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Fuel - Science topic

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In our project, we are planning to produce electricity through Fuel cell technologies, where hydrogen storage will work as an input for the fuel cell. But unfortunately, In homer software, we cannot connect the fuel cell with the hydrogen tank.
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Following
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How can citizens prepare for a future projected energy crisis?
How can we protect ourselves against a future energy crisis?
How should the state transform the energy sector to make the economy more resilient to possible future energy crises?
How should the state ensure energy security for its citizens?
How should the economy be prepared for the projected increase in energy commodity prices and energy price increases?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz
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We have now had over 30 years of doom-mongering about so-called AGW and yet the effects cannot be measured against the natural rebound from the LIA (that destroyed many countries for centuries). Far more important is to develop strategies to mitigate any effects of climate change, e.g. sea-walls and reflective houses. The population of the world will not develop on unreliable power sources.
Ultimately, fusion must be the goal, but that remains decades away.
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Indeed my thesis is on dual fuel diesel/gas modeling that I have to compare with another dual fuel diesel hydrogen.
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You can use this link to download the detailed chemkin chemistry files for hydrocarbon fuels
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Closed Parkings and tunnels;
Many parkings are closed and a lot of them are located in Airports; sadly people have suffocated in them due to traffic jams and congestion; would replacing fuel transport with EVs solve problems caused by pollution fuel transport causes?
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I think fuel transport must be banned in the vicinity of crowded areas and Urban centres.
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Dear Scholars,
I would like to solve a Fluid Mechanic optimization problem that requires the implementation of an optimization algorithm together with Artificial Neural network. I had some questions about Convex optimization algorithm and I would appreciate it if you could give some advice to me.
My question is about possibility of implementing of the Convex optimization together with Artificial Neural Network to find a unique solution for a multi-objective optimization problem. The optimization problem that I am trying to code is explained as the following equations. The objective function utilized in the optimization problem is defined in the following equation:
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Where OF is the objective function, wi are the weights assigned to each cost function, Oi is the ith cost function defined as the relative difference between the experimental and the predicted evaporation metrics for fuel droplet (denoted by superscript of exp and mdl, respectively), k is the number of cost functions (k = 4, equal to the number of evaporation metrics), c [c1, c2, and c3] is the mass fraction vector defining the blend of three components, subjected to the following constrains:
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Due to high CPU time required for modeling and calculating the objective functions (OF), an ANN was trained based on some tabulated data from modeling of fuel droplet evaporation and used for calculating the OF through optimization iteration.
In the same manner, the wi values are subjected to optimization during the minimization of OF, with the following constraints:
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It worth mentioning that, I have solved this problem by employing Genetic Algorithm together with ANN. Although, the iterative process for solving the problem converged to acceptable solutions. But, the algorithm did not return a unique solution.
Regarding that, I would ask you about possibility of using Convex optimization algorithm together with ANN for solving the aforementioned problem to achieve a unique solution. In case of such feasibility, I would appreciate it if you could mention some relevant publications.
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Switching your optimization algorithm will probably not give you the unique solution that you are looking for. In general the loss function of a neural network is not convex with respect to the parameters. This means that you will have different local minima or saddle points in your loss function. A convex optimization algorithm will converge to one of these points depending on its starting point. Finding the global minimum is a very hard problem and we don't know how to find it, or how to know if we have found it. This is a well known problem of neural networks. Of course, if you want to get the same solution every time that you run your algorithm you can simply set the initial parameters to a fixed value, so the algorithm always starts at the same place. If you do that, then algorithms like gradient descent will always stop at the same point...
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My project is methanol conversion to jet fuel but I have problem with GC method to analyze liquid product which is hydrocarbon mixture.
for GC - simulated distillation cost for analysis is too expensive for me
I hope someone can help me
thank you.
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I think you can refer to ASTM D3710 "Standard Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Gasoline and Gasoline Fractions by Gas Chromatography" https://civilengineersstandard.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/D-3710.pdf
This document should give you hints to replicate the method in your lab.
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Moisture of extinction is one of main characteristic to develope fuel models. However there are a lack of clear explanation or methodology how to estimate it for diferent type of fuel (live \ dead fuel etc). Can someone help us to provide any sound methodology?
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1- Cohen, Jack D.; Deeming, John E. 1985. The national fire-danger rating system: basic equations. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-82. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p.https://doi.org/10.2737/PSW-GTR-82.
2- in my paper "Improved forest fire spread mapping by developing custom fire fuel models in replanted forests in Hyrcanian forests, Iran" I have used the method described in this book "Rebain SA, Reinhardt ED, Crookston NL, Beukema SJ,Kurz WA, Greenough JA, Robinson DCE, Lutes DC,2010. The fire and fuels extension to the forest vegeta-tion simulator: updated model documentation. USDAFor Serv Int Rep 408.
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Hi,
I have a technical question about the cars,
In my dataset, I have the make/model/age/fuel of vehicles, what I need is the engine capacity of cars. I need to categorize them based on engine capacity to mini, small, medium, and large.
what is the easiest way to do that? I found a database of technical attributes of cars, but it takes a lot of time to search for each vehicle and for example do make/model of all ages have the same engine capacity? or should I check make/model/year to find engine capacity?
thank you
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There is no correlation between make/model/ages and engine capacity. Vehicles of the same make, model and ages may have different displacements. Thus, the only way is to find the matching vehicle's engine capacity using your known properties (other parameters may be required).
If you want to process large-scale data quickly, you can use python, in which the package pandas can match two databases by the same fields.
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Example:
For 3 bus bar system we have a following equation
C=Sum(ax^2+bx+c) for i=1 to N
Then how we can replace the cost coefficient value for a,b and c.
Are they random numbers or do we need to take from particular data sheet.
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I believe it can also be achieved using polynomialization
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Hi all,
I'm trying to solve transient combustion simulation for a large furnace.
Since the simulation is taking long time for solving I want to divide the fluid zone into two zones.
Fluid_Zone1 with Burner and Inlet conditions for fuel and air.
and
Fluid_Zone2 with exit Boundary conditions.
Can I use two fluent solver (coupling fluent) in workbench such that the first iteration output from model with Fluid_Zone1 can be used as an first iteration input to model with Fluid_Zone2 ?
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Yes, it is possible! You can create 2 sperate simulations in fluent and then create a system coupling module. You can do it easily by running two different fluent instances. For instance, the "system coupling module" can partly be a series of files written by the instances (and successively read by them), and partly by an external software manipulating the written file. Please refer to:
DOI: 10.1007/s41230-017-7171-2
Regards
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how to calculate the self ignition temperature for hydrogen enriched fuel ?
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My setup is a two-chamber reactor. The anode is Pt/C coated carbon paper and the anolyte is a mixture of 5M NH3 solution + 1M NaOH solution. The cathode is Pt/C coated carbon cloth with a coating of 4 diffusion layers (air-cathode) and the anolyte is 1M NaCl (though I also tried with 1M NaOH). I'm using an anion exchange membrane.
The reference electrode is Ag/AgCl placed at the anode side. The problem is whatever settings I do, the value of OCV is negative which means either the current is extremely low or no reaction is taking place at the anode side. The distance between the working and counter electrode is almost 8.5cm which can't be reduced because of cell dimensions. I'm taking anode as a working electrode because the basic purpose is to construct a novel anode material for AFC/AEC.
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Water swelling can increase the input/output pressure difference. So by measuring the pressure difference, you can find out whether swelling is happening or not. To avoid this problem decrease the Ammonia Concentration to 1M, 0.5M and 0.1 M with 1M NaOH and check the OCVs again
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How can I find the a,b,c parameters of Hyundai diesel generator(DHY8000SELR). It is neither available in datasheet nor provided the manufacturer. The units of a,b and c are liters/kW^2h, liters/kWh and liters/hour.
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100% load = rated 5.5 KW, fuel consumption 1.7 L/hr
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How will I check if polypropylene oil is of standard quality and can be used as car fuel.
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If you mean as fuel product the pyrolytic oil, to define its quality is depending on many factors: water content, density, viscosity, surface tension, heating value, ignition properties. Also the quality must be associated to the final use to the fuel. Eg. Burner, engine, or after downstream separation and purification processes for their use blended.
Some recommendations:
Polymers 2019, 11(9), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11091387
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I am writing a small piece on the definition on long run price elasticities of gasoline/fuel and the length of measurement periods.
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Gasoline prices in my country, Libya, reach about half a dinar per liter, which is equivalent to a maximum of one dollar per barrel for Libyan consumers, and of course water is more expensive than oil in Libya.
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Quote from NRC
”Westinghouse is working with Idaho National Laboratory to develop uranium nitride (UN) to replace uranium dioxide in fuel pellets. Originally, uranium silicide (U3Si2) was being explored for use with lead test assemblies. However, after further research, Westinghouse determined that U3Si2 was not viable for future development and changed their efforts towards the advancement of UN. ”
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This may be a reason:
"While the vastly higher thermal conductivities of U3Si2 and U3Si5 offer improved thermomechanical performance compared to the reference UO2, the lower melting temperatures actually result in a nearly identical margin to fuel melt and a potentially greatly increased production of H2, 5x and 6x, respectively, during oxidation, neither of which bode well for the accident tolerance of these materials. UN, on the other hand, boasts a high thermal conductivity while retaining a high melting temperature, resulting in a margin to fuel melt over twice that of UO2. This is offset somewhat by an increased production of H2 gas during oxidation."
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for example, the energy content of ethanol is about 33% lower than conventional gasoline for equal volumes of fuel . The energy content of biodiesel is about 7% lower than that of petroleum-derived diesel fuel and so on for other products.
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biofuel can be produced by waste material. As an example, biodiesel production by waste cooking oil. Bioethanol production by fruit waste. In both cases, waste utilization and fuel generation both happening at once.
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Several studies on combustion of bio diesel/petroleum fuel blends in IC engines and other power generation / combustion devices discussed extensively about the influence of fuel unsaturation on NOx emissions. A fundamental question arises on how we quantify fuel unsaturation?
I would like to start a discussion on the topic - How to quantify fuel unsaturation ? what would be an appropriate index to quantify unsaturation irrespective of the family of origin of fuels - like methyl esters, ether, alcohol , alkanes, alkenes, alkynes or aromatics or a weighted combination of aforementioned categories.
Our research group's take on this -
We have established a parameter - Degree of unsaturation that serves as a common platform across different fuel families (esters/alkanes/aromatics) to quantify the effects of fuel unsaturation, particularly with petroleum/bio-diesel blends. DOU can be evaluated based on the average molecular formula of the fuel alone without involving complex and expensive experimental procedures such as those involved in the measurement of iodine number and bromine number.
If interested, please follow the link to access the research work we have conducted at our laboratory to investigate the effect of fuel unsaturation on nitric oxide emissions.
Message me to get a copy of this article.
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Hello scientific community,
I am working on OBODM and wanted to know if a source that is made up of multiple fuels, eg. 20% Ground Illum. Signal, Red Star, M158 + 60% Propellant, M-9 + 20% Signal, Illum, Aircraft, Rd Str, AN-M43A2 can be inputted into OBODM. If yes, can you please provide me some guidance on how to do so? If not, then would you suggest that the source be user defined with a heat content calculated using the individual fuel fractions? The purpose of using OBODM is to obtain the release height for both OB and OD operations at the facility and therefore, it would be helpful to understand if such in depth detailing of the source composition is even necessary, as it is only a function of heat content, burn rate, wind speed and stability class.
Thank you!
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It has been established that as a result of the combustion of plant combustible materials during the experiment, the concentration of NO2, NO in the air increases by 2 orders of magnitude from the background values, SO2 is 20 times higher than the concentration of CO. the concentration of methane was also recorded, which is due to the fact that not all methane formed in the pyrolysis zone has time to enter into a chemical reaction in the fire front. An increase in CO2 concentration is quite expected and is one of the characteristic signs of a natural fire.
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Hi,
In relation to the coupling of fluid flow (gasoline) with magnetic field (permanent magnet) in experimental articles it is mentioned that in the presence of magnetic field, fuel properties such as density, surface tension and viscosity will change. I simulated this problem numerically recruiting the finite element method but I don't see these changes. I appreciate your help in advance.
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Hi Thomas Cuff , I have seen quite a number similar patents.
Just like peer-review, the patent system isn't perfect and sometimes something gets patented that shouldn't be. It can be enough to claim a new twist on an old idea (like a magnet around the fuel line and the air supply of the engine, as in your example) and sometimes, maybe, the good people at the patent office just had a bad day. This problem is not limited to implausible claims, sometime ago we were troubled by a competitor's patent even though all the claims in said patent were already described in much older scientific literature...
Patent applications should contain novelties (1) and be non-trivial (2). But generally, neither of these two criteria will lead to an obvious and sharp demarcation.
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Aim is to optimize the fuel and routes used by the Johannesburg Metrobus fleets based on various bus technology according to lowest cost, least greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, environmental footprint, and technical suitability
This will be done by quantifying and ranking the least costs and least greenhouse gases (GHGs), and the lowest environmental footprint of bus technology on each route.
1. Data for each bus technology and route type
1.1. Each bus technology
-Trip length
-Emission profile in different stages
-Operating costs (i.e., fuel cost per bus tech)
-Fuel efficiency.
-Travel time
1.2. Route type
-Fuel refilling station
- Route distance
-Route traffic
-Route depots
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Depends on the methodology.
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Hello. I do the abaqus analysis of fuel tank. this is prismatic LNG tank, and LNG is filled in the tank 90%. I did anaysis with hydrostatic pressure and self weight and gravity. However, to more accurate analysis, i want to fill LNG in the tank. i heard that there is function to insert liquid in the abaqus, but i couldn't find that. anyone who know this function? help me TT
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Hi, it depends on the load case. For high pressure loads, I think it can be neglected. For low pressure, or sloshing, SPH particles should be the easiest way to go. ALE can work, too.
Hope it helps you?
Thanks and best regards,
Marian
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How to attempt the scientific fuel consumption test of car for specific travel along with travel history....?
How to get data from ECU to get exact fuel consumption.............?
Can we get data by separating injector sensor in external data logger...?
Is it essential to use scanner for ECU data fetch....?
Please give suggestion or answer of above questions ... Please help me to get exact fuel consumption test... Thank you
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Which recommended model should I adopt for my research in Green public transportation: The purpose of the study is to optimize the routes used by the bus fleets based on different bus technologies (i.e. CNG buses, diesel buses, LNG buses and petroleum) in accordance with the least cost and least greenhouse gas (GHG). The available data includes routes distance, cost of fuel, amount of fuel(litres) and type of technology used.
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Dear Bhekani Ntuli,
I would suggest developing a virtual model for your Public Transportation System (PTS) as a kind of "Digital Twin of PTS (DT-PTS)". DT-PTS allows you to propose an Intelligent/Adaptive PTS. Artificial Intelligence plays a very important role in this. The concept of DT-PTS would make it possible to develop intelligent solutions for PTS and use them effectively.
The Idea of DTs is illustrated by my figures at the address:
Here are some sources that can explain my proposal in more detail.
Best regards and much success
Anatol Badach
Andrey Rudskoy, Igor Ilin, Andrey Prokhorov: Digital Twins in the Intelligent Transport Systems, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 54, 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2021.02.152 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235214652100332X
Monika Kosacka-Olejnik, Mariusz Kostrzewski, Magdalena Marczewska, Bogna Mrówczyńska, Paweł Pawlewski: "How Digital Twin Concept Supports Internal Transport Systems? – Literature Review“; Energies, Vol. 14(16), Aug 2021, DOI: 10.3390/en14164919 https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/16/4919
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Is there any document comparing the efficiency of hydrogen as fuel compared to other fuels like biofuel, solar energy, wind energy, and fossil fuels like petrol and diesel?
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Dear Perminder Jit Kaur , here's a recent review of the efficiency of e-fuels generated from electricity, ; there's also a presentation that summarizes it: https://www.pik-potsdam.de/members/Ueckerdt/E-Fuel%20paper%20-%20presentation_slides_May2021_shared.pdf
Regarding performance comparisons, I'm not sure I understand the question. Heating values of Hydrogen are well known and do not depend on the H2 source (provided we neglect the impurities; a "selling point" of the H2 engine is that unlike the fuel cell it is quite tolerant to impurities).
Hydrogen from biomass is discussed in this paper (the journal might also be a very good source for you), ; I wasn't really aware of this path and thought that biomass would rather lead to methane as a fuel. Either way, the CO2 emissions should ideally be sequestered, whether they occur when the CH4 is burnt or during biomass gasification. CH4 leaks could also be a major issue.
I hope this helps!
Best regards,
Philippe
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Hello everyone, When feeding off-grid users the PV-HESS-DIESEL resource suite, what diesel fuel conditions should be monitored and implemented in an energy management strategy?
Here, what are the thresholds or limitations to consider when operating a diesel generator 🔌 subject to PV and battery SOC 🔋 outputs as well?
Can anyone share a related paper or provide a detailed analysis?
Thanks a lot.
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Khadim Ullah Jan thank you for your reply, can you clarify more or provide related papers, please?
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How to solve x, y, and z on Matlab or excel?
I have tried many times but all times get negative values for x and y (using equation 7-13). If you have any idea or MATLAB code to solve these equations, then please let me know.
fuel composition is CH4=97%; CO2=1.5%; N2=1.5%
Air Composition is O2 =32%; N2=79%.
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All of the subreactions a combustion reaction.
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I want the sub_ reactions of a burning reaction to liquid propellant.
In liquid propellant combustion, several sub-reactions occur at different temperatures and constant pressures, which are required to obtain thermodynamic coefficients.
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The maximum efficiency of one kilogram of sugar by yeast for the production of biosynthetic fuel based on ethanol of a few cc of alcohol is 100% of one kilogram of sugar?Thanks.
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Excellent. I did not expect such answers. But I reached 98% alcohol with my own innovative methods with maximum efficiency. Of course, the quality of ethanol produced must also be considered.I have uploaded the excel file of the quality of the ethanol analysis of my production.
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Hello Robert !
In your calculations, there are not enough numbers for ordinary (basic jet fuel), please send them if you have them, so it will be right.
For clarity, I made a picture.
Thanks !
Sincerely, Ivan Antipov.
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Good afternoon!
These links contain a lot of valuable information on alternative fuels. I am looking for information on the percentages of emissions from the production of ordinary hydrocarbon fuel. It's not in Robert's article. On the graph, this is the first line with question marks.
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H2 : 16.16 %
O2 : 0.03 %
N2 : 49.98 %
CH4 : 1.83 %
CO : 17.15 %
CO2 : 14.83 %
( All % are on volume basis)
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Hello dear researchers, hope you are doing well. I was wondering how much the average cost of building a 100m2 commercial polyethylene/glass greenhouse, and of course its payback period time is. I would appreciate if you consider land and construction material costs, fuel price, investment, maintenance, and labor cost and answer them separately if possible. There are plenty of articles and websites providing some information regarding this issue, but I'm actually looking for a reliable source. Could you please help me with this issue?
Best Regards
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Lets say there are more than one alternator connected parallel.
All of them are operating at base load. 75*4=300 MW) .
If the load is increased say (320 MW) governor cannot increase fuel as it is already full open.
The frequency goes down, the kinetic energy stored in generator will provide extra torque .
The load angle will change.
At new equilibrium point the generator are at 80 MW each.
Now the design capacity of turbo gen is just 75 MW , it is supplying 80 MW. Fuel supply is same.
What will be design and operation constraints if load continue to increase other than (under frequency protection )
The efficiency is ratio of KWh and heat energy input . So in this case it seems that efficiency is increasing.
Complex is producing more than declared availability so its capacity factor would increase beyond 100%
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Dear Simon Hinterholzer,
Input Power is directly proportional to torque and RPM. When power demand increases which increases current and increases torque , this will cause rotor to slow down.
I'm not understanding the fact that why the system keeps operating than. You are saying that the system will collapse but during alternator keeps running till 47.5 hz where there is under freq protection.
Sometimes system get stay at 49.2 hz to 49.5 hz.
I think load angle will disturb than
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Going by the recent complain in UK about E10 fuel. Please do share your thoughts.
Thank you
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Dear Dr. Toyese Oyegoke ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following paper:
-Corrosion assessment of metals in bioethanol-gasoline blends using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Libia M.Baena, Ferley A.Vásquez, Jorge A.Calderón
Helion, Vol. 6, e07585 (2021)
Good reasearch and my best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Non-renewable nature and environmental pollution toward the climatic changes are some disadvantages of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal).
Hydrogen as a zero-emission fuel is a good solution to avoid the pollution. Ability of production of hydrogen fuel from the most available renewable energy, solar power (power to electrolyze) is a major encouraging point.
Trapping the countries in prize controlling authorities (OPEC) is another important reason to turn the hydrogen fuel.
However, risk of storage and handling is a major issue to be addressed when hydrogen is used as a fuel for general use.
I would like to discuss the ability of current technology for the production/use hydrogen (as a alternative for fossil fuel) for general needs.
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Dear A. G. Piyal Aravinna,
Yes, it is technically feasible. On the other hand, problems arise on the political and business levels, i.e. lobbying of companies producing energy in a different way, including primarily mining companies extracting fossil fuels and companies processing these fuels, such as crude oil refineries.
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I want to calculate the GHG emission reduction in transport after replacing diesel with Hydrogen or biomethane fuel made from green sources.
I want to find difference in GHG emission with various types of feedstocks i.e. manure, maige etc.
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Consider this research article for exhaustive combustion, performance and emission analysis.
It will be helpful.
"Combustion investigation of ternary blend mixture of biodiesel/n-butanol/diesel: CI engine performance and emission control"
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I'm trying to synthesize a product in which Tl has to be in the +3 oxidation state. My reaction technique is "solution-combustion". Although i used a reactant in which Tl is in its +3 state, in the product Tl gets reduced to +1. What should i do to prevent the Tl ion from reducing?
The 'fuel' of the reaction has CARBON. But in case of Antimony, using the same fuel didn't reduce the Sb ion.
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Dear Taohedul Islam thanks for posting this interesting technical question. Unfortunately it is a bit difficult to give you a qualified answer because too many details about your reaction are missing. Perhaps you can add an oxidizing agent to the reaction mixture?
In any case it makes no sense to compare thallium with antimony. Thallium is a heavy element in group 13 which shows the so-called "inert-pair effect" (cf. the respective Wikipedia entry at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inert-pair_effect). This means that for thallium the oxidation state +1 is more stable, and thallium(III) compounds are strong oxidizing agents. In contrast, antimony is in group 15 and cannot be easily reduced to the oxidation state +1.
P.S. When working with thallium please always keep in mind the high toxicity of thallium" ☠️
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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In a world where environmental concerns are stronger than ever, it makes sense to "clean up our act" across all industries including transportation, but biofuels will not be a good contemporary to electricity among other alternative fuels as it would exacerbate the "food vs. fuel" conundrum; we do not want to incentivize further environmental destruction. At the same time, we must also put our ways of doing so into consideration (e.g., mining for battery materials). I have mentioned the case for synthetic fuels as a complementary to BEVs in an article published on an aeronautics-themed issue on NAE's "The Bridge" (The article is the last one on the cover, and you can jump to it by clicking the article title "Putting Out Fire... with Gasoline? A Pragmatic Path toward Clean Fuels"). These types of fuels are already being tried in the aviation and maritime shipping industries, and is just getting ready for motorsport applications, but this also leaves us asking a big question: could they just be as viable for the transportation industry?
For the record, I acknowledge that BEVs will soon surpass internal combustion engine-powered vehicles in emissions, cost-effectiveness, range, and fueling time. For example, when we ramp up battery quality and production to be able to make solid-state batteries that could eventually provide thousands, if not millions of miles in range. However, we should also consider the ways ICEs can coexist with them yet have the upper handle, such as:
Maintenance: Yes, while BEVs/FCEVs have fewer moving parts than ICE-powered vehicles, the maintenance advantage for the latter is not what you think. It is natural for batteries to degrade, especially when used for prolonged periods of time, and experts recommend to only use between 20-80% of range to minimize the amount of stress put onto it. On the other hand, for ICEs, it is suggested to always leave the tank at least 1/4 full to minimize the likelihood of damage to the fuel tank and pump. While you could fully fill up your tank (as condensation could otherwise affect the lifespan of the fuel tank), it is not a good idea to "top it off," either. That is pouring a little bit more fuel into the tank when the pump cuts off, generally to round the cost of the refuel to the nearest dollar due to the risk of damage. Experienced truckers will only fill up to 95% full given that the fuel expands in heat alongside the risk of spillage and generally go no faster than 65 mph to maximize efficiency.
Accessibility: Suppose you are in a wildfire-prone area like California and a blackout affects your area. Before this happens, you may need to plan ahead as unless you have a generator or the like, you may be stranded while the gas stations hang on a little longer despite the increased traffic. Synthetic fuels would mean that environmental compliance would be just a retrofit away, and, in Porsche's case, the engines do not need modifications, either.
Fuel Economy in cold weather: I have seen conflicting reports on BEVs' fuel economy in cold weather. While many sources say that gasoline's drop is less than that of hybrids and BEVs (e.g., https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/coldweather.shtml), thermal management technologies, which can also be found in modern-day ICEs, can say otherwise, so it effectively depends on the battery/vehicle.
Availability of resources: To have as much as a resilient global energy supply as possible, we should not throw all of our eggs into one basket. While bidirectional charging, could, in theory, allow for a perpetual expansion of our electric grid, we must take the availability of resources into consideration, and must diversify our materials in case of supply bottlenecks. The second aspect mentioned above also falls under this umbrella, too.
In addition, we must also find ways to make the process of such synthesis of fuels much more efficient while at the same time bringing the cost down. This MIT-developed battery captures even atmospheric CO2 and is about to be tested at Porsche's synthetic fuel plant down in Punta Arenas at the extreme southern region in Chile's Patagonia: https://news.mit.edu/2019/mit-engineers-develop-new-way-remove-carbon-dioxide-air-1025 & https://news.mit.edu/2020/new-approach-to-carbon-capture-0709
However, most of the synthetic fuels about to be produced in a commercial scale are essentially made of recycled carbon so these specific types of fuel will be unviable in the long run. However, there seems to be room for improvement.
There is no doubt that EVs and alternative fuel cars are here to stay and will inevitably outpace traditional "ICE" engines in terms of sales and production, but when we take these advantages in consideration, how we could improve synthetic fuel to make production easier, cleaner and more efficient, and make it release as little emissions (CO2, NOx, etc.) as possible, if any? Oxy-fuel technologies? Technological breakthroughs once thought inconceivable years, months, or even weeks ago?. Maybe Porsche, BMW, Mazda, et al. could get some help.
Voice your thoughts/input here!
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Nicholas Margiewicz Please try to ask question in nutshell. it seems like there is no specific question.Hard to answer.
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Hi everyone,
I am looking for a code sample to show the emissions for any fuel. if there is an article presented the code so that will be great
Kindly,
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Both CO and NOx depend on how the combustion occurs and is not simply a matter of the fuel chemistry. Combustion of fuels is much more complicated than your question suggests.
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The world is transforming towards the use of natural gas as conventional fuels like coals, oils are going to deplete soon. The world is already using CNG as fuel and even one can use natural gas as fuel in form of LNG with more fuel in the given tank but, what limits LNG vehicles to be successful in the market? Why LNG vehicles are not currently in markets?
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I'm not an expert to answer your question. My research team dealt exclusively with the transport of LNG in large partially filled tanks. In this respect, I can only give a few possible hints. LNG requires cryogenic temperatures. This means that a considerable effort is required for the thermal insulation of the tanks (this is possible for large ships including tankers). The smaller the tanks become, the less economical their installation becomes. The use of boil-off gas will not be enough. You have to liquefy the LNG again for use. This also requires energy...
A second problem is the sloshing phenomenon in partially filled tanks. Sloshing can lead to very high short-term liquid beats on the tank walls. These then usually lead to the rapid aging of the hull of the tank as well as the insolation behind the hull.
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Hello. Thank you for paying attention.
What is the typical values of excess air in natural gas power plants? Is 100% excess air an appropriate value for natural gas (methane) ? When I modeled the power plant the time I set excess air about 100% true range for the turbine inlet air temperature was obtained (around 1300-1400 K).
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Hello everyone!
I have found an article where the authors have mentioned that the typical range of excess air in the industrial gas turbine cycle is 100-600 %.
Martínez, F. Rueda, et al. "Evaluation of the gas turbine inlet temperature with relation to the excess air." Energy and Power Engineering 3.04 (2011): 517.
Hope this would help the researchers who would come across this post.
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The future of the energy sector lies in the "Hydrogen Economy". The transformation has already started as the big automobile company like Hyundai launched its transformation concept to Hydrogen Vision and carbon neutrality roadmap by 2040. However, the concept of the hydrogen economy is not only limited to the usage of H₂ as fuel but also the production technique utilized for H₂ production. Still, about 60% of the world's H₂ is obtained from steam reforming of methane (SRM). The SRM technique used still uses fossil fuel-based energy to heat up the reactors, resulting in "Grey Hydrogen".
Which could be the best technique for H₂ production (i.e., green H₂ production)?
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Many thanks for adding your views to the discussion Professor Rick Manner
However, could you kindly suggest are you referring the man-made caverns or natural caverns (salt caverns, along with depleted gas reservoirs and aquifers).
Which would be a better option for CO2 storage (in terms of economy and safety for long-term storage)? Since it is also recommended to have a cavern near the source of CO2, as transportation is another issue.
Thank You!
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Hydrogen used in the fuel cells is a very flammable gas and can cause fires and explosions. It is fuel in fuel cell vehicle.
Moreover, methane is also flammable and used as fuel in vehicle.
some refrigerants are flammable. however, they are forbiddened to be used in vehicle.
furthermore, weight of refrigerant is much lower than weight of gas fuel.
if people do not worry about the possible fires and explosions caused by gas fuel, there is no need to worry about the possible fires caused by flammable refrigerant.
what is the reason for the significant difference for flammable gas applications in vehicle?
Thank you very much.
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Hi, Mahbub, Flammable refrigerant such as R290 and R600 has little effect on global warming.
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Hello everyone,
My name is Caner, and I'm a PhD student. I need help with the simulation aspect of my dissertation. Simply put, I need to model a ferry line. I've got the following information:
- Ferry specifications including power, speed, fuel capacity, fuel consumption in litres per nautical mile, passenger and car capacity, and more.
- Price of fuel per litre,
- Coordinates or distances of piers,
- Where ferries are moored,
- Timetables of all lines.
What I need to do first:
- Define piers and ferries,
- Setup lines between piers,
- Define timetables to those lines,
- Make each ferry pick up a line, depart from the pier as per the timetable,
- Go back to the starting positions after completing the schedule.
Second step:
- Set different schedules for weekdays and weekends,
- Define fuel capacity, fuel consumption and monitor fuel usage of each ferry,
Third step:
- Make a ferry go to refuel when fuel capacity reaches a certain threshold: e.g. if the fuel is less than 1 trips worth, alert another ferry to take over its next scheduled departure and go to refuel)
- Get a report of when and how much fuel the ferry got refuelled.
Fourth Step:
- Introduce passenger and cars to be carried for each trip as per a demand formula. Get a report about how many passengers transported.
Fifth Step:
-Remove fossil fuel ferries and introduce electric ferries to the same model.
-Add recharging ability to the piers.
-See the results and calculate the lowest required power and fuel (battery) capacity for the lowest yearly cost of operating electric ferries.
So far I've looked into FlexSim, Promodel, Process Simulator, PTV Vissim, Any Logic and a few other sim software I couldn't get to run properly. My problem is that it will take quite a long time for me to learn to code for each software and I don't have any time to waste.
Looking for suggestions on using which software and how to obtain each step.
All help is appreciated.
Note: At this point, I'm thinking about ship simulation games. Ship Simulator Extremes had great sea and weather simulation options. Is there a way that I could directly design the above scenarios on such a ship simulation game? Maybe that could bring more reliable results and easier configuration.
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I would appreciate if somebody can share the experience.
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siti nursuhana Ahmad This is Ir. Dr. Lim Mook Tzeng from TNBR, Malaysia. We have some experience on pre-treatment and firing of EFB. I will message you privately.
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I mainly want to know why it is that when the fuel mass fraction is above the stoichiometric mass fraction.
The content is shown in the attached figure.
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yeah,but the equation is wrong. And I have corrected it.
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Hi everyone,
Could you please help me to calculate the mass of the different components of air and gaseous fuel at IVC in dual fuel combustion which the intake air enriched by pure oxygen, so that the intake air would have 23% (vol) oxygen.
Thanks
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The response of Prof. Larry Baxter is complete and correct. Please follow what he has stated.
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Hello
I want to calculate the combustion efficiency of a flare simulated with Fluent software according to the following formula:
  • combustion efficiency=(Mass flow rate of carbon in CO2 produced by flame/ Mass flow rate of carbon in CxHy in the fuel gas stream)
How do I calculate the expression above the fraction?
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The increasing energy demand and the necessity to reduce CO2 emissions are worldwide problems. This motivates the increasingly "green" choices, in order to reduce the anthropogenic environmental impact, made by companies and governments of many countries in the world. Nonetheless, among the clean energy options currently available on the world market, only nuclear power can provide constant energy, regardless of weather or geological conditions, making nuclear one of the most promising low-carbon energy options. However, the nuclear fission reactors are characterized by the formation of radioactive waste, and this problem can be partially solved through the spent fuel reprocessing.
"In its 2020 edition of Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050, the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) high case projection has global nuclear generating capacity increasing from 392 GWe in 2019 to 475 GWe by 2030, 622 by 2040 and 715 by 2050".
The main points that can then be discussed:
- total installation costs and the time to build a nuclear power plant;
- long-term profitability and maintenance costs;
- storage of the last waste ;
- research on spent fuel recycling optimization and next-generation reactors;
- industrial and cyber security;
- deep prejudices in many countries due to singular accidents;
- nuclear fusion possibility.
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Dear Mr Karmakar,
I think we all agree with you. The problem is when will this be possible?
"Research on controlled nuclear fusion began towards the end of World War II in the United States and the USSR. Steady progress has been made since and culminated in the 1990s with the demonstration in the United States and England of nuclear fusion power generation. However, these experiments achieved amplification rates of less than 1 (record set at 0.76), i.e. the energy produced was less than that injected into the plasma ....
After ITER, the European roadmap for the development of fusion provides for the commissioning of a demonstration reactor (simply called ... DEMO) producing electricity (of the order of 500MW), in the 2050s".
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Research has emerged recently that dealt with the production and use of hydrogen and ammonia in various combustion applications such as internal combustion engines and turbo engines. Knowing that the combustion of hydrogen and ammonia produces large amounts of harmful nitrogen oxides. In addition, the high temperature degree of combustion leads some time to damage to parts of the combustion chamber. So, Could ammonia and hydrogen be the future fuel future?
Please send any new research in this regard.
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Dear Medhat Elkelawy this is indeed a very important technical question which is certainly of broad general interest to many RG members. Even though we are inorganic chemists, this issue was more or less new for me. Personally I'm absolutely skeptical about hydrogen technology because of the highly flammable and potentially explosive nature of elemental hydrogen. In the case of ammonia, the trick seems to be to regulate the combustion such that no toxic nitrogen oxide by-products are formed. Ideally the ammonia combustion yields only nitrogen and water as products. If this became possible, it would certainly be a very promising new technology. For some good overview about this please have a look at the following potentially useful articles:
Is ammonia the fuel of the future?
(published March 8, 22021)
In this article the color scheme for ammonia is nicely explained (e.g. blue ammonia, gray ammonia etc.). Interestingly, this scheme, which describes the carbon intensity of the different methods for manufacturing ammonia, also applies to hydrogen.
A perspective on the use of ammonia as a clean fuel: Challenges and solutions
Unfortunately this paper is not freely available as public full text on RG. However, it is a very recent article (2020) and both authors have RG files. Thus there is a good chance that you can request the full article directly form one of the authors via RG.
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Recently, I was simulating the tutorial file "SIEngine_PortInjected_AMG_Tutorial.ftsim". After the simulation completed I got some results. I have some basic questions that make me doubt the solver, maybe I am wrong.
The questions are as follows:
  1. 100% combustion efficiency. ( On which basis combustion efficiency is calculated? ) I calculated fuel mass multiplied by LHV which is greater than the chemical heat release rate. How is that possible? This seems like an ideal case.
  2. UHC is almost zero. How is this possible?
  3. Fuel Mass per Engine Cycle is showing  2.07651E-002 [g], whereas in the excel sheet iC8H18 concentration is 2.18E-002 gram before combustion. Why there is a deviation?
  4. Fuel Lower Heating Value per g  44.00000 [kJ]. This LHV value remains the same if I change the combustion from gasoline to CNG also. I guess it may affect results also.
Please answer these questions.
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Combustion efficiency is an input in such cases, not an output; that is, you tell the software (or it assumes) a combustion efficiency. If you have assumed it's 100% efficient, then there is no UHC, as this is an inevitable consequence of the assumption. You need to dig deeper into the science of combustion calculations and not rely on software that somebody else wrote for you.
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Hydrogen is a clean fuel. Its usage has many benefits. It is easily available. But many students do not know it. textbooks have an important role in this. How can we introduce hydrogen as a clean fuel in textbooks?
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Yes we should teach hydrogen as an energy carrier like we use to teach oil products. I mean petrol, diesel oil, etc.
Emphasize on the production , transport and distribution. Uses should not be overlooked. The impact socioeconomic or environmental should be included.
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Hi all,
How to determine which type of biodiesel are able to blend with diesel and the maximum percentage that has been approved to blend biodiesel with diesel?
Thanks in advance,
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It has been investigated that 5% bio-diesel- 95% jet fuel blend (B5) meets ASTM standard for Jet A. For more details refer to this article. Hope it will help.
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Hi every one
Is it possible to define biogas as a fuel in the reformer process(scwg) in Homer software?
Biogas fuel is not available in the options
thanks
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Amir Hossein Zakeri yes might need more details to comment on the same and yes I can help you out with the designs aswell
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Hello everyone,
I have been working on developing a reduced kinetic mechanism for diesel-biodiesel-gasoline mixtures. I have reduced the detailed mechanisms of each individual fuel and combined them to form the final mechanism via Chemkin software.
However, throughout the combining procedure, the Chemkin software does not offer any options to specify a quota for each individual fuel before mixing, so, please kindly guide me on how can I define a specific fraction of each fuel in the final mechanism?
Thanks
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If one go literally to what you wrote, one can think that you mean fuel blending. But, as one know, the rate at which such mixtures are formed does not affect their properties. So you probably mean something else, e.g. the mechanism of the combustion process of fuel mixtures in the engine. You should be clear about this. As for the composition, it is best to use mass fractions here.
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As my experience and many consumer experience they feel the different taste of the same item served cooked in a different source, is it real or not, what is the reason behind this.
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thank you a lot dear professor Dariusz Prokopowicz, Mirosław Grzesik for your wonderful answer and suggestion.
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I need some international support for a project proposal.
Abstract
Investigations of U alloys have been made due to their higher density, which makes it possible to build compact reactors suitable for small plants or nuclear propulsion. Although having the highest possible density, pure metallic U is unsuitable for use as a fuel due to its mechanical and dilatometric anisotropy. A solution to this problem is the stabilization of the γ phase, with a CCC structure, and isotropic mechanical and dilatometric behaviour. The γ phase can be stabilized with the addition of Nb, Zr, and Mo to the U. The addition of Nb has a complementary effect on the increase in plasticity, the addition of Zr has the complementary effect of increasing the resistance to swelling and the addition of Mo has a complementary effect on the enhancement of the mechanical resistance. Among the alloys studied for application as fuel, the U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr and U-10Mo alloys stand out due to their mechanical properties and high density. One of the technological challenges to be overcome in reactors for metallic fuel is thermal cycling from power transients or accumulation of fission products. This process can compromise the operational safety of the use of fuel alloys due to the process of thermal fatigue. In addition to the fatigue processes, the U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr and U-10Mo alloys undergo phase transformations that compromise their mechanical properties and structural integrity. This project aims to study the microstructural and mechanical evolution of the U-7,5Nb-2,5Zr and U-10Mo alloys under thermal cycling conditions.
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What type of support u expect.mail me:sheteaditya@yahoo.co.in
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We do water oxidation experiments to generating H2 as a carbon free fuel from water and the main purpose is that we want to use this process for turning the solar energy to a storable chemical fuel. Hence this chemical reaction type is not useful for the above purpose. what are benefits of chemical water oxidation except determination of catalyst's TON or TOF or maybe use of this reaction to generate fuel in places that they don't have enough sun's radiation? Why we are still doing chemical water oxidation experiments beside photochemical, photoelecterochemical and electro chemical water oxidation experiments that matches to our purpose?
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I know about this stuff, just I want to extended a meaning that related to oxidation in water. Water splitting is supposed to be the future green alternative to fossil sources of energy. Many processes are in continuous développement mainly those based on natural radiation. My Regards
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Dear all,
I'm designing an experimental setup for ammonia combustion. I will have liquid ammonia stored in a tank and I want to use it as gaseous fuel in the process.
Do I need to use a carrier gas and a CEM or is it possible to just use a simple evaporator ?
Thank you.
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Hydrogen plant has a turndown ratio of 40% and after reaching this stage, extra H2 is being produced than the required. So it is being vented.
Is there any way to stop this venting and use it as a fuel somewhere like boilers by mixing it with current fuel-natural gas?
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Yes you can use H2 as fuel but there may be some problems related to the low volumetric heating value of H2 (valves wide open to produce required heat).
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dear all,
i'am searching for some good reviews in the field of hydrogen use, hydrogen effect, hydrogen fuel technology in the field of sports and medicine.
please share your papers with me.
is there some research in the field of regeneration in sports and post operation in medicine?
is there some research in special sports like triathlon, canoe, swimming and lifting?
thanks.
beste regards
torsten
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Dear Torsten, here are more recent papers:
Alharbi AAD, Ebine N, Nakae S, Hojo T, Fukuoka Y. Application of Molecular Hydrogen as an Antioxidant in Responses to Ventilatory and Ergogenic Adjustments during Incremental Exercise in Humans. Nutrients 2021;13(2):459.
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I am conducting a study on the use of wood as fuel for a ceramic oven. I look for mathematical models that correlate "moisture content" and "calorific value" of the wood to be able to carry out simulations.
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Hi Douglas,
Perhaps you can use some related equations in the attached book below.
Warm regards,
Mahdi
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Obtain the following information about a power plant:
1. The net power output.
2. Exergy.
3. The type and amount of fuel used;
4. The power consumed by the pumps, fans, and other auxiliary
equipment; stack gas losses;
5. The rate of heat rejection at the condenser.
Using these and other relevant data, determine the rate of irreversibility
in that power plant.
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Hi Samee.
I can suggest you very good textbook which can guide you step by step in solving such an open-ended problem:
you may refer to Chapter 7 of Moran's Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics, SI Version, 9th Edition, Global Edition
There are many problems solved on exergy destruction.
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Hello everyone, I would need some help with a calculation that I am trying to do.
Let's suppose I am trying to understand the the diffusion limitations of oxygen in the burning of a solid fuel.
I would like to get the concentration of the oxygen at the surface of the fuel, and understand the thickness of the boundary layer.
The data I have available is the flow of air in the combustion chamber, as well as the particle size distribution of the fuel.
Does anybody know how to proceed?
Thank you!
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You will have to calculate the diffusivity, yes, and be able understand the boundary layer theory. The diffusivity in this case solid-gas interface. There are alots of analogies that are made available to this extreme. The concentrations and pressure data and mass transfer coefficients must be made available to clearly understand this concept. I recommended you consult materials Transport Phenomenon. You may also check review material on Mass transfer coefficients, and boundary layer theories.
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Good afternoon everyone,
I am currently looking for technical information and details on how to use hydrogenotrophic bacteria in order to create food form CO2.
I need the answers to these problems:
- where can Hydrogenotrophs be found?
- how can they be isolated?
- how can hydrogen be found and used as fuel for these bacteria?
- which equipment does the process need?
- how does the process work? (from collecting the ingredients to producing the protein)
I kindly thank in advance everyone who devolves part of his/her time for reading the question and replying to it. Have a great day!
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Dear Matteo,
the following link will give you answers of all your questions
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Hello everyone, I would be very much grateful if anyone can help me understand that how the fuel (liquid oil) properties depend on the pyrolysis parameters (heating rate, temperature, residence time etc.)? In few papers I have seen such statements however, I have not found any article which establishes such relationships. It would be very much helpful for me if anyone enlightens me in this regard.
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You can have a glimpse at this paper. It focuses on the process parameters influence on product yield for plastic waste feed material.
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I want to calculate the equivalence ratio for a fuel air mixture containing two fuels methane and hydrogen and the oxidizer is air.
I am calculating equivalence ratio as, phi=[(wt. CH4+wt. H2)/(wt. of air)]/[(wt. CH4+wt. H2)/(wt. of air)st.]
Is this the correct way of defining the equivalence ratio or I shall multiply the mass fraction/mole fraction of fuels also with their respective masses to get the correct the equivalence ratio?
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Mass rate is better for calculation.
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Electric power producers need a low-cost, reliable power source when wind and solar generators are not able to meet the load requirement. Energy storage for backup such as hydro and batteries have limitations. A "green" renewable fuel that does not add CO2 to the atmosphere may be the best answer. Fuels being considered are:
Methane from waste (limited supply)
Hydrogen from renewable electricity (Handling and storage problems)
Ammonia from the Haber process 3H2 + N2 --> 2NH3 (Low energy and poor combustion)
Methanol from the Olah process 3H2 + CO2 --> H3COH + H2O (Low energy, burns clean)
The bottom two "green" fuels have modest cost and can be stored as liquids at ambient temperature, a very desirable quality. But, could we do better, maybe by blending?
Here is an idea: a blend of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, and methanol?
I confess, I could use some help. Is there another good choice for "green" fuel?
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i would say hydrogen too
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How to write the fuel and product exergy balances in the cascade heat exchanger in the cascade refrigeration system?
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The definition of fuel and product exergies depends on the chosen reference temperature. For a heat exchanger, possible formulations of fuel/product exergies are shown in the attached figure.
For more detailed information, you can have a look at the following publication:
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I want to define a CO + H2 mixture fuel for a combustor. How can I define this in ansys fluent mixture template ? Normal database does not include this mixture . eg. if I want to define a mixture of 20% CO and 80% H2 how do I proceed without using a UDF ?
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You need to choose an appropriate reaction mechanism which contains both CO and H2. Fluent does offer the 4-step Jones-Lindstedt mechanism, if I recall correctly. Alternatively, use one of the model choices you can find under "non-premixed combustion"... if you have a non-premixed combustion process.
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I looking for answer to above question
All comments are respect
Yours sincerely
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Zaim Gashi Thank you for comment and contribution. Really thanks for your support and kindness