer.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
32 answers
In view of the increase in power demand, the power plants have gone starting from therrnal, hydel, gas and latest to nuclear power generation. Nuclear power plants has application not only for power generation, but also now been used in space applications. Recent advancements are developed in this area since a small amount of nuclear fuel gives more and more energy compared to other conventional fuels. In view of this, what are the recent developments in nuclear research in terms of fuels and their recent adoption methods.
Relevant answer
Answer
Nuclear fuel is the one, humankind has to depend upon. As this has more energy that this can develop. Hence, this is used for power generation and now used for space applications.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
1 answer
Having just read about the different kinds of plastics being used in producing single-use containers, and then being thrown away, causing harm to the environment and the life that is in it, I wonder what is the proportion of the total petroleum from wells that is being used for making these non-biodegradable materials. At least with the huge quantity of CO2 from burning fuels, there is a gradual return of this gas and its absorption back into nature, but the plastics don't have this feature, so we may expect the quantity of these waste plastics to grow until we run out of oil!
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
4 answers
Tier 1 method for emission inventory calculates the emission on the basis of amount of fuels burnt by directly calculating the amount of product using stoichiometric equation.
How much sulfur dioxide is produced in Kg's when 1 litre of Diesel is burnt by vehicles?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you sirs for your reply. The fuel is Euro IV and the sulfur content in 50 ppm, what i need is amount of Sulfur dioxide gas emitted in Kg per Liter unit.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Alright, I am trying to find LHV for a liquid fuel. Let's say the fuel is a type of gasoline. The first thing that came up to my mind was to perform elemental analysis, then calculate HHV using Dulong and Petit equation, then convert to LHV using this equation:
LHV = HHV – 2400 ( M+9H2) kJ/Kg
I know EDS is not an option, I also doubt whether GC-MS might be helpful.
I don't really know any other liquid fuel elemental analysis instruments. If someone's willing to share an insight, I'd be very grateful.
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
To determine H content you need to perform a HCNS analysis (by elementary analyzer) or H-NMR.
Regards
G
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
6 answers
Green electricity is the cleanest, most beneficial forms of renewable energy. For example, municipal solid waste or large scale hydro-power are indeed renewable but still have major polluting capacity. These are the energy sources considered to provide green electricity. Currently, the usable energy is basically harvested from the fossil energy sources, including coal, oil, and gas, which are believed to harm the environment due to the emitted GHGs. The awareness to the climate change and limited reserve of fossil energy sources has led to a strong motivation to develop a new energy system which can facilitate three important pillars: security, clean environment, and economic opportunity. This future energy system is strongly expected to be able to blend both fossil and renewable energy sources, while minimize its environmental impacts. To realize it, the primary energy sources are converted to the efficient secondary energy sources, including electricity and hydrogen. These two kinds of secondary energy source are considered very promising in the future, following a high demand in many sectors. In transportation sector, both electricity and hydrogen are believed to become the future fuels as the deployment of electric and fuel cell vehicles is increasing rapidly.
How Promising for
  1. Energy Independence
  2. Energy Crisis remediation
  3. New Energy Conversion Routes
  4. Co generation
  5. Socio-Economic feasibility
  6. Adaptability
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, it's an important contribution. Green electricity will solve several problems.
Regards!
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
A low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) is a rule enacted to reduce carbon intensity in transportation fuels as compared to conventional petroleum fuels, such as gasoline and diesel.
Relevant answer
Answer
For electric cars, the carbon reduction depends on what types of energy that generate the electricity. If the electricity is generated from coal power plants, then it does not reduce the GHG emission...
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
How a country can restrict the use of fuels by introducing rationing.Does any one knows any other method other than odd-even rationing.
Relevant answer
Answer
Then you just issue ration 'cards' or the electronic equivalent to everyone except government agencies and emergency services. And wait for the howl of protest from people who think they deserve more.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
12 answers
Why the brake thermal efficiency of the two diesel engines of the same engine specifications running at the same test fuels are different?
Relevant answer
Answer
None of the two diesel engines manufactured according to the standard specifications are identical as observed with two same cars purchased with identical specifications comparing their mileage or its brake thermal efficiency. The reason is due to their operating conditions, fuel quality, wear and tear of engine, operation at different loads, maintenance, replacement of a proper engine oil frequently etc.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
6 answers
Hi everyone,
I am developing a model aimed to study/simulate lignocellusic biomass value chains to Fischer Tropsch fuels. What is the expected yield for biomass gasification and the next FT-conversion?
I would assume a large plant size starting from 50 MW.
If you can provide me some reference, I really would appreciate it. Thanks.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
13 answers
The bio oil has high energy content and could be used to replace fossil fuel for process heating.
Relevant answer
Dear Alhassan,
It actually depends on the properties of bio oil you have extracted irrespective of its feedstock. For Kerosene stove applications, oils must have reduced viscosity but improvised thermal properties. So you can try anyone of the following methods which help you reducing the viscosity to greater extent but thermal properties to marginal extent:
(i) try distillating the bio-oil and capture the volatile vapours, condense it.
(ii) try using ultrasonic assisted or microwave assisted breaking
(iii) else as suggested try chocoholic blends
Hope this helps you.All the very best Sir
Regards,
Goku
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
I am doing LCA of transportain fuels and want to add a dynamic factor in it. can you please help how to do that
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanku so very much Abdulfatah Abdu Yusuf sir and Edwin Rodriguez-Ubinas sir,the articles are really of great help
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
7 answers
Good day all, I am trying to dope iron in MgAl2O4 spinel using solution combustion method. Urea and citric acid are employed as fuels, but in all cases I am getting poor Fe dispersion where Fe appear to form clusters. Please what do I do to improve the dispersion. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am not sure what you exactly mean. However, in general, using ultrasonic equipment could largely improve the dispersion of your particles within a solution.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
I want to find the laminar speed of some fuels by experiment. There are different methodology and configurations. is there any reference that compare these and explain when we should use these configurations?
Relevant answer
Answer
There is a good literature review on different experimental methodologies for measuring laminar flame speed of different fuels e.g. methane/air mixtures, surrogate kerosene fuels, oxygenated fuels ... The advantages and limitations attributed to each method were discussed in detail.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
2 answers
I would like to know if the lubricant properties of internal combustion engines are affected by the use of ethanol, aqueous ethanol solutions or ethanol-Diesel blends as fuel, especially for Diesel engines operating with such fuels.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your answer, Dr. Kalam. Besides the answer, your contact was very important to let me find much more information about this subject in your publications.
For those who are following this question, I recommend his article:
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
5 answers
We have a lab of batteries and fuel cell where we usually work with fuels other than hydrogen like formic acid/ methanol/ NaBH4/etc. A new student has purchased a hydrogen cylinder to use it as fuel in PEMFC. Is it safe to use hydrogen cylinder in laboratory as a fuel? I mean is there any chance of explosion/fire in fuel cell during H2/O2 reaction or can there be any source of ignition/spark inside fuel cell during fuel cell testing as we dont have any automatic shut down system for hydrogen.
Relevant answer
Answer
Mushtaq provides a specific set of safety measures for working with Hydrogen.
To answer your question - "can there be any explosion/fire in fuel cell" - then it will very much will be determined by your setup. Do you have more specific details?
The only other suggestions I would have is to check all the tubing and connections for leaks, place a hydrogen sensor just above the fuel cell, and to add a temperature sensor (ideally with a configurable alarm) to monitor the internal temperature.
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
3 answers
Global Energy Demand: Where are we heading towards?
Has global energy mix really shifted to low-carbon fuels?
Has energy solution really varied over time and circumstances?
Whether the energy impact on economy, security and environment has really taken a divergence in the recent past?
10 billion - world population - by 2050 - Do we really need something more than fossil and renewable energies?
Can China and India really meet their rapid rise in energy demand with ease?
Electricity from solar and wind looks really impressive as of now.
Can it maintain its same exponential growth for the next couple of decades?
Can we expect CO2 emission to attain its peak well before 2050??
Relevant answer
Answer
Issues actually both energy and environment. However, global war fighting is going on based on energy crisis.
Carbon balance is important, how the less carbon participation in fuel could be attained!! should be the target. In addition balance energy production is important like renewable energy (biofuel, wind energy, battery etc) can equally produce everywhere. TQ
  • asked a question related to Fuels
Question
15 answers
Hi all,
Currently, I simulated the SI engine fueled with natural gas/hydrogen blends. Generally, the GRI 3.0 is widely used in the natural gas engine in modelling community. however, we want to investigate the performance, combustion and emission of the SI engine fueled with natural gas/hydrogen blends. Can we only use the GRI 3.0 mechanism to mimic the natural gas/hydrogen blends? Or need to combine the hydrogen mechanism and the natural gas mechanism?
My email is duanxb@hnu.edu.cn
thanks
Xiongbo
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for the explanation