Science topic

# Formal Languages - Science topic

Explore the latest publications in Formal Languages, and find Formal Languages experts.

Publications related to Formal Languages (10,000)

Sorted by most recent

This paper considers the opportunities and challenges posed to formal second language education given the penetration of digital technologies in young people’s daily lives. This paper broadly discusses the issues of information technology (IT) infrastructure, classroom management and IT use restrictions in relations to language learning. The paper...

Low-latency sliding window algorithms for regular and context-free languages are studied, where latency refers to the worst-case time spent for a single window update or query. For every regular language $L$ it is shown that there exists a constant-latency solution that supports adding and removing symbols independently on both ends of the window (...

This paper investigates the influence of language style (formal vs. colloquial) on the effectiveness of charitable appeals. Although prior research has found persuasive effects associated with colloquial language style, we propose that the influence of language style is context dependent. Charitable appeals generally address relatively serious topi...

English translation activity course is of great significance to cultivate students’ English translation level. In the context of multisensor data fusion, how to effectively carry out English translation activity course in colleges and universities has become an important topic. The educational value and intellectual property of advanced Intelligent...

In the present work we provide a logical analysis of normatively determined and non-determined propositions. The normative status of these propositions depends on their relation with another proposition, here named reference proposition. Using a formal language that includes a monadic operator of obligation, we define eight dyadic operators that re...

Objective
To assess physician–patient communication in vascular consults with the aim of identifying areas for improvement.
Introduction
Shared decision-making in clinical consults can enhance patient outcomes. Its potential benefits are significant in vascular surgery, where decisions are dependent on the patient’s definition of quality of life a...

When landscape architecture is associated with the dramatic art, it is not confined to the figurative, empty formal language, but refers to richer, deeper relationship. The analysis and revelation of such deep correlation will help us carry out subject cognition and design practice from multiple perspectives. When we put "theatricality" in the cont...

This study grows out of the absence of literature on an in‐depth understanding of dissertation‐writing challenges, facilitating strategies, and causes to develop a more profound understanding of Pakistani doctoral students. This is primarily qualitative research. One of the largest private universities was selected as a case to collect the data. Th...

One of the distinguishing features of mathematics is the exceptional level of consensus among mathematicians. However, an analysis of what mathematicians agree on, how they achieve this agreement, and the relevant historical conditions is lacking. This paper is a programmatic intervention providing a preliminary analysis and outlining a research pr...

Recombining known primitive concepts into larger novel combinations is a quintessentially human cognitive capability. Whether large neural models in NLP acquire this ability while learning from data is an open question. In this paper, we look at this problem from the perspective of formal languages. We use deterministic finite-state transducers to...

__________________________________________________________________________ This paper presents several models of equations useful for Natural Language Processing. In this regard, a formal language for the analysis of sentences is used in order to introduce four prototypes of linguistic syncretism derived from the universal sentence equation; afterw...

Polymers are widely studied materials with diverse properties and applications determined by molecular structures. It is essential to represent these structures clearly and explore the full space of achievable chemical designs. However, existing approaches cannot offer comprehensive design models for polymers because of their inherent scale and str...

Traditionally, graph algorithms get a single graph as input, and then they should decide if this graph satisfies a certain property Φ. What happens if this question is modified in a way that we get a possibly infinite family of graphs as an input, and the question is if there is a graph satisfying Φ in the family? We approach this question by using...

The regular intersection emptiness problem for a decision problem P ( $${{\textit{int}}_{{\mathrm {Reg}}}}$$ int Reg ( P )) is to decide whether a potentially infinite regular set of encoded P -instances contains a positive one. Since $${{\textit{int}}_{{\mathrm {Reg}}}}$$ int Reg ( P ) is decidable for some NP-complete problems and undecidable for...

Though the history of infinitesimals and infinity is long and tortuous,nonstandard
analysis, as a canonical formulation of the method of infinitesimals, is only about 60
years old. Hence, definitive answers for many of its methodological issues are yet to be
found. In 1960, Abraham Robinson, exploiting the power of the theory of formal
language rei...

In this work we elaborate on the idea of a formal theory for a limited but important part of structural chemistry, that described by Lewis’ methods and VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion). For this purpose, recursive functions and propositional functions are defined, that apply to formal expressions of the structure, based on a finite set...

Shapelets are discriminative subsequences of sequential data that best predict the target variable and are directly interpretable, which have attracted considerable interest within the interpretable fault diagnosis community. Despite their immense potential as a data mining primitive, currently, shapelet-based methods ignore the temporal properties...

Intuitively, the more powerful a theory is, the greater the variety and quantity of ideas can be expressed through its formal language. Therefore, when comparing two theories concerning the same subject, it seems only reasonable to compare the expressive powers of their formal languages. On condition that the quantum mechanical description is unive...

An in-depth study of the concept of a consequence relation, culminating in the concept of a Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra, intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics and graduate students in philosophy, as well as researchers in the field of mathematical and philosophical logic. The book is aimed to fill the niche left aft...

In recent years we have explored using Haskell alongside a traditional mathematical formalism in our large-enrolment university course on topics including logic and formal languages, aiming to offer our students a programming perspective on these mathematical topics. We have found it possible to offer almost all formative and summative assessment t...

Membrane computing as a topic in the Mathematics Subjects Classification 2020 by Mathematical Reviews and zbMATH is a sign of maturity of this research area initiated in the fall of 1998 by Gheorghe Păun. This paper uses CiteSpace and VoSviewer to make a bibliometric analysis of membrane computing based on the publications in more than twenty widel...

Extenics has unique advantages in solving contradictions by using formal models to explore the possibility of expanding things and the laws and methods of development and innovation. This paper studies the specific application of the extension strategy generation method in emergency cold chain logistics, in order to solve the problem that the emerg...

Recent historical studies have investigated the first proponents of methodological structuralism in late nineteenth-century mathematics. In this paper, I shall attempt to answer the question of whether Peano can be counted amongst the early structuralists. I shall focus on Peano’s understanding of the primitive notions and axioms of geometry and ar...

In these pages I study various aspects and forms of human language. The communication of information is already found in the natural world and even more in cognitive living beings. Human language is articulated and contains a grammar. It is recursive and potentially infinite. It has a neural basis and at the same time expresses and communicates tho...

Aim: Multi-morbidity remains poorly understood due to the multifactorial complexity of this phenomenon and the lack of a standardized methodology for building and analysing Multimorbidity network. A comparative analysis of methods of modeling Multimorbidity network in literature may help to understand the pros and cons of these methods, then to fac...

Abstract
Research Problem: Discussion the principles of recitation of Imam Abi Amro and collection between them
and between linguistic guidance, and to indicate that in reference to a brief of Imam and his narrators, and
the research aims to: identify of Imam Abu Amro Al-Basri and his most prominent sheikhs and students,
as well as identificatio...

This paper analyzes the short story The Egg and the Chicken by Clarice Lispector by examining the issues of identity, ideology and gender. The selected text is one of the outstanding works by this increasingly well-regarded Brazilian author and reappraises the age-old question of which came first: the chicken or the egg. The short story is explicit...

Abstrak Anak muda saat ini cenderung menggunakan bahasa informal dalam berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tulisan, dalam mengekspresikan dirinya didepan komunitasnya atau teman-temannya, namun disaat bersamaan mereka akan merubah penggunaan bahasa mereka menjadi bahasa formal saat mereka berinteraksi dengan orang yang posisinya atau jabatannya diatas m...

Typically recognized as informal, inaccurate and haphazard, slang, a form of unstructured language that violates the standard rules of English language (Geertsema, Hyman, & Van Deventer, 2011) is gradually seeping into everyday language use. The present study investigates the impact of slangs in the Pakistani context, where students use English as...

The language of modal logic is capable of expressing first-order conditions on Kripke frames. The classic result by Henrik Sahlqvist identifies a significant class of modal formulas for which first-order conditions -- or Sahlqvist correspondents -- can be find in an effective, algorithmic way. Recent works have successfully extended this classic re...

Nominalists are confronted with a grave difficulty: if abstract objects do not exist, what explains the success of theories that invoke them? In this paper, I make headway on this problem. I develop a formal language in which certain platonistic claims about properties and certain nominalistic claims can be expressed, develop a formal language in w...

Q# is a standalone domain-specific programming language from Microsoft for writing and running quantum programs. Like most industrial languages, it was designed without a formal specification, which can naturally lead to ambiguity in its interpretation. We aim to provide a formal language definition for Q#, placing the language on a solid mathemati...

Current biological writing is afflicted by the use of ambiguous names, convoluted sentences, vague statements and narrative-fitted storylines. This represents a challenge for biological research in general and in particular for fields such as biological database curation and text mining, which have been tasked to cope with exponentially growing con...

The article describes a string recognition approach, engraved in the parsers generated by Tunnel Grammar Studio that use the tunnel parsing algorithm, of how a lexer and a parser can operate on the input during its recognition. Proposed is an addition of the augmented Backus-Naur form syntax that enables the formal language to be expressed with a p...

The field of formal language theory involves the construction of words or sentences through a meticulous framework called a system. The set of words derived from the same system is called a language, where it is readily capable of undergoing set operations such as union, concatenation, concatenation closure, -free concatenation closure, homomorphi...

Subject to the semantic gap lying between natural and formal language, neural semantic parsing is typically bottlenecked by the paucity and imbalance of data. In this paper, we propose a unified intermediate representation (IR) for graph query languages, namely GraphQ IR. With the IR's natural-language-like representation that bridges the semantic...

Assessments help in evaluating the knowledge gained by a learner at any specific point as well as in continuous improvement of the curriculum design and the whole learning process. However, with the increase in students' enrollment at University level in either conventional or distance education environment, traditional ways of assessing students'...

To determine the computational capacity of cellular automata they are often investigated towards their ability to accept formal languages within certain time constraints. In this paper, we take up an opposite position and look at cellular automata towards their ability to generate patterns, within certain time constraints. As an example we describe...

The aim of this paper is to introduce a field of study that has emerged over the last decade, called Bayesian mechanics. Bayesian mechanics is a probabilistic mechanics, comprising tools that enable us to model systems endowed with a particular partition (i.e., into particles), where the internal states (or the trajectories of internal states) of a...

The importance of vocabulary knowledge as one of the most challenging aspects
of foreign language learning has been widely acknowledged. In order to facilitate
learning vocabulary items in English by language learners, mobile assisted vocabulary
learning attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nevertheless, the application
of mobile devic...

The article presents the developed it solutions supporting the material and technological conversion process in terms of the possibility of using the casting technology of selected alloys to produce products previously manufactured with the use of other methods and materials. the solutions are based on artificial intelligence, machine learning and...

Recent research showed promising results on combining pretrained language models (LMs) with canonical utterance for few-shot semantic parsing. The canonical utterance is often lengthy and complex due to the compositional structure of formal languages. Learning to generate such canonical utterance requires significant amount of data to reach high pe...

An architectural work, besides the technology and formal language of the period; If we set out with the aim of Tadao Ando [1], the famous Pritzker Prize-winning architect, who seeks to make it belong to the "place" where it is built with its climate, geography, materials and culture, the architectural perspective interprets the place as space, has...

This paper shows, in the framework of the logical method,the unsolvability of $k$-set agreement task by devising a suitable formula of epistemic logic. The unsolvability of $k$-set agreement task is a well-known fact, which is a direct consequence of Sperner's lemma, a classic result from combinatorial topology. However, Sperner's lemma does not pr...

Mastering the language of the destination country is key to immigrant and refugee children's educational success. Refugee children typically face the challenge of starting or continuing their educational carrier in a completely new context and in a completely new language. In this study, we examine the role of preschool attendance and formal langua...

Knowledge graph (KG) representation learning aims to encode entities and relations into dense continuous vector spaces such that knowledge contained in a dataset could be consistently represented. Dense embeddings trained from KG datasets benefit a variety of downstream tasks such as KG completion and link prediction. However, existing KG embedding...

In scientific context, the first step for scientific theoretical and methodological production is the epistemological analysis. What are assumptions for interaction between oncology and psychology? What are the conditions for psycho-oncological contribution in treating cancer? Furthermore, what are epistemological observations about the current dev...

We investigate the properties of formal languages expressible in terms of formulas over quantifier-free theories of word equations, arithmetic over length constraints, and language membership predicates for the classes of regular, visibly pushdown, and deterministic context-free languages. In total, we consider 20 distinct theories and decidability...

It has been a software trend to build large-scale complex systems with high reliability. Due to the size of the software and the dynamic requirements of the stakeholders, it becomes hard to test those softwares manually. This may lead the software to fatal failures and cause irrecoverable catastrophic damages. To be safe, the software system must b...

This paper explores the robotics learning process at elementary school using a sociocultural approach. Its focus is on the activity of students aged 6-8 years during robotics learning sessions designed and implemented by two teachers. Drawing on two case studies, this research examines the functions of artefacts and semiotic representations during...

Motivated by results on the rationality of equivariant Hilbert series of some hierarchical models in algebraic statistics we introduce the Segre product of formal languages and apply it to establish rationality of equivariant Hilbert series in new cases. We also show that every filtration of algebras given as a tensor product of families of algebra...

Knowledge graph (KG) representation learning aims to encode entities and relations into dense continuous vector spaces such that knowledge contained in a dataset could be consistently represented. Dense embeddings trained from KG datasets benefit a variety of downstream tasks such as KG completion and link prediction. However, existing KG embedding...

Machine learning-based methods have achieved successful applications in machinery fault diagnosis. However, the main limitation that exists for these methods is that they operate as a black box and are generally not interpretable. This paper proposes a novel neural network structure, called temporal logic neural network (TLNN), in which the neurons...

The integration of information systems and physical systems is the development trend of today’s manufacturing industry. Intelligent manufacturing is a new model of manufacturing, based on advanced manufacturing technology with human–machine–material collaboration. Internet of Things technology is the core technology of intelligent manufacturing, an...

The concept of Knowledge Base (KB) is not new in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). KB approach has been used in several use cases, including the manufacturing domain. KB commonly consists of facts, written in a specific logic formal language, and a reasoning mechanism that lets KB-based systems do reasoning about such facts. In the case of...

The Exergetic Port-Hamiltonian Systems modeling language combines a graphical syntax inspired by bond graphs with a port-Hamiltonian semantics akin to the GENERIC formalism. The syntax enables the modular and hierarchical specification of the composition pattern of lumped and distributed-parameter models. The semantics reflects the first and second...

Since 2020, COVID-19 has become a contemporary topic of study in a wide variety of disciplines. One of these is education, since the linguistic competence of Malaysian International high school learners is unknown as physical schooling has been replaced by online learning, which involves no formal language tests. Hence, a corpus-based analysis of s...

In this paper, we present connections between three models used in different research fields: weighted finite automata (WFA) from formal languages and linguistics, recurrent neural networks used in machine learning, and tensor networks which encompasses a set of optimization techniques for high-order tensors used in quantum physics and numerical an...

Enterprise modeling deals with the increasing complexity of processes and systems by operationalizing model content and by linking complementary models and languages, thus amplifying the model value beyond mere comprehensible pictures. To enable this amplification and turn models into computer-processable structures, a comprehensive formalization i...

News headlines have an important role in increasing the demand for
news content to attract readers' attention on news sites or media outlets.
The main factor that can increase readers' interest in the content is news
headlines. The main problem here is to identify which news headline
draws attention most. This problem exists not only in the digital...

Industries like telecommunications, medical, automotive, military, avionics, and aerospace use complex real-time systems. Specification and Description Language (SDL) is one of the leading domain specific languages that is formally defined by international standards and well established in describing such systems. To check system properties abstrac...

Machine learning finds its use in solving tasks where there is no domain-specific knowledge. Systems that can extract essential regularities from the training set can be found in the sphere of unsupervised learning. These or similar algorithms can be useful tools for analyzing and modeling musical styles from corpora where we do not have sufficient...

The paper investigates sociolinguistic coherence and differentiation for the example of Namibian German (‘Namdeutsch’), based on corpus data and a copy-editing task. The Namdeutsch speech community draws on a local Namibian identity as well as an ethnic German identity. At the linguistic level, this leads to a tension between a tendency for Namdeut...

Automated creation of a conceptual data model based on user requirements expressed in the textual form of a natural language is a challenging research area. The complexity of natural language requires deep insight into the semantics buried in words, expressions, and string patterns. For the purpose of natural language processing, we created a corpu...

gym-saturation` is an OpenAI Gym environment for reinforcement learning (RL) agents capable of proving theorems. Currently, only theorems written in a formal language of the Thousands of Problems for Theorem Provers (TPTP) library in clausal normal form (CNF) are supported. `gym-saturation` implements the 'given clause' algorithm (similar to the on...

The Turing machine models an old-fashioned computer, that does not interact with the user or with other computers, and only does batch processing. Therefore, we came up with a Reactive Turing Machine that does not have these shortcomings. In the Reactive Turing Machine, transitions have labels to give a notion of interactivity. In the resulting pro...

Structured Query Language (SQL) remains the standard language used in Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMSs) and has found applications in healthcare (patient registries), businesses (inventories, trend analysis), military, education, etc. Although SQL statements are English-like, the process of writing SQL queries is often problematic for...

"A generator is a parser of randomness." This perspective on generators for random data structures is well established as folklore in the programming languages community, but it has apparently never been formalized, nor have its consequences been deeply explored. We present free generators, which unify parsing and generation using a common structur...

A Szilard language is a well-known tool in formal language theory to express the derivation process in a grammar system or grammar. Matrix InsDel (insertion–deletion) system is a well-known variant of InsDel system, where the idea of matrix control is combined with InsDel systems. The size of a matrix InsDel system is represented by a septuple of i...

This paper investigates Vācaspati Miśra’s remarkably complex argumentative architecture in support of non-difference by means of a microsimulation model, the classical gold-crown case. A full range of positions, including instantaneism, transformative continuum, indeterminate common basis reference, difference and non-difference coordination, etc.,...

The Networks of Genetic Processors (NGPs) are non-conventional models of computation based on genetic operations over strings, namely mutation and crossover operations as it was established in genetic algorithms. Initially, they have been proposed as acceptor machines which are decision problem solvers. In that case, it has been shown that they are...

As opposed to automata, grammars are used to generate strings instead of identifying them. The use of regular languages and nite automata is simple and restrictive. Context-Free Grammar or CFG is a formal grammar used to produce all possible combinations of strings in a given formal language. Context-Free Grammar consists of a set of grammar rules...

In order to achieve the physical entity of the TV drama, the TV director must find ways that would help in creating patterns of images and sounds to embody that entity. Specific points to initiate in the statement of its physical entity. As is well known, the elements and means of the cinematic language have a great role in making the director have...

The challenges to the adoption of telecollaborative activity, also known as virtual exchange or OIE, already have been well documented (see, eg, Guth, Helm, & O’Dowd, 2012; MacKinnon, 2013) and the complexity of shared electronic accreditation explained (Aguirre & Quemada, 2012). Yet there is widespread agreement that OIE is a viable pedagogical mo...

Wearable fitness devices are widely used to track an individual's health and physical activities to improve the quality of health services. These devices sense a considerable amount of sensitive data processed by a centralized third party. While many researchers have thoroughly evaluated privacy issues surrounding wearable fitness trackers, no stud...

Тhe complexity of messages, their readability or understandability and the subjective feeling for aesthetic value have interesting interrelations.
In our research we claim that in natural languages, perceived as a multimodal complex whole, in formal languages and in mathematics as a metalanguage, the messages in individual modalities that convey ma...