Science topic

Friction - Science topic

Friction is a surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
Questions related to Friction
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
what is the effect of grains, grain boundaries and dislocation on frictional coefficient..
Relevant answer
Answer
Mostly due to shape and geometry of the grain. Since, it is easier for spherical grains to slide and slip as compare to angular or coarse grains.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Hello,
Please help me plot the streamline and isotherm plots for skin friction/ Nusselt number values for different parameters.
Relevant answer
Answer
Please can you share a demo code to plot for my results. I can cross check with my results
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
Hertzian contact pressure of the experimental ball-on-disk friction interface
Relevant answer
Answer
The following parameters you should have:
1. Object shape
2. Poisson's ratio [v1,v2]
3. Elastic modulus [E1,E2]
4. Diameter of object [d1,d2]
5. Force [F]
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
I have a problem of embankment constructed on clay layer over sandy soil. The clay layer of a depth 11m and cu=60kPa, sand soil of a depth 39m and angle of internal friction 35.
I carried out tunnel of 6m in diameter in clay layer at different depth 5,8,10m.
In all cases when carried out only tunnel the settlement value is upward.
I used hardening soil model for clay and sand. I used program PLAXIS 3d in analysis.
Relevant answer
Answer
it means that we need to define a slope for reloading curve in consolidation graph
this value is measurable in such models and experimental tests.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Hi folks
I want to know the best way to calculate or find the power consumed to produce a friction stor weld joint.
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
I think you can calculate the consumed electrical power of the machine.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
There are different frictions in the ball valve aganist openning torque which are packing friction, seat friction and unballanced forces. I am looking for a sample of torque calculations for a ball valve showing the amount of torque for overcoming these frictions.
Relevant answer
Answer
The question is still relevant?
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
4 answers
As it is noticeable, there are several research projects with regard to using of cavitation and the production of bubbles for friction reduction in ship movements. I want to understand the mechanism thoroughly for this process. Also, how much is it practical for decreasing fuel consumption?
Best regards,
Hossein Pouresmaeil
Relevant answer
Answer
This is an inescapable fundamental review (one of the oldest but most quoted) on drag reduction by bubbles on an external flow; Whether injected or created using cavitating flows, the physical phenomenon is fundamentally the same: a dispersed gas-liquid flow that has often been tackled using two-fluid models.
Ceccio, S.L. (2010). Friction drag reduction of external flows with bubble and gas injection. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 42, 183-203.
Abstract
The lubrication of external liquid flow with a bubbly mixture or gas layer has been the goal of engineers for many years, and this article presents the underlying principles and recent advances of this technology. It reviews the use of partial and super-cavities for drag reduction of axisymmetric moving objects within a liquid. Partial cavity flows can also be used to reduce the friction drag on the nominally two-dimensional portions of a horizontal surface, and the basic flow features of two-dimensional cavities are presented. Injection of gas can lead to the creation of a bubbly mixture near the flow surface that can significantly modify the flow within the turbulent boundary layer, and there have been significant advances in the understanding of the underlying physical process of drag reduction. Moreover, with sufficient gas flux, the bubbles flowing beneath a solid surface can coalesce to form a thin drag-reducing air layer. The current applications of these techniques to underwater vehicles and surface ships are discussed.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
How we will find skin friction along the with pile in PLAXIS 3D ? how we will extract shear stress values along with the pile from PLAXIS model output? pls answer ASAP
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Yaswanth,
Nice to hear about your work..skin friction along length of the pile can be calculated using two method..the one if you use embedded beam for simulating the pile then you could find axial force variation along the pile length directly in results output section. The axial force along the pile length is the skin friction..if you use volume element to simulate the pile in your model then you could get vertical and horizontal stress variation along length of the pile. With the use of vertical stress variation, calculate the skin friction using the equation Kx(sigmav)xtandelta Asi..ok all the best..
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
We need to understand the relationship between two dependent variables (Frictional Noise and Coefficient of Friction) and three independent variables (Material Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Sliding Frequency). I need help as to which software to use and how to go about it.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would recommend using Unscrambler. The software package provides various regression method choices (MLR, PCR, PLSR, etc.). You can use the Help function to learn how to use the various functions within the software. The guideline is detailed and covers all the main points (what method to choose, how to prepare your data, interpretation). The software was held until 2020 by Camo Analytics (The Unscrambler X), but currently is under AspenTech (Aspen Unscrambler). I believe you can find a free trial online.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
4 answers
Dear colleagues
I have a question:
In interface shear studies between sand and structures such as geosynthetics or CFRP , how we can calculate or achieve initial relative density for internal and interface friction angles at critical state?
Based on which ASTM, or through which experiments.
Please let me know if you have an answer about this question.
Thank you for your kind responses.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is stress dependent at relativly very low stress level
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
4 answers
Is there any standard table?
Relevant answer
Answer
If you mean does the base material affect the coefficient of friction of a coated bolt, then the answer is not entirely clear. There can be two cases here: weak tightening of the bolt (the coating and the base material do not undergo plastic deformation) and strong tightening of the bolt (the coating and the base are deformed). If in the first case the base material does not matter, then in the second case the base material (its hardness) has a fundamental effect on the coefficient of friction. As for the influence of the atmosphere on the coefficient of friction, it certainly exists. For example, it is widely known that bolted joints in a vacuum can be tightly "welded" due to the diffusion effect of oxide-free metal surfaces.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
15 answers
Relevant answer
Answer
The results seemed to go against the laws of physics: The vacuum, by definition, is completely empty space and does not exert friction on objects within it.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
How can I access information about the effect of friction dampers (Coulomb dry friction) on the dynamic equation of motion? Also the effects of this type of damping on the energy balance equation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Seiyed,
the dynamic energy balance equation is certainly affected due to introduction of friction damper(s) based on Coulomb's dry friction. Even if the friction damper(s) would be based on some other friction mechanism/ type, e.g., wet friction (with Stribeck effect) the dynamic equilibrium equations are changed, so does the energy balance equation as well. Some of these effects (albeit not all) have been studied and reported in the following article:
Hope you would find detailed answers to your questions from the equations given the abovementioned article for evaluating and ascertaining energy balance. Still, if you have further questions please feel free to ask.
All the best in your research work.
With best regards,
Vasant Matsagar.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Hello,
I've successfully simulated the closure of a flapper non-return valve as illustrated.
The inlet velocity increases gradually with a specific acceleration.
The following UDF is used to specify the motion of the flapper:
#include "udf.h"
DEFINE_SDOF_PROPERTIES(flappers_motion, sdof_prop, dt, time, dtime)
{
Six_DOF_Object *sdof_obj = NULL;
sdof_prop[SDOF_MASS] = 2.73e-3; /* flapper's submerged weight */
sdof_prop[SDOF_IXX] = 2161.86e-9; /* around the hinge */
sdof_prop[SDOF_IYY] = 367.96e-9;
sdof_prop[SDOF_IZZ] = 2471.27e-9;
real m= sdof_prop[SDOF_MASS];
real L= 0.024479 ;
sdof_prop[SDOF_LOAD_M_X] = 0 ;
sdof_prop[SDOF_LOAD_M_Y] = 0.0;
sdof_prop[SDOF_LOAD_M_Z] = 0.0;
real th_deg = theta * 180 * 7 / 22 ; /* valve opening angle, in degree */
sdof_obj = Get_SDOF_Object(DT_PU_NAME(dt));
if (NULLP(sdof_obj))
{
/* Allocate_SDOF_Object must be called with the same name as the udf */
sdof_obj = Allocate_SDOF_Object(DT_PU_NAME(dt));
SDOFO_1DOF_R_P(sdof_obj) = TRUE; /*1DOF rotation*/
SDOFO_DIR(sdof_obj)[0] = 1.0;
SDOFO_DIR(sdof_obj)[1] = 0.0;
SDOFO_DIR(sdof_obj)[2] = 0.0;
SDOFO_CENTER_ROT(sdof_obj)[0] = 0.0;
SDOFO_CENTER_ROT(sdof_obj)[1] = 0.0;
SDOFO_CENTER_ROT(sdof_obj)[2] = 0.0;
SDOFO_CONS_P(sdof_obj) = TRUE; /* constrained motion */
if (SDOFO_CONS_P(sdof_obj))
{
SDOFO_LOC(sdof_obj) = 0.0;
SDOFO_MIN(sdof_obj) = -0.0349 ; /* min allowable angle */
SDOFO_MAX(sdof_obj) = 1.0471 ; /* max allowable angle */
SDOFO_INIT(sdof_obj) = SDOFO_LOC(sdof_obj);
SDOFO_LOC_N(sdof_obj) = SDOFO_LOC(sdof_obj);
}
}
}
But now I want to simulate the closure of the flapper, taking into account the friction at the flapper's hinge.
I tried to just assign the friction value to "sdof_prop[SDOF_LOAD_M_X]" ,but the flapper started to move backwards (opening) until the flow increases, which is not correct.
So I want to get the value of the hydrodynamic torque of the flapper, and compare it to the friction with some kind of "if statement" that may look like this:
real static_friction= 50;
real kinetic_friction=40;
real hydraulic_torque =??? ;
If (hydraulic_torque<static_friction)
{
sdof_prop[SDOF_LOAD_M_X]=0
}
else
{
sdof_prop[SDOF_LOAD_M_X]=-1*kinetic_friction;
}
BUT THE PROBLEM IS :
I don't know the udf code that can get the actual value of the hydraulic_torque on the flapper to compare it to the friction value.
Your help is highly appreciated.
Thanks a lot in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Ok, I've found how,
In case of someone else has the same issue,
Use the macro :
Compute_force_and_moment
Within the 6dof code
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I have 6 reads each one in a Different day and i need to compare f for all with f of moody chart
Relevant answer
Answer
Using Moody's diagram (chart), at first needs calculating Reynolds number, as well as knowing the value of pipe internal surface roughness value "e". Then, the value of friction factor can be readily derived from Moody's diagram.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
I am having trouble detecting a large (~900kDa) protein using SDS page. I think the issue I am having is with the protein not migrating onto the gel for some reason or another. I use 3-8% Tris-Acetate gels and load about ~40-60ug of cell lysate. I run the gel at a constant voltage (100V for 30 minutes and then 150V for 2.5 hours) for roughly 3 hours total.
I do notice that as the run progresses the protein ladder progressively runs slower as the resistance increases. Should I therefore be running the gel at constant current instead of constant voltage?
Any suggestions will be much appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Alex,
The protein kDa is quite high. Your electrophoresis system is horizontal or vertical? In "vertical agarose gel electrophoresis" system, by reduced acrylamide ratio (eg 6-7%), better separation can be achieved with low voltage by preventing heating. However, it would be difficult to create a compatible blotting protocol with it. During transfer to the membrane, relatively high heat, and removing methanol from the protocol may increase transfer. As another option, you could try two dimentional isoelectric focusing.
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I am perfoming a simulation to determine the elastic/plastic behavior of a polymer material in abaqus.To simulate the plastic behavior of the material I am using a drukcer prager model. I have performed tensile and compression tests in order to determine the input parameters in abaqus (angle of friction, and hardening data). I have encountered convergence problem when I use the linear model, so I am trying to use the hyperbolic model but I do not know how to calculate the parameters for the hyperbolic model (angle of friction, Init Tension), any guideline in how to do it?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Christian Barona,
I recommend doing a hyperbolic curve-fitting on your data and obtaining the data you need. You can do this with MATLAB or Excel. Also, for more info, refer to this link: https://abaqus-docs.mit.edu/2017/English/SIMACAEMATRefMap/simamat-c-druckerprager.htm
Moreover, take a look at the links below. These are articles about the convergence issues and debugging in the ABAQUS.
Best wishes.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I am trying to find the formulation used by SAP2000 to calculate the shear strength of the material so to compare and extract the friction angle and cohesion? or is there another way to know the latter values? As I do have them in my model but couldn't input them.
Many thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Did you find any answer to this ? If yes, please share.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
I am modeling dynamic compaction in Abaqus. I model the impact of a tamper on the soil and the job completes successfully, but the result has some problems. The impact happens and after that, the tamper starts moving in the opposite direction and bounces up. I want to know why this happens and how can I solve it?
Parts= soil is defined as a 3D deformable part and the tamper is also a deformable part with high young's modulus and in the interaction module, I define rigid body constraint for that.
Property= sandy soil with low cohesion.
No damping is defined, but I think it does not make a considerable difference in the trend.
Interaction= general contact, hard contact, and frictionless ( I also tried assigning a friction coefficient, but it does not change anything.)
For modeling the impact, I assigned velocity to the reference point of the tamper.
I attach the results.
Would you please help me solve this problem? I really need to figure this out.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi
Please send me your model
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
If you don't have exactly what i'm looking for i would like to know how the Static friction coeficient for plastic material is changing with an increase of temeprature.
For example we have easily friction coeficient for plastic @ ambienat but is it increasing if we are @ 40°C & 50°C and 60° till 80°C
Thanks
Relevant answer
Friction and Temperature Behavior of Lubricated Thermoplastic Polymer Contacts
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
7 answers
For calculation of pile capacity in mudstone, the end bearing was reduced by 50% by the soil investigation agency in calculations. Should any correction be applied to the skin friction component as well?
Relevant answer
Answer
The resistance factors to be applied while calculating end bearing and side friction during pile design vary from code to code. Normally, you may use a reduction factor in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 while calculating pile capacity. It must be noted that the reduction factors depend on a number of elements like available geotechnical parameters for design, degree of importance, design reliability, type of materials, pile type, driving method, etc.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
hi, can any one send the code for reciprocating wear test, find out the coefficient of friction and wear analysis?
Relevant answer
Answer
I can't provide the code but for calculating friction, you need to include the squeeze effect, since friction versus position throughout the reciprocating test is not symmetric. If you assume it is hydrodynamic friction, the relevant equations can be found in a paper of mine (R.I. Taylor, "Squeeze film lubrication in piston rings and reciprocating contacts", Journal of Engineering Tribology, 2015). You could potentially do a similar analysis assuming elastohydrodynamic contact.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
13 answers
Dear fellow contact mechanicians,
I just stumbled over a problem in analytic mechanics of plane Cattaneo problems in the presence of bulk stress.
It is said that the Ciavarella-Jäger principle for "small enough bulk stress" applies to this problem in the following form:
q(x) = \mu*(p(x; P, beta = 0) - p(x; P - Q/mu, beta)),
where q(x) is the tangential contact traction distribution, p(x) the pressure distribution, P the normal line load, Q the tangential line load, mu the friction coefficient and beta a "rotation angle" proportional to the bulk stress, which I will discuss in a minute.
The second term on the right side in above equation corresponds to a "fictious" normal contact problem of the same contacting bodies under the load (P - Q/mu) and with a relative rotation by beta.
The condition of "small enough bulk stress" is basically that the contact area for this "fictious" problem (which corresponds to the stick region in the actual Cattaneo problem), completely lies within the actual contact area. Moreover, a non-zero value of beta will increase the contact length on one side and decrease it on the other side. So, e.g., for Q = 0 the condition of "moderate bulk stress" is actually that beta = 0, i.e., there is no bulk stress.
Now, we know that tangential contact problems have a loading history. Even the Cattaneo problem has a history: first the normal load is applied, and then an increasing tangential load. However, when beginning to apply the tangential load, Q equals zero, so any (constant) bulk stress will violate the "moderate bulk stress condition".
Or to put it more generally: For any non-zero constant bulk stress, the "moderate bulk stress condition" is violated at the beginning of tangential loading.
Does that change anything about the final contact configuration at the end of the Cattaneo loading?
Or am I missing something?
Thank you very much for your help!
Kind regards,
Emanuel
Relevant answer
Answer
Well thank you, but that paper doesn't answer my question, as the authors just put moderate bulk stress ("We restrict attention to cases in which the direction of slip is the same at either end of the contact") and calculate from there. And for now, I am only interested in the Cattaneo loading, not the cyclic case.
My question is, what happens, if the contact switches from non-moderate to moderate bulk stress? Consider Q = 0. Then, the "moderate bulk stress condition" is that there is actually no bulk stress; you can look it up in Barber's book, but it is logical, as any bulk stress will lead to opposite slip directions at the two contact ends.
Now, does that change anything about the contact solution if Q gets large enough during the Cattaneo loading for the bulk stress to be actually moderate?
I guess, the point is, that slip will always just propagate inside from the contact edges, unless loading is reversed, even if the bulk stress is not moderate, and so, no point will ever switch from slip to stick (although at one edge the slip direction is continously reversed), but I am not able to prove that rigorously.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I am working on landfill in plaxis 3d and i have provided the cover system with diffferent layers as given below
1. Top Soil ( vegetative Cover)
2. Drainage layer
3. Compacted Clay Layer
4. Gas collection layer
To analyse what should be the different properties like cohesion, friction angle , Modulus of elasticity, etc which i should provide to different layers
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Pranjal,
Please kindly check the following book:
Bests,
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
I'm currently working on ball-on-disk tribological test using different oils.
Is there a direct relation between the coefficient of friction and the lubrication regime of the coupled surfaces?
Is the resulting coefficint of friction related to the materials properties or the lubricant properties? Or both of them?
Thank you to all that would help me.
Relevant answer
Answer
Your question spans quite a big field, but I will try to answer succinctly.
There is no simple formula relationship between the coefficient of friction and the lubrication regime. You could look at the Stribeck curve and see the trend for coefficient of friction as the contact moves through the regimes, but this is more indicative than conclusive. To calculate it, you would probably need numerical simulations of the lubricant and surface load carrying capacities.
One approach would be to evaluate the ratio of the film thickness relative to the composite surface roughness. As a rough guide, where this ratio is large the regime is probably hydrodynamic, between 3 and 1.5 is probably mixed and less than 1.5 is probably boundary.
Please also bear in mind that that regime of lubrication will vary in the contact, as the surfaces are non-conformal.
The coefficient of friction that you measure can be dependent on a lot of factors. The lubricant viscosity, surface roughness and material hardness are probably the main factors, but the importance of these will change depending on what regime of lubrication you are in. Any additive within the lubricant, temperature, pressure, directionality of the surface roughness and slide-to-roll ratio may also be important factors.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
7 answers
Hello everyone,
I am conducting reciprocating wear test, and I have a question regarding obtaining coefficient of friction. As a matter of fact, the diagram of Coefficient of friction (COF) against time obtained by software has both negative and positive COF values. However, in most of the papers I have seen so far, only positive value of COF has been plotted against time. So, I was wondering if I should take absolute value of my data and then plot or there is another way to do so?
Relevant answer
Answer
COF is the ratio between the resistive friction force (Fr) and the normal force (N) that’s pushing on the objects. Here is the common equation for finding the coefficient of friction (fr):
fr/N = fr
Thus, it can not be negative. This is a number between 0 and 1.
For a moving object: Fr = v/(g * t)
You can use a stopwatch to determine the kinetic or rolling coefficient of friction. But it is not easy to do. If you have an object moving at some velocity v and you let it roll or slide along a surface until it stopped. You could then measure the time t it takes to stop to determine its coefficient of friction. From the Force Equation, F = m*a, where a is the acceleration. Since the object is starting at some velocity v and decelerating until v = 0, then the force of friction can be written as: Fr = m*v/t If the object weighs W pounds, and W = m*g, where g is the gravity constant 32 ft/sec/sec (9.8 m/s2, then the Friction Equation is: Fr = fr*W = fr*m*g
Combining the two equations for Fr, we get: fr*m*g = m*v/t or :
fr = v/(g*t)
There are fours types of coefficient of friction, but the main ones are static and kinetic. You can determine the coefficient by direct measurements or by clever indirect means. There are charts with the coefficients of friction available for reference.
Regards
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
Examples:
Journal style
[1] Battal T, Bain C D, Weiss M, Darton R C. Surfactant adsorption and Marangoni flow in liquid jets: Experiments. J Colloid Interface Sci 263(1): 250–260 (2003)
Book style
[2] Bowden F P, Tabor D. Friction and Lubrication of Solids. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press, 1950.
Chapter in book style
[3] Compton K G. Seawater tests. In: Handbook on Corrosion Testing and Evaluation. Ailor W H, Ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1971: 507–514.
Report and proceeding style
[4] Bassani R, Ciulli E, Manfredi E, Manconi S, Polacco A, Pugliese G. Experimental study on wear and fracture in aeronautical gear transmissions. In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, Turin, Italy, 2006: 979–986.
Patent style
[5] Lenz J R. Compact tribology tester. U.S. Patent 6 817 223, Nov. 2004.
Thesis style
[6] Qian L M. Studies on preparation and nano-tribological properties of ordered films. Ph.D. Thesis. Beijing (China): Tsinghua University, 1999.
Web style
[7] Information on http://www.brycoat.com/, 2008.
Article by DOI style
[8] Slifka M K, Whitton J L. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Medhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s001090000086 (2000).
Non-English publication style
[9] Jia W, Zhang Q, Bai Z, Ma S, Yao D, Wang Y. Progress on manufacturing techniques of shaped charge liners. Rare Metal Mater Eng 36(9): 1511–1516 (2007) (in Chinese)
Standard
[10] US-ASTM. ASTM D974-2014 Standard test method for acid and base number by color-indicator titration. ASTM, 2014.
Thank you in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Tuong Ly Kiet Dao (re: Springer - Friction citation style on Mendeley) In your Mendeley application look for or install: Springer - Basic (numeric, brackets, no "et al.") The Springer - Friction journal does not supply a separate citation style language (CSL) template, only examples which appear to be very close to the generic Springer generic numbered style they use for numerous science disciplines. Springer Basic is a modified Harvard style and if you notice small differences in the Friction examples you can edit the Springer - Basic (numeric, brackets, no "et al.") style to suit your needs.
Cheers,
Leo
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
I am trying to probe force reaction in explict but getting error message. The top plate and bottom plate are assigned as frictional contact with 0.2 friction coefficient. Please suggest what is the mistake. I have attached the screenshots.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is necessary to try much lower values of the coefficient of friction.
regards
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Can anyone help to check whether the major head loss calculation for the attached pipeline is correct? Kindly advise. Thanks!
Inclined uphill portion:
Length, L= 5.68m
Diameter, D=0.5984m
velocity, v= 17.62 m/s
surface roughness / Diameter, e/D =0.000250668
Re=4.08E+05
friction factor, f =0.0165
Pipeline Inclined angle = 70 deg
So,
Head loss=[ f*(L/D)*(v^2)/(2g) ] + L*sin (70 deg) =6.874042435 m
Straight Horizontal portion:
Length, L= 9.8m
Diameter, D=0.5984m
velocity, v= 17.62 m/s
surface roughness / Diameter, e/D =0.000250668
Re=4.08E+05
friction factor, f =0.0165
Pipeline Inclined angle = 0 deg
So,
Head loss=[ f*(L/D)*(v^2)/(2g) ] =4.276014958 m
Inclined downhill portion:
Length, L= 5.68m
Diameter, D=0.5984m
velocity, v= 17.62 m/s
surface roughness / Diameter, e/D =0.000250668
Re=4.08E+05
friction factor, f =0.0165
Pipeline Inclined angle = 70 deg
So,
Head loss= [ f*(L/D)*(v^2)/(2g) ] - Lsin (70 deg) = -1.917355708m
Total head loss= 6.874042435 m + 4.276014958 m - 1.917355708m
Total head loss=9.232702 m
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Carrie Chang,
Please correct the value of the friction factor f. The exact value is:
f = 0.0161460, instead of f = 0.0165
Also: L*sin(70°) = 5.68*0.939692621=5.337454086 m
Regards
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
what are the factors that affect the coefficient of friction in surface coatings and can I get this research paper "Laser surface cladding of Ti-6Al-4V on AISI 316L stainless steel for bio-implant application"
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Kiran, in general, there is no established relation between friction-coefficient and wear rate, but reduction in friction-coefficient means lesser resistant to relatively moving surface and as a result lesser wear rate.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Given that the percentage of liquefaction is estimated based on the value of Excess Pore Water Pressure Ratio( Ru = 0-1). Is there a relationship or equation between Ru and pile skin friction?
How can a more economical plan be presented by accurately calculating the amount of pile skin friction reduction in liquefied soil?
EPWPR=Ru
Ru= EPWP/ σ'v0
EPWP= Pexcess=excess pore water pressure
σ'v0=initial effective stress
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your answer
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
Hi all,
I was just wondering if two materials (e.g: Steels and cobalt alloys) with the same coefficient of friction exhibit different wear rates. Can this be possible or not?
Kindly assist with published references.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
The coefficient of friction and wear of the material are in no way related to each other. The fact that the wear of a material increases with an increase in the coefficient of friction does not mean at all that, at a certain coefficient of friction, all materials should wear out in the same way.
The falsity of this idea becomes obvious when considering any pair of friction from two different materials: in such a pair of friction there is a certain coefficient of friction, but the wear of the two materials occurs at different rates.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
One of the assumptions of the masonry structures analysis is "Sliding will not occur" (Heyman`s assumptions).
In near field domain, the wave P has a strong role. It throws the objects and structures up which leads to decreasing the friction. For example, in the Bam earthquake vertical PGA was almost g: no friction. In this case, it seems that in the near field domain this analysis method is meaningless and the masonry buildings will be destroyed.
This query is very important, because in my country Iran, most of the rural houses are in near field domain.
Best,
Farzin
Relevant answer
Answer
In the 2003 Bam Earthquake, very high PGA had been recorded in all directions. In addition to the vertical component that had its clear effects on buildings, the horizontal components had made their effects as well.
For more details, refer to the following papers:
Mahdi, T. “Performance of Traditional Arches and Domes in Recent Iranian Earthquakes”, 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, paper No. 2871, August 2004.
1. Mahdi, T. "Performance of Traditional Arches, Vaults and Domes in the 2003 Bam Earthquake", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 209-221.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
I am using CPD model using Abaqus (FEM) I am facing the mentioned error "The plasticity/creep/connector friction algorithm did not converge at 1 points" which aborted the Analysis. What should I do to overcome this error.
At interaction I am using Tie connection for loading and support assembly. The model Analysis completed successfully for 1 MPa or Less than 1 Mpa but when i increase the load it gives me error. The analysis started but after some increment it aborted.
As like when i used the surface to surface (Interaction) contact for loaded plated and steel roller at support then it gives me an error " Displacement increment is too big" and analysis aborted.
The model pic is attached.
Kindly share your views that I have to overcome this error.
Relevant answer
Answer
Compare your model with this video
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
The tri-axial shear test is the most versatile of all the shear test testing methods for getting shear strength of soil i.e. Cohesion (C) and Angle of Internal Friction (Ø), though it is a bit complicated. This test can measure the total as well as effective stress parameters both. These two parameters are required for the design of slopes, calculation of bearing capacity of any strata, calculation of consolidation parameters and in many other analyses. This test can be conducted on any type of soil, drainage conditions can be controlled, pore water pressure measurements can be made accurately and volume changes can be measured. In this test, the failure plane is not forced, the stress distribution of the failure plane is fairly uniform and the specimen can fail on any weak plane or can simply bulge.
Relevant answer
Answer
Generally if you are conducting UU test in saturated conditions, it is expected that the failure plane will be horizontal and thus the slope of the failure plane (which is angle of internal friction) will be zero.
So if you are interested in getting phi, you should perform the test under partially saturated condition.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
Vfric subroutine offers to prescribe a model based on slip rate and contact pressure. However I want to include strain and use my own model for contact pressure and slip rate. Is there anybody who has experience in it?
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Dear All, I am doing drilling simulation using explicit dynamics in ansys but not able to create the frictional contact between two bodies. Please find the attached file in which I am not able to select contact. Please help me. Thanks in advance.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
Hello everyone.
Is there anyone here with hands-on experience at the implementation the Augmented Lagrangian method of contact analysis in 2D and 3D?
I know the theory and the basics and I have implemented the method in 2D and 3D. My issue is with the convergence of the method specially in 3D and when the contact has friction. I have read some papers but they don't help. I am looking forward to hearing be practical tips.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
Hye;
I want to ask related to a formula for calculation of friction force for journal bearing by using CFD ANSYS FLUENT. Which formula should use ya..the first one or the second one. I find both formulas in the article. Thanks in advance.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
Considering a four wheel skid steering heavy robot of one ton, I need to know the minimum torque needed to rotate itself from standstill.
Are the calculous very easy or there is a paper that is exhaustively focused on this issue?
In my opinion, the wheels torque should be greater than (i.e. win) the static friction considering that all four wheels are not rotating. Indeed the robot should move normal to its longitudinal axe which in our case coincides with the longitudinal axes of the wheels.
Other than the impact of an agricultural environment on the static friction, what is the impact of the wheel orientation?
What is the impact of the center of gravity in case it does not coincide with the center of area?
Thank you very much
Stefano
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
4 answers
In case of turbulent flow over an irregular shape, how can we find the first layer thickness near the walls of the irregular boundary.?
For flow over a flat plate, the skin friction co-efficient can be found by the direct formula, for irregular shapes how can we find the skin friction coefficient.
Relevant answer
Answer
Academic resources on fluid Mechanics are provided on the project references:
SINGLE PHASE AND MULTIPHASE TURBULENT FLOWS (SMTF) IN NATURE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS | Jamel Chahed | 3 publications | Research Project (researchgate.net)
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Hi all,
I would like to visualise the cartilage wear on the surface of glenoid after friction test using a UV light (on macroscopic level). Could you please recommended me a florescent dye that I can use and won't affect the structural propertied of cartilage as I will be using the cartilage for histology after. 
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
لأن تمزُّق الغضروف الهلالي يحدث في غضروف لا يظهر على الأشعة السينية. لكن يُمكن للأشعة السينية المساعدة في استبعاد المشاكل الأخرى للركبة، والتي تتسبَّب في أعراض مشابهة.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
I want Friction pile group efficiency data and I am unable to find anything about it. I want cohesion number of pile adhesion factor etc.?
Relevant answer
Answer
Prof. Gopal Ranjan Book is Good Read , Please refer to that
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
A consolidated drained and consolidated undrained triaxial tests tests were done on a clay sample .. The angle of friction was greater in the CD test, but the cohesion was less ... The question is: When a footing is placed on this clay.. In which of the two tests is the settlement of the footing is greater?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ahmed
I think you must perform the CU and CD tests on significant number of identical soil specimens and compare the settlement values. It may change depending on the physical properties of the tested soil specimen.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
7 answers
Asbestos is considered the best brake friction material because of its high thermal stability, low wear rate, low cost, etc. But, due to its carcinogenic effects, asbestos has been phased out. Now, asbestos-free braking materials are being developed. Today, non-asbestos organic (NAO) brake pads are being used widely. But, NAO brake pads have low thermal stability. So, the NAO type of brake pads is not suitable for heavy-duty applications. So, which materials are ideal for heavy-duty braking applications? Metal matrix composites? Carbon-carbon composites? Ceramic composites? or any other?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sir,
Ceramic-Graphene, Kevlar- Graphene/CNT etc. are perfect materials for the heavy duty brake as per recent scientific outputs. However, it's commercial version still under review..
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
I had a question revolving around the friction hardening law based on UBCSAND model utilized in CY model embedded in FLAC3D-V5. Apropos of CY model, the users are supposed to define a table of the mobilized friction angle in terms of the plastic shear strain. Inasmuch as the ensuing equations, i.e. Eq.1 and Eq.2, were posited for the frictional soils, I have tended to think of modifying the aforesaid equations so as to harness in the cohesive frictional soils medium in light of the fact that the friction hardening table in CY model ought to be adjusted to reflect more realistic behavior for a cohesive material.
Eq.1
Eq.2
Having perused HS model in PLAXIS plus CY model in FLAC3D, the formula concomitant with the elastic shear modulus has been rectified for the clayey soils as follow:
Eq.3
As respects the plastic shear modulus formula, can I have your say whether or not Eq.1 is expected to be modified with the intention of adding the mobilized cohesion?
Relevant answer
Answer
That is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
I am trying to understand if there is a relationship between the angle of internal friction of soils and the angle at which the stress is distributed within the soil if a vertical force (via a footing) is applied at the surface.
Relevant answer
Answer
That is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
Hello,
I'm trying to simulate an experimental contact between a truss and a constraining lateral device due to a vertical load, in ABAQUS. The contact happened because the truss had an imperfection that made it have a little horizontal displacement instead of just vertical. To simulate this in ABAQUS I used connectors with only elastic properties(non-linear) but it doesn't represent an increase in the rigidity of the force-displacement curve in the place where the load(a displacement) was applied.
So I thought about using a friction property in the connectors but I am having trouble finding the right parameters for the contact force section.
How do I find the Internal Contact force??
Thank you very much in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
That is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
Hi all
Im modeling interaction of soil and reinforcement in abaqus. As you know there are two obtaining parameters for soil-reinforcement interface from direct shear test of soil and reinforcement:
1. Friction coefficient between these surfaces
2. Apparent cohesion (adhesion)
for simulating mentioned interaction in abaqus I used surface to surface contact algorithm.
Friction coefficient can be defined in Tangential behavior >> Penalty method, However I can not find any way to insert apparent cohesion of interface.
It should be mentioned that Intrinsic cohesion of soil inserted as a plastic property of soil in mohr - coulomb plasticity. But apparent cohesion between these two surfaces cannot be defined in mentioned part, because this property is related in both surfaces.(its not the plastic property of one material).
Im wondering to hear any suggestion.
Thanks for your attention beforehand.
Alireza Akbari
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Is it possible to change or form new chemical bonding using frictional heating during high sliding operations?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, it is possible. It depends against which material the friction occures. For instence, PI against SS creats a new chemical bond, etc.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
I am currently working on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of metallic glasses by molecular dynamics simulation, to investigate the Dynamic mechanical relaxation in metallic glasses. is there a relation between medium range order and the internal friction in metallic glasses? What are the atomic rearrangements that govern internal friction in glasses?
Relevant answer
Answer
Recommend
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
The relative importance and dominance between the forces (inertial, frictional and viscous) in a debris flow are characterized by dimensionless numbers such as Bagnold number, Savage number, Friction number etc. For calculation, we need flow depth and Interstitial fluid viscosity along with other parameters. So here I would like to ask, which flow depth we need to measure. Is it the point data where we have fixed the sensor or do we need the average depth?
Regarding the interstitial fluid viscosity, how to measure this parameter. Do we need to do rheometry or do we have any empirical formula to calculate the viscosity of a debris flow mixture.
Relevant answer
Answer
Don't guess you need the flow depth, the flow rate or Re number give better information regarding this area. To get the viscosity, you can either find it from references, or measure it via the viscometer or calculate it if it combined fluid.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
How does lateral stiffness affect friction in general? or how lateral stiffness of vertically aligned carbon nanotube will lead to higher friction?
Relevant answer
Answer
Check out the following link; it might help you:
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
Fellow researchers, please help me in getting some experimental results which I can use for determining the interface stiffnesses (normal and shear), cohesion and friction angle values for debris to rockmass (preferably Phyllite and Quartzite) interface in a slope. I do not have any experimental results of the interface properties.
Relevant answer
Answer
Koushik,
look at work by Iverson and Major on Debris flow mechanics (Springer link) 2005.
and
The influence of slope-angle ratio on the dynamics of granular flows: insights from laboratory experiments
  • R. Sulpizio,
  • D. Castioni,
  • L. A. Rodriguez-Sedano,
  • D. Sarocchi &
  • F. Lucchi
Bulletin of Volcanology volume 78, Article number: 77 (2016) Cite this article
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I have precision mirror mount, which control mirror angle by 2 positioning screws.
These screws slowly loosened during usage, so I have to rotate regularly to maintain exact mirror angle.
I first thought to apply loctite, but did not cause worrying that it might permanently fix screws immovable and become unable to adjust anymore.
Can you suggest any good method, to add little more friction to screw?
thanks,
Relevant answer
Answer
1. Remove excess lubricant. Too much lubricant may cause the issue. Wipe it cleanly.
2. Apply weak screw adhesive. ex) loctite threadlocker 222.
Some weak screw adhesive model give enough friction to screw to not loosen, while keep screw removable and rotatable by bare finger.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
How can I model the shear behaviour at the interface of composite layers knowing that I only have the frictional shear stress as a property ?
Relevant answer
Answer
For example you can model composite as elastic inhomogeneous body with the boundary condition on the interface that claims that shear stress in the interface cannot exceed critical value (frictional shear stress).
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Youngs modulus of a material reduces with an increase in temperature. However, I would like to know what is the effect of frequency variation on Youngs modulus.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sourav Ganguly,
It is a range of questions, all in one. Youngs modulus is one thing, and strength of steel another, related.
Do you concern degradation, such that you mean a type of Youngs modulus after a dynamic load sequence? Or combined dynamic loads with strength and stiffness measure at certain times.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I am interested in finding reports of the use of hydrophobic coatings on metal surfaces moving in an aqueous medium that produces a reduction in friction.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I want to calculate skin friction coefficient , Nusselt and Sherwood number for different values of magnetic parameter, Prandtl number etc. in case of MHD Boundary Layer flow and Heat transfer over exponentially stretching sheet
Relevant answer
Answer
Good day. Your research is interesting, but I only work with lubricants. Friction coefficient calculated by torque
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
6 answers
Context: our hospital's operating area recently suffered from a tragic fire incident. Some of my instruments were left inside. Fortunately, the integrity of all of them were not compromised - all still had proper form and function. Unfortunately - they were all covered in rust.
I've attempted to restore some of them by soaking in vinegar, then vigorously rubbing a sponge - the results were more than satisfying. majority of the rust was removed. I'm just having a difficult time with the clamping ends and the hinges since they are small and the sponge can't induce enough friction due to the size difference (of the sponge and nooks and crannies). In short, I can remove most of the rust, but the tips, ends and small parts may have rust.
My questions are:
1. If I could remove all the rust, would it be safe to use them again for OR provided they have been sterilized? Sometimes I also don't know if the rust is rust or a stain that can't be removed, based on what I've already read.
2. More of my main concern is if there is a way to "dissolve" or "let the rust fall off" without the need for friction (Because of the size of instruments as mentioned). I've seen on YouTube that some have tried electrolysis to remove rust from surfaces but I think you still need to rub off some of the material.
3. If there is a better alternative than what I'm doing now (soaking in white vinegar for indefinite periods of time then rubbing the rust off)
Apologies if this is not the right platform for this kind of query - I just thought different disciplines may provide a well - thought answer to what may seem like a post for a hardware or DIY forum.
I'd really just want to be able to reuse my instruments without having to buy new ones again because the only problem with them now is rust and not integrity.
Cheers, thank you for taking the time to read this. Attached are photos of my instruments, some photos show some of the instruments already cleaned, and some show the tips and clamp ends I am worried about.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Surgistain® is a safe, efficient and quick revitalizing solution for stainless steel surgical instruments, trays, basins and case carts. The product removes rust, stains, spotting, hard water scale and mineral deposits frequently encountered from sterilization. It also helps to loosen stiff joints and locks.
Kind Regards
Qamar Ul Islam
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
Bernoulli’s Theorem
The pore-fluids (water, oil & water) associated with an oil reservoir have internal fluid friction (or viscosity). Hence, the work done on water, oil & gas particles would remain “greater” than the respective increases in their mechanical energy – because - a fraction of work done would have got converted into heat energy through the action of internal friction.
Whether this heat energy would remain sensitive (or significant) enough at the sub-pore-scale - in influencing the reduction in Inter Facial Tension (IFT) or Wettability Reversal - associated with Chemical/Microbial EOR?
Will the generated heat energy would vary significantly as a function of API Gravity of Crude?
Relevant answer
Answer
Energy is conserved so the heat gained by the fluid as it passes through the pores is calculable. This heat will cause a temperature rise which will I believe be small unless the viscosity or the flow rate is very high. You can get the answer from Bernoulli's equation if you ignore any heat taken up by the formation (i.e. the rocks). Let's assume flow down a capillary pore with a pressure gradient of 0.1 bar/m i.e. 10 000 Pa/m. If the fluid is oil of density 900 kg/m3, the decrease in energy per unit mass is 10 000/900 = 11 J/kg. The increase in temperature would therefore be 11/specific heat capacity. The specific heat capacity of crude oil is about 2000 kJ/kg. Therefore the increase in T is about 0.005 degrees Celsius. Not enough to change the viscosity.
I know oil flows are radial and so a fixed pressure gradient is inappropriate but, these numbers show that it's quite difficult to get much change in T unless you have pressure gradients a couple of orders of magnitude larger than the one I chose.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
Hi...
I have create a piezoelectric friction damper in Ansys for seismic protection..now i wamt to add semiactive control algorithm for that damper. How i can do that..if anyone can help me....
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Actually i have create piezoelectric friction damper in ansys. I want to add semiactive approach in ansys.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
I have data from an experiment conducted to measure kinematic co-efficient of friction. But to know how much slipping force is required to slip the interfaces (steel plates) , I need static co-efficient of friction (the threshold value). Is there any relation available to calculate this?
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Abhishek Parida as suggested in my previous reply, you can find some equations as a starting point in the paper:
"Physical analysis of the state- and rate-dependent friction law. II. Dynamic friction" T. Baumberger and P. Berthoud, 1999
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
14 answers
Earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing faster than climate change models predict. Heat from anthropogenic friction may explain this observation. Conservation of energy dictates that energy used to propel and stop vehicles eventually becomes heat. This previously unacknowledged heat emanates in part from vehicular boundary layer aerodynamics and braking systems. The number of aircraft and ground-based vehicles in use suggests anthropogenic frictional heat may be a significant contributor to global warming. These observations support much wider use of regenerative braking systems.
Relevant answer
Answer
Any transformation of energy on planet contributes to all
functioning mechanisms of planet.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
2 answers
How to set up the boundary condition for the following problem in Abaqus (Image is attached).
The feedstock will corotate with the hollow rotating tool and one pusher will push the feedstock through the tool over the substrate.
Kindly help me to set up the model. I am little bit confused with boundary conditions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Kumar Ujjwal,
If you see the process its different from FSW. In FSW the tool pin penetrates into the workpiece. Here the rigid tool does not have any pin, rather hollow in nature. A feedrod is feed through the hollow tool.
The hollow tool is having only rotation constraining all other DOFs. But the feedrod will initially corotate along with hollow tool at same RPM and will have a downfeed by some actuator to cause both compression and shear at the contact interface of feedrod and substrate.
The hollow tool only restrict the vertical motion of the material flow of the deformed feedrod.
So here I think the BC is little bit tricky.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
.I am trying to run my user defined properties for MOHR COULOMB plasticity.(field variable is the plastic strain).
In the input file, you can see 4 different set of mohr coulomb plasticity(in every set the 3rd variable is field variable which is "plastic equivalent strain". as ''PE".
This subroutine is for Mohr Coulomb (dependencies=1) means field variable =plastic equivalent strain
n Abaqus you can add a field parameter in your Mohr-Coulomb material and add more values of internal angle of friction and dilation angles with respect to this parameter, below you can find the corresponding lines of an input file. The values below are indicative, at "Mohr Coulomb,dependencies=1" the first value of each line is the internal angle of friction the second is the dilation angle and the third is the plastic equivalent strain (PEMAG, not PEEQ)
Below is my input file
**
** MATERIALS
**
*Material, name=SAND
*Density
1.8,
*Depvar
1,
*Elastic
8000., 0.3
*user defined field
*Mohr Coulomb,dependencies=1
37.0, 0.1,0.0
45.0, 8.,0.016
37.0, 0.1,0.09
37.0, 0.1,10.
*Mohr Coulomb Hardening
2.,0.
**
below is my attached USDFLD subroutine
Relevant answer
Answer
Could you describe your question clearer and in more detail?
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
I am working on a simulation of two blocks connected frictionally by surface contact, one block slides on another. I have to calculate the wear occurred on the moving block. please tell me, how to write TB wear command in Ansys APDL for this analysis and how to plot results.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
3 answers
I want to simulate the process as attached in the video. In reality the feedstock will have both downfeed and rotation, whereas in the video the substrate is having the rotaion and feedstock is having a downfeed.
Coupling the complete feedstock with condition of all DOF fixed except u3 and ur3 is not serving the purpose, as the feedstock will be deformed while it comes into contact with substrate i.e. radially expand.
Kindly help with the constraint to be provided in the interaction module and the load condition to simulate the process as attached in the video.
Both the feedstock and substrate is of AA6061 alloy. The feedstock is having a downfeed of 1mm/sec, and a rotation of 104.72 rad/sec.
Hopefully dynamic explicit will work well in severe plastic deformation case.
Relevant answer
Answer
I have only downfeed velocity as boundaty condition mentioned in the journal. And how to give both rotation and downfeed to the feedstock? Do I need to use any predefined field in abaqus?
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
5 answers
I want to understand the theoretical relationship between the functionality of the alternator and its heat generation by Joule effect and mechanical friction.
Relevant answer
Answer
Are you talking about the alternator in a car? If so, the vast majority of heat generated comes from I²R losses following the constantly shifting magnetic field. The bearing and air swirling contributions are negligible by comparison. Just rest your hand on the casing for a moment to verify this.
  • asked a question related to Friction
Question
1 answer
Hi!
I modeled a simplified system of two tires joined by an axle in Transient Estructural. I used a joint translational and a force applied to the axle to move the system.
Initially when the entire system and base were made of steel, the wheels turned and displaced. However when I changed the materials like rubber for the wheels surface, aluminum for the rim and axle, and concrete for the base, the wheels were slipping but no longer turning.
  • I used frictional contact with a friction coefficient of 0.8 between the base and the tires
  • Frictionless contact between the rim and the axle
  • For the area between the rim and the tire I used the share topology in the Space Claim instead of using a contact bonded
I need the wheels to roll and turn, I have tried to change the friction parameters but cannot find the problem.
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Andrea,
I would recommend you delete all contacts and just use the two joints you already defined. You can define friction coefficient in the joints created. If you are not interested in components deformation you could also use Rigid Dynamics instead of Transient Structural. It is not very clear what you want to analyse. If you give more details, I can try to help you better.
I hope this information was helpful.
Best regards,
Tarsis