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Forestry - Science topic

Forestry is the science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Questions related to Forestry
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In the advent of climate change, conditions suitable for local species could be significantly altered. Hence, planting characteristic tree species of the planting sites may not be feasible. There are several pieces of literature recommending the use of composite provenance in order to restore climate-resilient characteristic tree species/forests. However, the issue of outbreeding depression is a concern. So, my question is: in the advent of climate change, would it be wise to use planting material from composite provenance for forest restoration?
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As much as possible, determining the provenance of seed sources to be used in reforestation should be supported by seed source movement trials. The evolution of different genetic variants of the same species from different regions occurs in response to a variety of factors, not just mean annual temperature differences. Depending on the driving climate factors in your region, genetic variants of the same species may develop different phenotypic traits based on a wide-range of climate variables that you may not be able to predict a priori: eg., growing season precipitation, mean hottest/coldest month temperatures, average number of growing season days with precipitation, etc. Your management goals should also inform your planting decisions. Are you managing for wood quality/timber production? Rapid growth? Drought resistance? By mixing provenances from different areas without prior testing you may guess correctly which variants may do well in an altered future climate or you may not. Variants you have planted may grow more quickly in a drier, warmer climate, for example, but may experience reductions in wood strength and stiffness that could impact their stability and or commercial value. Any large-scale forest restoration should be back by systematically designed and installed seed source movement trials that seek to identify genetic variants that display specific phenotypic responses to the specific climate scenarios you anticipate will unfold in your geographic region. If such trials are not in place for your species of interest and if it would take too long or be too expensive to implement them, it would make sense to look for seed source movement trials conducted for related species from areas with similar present and anticipated future climate. I also recommend reading the works of Harrington et al. from the northwestern United States for more information on this subject: (https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2017_harrington001.pdf).
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We often struggle to select the “best” statistical modeling solution in ecological research. The ease of doing complex statistics like generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) in R with advanced computers revolutionizes our computing ability. Still, if I dig deep inside, sometimes I feel that following “all” preconditions for model selection is challenging. For example, it mainly happens when the target variable follows a nonlinear distribution in which current software and programming environments like R, Stata, SPSS, or SAS do not provide a perfect distribution function of the target variable. As a result, we often need an “approximate” distribution for the target variable in the modeling. It may further lead to the wrong decision on the selection of the link function, which can violate the assumption of linearity between transformed expected response and explanatory variables. Recently, we have faced a significant problem in studying the influence of multiple biotic and abiotic variables on the crown dieback of trees in urban and peri-urban forests (n = 2968 trees). The crown dieback followed a bimodal nonlinear distribution and each explanatory variable had different exponential probability distribution. As a result, traditional techniques, like GLMM, could not be used after having a lengthy discussion, literature review, and a lot of “playing” with R!
Some statisticians suggest using generalized additive modeling (GAM) in this situation. However, my colleagues and I will be new to GAM, so we must first spend some time understanding the theory and technicalities.
Therefore, my questions to the scientific community are:
1. When to use GAM?
2. What should be the preconditions of the data, if any?
3. Is there any good open access repository where we can learn more about using GAM, case studies, data, or freely available code?
Your support will be highly appreciated.
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I've shifted to using GAMs more and more. They have way more flexibility and you have greater control over how much 'wiggliness' or non-linearity you allow. For example, you can fit an entirely linear model with a GAM and you will get the same result as using a GLM. A couple other bonuses for using GAMs are that random effects are fit using ridge splines so that the underlying fitting process is more similar to Bayesian than ML approaches. Also, you can penalize the null space of splines which is an efficient way of model selection. All of this requires a bit of reading to understand the theory, but essentially the output of the model will tell you whether a variable should be included in the model or not, as well as if it should be linear or non-linear.
In R, the best place to start is the 'mgcv' package. The documentation for this by Simon Wood is extremely well-written and helpful. I would also check out some of Wood's books and publications on GAMs, including Woods 2017 (https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315370279). Again, there has been a lot of work put into these models and it shows when using them.
Best of luck!
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Hello,
I am looking for suggestions about international research centers or universities involved in Papua New Guinea. The research topic should be preferably related to forestry, climate, and biodiversity.
Thank you.
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The Southern Cross University at Australia. Excellent university
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I am looking for topics in forestry information research, there is some research in the direction of remote sensing and forest fire monitoring, is there anything else
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There is a lot of demand for information about the potential of different tree species (and also other types of crops) to capture and store carbon.
Such information is critical to designing farms with a better climate footprint.
This is particularly true for agroforestry farming systems relying on one or more tree species!
However, information on this topic seems completely scattered and not synthesized.
Does such a database exist?
Best regards,
Thomas Fungenzi
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Am Doing My Research Work in "Growth Potential Of A Forest Cover"
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Dear Sangram Sahoo . The best famous one is SPSS.
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Hi there,
I am Giang from the University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, Vietnam.
I would like to ask you the following questions?
There are some researchers in the Research gate whose publications have been published in the system (Link: ) . How will be our Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology of Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietnam indexed in this system?
Please tell me some instructions for being indexed for Our Journal.
Thanks for your kind support.
I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.
Sincerely,
Giang
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Our beloved RG platform is not a published never, but it is simply an academic platform for exchanging knowledge and ideas via its facilities.
Regards,
Emad
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Hi all,
So far i found these two books which use R programming to describe forest calculations.
1) Robinson and Hamann2011, "Forest Analytics With R"
2) Mehtatalo and Lappi 2020, "Biometry For Forestry And Environmental Data"
Please let me know some other books which you know.
regards
Hari
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Not a book, but at https://github.com/ogarciav there are several forestry R packages: siplab, dyntaper, ingrowth, resde.
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Data are overflown nowadays with the advent of the internet and social media. Researchers are utilizing the availability of the data with Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools for their research. In Environmental Science, what are the cutting edge research areas where AI can be implemented? Especially the countries in south Asia where the latest technologies are not being practised yet as Bangladesh.
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Mid infrared spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy
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I have a question on the relationship between maximum tree height and sampling/plot area.
It is like that I have various sampling/plot size in different forest type, and tree height, DBH are measured in the plot. While I'd like to summary the maximum tree height in each forest type. Since the plot size is varied. Should I use i fixed plot size or the various plot size is OK?
Thank you in advance for your time and comment.
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I am developing the single tree detection method from ALS point clouds. To test the robustness of our proposed method, I need more ALS datasets for experimental analysis. The datasets should own referenced single tree extraction results, such as the (X, Y) coordinates of the tree tops. In so doing, we can conduct quantitative analysis and make comparison. Can anyone provide me some Forestry ALS Datasets for testing single tree detection rate?
Thanks a lot.
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I believe that in the following Agronomy publication, you can obtain important bibliography that will help you to solve your question.
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I'm looking for the following Korean publication: Uyeki, H. & Sakata, T., 1935. Circumstance of Ulleungdo. - Bulletin of the agricultural and forestry college Suigen (= Suwon Kodung Nongnim hakkyo haksul pogo = Kouyuu Kaihou) 91, Suppl .: 31 ff. Can someone help me?
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Dear Andrew, I didn't mean "exotic" badly. But the magazine was completely unknown to me and probably not as widespread as, for example, "Phytotaxa" or "Nature".
Dear Yoonjeong Heo,
sorry for forgetting keywords. It's my first official request, which shows how desperate I am. I don't know much more than what I've written. The Korean Title of the Journal is 水原高等農林學校學術報告.
What I know: On p. 32 of the paper you can find the name Orobanche coerulescens var. glaberrima Sakata. If the manner of publication of the name is valid, it could be the oldest and therefore priority name for the glabrous variety of the Orobanche coerulescens Stephan (actually known as Orobanche nipponica Makino). I need clarification for a monographic treatment of the genus.
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I am pursuing a PhD in Forest informatics and am looking for a research collaborator whose current focus is on deep learning for the investigation of fine forestry vegetation parameters.
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Sure.
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In urban studies as related to forestry and competing landscape studies, identification of relationship that exist among these urban studies
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Hi,
I'm looking for data (mainly related to management: growth rate, canopy size, soil and climate preferences, etc.) about tropical trees used in tropical agroforestry.
Have you ever heard about a database or a source of technical information available to agroforest managers?
That would really facilitate land management and field experiments.
As always, I am trying to use these questions to centralize information from different sources. RG questions tend to be well indexed in Google for different users. Thank you for your contributions!
Best,
Thomas
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Thomas Fungenzi i guess the attached document might be of your help
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Hello,
I was looking for a digital copy of master plan for forestry sector in Nepal. I am mostly in need of wood density values for Nepalese's species so that i could calculate AGB from volume equations.
regards
Hari
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Dear Hari,
Persistence and change: review of 30 years of community forestry in Nepal
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Good morning.I am a graduate student in the College of Forestry, Guangxi University.I have read the article《Brittleheart as a critical feature for visual strength grading of tropical hardwood: Approach of detection》.I don’t quite understand some parts of this article. May I discuss it with you?
(1)When we characterize visible CF’s,how do we know if the CF’s are caused by brittleheart(compression failures) or Wood splitting or wind.Because I have cut some wood(very distinct,with fibre separation) to characterize CF’s,but I can’t find fibre bucking in microscope(image0012).
(2) I cut it perpendicular to the surface of the CF'S to get the longitudinal tangential section(Figure DSC08441). Is this cutting method correct?
I'm looking forward for your reply!
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Dear Search,
In this link you can find information on the issue raised.
Regards
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I'll be working on how circular economy can be implemented in the forestry sector and people dependent on those forests.
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Very interesting is production of wood chips from wood waste. Wood chips are source of renewable energy, who grows the fastest from all sources of renewable energy in EU, by the Eurostat data.
Best regards
Ladislav
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We are searching for an R package that can calculate and draw the curves for the DBH size-class structure of the forest (see figs) to decide whether the species distribution is J-shaped, L-shaped or fluctuating. Any hints would be greatly appreciated!
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Greetings,
I have just been hit by a question that looks so simple and basic yet i failed to answer myself. Can anyone help me with a list. I feel like i can connect the answer of my aptly mentioned question to a global scale of ecosystem promotion by jointly studying it with physics and forestry.
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although simple question but not related to my field
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CI-110 Plant Canopy Imager gives two reading related to leaf area index (LAI) GF lai and PAR lai. Is these values are the final ones if I am trying to Effective leaf area index or do I need to do any other calculation ? if yes, then, Which values should I use as the effective leaf area index (GF lai / Par lai)? I am trying to work on lai prediction using remote sensing.
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I am dealing with stands that are primarily Redwood and Douglas fir, with lesser components of several other species. While I saw one method of SDI for a single species transformed to a per acre value from the proportion that species exhibited in any given plot, I don't know how to go through the motions of calculating that. From what I've read so far, multi-species SDI for stands is not the most reliable, but I'm not too familiar with it.
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Reineke’s Stand Density Index: Where are we and where do we go from here? (fs.fed.us)
Variation in the maximum stand density index and its linkage to climate in mixed species forests of the North American Acadian Region
Found these on google scholar - might be good papers to read. K
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I am trying to build a network to fight against deforestation via Campaigning. Please feel free to contact me, if you're interested
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Please include me. I am from India.
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Dear scientists, national experts and colleagues,
can you please help me find out up-to-date information about the proportion of clear-cutting in the management of forests in European countries?
Despite many reporting and monitoring processes (FAO/UNECE FRA, Forest Europe SoE) and national forest inventory systems (NFIs), it is still largely difficult, if possible at all, to find reliable and up-to-date information about this key question: what is the proportion of clear-cutting forestry (as compared to shelter-wood, coppice and close-to-nature forest management systems) in the countries of the EU-27 or in general in the Pan-European region.
Please do suggest studies, reports, data bases, country case studies etc. that directly report on this key questions. Thanks!
Best regards,
Dr. Metodi Sotirov
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Hi!
You can find some information in the paper
And, maybe, you could find more in the raw data of the study. But unfortunately, the authors don't open the input data and the maps as they promise in the paper.
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Forest Education is vital for field officers of the forestry sector, so we are researching the effectiveness of forest training on forest sampling/harvest estimation and the application of GPS on logging. Can anyone recommend a Journal to publish such kind of study? I am confusing, Does this kind of study relate to the scope of forestry or education.
It is more appropriate to select a journal free of charge for publication (or minimum charge).
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Dear W.V. Tharindu Amarasinghe
One easy way is to use Elsevier' find journal option.
You can enter the title and the abstract of your manuscript and it will show you which journals are better to submit your manuscript.
You may find it use this linke:
Good luck,
Hormoz
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I am going to buy an unmanned aerial vehicle for my university for forestry applications. Since there are alot of options,  I realy get confused to choose a proper model and a valid brand. Also, l want to use a 3d laser scanner and a multispectral camera. I would rather that the vehicle have gps and imu and the flight could be programmed.  Please if you have personal experience, share them.
Best regards, 
Hormoz
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Hello everyone,
I am looking to calculate the above-ground biomass for my forest plot using the formula: volume* WD* BEF . I will appreciate if anyone can recommend a book or paper that has the wood densities of German or temperate Europe tree species. 
Thank you very much.
Regards,
Parisa.
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find below the link for a new database, JM LEBAN
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Forestry, Agro-Forestry, Agronomy, Soil Science
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Thanks Dr. Craig for sharing experiences of grassland ecosystem of desert, USA. You have rightly said earning from grassland through carbon credit. Factually in the India desert, grassland is dwindling due to the rising population demand better livelihood, quality produce and the land for infrastructure and industry.
Therefore we have proposed site specific alternate land uses. It consists of energy plantations on the dunes together with horticulture and dry farming in the inter-dunal plains. It has the dual purpose. On one hand the system preserves the ecosystem services by restricting wind erosion and enriching soil through carbon sequestration.On the other hand it provides better income to the desert dwellers through horticulture and dry farming. It also supports animal husbandry and rearing of small ruminant. Additional earning could be possible through carbon credit from non-arable land. Thus articulating the land use depending upon the local socio-economic condition is the basic idea for conceptualizing sustainable agriculture consisting of selecting land uses and management practices suitable to a specific site. As it is pointed out in my previous reply in the present discussion.
Your second observation regarding carbon in the sub-soils also has the great merit. We also have the similar kind of experience in the Indian desert, concealing the impressions of episodes of climate change in the past. I have mentioned some of them while discussing the topic on climate change.
These are the few points perhaps, it will help you in articulating the study on carbon sequestration in future
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For the purpose of restoring the quality of degraded soils, and agricultural production, I would like to know some plants, whether herbaceous, agricultural or forestry, that have some degree of resistance or tolerance to salinity.
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Bulk density of a forest soil sample in a community forest created under social forestry scheme in the district of Nadia, West Bengal is obtained as 0.81 gm/ cubic centimetre, comparatively too low from the other samples of the same forest stands collected from 500 meters distance, visibly the sample is silty in nature, and the implanted trees of the said community forest are mostly of teak categories, the forest stood in the alluvial plains of the lower Gangetic deltaic set up, is the obtained value of bulk density normal for the physical nature of the soils of the forest floors?
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Bulk density (BD) measurement needs to be done by core method for any comparison to other soils' BD. If the SOC is very high in soils under forest for a long time, BD may be really low.
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Biomass of the two trees namely Azadirachta indica (Neem) and (Jalpai) Alaerocarpus serratus is measured which were uprooted in the last November by the ravaged cyclone Bulbul, the ratio between Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Below Ground Biomass (BGB) of both the trees of the Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests type is about 20:1, root systems of both the trees are not at all sufficient to erect or support this relatively higher mass of stem, branch, and leaves particularly during the cyclonic storms, do the rest of the trees have the same root systems, is this low quantitative root systems responsible for the low content of Below Ground Biomass of the Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests type whereas the BGB is relatively more in the other forest floors like temperate or conifers
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Just yesterday I have checked, observed and studied the uprooted trees for the super cyclone Amphan in 9 forest patches of Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests types in 3 districts of West Bengal that revealed the area, volume, and the mass of the root systems is more than 20 times less than that of the above ground portion of the trees of the heights ranging between 30 - 45 ft height, and DBH 1 ft to 12 feet, if it's possible to attached the photographs of those uprooted trees with the entire stem including branches and the complete exposed root systems attached to the stem, then it will be possible to check visually for all.
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what is the general trend in the R:S ratio of tree species at the seedling stage? early-successional vs. late-successional which ones have big R:S ratio? i see some contradicting results published. Plus, could these trend vary with tropical and temperate tree species?
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May be 3:1
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community based conservation can be done in what type of forest tree species?
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It's obviously the Sustainable utilization of forest resources. In addition to that, Forest stewardship and advocacy.
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Monocultures of exotic tree species can be poor for native biodiversity and have negative impacts on hydrology as well as other environmental characters. But is the inclusion of some exotics in a (tropical) forest restoration always measurably bad for biodiversity and environment? Does anyone know any review of this question from which to draw guidance about impacts of mixing exotics with native species. Thank you.
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Dear Jeremy, your question is very relevant. There is always a risk when planting exotic species in areas under restoration because them can become invasive and compromise the restoration process. However, there are some examples where exotic species do not negatively impact the native biodiversity and other ecosystem functions. Indeed, some exotic species can provide a suitable environment for the development of native species. I would like to recommend you two recent papers addressing this issue. The first is entitled " Monitoring of forest components reveals that exotic tree species are not always invasive in areas under ecological restoration", and the second is "Exotic eucalypts: From demonized trees to allies of tropical forest restoration?". Kind regards.
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I and Dr Ephrem Habyarimana from Bologna Agricultural research institute, Italy are editing special issue "Remote and proximal sensing for mapping in-field leaf chlorophyll content and monitoring crop growth, development, health, and yields" in Turkish journal of agriculture and forestry. Articles are warmly invited for contribution in this special issue regaring the application of remoting sensing in agriculture forestry
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Iam from Bule Hora University I edit Forestry and Agroforestry issue
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Forestry is one of the most significant primary activities of the world that provides employment to millions of people. However, forest resources are dwindling over time as a consequence of human destructive activities. Acquisition of land for agriculture, settlement expansion, ruthless cutting of forests for time being profits, forest fires and diseases are some of the major enemies causing rapid forest destruction. For long term benefits, it is important to take measures for sustained yield forestry. Suggestions of the researchers and experts of the subject are needed in this regard.
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Sustained yield means production of yield on a regular basis for a longer period of time. For sustained yield to occur the annual cut shall not exceed the annual growth. For example in Nepal, scientific forest management has been applied in Shorea robusta forests mainly in collaborative forest of Terai plains and later in community forests of hills too. Previously only planting and conservation was emphasized which tend to rot the trees causing huge economic losses. As these type of practices has just started it takes time for results as Shorea has rotation of 80 years. There was initially huge opposition from stakeholders and local people. But to gain a healthy forest we need to sacrifice the old one.
There must be extensive research that the theory of sustained yield is actually prevalent in field or not. Forestry is a practice that occurs in a complex natural and social setting. Also the management practices must be good withstanding fire, theft and encroachment. The management plan plays a key role here. It should suit the scenario in which it is being made and should be implemented with precision.Constant research is required.
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Hi, we aim to "quantify" cultural ecosystem services from urban forests of our study area (Karlsruhe, Germany). We know that cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify as they are often qualitative and have intangible significance. Our approach is to first do a detail survey on public and stakeholders' perception and preferences on selected cultural ecosystem services using questionnaire survey and Likert's scale of response. Then, we want to use our data from the questionnaire survey to develop a scoring systems. Do you know any method which can be helpful to us? Or, do you know how to valuate cultural ecosystem services? In addition to questionnaire survey, we also have data from urban forest plots on forest structure and composition. We followed the guidelines from i-tree-eco software's handbook and UFORE model developed by the US Forest Service (David Nowak). We will really appreciate if you can provide us some literature or provide some suggestions on methods to quantify cultural ecosystem services.
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First of all, there are two different questions to look at. The first is the value and status of the eco-system and the second is the value and the quantity of the service. By focussing on eco-system services and not the capital we tend to miss important aspects. The first is the value of the natural capital. Capital is something which is used in production but not used up. Built capital (like houses) are valued at "market value" that is what someone is prepared to pay for them, rather than their replacement cost, which must form some baseline. The next value and quantity is that of "roof over head" or apartments. Again, unless you have controlled rents (Germany) you have the valuation of what people are prepared to pay. So the quantification is the number of apartments and with number of bedrooms, total potential housing people/year.
Value is tricky. If I have a home I will not want to respond to a "flats to rent" sign. But if homeless and with money I might. Homeless without money I won't.
Now. let us assume that we want our population to have a service. What natural capital is needed to provide that service? Now you have a dimension. What natural capital do we have? Now you have a gap to work with. Do we have the capital and are still not providing the service? Now you have a production gap.
But of course, the difficult thing is what service?
There IS one measure though of ecosystems - maturity. See Odum et al. Easy to measure, mature eco-systems represent capital that can be used to provide services. Mature eco-systems have high mass, absorb sunlight, control rain, provide biodiversity etc etc.
So that brings me to answer that 1) measure the ecological maturity. 2) Dimension the natural capital needed by the geographical region the capital shall serve. 3) identify the services remembering that you need to extract the services without degrading maturity. Clever people(indigenous) increase maturity AND extract services at the same time. Read Odum if you haven't already.
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From environmental sciences, social sciences, engineering, forestry sciences. Also from more specific and more technical areas.
We as Research Group want to strengthen knowledge networks of bamboo!
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The use of alternative plant species in construction, such as bamboo, is an alternative with environmental and social advantages. Undoubtedly, reducing the consumption of native species has environmental advantages. However, it is always necessary to assess the impacts of each activity, seeking, as far as possible, to add maximum sustainability to production.
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The introduction of digitized machinery has proven to have numerous benefits in the forestry industry in terms of profit, the environment. However these advancements in technology seem to be leaving the people trailing behind. I therefore wanted to understand the impacts of these advancement on these three pillars as their advantages have already been widely studied. Are there any other social advantages that these advancements or developments may have excluding aesthetics and recreation, especially in African countries where job security is still a problem?
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@Back Tomas, thank you for the article.
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Forestry or agroforestry extension is an emerging discipline for determining key factors responsible for its extension or adoption by people. In ear of climate change mainly in developing country agroforestry is economic tool for adoption but it outreach is not beyond fertliser, timber, fuel and fodder. There are various studies conducted for survey and extension but no standard scale is developed for generic criteria. With respect to current scenario what is to be generic scale or parameters for forestry/ agroforestry extension?
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What is the best software for canopy estimation analysis using images from hemispherical camera?
Thanks
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Dear Anastasios Mazis,
Best software for canopy estimation analysis.
  1. Gap Light Analyzer (GLA): Imaging software to extract forest canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from a true-color hemispherical (fisheye) photograph.
  2. CAN-EYE: is an imaging software (Windows) used to extract the following canopy structure characteristics from true-color images (either acquired with a fish-eye or with a classic objective).
  3. HemiView: The HemiView canopy image analysis system processes the image data file to obtain information about the canopy structure.
  4. CIMES-FISHEYE: It is a package of free programs for the analysis of hemispherical photographs (HP) of forest canopies, to extract key canopy attributes like solar radiation indices, leaf area index, canopy openness, etc. These programs offer a unique set of  features for film and digital hemispherical photography
I hope the information will help you.
With Best Wishes,
Samir G. Pandya
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I am working on a book chapter to write on the latest updates in forest resources in Nepal. Any suggestions will be valued. It could be social forestry, technical forestry, remote sensing etc.
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Dear rabin,
Please take a look at this:
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Remotely sensed data is advantageous for
practical applications in agriculture, forestry,
and water resources. For each field of study,
list two data sets or variables that is best
observed using a passive sensor and active
sensor
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I believe that soil moisture, temperature, pH and rainfall can be measured remotely.
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I am about to finish my PhD in Forestry (Forest Biotechnology) from Forest Research Institute, India. I am looking for postdoc opportunities abroad. Which universities and specifically supervisors are worth approaching? My area of interest is the plant root system.
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Dear Saha,
there are many universities potentially good according to you area.
I suggest you to prepare first a good proposal on plant root system and according to the scope of the universities you can applied for post doc
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I planted a couple of cypresses (Cypressus sempervirens pyramidalis). They grow well, but they are rather "slim" (narrow). I intend to plant a few more (1,5 metre high); I was told that if I cut the top of the plant, it will produce stronger branches (and become wider); it will also produce a new top. Is this correct?
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I thought the point (no pun intended) was to allow these cypresses to grow tall and thin, like a pencil. My impression is that these are not really meant to be trimmed or sculpted. If you are interested in wider cypresses or a cypress that's more adaptable while sculpting, maybe you could consider getting another variety.
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Big BAF is mostly used as a very fine "sieve" to sample for species richness as well as forestry volumes and other valuable forestry data. To those who are unused to it, Big BAF is something of a mystery because it seems to contain "too many points" per acre. For those of us who are interested in inventory information containing regeneration data, the closeness of Big BAF inventory data points is crucial for good statistical analysis and description of regeneration over the landscape.
Even without stem counts, a general description of regeneration for each BigBAF point may yield better regeneration data than a traditional forestry sample inventory. It is likely to be faster than a stem-count method in traditional variable plot inventory.
There are, however, sample models for traditional sample inventory which include good inventory of regeneration. Although sample points for traditional variable plot are further apart than Big BAF, They are still considered very useful in describing what is in the lands inventoried. Some of these traditional methods have been used by this participant. A comparison of those two levels of inventory may allow for a basis of decisions to determine the suitable fineness of sample proximity and choices for sample and analysis methods.
Ultimately, in a forested system or in areas with partial forest, habitat complexity and heterogeneity should be measured by the best method. The question is, is Big BAF truly better than traditional variable plot sample for that factor?
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Any BAF prism will choose small trees (or any other designation of trees) in exactly the same ratio as any other BAF. If you want more small trees, put in more plots or use a BAF that chooses more trees. You will, of course, choose more total trees with either method.
There is no reason that you cannot measure a larger proportion of small trees if you want, you just have to weight them correctly in your calculations.
If the trees are about the same size, there is no distinction between fixed and variable plots in many ways.
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Including growth performance,challenges that may appear, etc.
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For forest plantation probably may not good because need a long time to get revenue which is >=30 years compared to batai or acacia which only need less than 10 years to harvest. However, if for butter production might be faster to get revenue. It will be good if planted in mix plantations, where can also increase the biodiversity .
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Read an review article, "Significant Remote Sensing Vegetation Indices: A Review of Developments and Applications" by Jinru Xue and Baofeng Su. Wanting to learn which vegetation index model would be used in Borneo Malaysia (tropical forestry). NDVI is always a go to, but through this paper I read that WDRVI, SAVI, RVI, etc. could be used as well. Any suggestions?
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NDVI saturates at high biomass levels, as is the cases in tropical forest including Borneo. Wherever we tested SAVI and other indices (as early as the eighties in the past century) in lower biomass zones, the difference with NDVI was marginal.
Now the fundamental issue. What do want to measure, understand, explore in forestry by NDVI? What is your research gap/question)? Deforestation, reforestation, cover change in other words , for example, does not need NDVI (see our articles). However, seasonal changes outside the tropics may be estimated well by NDVI.
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I am looking for studies on costs and benefits of salvage logged forests (preferrably after windthrow /-break) to compare with the effort of salvage logging with different intensities in a recent windthrow.
Thanks!
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Dear Daniel Kraus,
The importance of this type of analysis is growing due to the increasingly frequent climatic cataclysms. The costs of this type of processes may vary considerably depending on the type of risk of climatic disasters, applied technology, economy, climate zone, raw material costs, market prices of specific wood species obtained from forested areas, rehabilitation costs degraded by civilization and after climatic disaster of forest area and afforestation determined tree species, etc. It is important to develop a universal model for estimating this kind of costs, ie to build a multi-factor model, taking into account various factors including changes in the type of risk of climate disasters, applied technology, economy, climate zone, raw material costs, market prices of specific species wood obtained from forested land, costs of reclamation degraded by civilization and after a climate disaster of forest area and afforestation with specific tree species, etc.
Best wishes
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Which are the main agroforestry strategies for carbon sequestration? Are the crops yield and the farmers income affected by these strategies?
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Nice response Dr Dobriyal. How do you see a empirical relation between carbon footprint and net primary productivity vis- a- via plant biomass...
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One of my recent researches aims at providing agricultural and forestry sectors with the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) variable (unit: mg CO2 m-2 s-1) at spatially (< 1 km) and temporally (1 hour) high resolution. I can provide users with the GPP variable as it is, but I would like to do further processing for more useful application and more people in various fields. Why is the GPP important for you? In what format or unit do you want GPP to be? Any other suggestions or comments are welcome.
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Thanks for your answer, Jose!
Xueyan, you can see if the model vegetation type is correct for your study area!
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For any non-linear equations, how can we estimate the asymptotic standard error for each of the parameters (say a, b, c, d) of that equation?
Let say an equation:
Y = a/[1+b exp (-c x X] (1/d)
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Thanks again Brunu Martin ..... I have removed the tag C++....
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I am working on stand structure of a Forest Reserve. How do I show novelty on the research; though the vertical and horizontal stand structure of the stand in the study area have not been reported?
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Onyekachi, An answer to your question is certainly dependent how you are using measures of forest stand structure. Are you using measures of forest stand structure to understand some other system attribute? Perhaps how forest stand structure affects animal diversity, plant diversity, water yields, or some other ecosystem attribute. To a certain extent the novelty of your approach will be conditioned on what it is your are using forest stand structure for. I have been involved in work looking at how horizontal and vertical forest stand structure affects bird communities across broad geographic areas. I have attached a paper that attempts to evaluate the relative importance of horizontal and vertical forest stand structure attributes in explaining spatial variation in bird communities. I suspect that part of your question regarding novelty will be tied to the fact that the forest systems where you are working have not received as much empirical work as others. I have attached a couple of relevant papers that have focused on how bird communities are responding to spatial variation in forest stand structure. I hope these help provide some ideas that are useful to your particular situation.
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please send me the above relevant paper...socio economic impacts of forestry..
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you can search Dr Adnan and Dr Sayed Moazzam Nizami Profile on Research Gate. they have many research articles on KPK forest .
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Thanks and regards,
Raimundas
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Can you tell me if it's possible for me to obtain the geographic data for S. spruce from the European atlas of forestry?
I look forward to hearing from you,
Kind regards.
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Dear Catriona,
Please, kindly find at:
For more information, feel free to contact the team of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species ( jrc-forest-atlas@ec.europa.eu - https://w3id.org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01 ).
With my best regards,
Daniele de Rigo
Disclaimer: The views expressed are purely those of the writer and may not in any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the European Commission.
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I am interested in documented cases where defoliation by European giypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) has led to die-back of oak on larger area (preferrably Europe). There is an on-going debate whether weakened oak forests need help by combating mass infestations of gipsy moth to avoid complete defoliation. Often a combination of different stress factors with the relatively late defoliation by gipsy moth may lead to death of individual oaks the followong year because necessary resources to develop new leaves are depleted. Forest owners fear the loss of old oaks on larger scale in extreme years like 2018 and argue for combating caterpillars of gipsy moth which may also affect non-target organisms. But are these fears reasonable? How big is the impact of defoliation on oak or other tree species?
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Dear Daniel, here you can find a paper from Croatia
Best regards, Stefanie
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I am working on a comparative review of assisted migration in conservation and forestry applications. Unfortunately, I have found it difficult to unearth conservation AM examples for animals. Is anyone aware of any relevant studies or implemented management strategies that fit this bill? Note: I am not including translocation in this research, only assisted migrations where species are introduction to novel environments outside of their known historic range; and I am particularly interested in examples driven by climate change.
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Not sure if this is what you are looking for but in the Steigerwald region , Germany, the local conservation concept of Ebrach State Forest Enterprise includes active deadwood accumulation as a main pillar for habitat restoration. The beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus e.g. benefits from this strategy: it is now colonizing formerly intensively managed stands where deadwood was a scarce resource before. Maybe this management practice could be seen as a form of assisted migration too.
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Want to get a sense of the most crucial questions w.r.t. forestry and climate change that are yet to be answered. Questions which require further research, the answers to which will put us in a better place to combat climate change (If you have many questions, you may provide 3 big questions at the most)
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"Combat climate change" was the blatant bias reveal. Seriously, my research question would be: What percentage of the adult American population thinks "the nexus of forests and climate change" is an important topic (and why)?
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I am very much interested in point pattern analysis, and I can imagine many applications that are useful in science. However, I have no clue whether such spatial point pattern analyses are also applied in real workflows of forestry companies, and if not why not.
Would be great if anyone has an opinion to share.
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Depending on the type of data involved, you may be able to assess the extent of species mingling in mixed-species stands of trees.
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For example Apps that can make use of the camera for making certain plant measurements
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Hola Mauricio,
Aunque yo no uso Android las apps que he usado por estos lados en Apple sirven también para Android:
1.- Canopeo: para estimar porcentajes de cobertura de dosel https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=okstate.edu.canopeo&hl=es_US
2.- Leafsnap para identificación de plantas (aunque no tropicales)
El profesor brasileño Emilio Bruna de Florida, ha hecho una lista de apps útiles. Algunas sirven en android: http://brunalab.org/apps/
Saludos,
Emilio
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I am interested in the contribution of root exudates in soil processes.
What is the recommended procedure to measure the magnitude of root exudates production (the quantity over a certain time)?
Is there also a method to collect and analyse the molecular / biochemical composition of these exudates?
To make the problem even harder, I am working with trees.
But still, I am interested to know how that works for smaller plants...
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Dear Thomas Fungenzi,
Please have a look at these useful PDF attachments.
Good luck!
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I am being required to plug my bore holes taken with a standard 5.15 mm increment borer per the stipulations of a specific permit I have received. The species is Pinus palustris, a very sappy conifer, and I am boring during the growing season.
I've seen people recommend plugging candle wax or beeswax. What are some other materials people use? And where do people buy the wax in the correct shape?
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There are studies back around 2001 by Dirk Dujesiefken from Hamburg, Germany, with a few pubs in German (I have the citations). He compared a variety of options and in very rare cases it was recommended to plug the hole. But rule of thumb is do NOT pug holes at all. Plugging is in most cases worse than anything else. So dont plug holes, also dont use any desinfection treatment, and by no means any "balsam".
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Forests though have unlimited role in ecological and economic front but as all nations focusing on conservation due environmental threat industrial forestry is null and void in many state policies. What is the future of Forestry you see in global economy in coming years? What will be role of professional foresters in wood raw material production if forest plantations will be limited or stopped for ecological reasons. Can we move with industrial forestry/ agroforesty/ farm forestry vis a vis green economy?
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Dear Manmohan,
I think there is need to strike a balance between the productive roles and the environmental/ecological roles of forestry because we need both. If this is done both those in production and environmental forestry will have nothing to lose and our environment will still be protected. I think what we should all speak and act against is the unsustainable exploitation of forests for economic reasons without considering the ecological implications.
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Is Agroforestry branch of Agriculture or Forestry? Give the suitable reasons and justifications?
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The tree is the main component. There can be agroforestry without crops or without animals, but not without trees (for example: multistrata agroforestry system).
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See the paper:
Multinational mining enterprises and artisanal small-scale miners: from confrontation to cooperation.
Anyone using this link before January 10, 2018 will be taken directly to the final version of your article on ScienceDirect. No sign up, registration or fees are required – they can simply click and read
can you share similar cases either in mining or other industries ( agriculture, forestry, fisheries,etc)
Thanks
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I recommend Hamit's answer
Best Regards
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Interesting question & answers. Same situation happens to me often, as I am from the pre-digital era.
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Any companies like fsc or similar to rainforest alliance
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Dear Georgios
In Greece I do not know, but in case it can be useful for you, the Global FSC Certificate Database contains the most up-to-date information on FSC certificates, both Forest Management and Chain of Custody. The database can be used to verify that a company is FSC certified and search for FSC certified companies or products.
Regards.
PM
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The one of Sentinel radar data applications is biomass estimation in forestry. I would like to get related information from respect researchers.
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There is some work going on in Australia using sentinel to access grassland fuel structure, but unfortunately not yet published.
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when in two-way ANOVA transformation becomes hard and non-parametric tests unsuitable, can someone run one-way ANOVA for each factor separately such that if transformation doesn't work non-parametric test suitable for one-way ANOVA is employed?
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Hello Fisseha,
2way ANOVA is always preferable to doing 1way ANOVA because it makes better use of the information. For example, you can look at the interactive effect. And the tests have more power (larger df for the error term). There is nothing *wrong* with doing 1ways instead of the 2way, except you pay the price in loss of information and in power.
If the assumptions of normal and independent residuals are not met, one can still do a 2way ANOVA via randomization. See:
b.t.w., did you know that the distribution of the data (taken as the response variable) is only a clue to which error distribution to use in analysis? It is not a prerequisite.
The assumptions for the general linear model (including regression, ANOVA, and ANCOVA) are that the errors (residuals) are normal and homogeneous (Eisenhart 1947, Seber 1966, Neter et al 1983 pp 31& 49, Quinn and Keough 2002 pp 110 & 280). Evaluation of assumptions in texts, where it occurs, often entails a residual versus fit plot (for homogeneity) and a normal score plot or Quantile-Quantile plot (for normality of the residuals). If you haven't already, I suggest you look at the residuals from your 2way ANOVA. And take it from there.
Good luck with your research,
David S
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Tropical forestry have diverse architecture pattern and greatly vary in structure. Can you provide me some insight?
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following the answers
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what type of agroforestry system we have to chose where soil depth is low and vice versa?
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Dear friend, a fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is that different plant life forms such as trees and herbaceous crops or pastures occupy to some extent different soil strata with their root systems when grown in association, leading to a degree of complementarity in their use of soil resources. For this reason,rooting depth and the vertical distribution of root systems are of particular interest for agroforestry. Rooting depth determines to which extent plants (e.g. trees) can use subsoil water and nutrients which make them less dependent from the supply in the topsoil and may also be made available to associated plants (e.g. crops) with shallower root systems through nutrient pumping and hydraulic lift.
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Or...
How a new professional paradigm would look alike?
I fully acknowledged the dogma of forestry education, and I embraced it as a practician. Why? I could not argue with the law and technical standards and norms.
"Too much regulation is not enough" is the motto of our forestry policy, which is still promoted under academy umbrella.
The new kids? They are our forgotten social consciousness of the environment. They don't have much in common with the government, or other social institutions, since they actually are NGOs with good communication skills and crowd funding.
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Who should take charge of changing the "command and control" professional forest paradigm?
This is a great phlosophical question. The answer does depend on the ends. But the ends of who? the people or the leaders! the people like the Amoeba moves toward the demands for the survival and growth. Forest is an example and the people should understand and know the values of forests to avoid any wrong selection of the leaders (guard and managers) of the forest. It is completely depends on the education (Morals, Science and Arts)...leaders with no ethics will destroy that paradigm....
All the best
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how to draw vector nomograms used in vector competition analysis for agroforestry studies? i have attached a sample vector diagram with this message. what i wish to know is how to plot the diagram. can it be done with MS excel and if yes how to do it ?
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Hi Rengith,
The R function 'plot' has a large number of features which would allow you to plot the kind of diagram you are talking about, in particular look at functions: 'plot', to plot the initial data; 'lines' to plot the lines; 'arrow' to plot the arrows, 'text' to write the values next to the lines; 'legend' to plot the legend at the bottom rhs, etc
Happy to help if you need more details,
Rgds,
Augusto
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I am searching photographs of any species of Juglandaceae used in sylvivulture and/or timber production.
There are relatively few Juglandaceae cultivated using intensive and profit-oriented sylviculture methods (planting of trees in large and often monospecific stands). Probably primarily the temperate members of Juglans (J. nigra, J. cinerea, J. regia, J. mandshurica) and Carya (C. ovata, C. laciniosa, C. cordiformis, and to a lesser extent C. glabra and C. illinoinensis). The leaders of Juglandaceae timber production are Russia (mainly J. mandshurica) and the USA (mainly J. nigra). In some regions of Eastern Asia, several Pterocarya species are also used for forest plantations (e.g. P. stenoptera in China and P. rhoifolia in Japan).
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Wood production is perfect (since we have already Juglandaceae plantations/pictures for nuts & fruits).
Do you have any picture (but not in winter - rather summer/spring pictures)??
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Now all natural forests are manged on conservation approach and so there is no direct benefits are originating for economic gains of country baring few livelihood options for tribals. There is dead trees, unused NWFP forest wealth but law not permit to extract it. Is conservation forestry is just ban everything in natural forests even silvicultural practices of thinning, salvage/ sanitation felling or improvement felling etc. How to regulate the conservation with siviculture of economic and social principles?
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You ask, " How to regulate the conservation with siviculture of economic and social principles"?
I believe the answer is classic Einstein theory, 'one can't solve a problem with the same thinking that created it'.
The illusion of 'domination and control' over nature has lead us down a number of 'dead end' paths and persists in the context of your question.
Industrial forestry is the contemporary manifestation of 'killing the buffalo for it's tongue'., with the same degrees of mass wasting and genocide that follows. The evidence is clear. Short booms followed by protracted busts every time. We've overlaid the incessant growth, extractive model not understanding it manifests into cancer whether physically or socially, no exceptions. Tweaks to this model will have limited benefits. We need a new way of thinking.
A new way based in Nature as the Master. WHERE everything our 'management' attempts to do is emulating Natures cycles and bounty. With small 'takings' of trees, locally processing and locally manufacturing into finished products.
Leaving future generations an environmental inherence that has value and not just liabilities. If we love our children we will think more about them than our short term profits.
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I am interested especially in big-data available for Europe.
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Thanks Hamit,
Very interesting papers, indeed.
I think there are some portals with data available, such as
But there are some big portal that consolidates the data on forests?
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