• Md Anamul Haque added an answer:
    How can i predict shoot area of a tree using equation?

    Would someone be kind enough to let me know how can i predict shoot area of a tree using equation?

    Md Anamul Haque

    Thank you so much.

  • Ariadne Tsambani added an answer:
    Any new literature on end-split avoidance in logs as well as flitches during vatting?

    Most comprehensive publications found from 70s (Kubler, Chen; Lutz; Tantichaiboriboon) and 90s (Mattheck, Kubler). Did I miss any new ones, ideally with statistically proven results? ( "Observations" also welcome.)

    Ariadne Tsambani

    Good Evening. Please find attach the link. Kind Regards Ariadne Tsambani

  • Manmohan J.R. Dobriyal added an answer:
    What should be our post-2015 agenda for forestry research and education?

    We have adopted a set of targets in the form of SDGs to ensure an inclusive and sustainable world. Integration of education, research and extension are fundamental to the realization of SDGs. Let us explore the potential areas of forestry education and research that need more effort and investments to meet the future demands while fulfilling the needs of the present generation. Share your thoughts..

    Manmohan J.R. Dobriyal

    Forest management is most of developing countries  like  India where all ownership of forest is under state (96%) it is  obvious our aim to fulfill 100% obligations. That,s why I always says The BCFT terminology of  forest management taught in India is not just application of scientific, technical and economic principles of forestry  but also social principles of forestry. This may not hold in privately own forest but all state forests are now for conservation only. Therefore we need to differentiate management of both types in Indian context. Rules and regulations also need to be forest business friendly for private forestry in order to promote and meet out domestic industrial wood demand.

  • George Dowse added an answer:
    Log breakages: Anyone observed or tested the occurrence of full logs breaking between harvesting and processing?

    I'm looking into occasional Pine logs breaking during handling. Older logs (not kept under water) seem to break more frequently, although fresh logs also break on occasion. 

    Also small as well as larger diameter logs.

    Logs are from fast grown Pine plantations.

    George Dowse

    Thanks Amey.

    Have you done, or do you know of research in this regard? I'd like to prove if its the loss of moisture, harvesting practices, or just week timber causing these breaks.

  • Ole Jakob Sørensen added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend a method of measuring temperature of coarse woody debris?

    Could be either permanently in situ, or for spot checking on a regular basis.

    Fairly small logs, less than 10 cm diameter (so not truly CWD?).

    In a temperate forest.

    I'd love to also measure moisture content, but I know from looking into that in the past that it's a tricky one.

    Thanks in advance for any assistance.


    Ole Jakob Sørensen

    I know that Dr. R.L Gilbertson - somewhere in Montana US - have done research on temperatures in dead logs - but I do not have any reference to publications from his work - worth trying out to find him ?

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    What is a standard method to calculate carbon sequestration by trees?

    We have counted trees for carbon sequestration of our university. I wish to know the standard method to calculate carbon sequestered by these trees.

    Abhishek Raj

    I suggest useful paper and links for valuable information,

    1. https://www.broward.org/NaturalResources/ClimateChange/Documents/Calculating%20CO2%20Sequestration%20by%20Trees.pdf

    2. http://www.forestcarbongroup.com/idea/faq/how-do-we-calculate-how-much-carbon-is-stored-in-trees-and-for-how-long.html

    3. http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/method-calculating-carbon-sequestration-trees-urban-and-suburban-settings.pdf

    Hope it help!

    Abhishek Raj

  • Zedam Abdelghani added an answer:
    What is the best method to fight the mesquite's trees?

    As is well known, there are many places in Sudan that are covered with mesquite trees and they have undesirable effects such as depleting the groundwater storage. On the other hand they have some positive effects such as providing charcoal for cooking, but their negative impact is very big.  Now the direct question is: What is the best method to fight this tree?

    Zedam Abdelghani

    Dear Gamal Seedahmed

    For these species, we must know the biology  and these trees are the same like the Eucalyptus introduced in North Africa 

  • Muayed Fadhil Abbas added an answer:
    Does paclobutrazol have any effect on the composition of fruits and/or vegetables?

    I need to know if paclobutrazol only alters the vegetative growth especially on potatoes or it also cause some significant alterations on the tubers.

    Muayed Fadhil Abbas

    Paclobutrazol is  a well known growth retardant.  its effect on potato depends on the timing of application, cultivar , concentration  and growing conditions. in general, this growth retardant will restrict vegetative growth and affect tuber yield and quality. there is an excellent literature on this matter.

  • Sergio Noce added an answer:
    Any advice on Hot Spot Analysis and forest presence data?

    Is there anyone who applied the hotspot analysis to forest presence datasets?

    Sergio Noce

    If you want, please read our work 

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean Basin is regarded as one of the most varied areas in the world in terms of biodiversity and species richness thanks to its both climatic and morphological attributes, and it is characterized by multi-faceted habitats where forests play a crucial role. Nowadays the geographic distribution of forest species is well known and multiple geographic datasets are available with different spatial details. However, protection and conservation strategies, especially in consideration of ongoing and expected environmental change, need more specific information (e.g. areas with high priority or more vulnerable). Thus, it becomes crucial to identify those portions of forest distribution ranges where forest presence acquires, from a geostatistical point of view, even higher significance, in other terms the ‘hot spot’ areas. To achieve this purpose, we investigate here the usefulness of available tree species distribution data when exploited through the Geographic Information Systems capabilities and in particular the tools for ‘Hot Spot Analysis’, in order to formulate and test a compound procedure made of spatial analysis and spatial statistics steps starting from simple presence data up to create more refined and communicative information. This approach is applied to presence data for ten relevant forest tree species/classes across Mediterranean Europe. We localize (high and very high) hot spot areas for selected species/classes and we provide the differences of the outcomes under three scales of analysis. Indeed, given the sub-continental extent of the study domain we have chosen a multiple scale approach ranging from regional, sub-regional to local scale coherently with the potential multi-level and multi-sector users of similar data and tools. The results, also validated through an assessment of the biological significance of hot spots, both reinforce the practicability of a promising method to increase the quality and quantity of information to be extracted from available forest distribution datasets, and provide Hot Spot maps to support further spatial evaluations. Overall, similar findings than from this study can be a valid help for environmental decision makers to identify priority areas for forest protection and conservation.
      No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry
  • Kenan Ok added an answer:
    Do you know any specific article or text book on engineering design in forestry?

    I'm interesting the design process of some goods or services produced by foresters. Could you share your experiences  on it? If somebody in educational institutions share their lecturing background, I'll be grateful for their contribution.

    All the best

    Kenan Ok

    Dear Friends,

    Many thanks for your contributions.


  • Charles D. Ikenberry added an answer:
    Who has information on biomass partitioning rates for Cypress and Pine for Kenya or East Africa?

    Who has information on biomass partitioning rates for Cypress and Pine for Kenya or East Africa? Biomass and Partitioning rates, biomass accumulation rates for Cypress and Pine tree species.

    Charles D. Ikenberry

    Here are some articles that discuss the semi-distributed nature of SWAT:




    + 2 more attachments

  • Nizami Syed Moazzam added an answer:
    What will be the difference in rate of N mineralization and net nitrification in the soils of higher latitudes and lower latitudes?

    The climatic conditions (precipitation and Temperature) are different in higher and lower latitudes and these effect the N mineralization and nitrification rate in soils of natural forest in addition to other factors, I want to ask whether mineralization and net nitrification will higher or lower in low altitudes?

    Nizami Syed Moazzam

    Thank you Raj.These papers are really helpful. 

  • Leila Karimi asked a question:
    How do I import my data in SVS software?

    I use this software for study the structure of forest

  • Innocent Mjema added an answer:
    What are the types (assortments) of wood trunk for industry, from short rotation forestry or wood crops production, of hybrid poplars?

    Part of the trunk with a limit diameter is used for boards from wood chips and the rest of trunk is chopped for bio-energy (same with branches). Who knows publications about types (assortments) of wood trunk from SRF?

    Innocent Mjema

    Hi. Have you tried to look at the characteristics of gliricidia sepium?

  • Marina Zharikova added an answer:
    What fire dynamic model is the most convenient for programming?

    Let me describe my task in short.

    I've created the electronic map of forestry, which includes a set of objects (polygons) of different nature, such as forest plants, roads, lakes etc. Each object is homogeneous. I have to write a program for mapping the dynamic of fire contour on the map. I’m going to use Rothermel’s model, because I have all input data for this model. But this model is good for homogeneous terrain, but my terrain is heterogeneous. I’m looking for the information, how Rothermel’s model can be adjusted to solve my task. Can anyone help me with the information on this question? Maybe there are other models, appropriate for programming... I would be grateful for any help.

    Marina Zharikova

    Dear Pete,

    Thank you very much for your answer. I'm familiar with Mark Finney's papers connected with fire risk assessment. I took them as a basis for my own research in this field.

  • Frank Berninger added an answer:
    How do I Extrapolate leaf level photosynthesis to entire canopy level?


     is there any one who know how can we extrapolate the leaf level photosynthesis measured by Licor 6400 to entire canopy photosynthesis?

    Normally eddy towers and chambers are used for measuring CO2 exchange from entire tree but if any one had extrapolated leaf level exchange to entire canopy using any model? plz guide me.

    Frank Berninger

    Your problem is not trivial and there is no easy perfect solution for it. A simple way  is the use the Pury and Farquhar approach cited earlier. This would be an approach working well for open short canopies with large leafs. Another, simple approach is to use a Monsi Saeki relationship based model. (I did that in Berninger F., 1997 Effects of Drought and Phenology on GPP - A simulation study along a geographical gradient. Functional Ecology: 11:33-42.).

    A third possibility would be to use a canopy light transfer model. (I know that at least the Maespa model is easily downloadable and accessible).  http://maespa.github.io/

  • Prof. Dr. Bashkim Mal Lushaj added an answer:
    Has anyone investigated the interaction between quercus sp. and ostrya carpinifolia or carpinus betulus during the oak natural regeneration?

    Recent papers or works. Thanks

    Prof. Dr. Bashkim Mal Lushaj

    I'm getting more with chestnuts (Castanet sativa), which grows almost the phyto-climatic chestnut zone (Castanetum), in according to the phyto-climatic classification of Pavari, and for long years, cover three decades, conducting research, works, and experiments in this area have been many cases that chestnut was as simple forest, but and composed, namely certain types oak, hornbeam, the Hop Hornbeam etc, and I proving to have interaction between them through the impacts, with negative and positive effects ... , during the oak natural regeneration.

  • Andre Lacerda added an answer:
    Any suggestions on small, numbered, aluminum tags to permanently mark tropical tree seedlings and juveniles?

    We need semi-permanent tags or marks for tropical tree seedings and juveniles. They need to be numbered and last for at least 10 years (3-4 year censuses).  The only tags I've been able to find are tree tags, which are a bit big for our purpose.  We were looking for something approximately 2x1 cm or similar.  We also need to purchase over 2000 of them, so price is a key issue.  Any suggestion would be greatly appreciated. If you have experience with long term plant surveys, other suggestions would be welcomed too.

    thanks to all \\  eric,

    Andre Lacerda


    We have used these aluminum tags for about 5 years (picture). We use a wire to mark seedlings and a nail/wire to mark trees. Note that there is information printed on them but also a bar-code (which can make your life easier by having a bar-code scanner). After a few years you might need to clean them. The seedlings tags (laid on the forest floor) have been chewed by wild boars although it was not a major problem.

  • Suheel Ahmad added an answer:
    How does India or other countries implement a forestry extension program or education? What institutions are responsible for this?

    forestry extension, in the case of the Philippines, is a non formal education trying to help and educate people. It is like an out of school education but this is still organized and systematic

    Suheel Ahmad

    Many ICAR instututes including Central Agroforestry Research Institute, CRIDA, Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation etc together with a network of so many state agricultural Universities are actively involved in forestry extension and education.

  • Hormoz Sohrabi added an answer:
    Do you know a free dendrochronology software?

    We have about 100 disks with diameter from 20 cm to 1.2 meter. We want to measure tree ring width for growth analyzes. We dont have access to lintab, so we are searching for a free software that accept importing scanned images of disks. Since we want to publish our results in a scientific journal, we would like to use a scientifically valid one.

    Hormoz Sohrabi

    Thank you Eduardo. It is really interesting. 

    Ryszard, I checked google chrome page translation ability and it works perfectly. Right click on the page and select "translate to english".

  • Vera Malsia added an answer:
    Today, many European countries are suffering under the European crisis. Is this also a crisis for education, agriculture and forestry in Europe?
    Today, many European countries are suffering under the European crisis, and I think that it could mean a crisis for education, agriculture and forestry in Europe. What is your opinion?
    Vera Malsia

    Day by day and step by step in our globe have a lot problems in every sector of our life ... ! Political and Econimocal crisis are giving the impcts with negeative effects in eduaction, industry, agriculture, forestry, etc.

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    Is there any allometric relationship between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Wood Area Index (WAI) for Quercus species?

    Hi all,

    I am looking for an allometric relationship between Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Woody Area Index (WAI) of Quercus species. Have you ever seen such a study focused on any species of Quercus (Oak)?



    Abhishek Raj

    See an attached paper entitled "Ground‐based measurements of leaf area index: a review of methods, instruments and current controversies by Nathalie J. J. Bréda (2003); Journal of Experimental Botany, Volume 54, Issue 392,Pp. 2403-2417. (link: http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/392/2403.short). Go through it.


    Abhishek raj

  • Richard Haynes added an answer:
    Is there a spatial database (county or state level) for forestry product demand in the United States?

    I am working with the Billion Ton Study data set. I have a county level supply curve of several biomass products (Logging residues, Wheat Straw, etc.)  from year 2012-2030. I am looking for a parallel demand data set to estimate the prices. Thanks in advance!

    Richard Haynes

    The US has no systematic reporting of timber demand (or harvest) by county (there are about 3100 counties).  You can approximate it by multiplying per cap consumption times population but that is only a proxy.  Also stumpage markets are relatively broad regional representations.  You might be better to estimate county prices as site prices(defined by transportation costs) using distance from major processing clusters .

  • Oswaldo Jadán added an answer:
    Is there a new sampling method for estimating of variables in the forest stands?

    there are many sampling methods but I need to a new sampling method.

    Oswaldo Jadán

    Hi Mehrdad. I send you some papers that can be served

    For the basic terminology, see this one:

    Tuomisto, H., 2013. Defining, Measuring, and Partitioning Species Diversity, in: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Elsevier, pp. 434–446.

    A practical application in Amazonia:

    Tuomisto, H., Zuquim, G., Cárdenas, G., 2014. Species richness and diversity along edaphic and climatic gradients in Amazonia. Ecography 37, 1034–1046. doi:10.1111/ecog.00770


  • Branislav Trudić added an answer:
    Are there PCR primers for the identification of oak roots?
    In root samples for mycorrhizal investigations collected by a soil sampling tube we find three morphologically different kinds of roots. Although there are no other plants growing close to the sampling site, we want to confirm that the roots belong to the oak tree.
    Branislav Trudić

    No problem, it would be my pleasure to help anyhow.


  • Vincent Antoine Vos added an answer:
    Has anyone documented the role of forests as fire-breaks?

    In savannas of the humid Chaco in Paraguay, we have observed (in the course of three years) that wild fires occurring in native grasslands are stopped when reaching forests islets. The natural landscape of this area is dominated by grasslands, and forests are usually present in naturally occurring islets. However these forests are usually deforested to open to new grazing areas. Can this be yet another 'environmental service' of forests at the local level, to function as fire breaks? We have not found mention of this in literature and would like to know of similar experiences. 

    Vincent Antoine Vos

    Hi Karim,

    In the Northern Bolivian Amazon forests are often left as a barrier between grasslands and agricultural fields and agroforestry systems. Practices are similar to those described in previous answers, and smallfarmers generally burn their fields about two days after a heavy rain, knowing that the sun will have dried up sufficiently the plant material in their previously slashed field to guarantee a good burn, while the shade of the surrounding vegetation secures enough humidity to prevent any significant spreading of the fire into the forests. I have seen some smallfarmers experimenting with fire in the edge of their plots to make sure humidity is on the desired level. Knowing about this capacity of forests, if possible local make sure there is an area of forest between fireprone vegetations (e.g. grasslands and young secondary vegetation) and their agricultural fields. Although I do not know of any specific literature on this subject, I believe Arienne Henkemans describes these practices in more detail in her publication "Between tranquility and hardship in the Bolivian Amazon". In my latest book "agroforestry systems in the bolivian amazon" (see my RG site) I also include several comments on this subject. And finally I'd like to suggest you check the text: "Como combatimos los incendios" (available from my ISSUU-site: http://issuu.com/vincentvos/docs/comit___interinstitucional_2015_c__) describing actions by an interinstitucional commitee for the control of fires... including the implementation of fire breaks with mango trees.

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    Can anyone send some good papers about Oak decline?

    Can anyone send some good papers about Oak decline?

    Harshvardhan Singh

    "Citizen science helps predict spread of sudden oak death"

    @ http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-05/uoc--csh042715.php

    + 1 more attachment

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    I want to know how to quantify carbon sequestration and emission for fibre crop production.

    I want to know how to quantify carbon sequestration and emission for fibre crop production and what are the simplest and most recent models and equations?

  • Wei-Sheng Zeng added an answer:
    Can I estimate a simultaneous equation system containing different observations?

    I want to develop a biomass model system including aboveground biomass model, belowground biomass model and stem, branch and foliage biomass models. Because the observations are different, so I deveolped two equation systems for aboveground biomass and belowground biomass respectively. But somebody suggest that we can use dummy variables for fitting both equation systems simultaneously. Could anyone give me detailed suggestion to solve the problem using dummy variables? Thank you.

    Wei-Sheng Zeng

    Dear Jorg, Jose and Rogrio, many thanks for your suggeston an references. The additivity and heteroscedasticity of biomass models are not my problem. The real problem is that more than two equations are related to each other but the observatons for fitting each eqution are different, can we estimate simultaneously the equations as a system using dummy variables? For example, we have three equations:

    (1) Y1=f(X)           n=150

    (2) Y2=f(X,Y1)      n=150

    (3) Y3=f(X,Y2)       n=50

    That is, for the variables (X,Y1,Y2,Y3), there are 150 observations for measuring X,Y1,Y2, but only 50 observatins for measuring X,Y1,Y2,Y3.  This is the study case. 

  • Taqiyeddine Bensouilah added an answer:
    Is there any index used to determine the diversity of wildlife in plantation area?

    I am not really sure about and how to used the index and determine the wildlife or insects in natural forests or plantation areas.

    Taqiyeddine Bensouilah

    Dear Yonny,

    You can try Shannon diversity index


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