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I want to quantify ecosystem services for a temperate forest type. I am wondering how one can "quantify" qualitative ecosystem services such as aesthetic values, recreation, etc. in a coherent statistical framework. Relevant references on this topic and ideas will be appreciated.
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Colleagues, I asked this question in 2016. Since then, we published three papers on this topic:
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Is there any literature or report that I can reach about the allowable cut methods that are currently being used in different countries? Since there are many methods or formulas, I wonder the situation in country or region base. Any information for a specific country is also welcome.
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Dear Mr Zengin, Jerry Vanclay’s short, inspiring paper might be a good starting point http://jkv.50megs.com/AllowableCut.pdf
With a set of 4 international generic indicators for Criterion 5.2 and instructions for standard developers FSC addresses your question from a global perspective. You can find this in FSC-STD-60-004 on FSC.org in the Document Center.
I wonder myself, how the rule for the annual cut can be meaningfully calculated for cases, where many different and not well researched species are managed. Single-species AAC calculations make intuitively more sense to me in such cases. But I don't have field experiences. Looking forward to see your research findings later on.
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I am looking for your help to select a research topic
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A comparative assessment between the vulnerability of valuable and endangered species during the primary and secondary successions process could be considered from the following three aspects as a case study in a specific pilot.
1.Carbon sequestration
2.Carbon storage
3.Carbon stock
Good luck.
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Bioenergetic use of Araucaria angustifolia branches
Araucaria angustifolia was widely exploited in the past for wood purpose
and currently it is on the red list of endangered species in Brazil
As far as we know, there are no data on the extent of this uncontrolled exploitation (Records suggest that its original extension has been reduced to just 12%).
Currently it cannot be cut or managed,
even the branches - which fall naturally at a certain time are not used.
So, we have the following questions:
Is it possible to see the Araucaria tree in a profitable and ecological way at the same time?
How can the use of branches contribute to the conservation of species?
Can the use of co-products (branches) save Araucaria from extinction?
These and other questions are addressed in this study carried out at the State University of Centro Oeste, PR - Brazil and can be accessed FREE of charge for 50 days
by the link
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Rachan
Thank you for the clarification
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Dear forest bubble,
in your opinion, what are the main gaps in knowledge in the forest sector that forest science really should have to deal with? Which topics are not given enough consideration?
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The hybridization of a holistic valuation of ecosystem services provided by forests and the preferential weights associated with each ecosystem service by the stakeholders.
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Within what minimum and maximum values does the (statically significant) correlation between annual growth of the rings and climatic variables (eg: temperature and / or rainfall) vary in beech (Fagus sylvatica) under the European climates?
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Really nice, interested and important question.
Keep it up !
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Today forest managers are looking for an instruction for multiple use planning. Forest planning for only wood production purpose is not acceptable in sustainable development lessons. However I did not find an international instruction for multiple use planning in forests. If you know any please share your findings.
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I found the Assemblage theory mostly descriptive and thought of how it can help analyse community forest management outcomes when the forest management sructure and actors are seeing as an Assemblage?
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Seema Arora-Jonsson Thank you very much for your answer and for sharing the paper. That's what I thought: on one hand use the Assemblage for descriptions and then another lens to think through the implications. In my case I may use some network data to analyse how the actors connect and eventually the implications on i) the working of the community forest as an Assemblage, 2) toward Adaptive Governance one of the initial goals set for the Assemblage.
Mawa
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  • I have observed from reports in India that more Human Elephant conflict is there in Central and Eastern India compared to Southern India. This raises a question why it is so? one strong reason comes to my mind is due to wrong forest management practices and regeneration approach? We find that elephants are in good density in Central and Eastern India in Sal(Shorea robusta) dominated forest habitats. So, why elephants are out to village lands from the forest in these areas? This is a matter of intensive research. One hypothesis is that the concerned department has done exotic species plantation in these forests on periphery, may be upto 500m to 1 km inside forest depending upon the scheme made by them, therefore the seedlings of local species in the periphery could not compete and these areas are left without fodder and food species of elephants. Regeneration is badly affected. in addition to exotics, at some places one finds Teak(Tectona grandis) plantation in Sal dominated peripheral forest areas also. All these species have good content of aromatic chemicals in stem,leaf,fruits and flowers(may be roots also). So, an elephant coming to this area in periphery gets agitated and disoriented first due to absence of food and then due to smell of aromatic compounds, which makes the animal to come out of these areas and the light of outside forest guides them to enter into villages. Here begins the conflict.
Joshua Plotnik, a comparative psychologist at Hunter College, City University of New York, decided to see whether six captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) could use odors alone to make quantitative judgments. Josua Plotnik says and I quote,"Understanding the sensory skill, could help preserve a species in decline. Fewer than 40,000 Asian elephants remain in the wild—and “we’re running out of time to save them”. “They’re remarkably intelligent animals we still know very little about.”
I would love to interact on this subject, and research input/suggestions given here may become a tool in hands of animal managers and researchers to save this species.
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Also, elephants need to move from one area to the next and back. If their channels are cut by humans using that land, the elephants are restricted in their movement. That could be the irritating factor.
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Could you please share your ideas about using deep learning for long-term forest management planning. Thank you all in advance.
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Unfortunately foresters across the world used only production planning tools for forest management.The principles of natural planning was forgotten. Now being reversed after long drawn impact. So, first learning from nature, and then using local indigenous knowledge possessed by communities will make the syllabus of Long term forest management programme. carrying capacity based FM application will make the ecosystem stable.
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Forest Management Plans for National Forest are available at the Forest Service Web page, but any ideas to better search for private plans? for example from companies, city, town, county, nature center, and more?
Thank you
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Let me know if you're interested in Forest Management Plans for National Forests in Brazil. There are few National Forests (especially in Amazonia) under concession for private companies.
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can anyone help me based on current studies on thrests to mangrove forests?
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The major threats to mangrove forests include population explosion, conversion to aquaculture ponds, clear-felling for timber, charcoal and wood chip production for industrial and urban development.
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Recent research has suggested that reducing the density of smaller, dense tree stands can elevate streamflows in the dry season. This is a critical issue in NorCal where past forest management has resulted in dense young stands of trees that use more soil water than larger, less dense tree stands. Modest increases in summer low flows can result in far better conditions for juvenile salmonids.
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I've seen mixed results concerning this question with most studies conducted in semi-arid rangelands where juniper or pinyon and juniper were removed or thinned. While difficult to understand why there were differences (some showed an increase in water yield and some did not, some showed changes in flow duration and some did not), some factors that appear to make a difference is how much tree biomass is removed, soil types, precipitation regime, and length of the study. In areas with high interannual variability in both total and seasonal precipitation, longer-term studies appear to be needed to in order to capture the effects of climate variability on the results. Alas, many older studies do a poor job of doing just that, making it difficult to put study results in context.
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These methods may be useful in modeling the long term wood supply in different applications such as patch work or Woodstock.
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While not specifically related to insect problems, I published a paper several years ago that addressed how other disturbances (fires) might be accounted for in a forest planning effort.
Bettinger, P. 2010. An overview of methods for incorporating wildfires into forest planning models. Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences. 2(1): 43-52.
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I'm conducting a research to measure the impact of Joint Community Forest Management on forest sustainability in west java-Indonesia by using perception analysis. I used multiple regression analysis and determined independent variables such as income generating, capacity building, social capital in community forest group, conservation actions, amount of managed area of forest.
I need advise from experiences in other location or country to determine a significant variable to measure it.
Any suggestion to improve my research?
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Dear Thomas,
I think a lot depends on the knowledge that the participant community has about the resource. Many cases, communities decide on "who is right or wrong"and not "what is right or wrong"! The more we are able to build on the 'what'aspect through scientific understanding of forests, the better it is.
Subrata Singh
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Hello Dendrochronologist! We are working in the tropical forest management issues, in which we are stuck in finding the relationship between age and growth of Shorea robusta species. We would highly appreciate your support to let us know the method for dendrochronological analysis especially incase of tropical hard wood species.
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Dear Sony Baral,
Dendrchronology is rather challenging for tropical species because they usually do not produce annual growth rings.
According to the compilation of prof Grissino Mayer the potential of your Shorea robusta is low in dendrochronology
( https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/262378 Grissino-Mayer, H.D. 1993. An updated list of species used in tree-ring research. Tree-Ring Bulletin 53:17-43.)
but I found a more recent study (https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/2982) where it seems working.
In addition, hi-res stable isotopesprofiles could also help to detect annual increments even in species lacking anatomical ring boundaries (e.g. and there are many other studies)
Last but not least, I'd like to note that there is a dendrogroup at the BOKU (http://dendro.boku.ac.at/methoden/27.html). The head of the group is Michael Grabner. I encourage You to contact him. He is a professional dendrchronologist and , as far as I know, he has experience also with tropical species.
best wishes,
Zoltan
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Does anybody know where I could find some spatial data about the evolution of forest stand from its establishment to timber harvesting?
More in general I would need a dataset for a plot with the spatial coordinates of each tree and the dbh measures every 5 or 10 years. My idea is to have this dataset to analyse how the structure can change. I'm looking for managed and unmanaged stands, everywhere and with any kind of forest management (productive, protection, biodiveristy conservation).
I know how to simulate spatial point patterns but the difficult thing is to simulate the growth of trees properly and according to their spatial distribution and neighbors. For this reason I'm looking for empirical data.
Thanks in advance
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Dear Maurizio,
I know that some of my collegues from the Pontificial catholic university of Ecuador are taking this kind of data each five year in a tropical rainforest dynamic plot of 50 ha in Ecuador. The head of the project is Renato Valencia, you can may be contact him to see if and how you can use these data.
kind regards,
Brian
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Any ideas to share on collaborative forest management?
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Dear friends, collaborative Forest Management is a dynamic approach to solve environmental, social, economic, and political issues among stakeholders including governments, concessionaires, communities, and national and international organizations.
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JFM has almost everywhere been painted as a very good policy for forest conservation and NTFPs but what about the people who are a part of it?Are the benefits from JFM equally distributed to all?
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There has been best practices in India where local communities have been benefited by Joint Forest Management. The success of JFM practices depends on the degree of community mobilisation at the level of local communities.
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I would like to know the main advantages of ecosystem services when compared to timber forest management. And what alternative of forest resources management presents greater economic returns?
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The SIMWOOD project also adresses ES within forest mobilisation and, therefore, management. Take a look at http://simwood.efi.int. Our group expects to publish on this soon. Stay tuned.
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The pace at which the private sector is engaging in climate change related activities as well as carbon trade is yet to be convincing? Most forest concessionaires still find it profitable to engage in logging their forests for timber rather than protecting the same forest for carbon. This renders the 'logged to protected forest' concept still unrealistic. New pathways are seemingly needed......
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Obviously there are some climate change deniers around. Read the Wikipedia file on this odd way of earning a living from oil and coal lobbyist funding.
If one recognise that the climate is changing rapidly due to human GHG-emissions one most also accept that humans can influence the speed and magnitude of this change and even select to end it.
Someone who denies this - contrary to the scientific established fact - can spend days commenting negatively on all discussions about climate change mitigation.
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It is necessary to know the dynamics and rates of growth of Ulmus pumila thickets on abandoned agricultural lands and on urban plots after abandoned construction works. What methods to apply to get reliable informative data. In terrestrial conditions without aerial photography
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Unfortunately, you need to use a hemispherical lens or a special cap (horizontal viewing angle is 180 degrees); 
for example: circural (NOT diagonal!) fisheye (https://www.sigmaphoto.com/lenses/fisheye-lenses) or Circular Fisheye conversion lens: DCR-FE180PRO (was discontinued its production in Jan/08), DCR-CF185PRO (It is necessary to adjust the field of view to 180 degrees)
and software;:
- WinScanopy (http://regent.qc.ca/assets/winscanopy_about.html) - probably the best ;-)
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Dear everybody, My name is Ali Rahmat. Now I have 
Now I try to me make review paper about the effect of forest cover/ forest treatment on water yield. To make strong my paper I need picture or image of afforestation and etc, which is not published yet in publication. If you have the picture and give to me, that is very helpful for me, and very thank you for that.
Thank you very much for your help or your kind attention
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Try the link below:
They have some of what you are looking for.
Antonio
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I am searching for any standard figures showing the amount of fuelwood can be harvested from 1 ha area. My study area is Bangladesh. So data regarding this region will be very helpful. I found one research paper from Nepal indicating 38.81 tons of fuelwood from 1 ha forest area. But it is not clear either its total harvest of the trees or in a sustainable way. I am looking for the data cap of sustainable fuelwood harvest from 1 ha of forest land. 
Thanks in advance.
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As pointed by Rahman and Uthappa the wood harvested depends on various ecological and even socio-cultural factors. For instance, what one may consider as not being fuelwood (e.g. roots or below ground biomass), in one region, may be considered as good wood elsewhere. Generally in Kenyan highlands a hectare of E. grandis can produce about 170 tonnes from thinnings. And this is besides root biomass.
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I am helping the American Forest Foundation look for successful behavior change programs with measured impacts that have involved one or more of these characteristics, preferably with audiences that were  rural and mostly over 65 years old.  
We’re looking for programs in the following subject areas, but would consider other areas as well.
·        Climate change mitigation
·        Coastal and marine conservation
·        Landscaping and pesticide use
.        Substance abuse and addictions
·        Sustainable agriculture
·        Wildlife conservation and species at risk
Thanks for your consideration
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Hi Jay  
There are many theoretical and practical applications for the behaviour change programs for wildlife conservation and species protection, yet we have to examined practical validity of those application specially in the developing context.   Barrett, C. B., & Arcese, P (1995) have done research about “sustainability of integrated conservation-development projects (ICDPs). On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa”. As they explained “Initiatives to link rural development and species conservation, known as integrated conservation-development projects (ICDPs), have been launched with considerable fanfare and funding around the world. Although ICDPs hold appeal as broader ecological efforts than the conservation and development strategies that preceded them, they also suffer conceptual flaws that may limit their appropriateness and potential sustainability, at least when applied to the protection of large African mammals”. I am sending that research paper for your need, herewith as an attachments
Regards
Dr. Kumara 
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One of the challenges to reduce size of extensive paddocks (>500 ha) in Paraguay is the high costs of fencing and the need to cut hard wood from forest islets to construct conventional fencing, which leads to deforestation of native woodlands. Cattle ranchers need fencing to protect wetlands (as required by law), or to assure a better use of native grasslands, in rotational schemes. One option in literature is to establish live fences, however this is not easy when the cattle is actively grazing and paddocks cannot be abandoned for 3-5 years. This points to the need of a non-edible tree species that can grow despite current active grazing. What we're looking for is to test different species in a particular productive setting. Any help, articles, or experiences of particular species would be greatly appreciated. We are mostly focused in Tropical and Subtropical areas. 
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 Hi
I am from Sri Lanka, farmers of my country use several species as live tree fences and I am sending some research works regarding that. I think that will also be useful for your need  
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I am seeking info about invasiveness of Tetraclinis articulata (syn. Callitris quadrivalvis).
I am aware of Rourke (1991) and Richardson & Rejmánek (2004) references.
Has anyone reliable info (local reports, notes) suggesting this tree established and became naturalized beyond its natural range?
Thanks
Thank you,
Jean-Marc
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hi
I could find out some information about Tetraclinis articulata invasiveness. Just follow papers and link that I am sending herewith as an attachments 
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Summer of 2016 was a very dry season and excellent for forest harvesting in New England, and especially in New Hampshire.  This is a good time to asses any positive impacts on our forests from current harvesting methods. 
New England forestry appears to be most efficient when trees are removed in thinnings created by skidder trails alone.  Once cutting equipment extends beyond the edge of the skidder trail edge, the reach of the equipment is limited and cutting is slowed by the care needed to harvest individual trees within stands.  This reach is commonly used in all good forest harvesting systems.
Cut-to length contemporary systems are able to reach further into stands and thin stands of trees more efficiently than many other mechanical harvest methods.  Regardless of the type of harvesting equipment, many non-overstory removal tree harvests in New England are made with a very high percentage of creation of skidder trails through the forests rather than removal of individual trees and small groups.
Changes in canopy cover from these methods increases light to the forest floor which can increase seedling germination and competition success for any intermediately shade tolerant or shade intolerant tree species.  Effects may also include an increase in regeneration species diversity throughout each stand of timber.  Additionally, standing timber may show a variety of responses to that type of treatment.  Each tree species responds differently, and so this question is in relation to forest cover types most commonly found in New England.
Is creation primarily of skidder trails as a stand thinning treatment showing increase of residual timber basal area tree growth (including responses in forest health) within 10-acre or larger New England forest stands?
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See: The Chapman-Richards Generalization of Von Bertalanffy's Growth Model for Basal Area Growth and Yield in Even - Aged Stands, Forest Science, Volume 19, Number 1, 1 March 1973, pp. 2-22(21).
This paper may help you to predict the basal area development of stands of different initial stocking and subsequent thinning regimes. 
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The inventory for the CBM-CFS3 (carbon balance model from the canadian forest sector) requires volume-age curves for each stand and I cannot figure out how to obtain these curves.
I can find information about dbh, aboveground biomass and volume but I cannot find how this relates to age. Can anyone tell me what I am missing here? I am specifically looking at mexican oaks (Quercus castanea, Q. crassifolia, Q. laeta, Q. obtusata y Q. rugosa). 
The model developers, Kurz et al. (2009) state: "Forest management agencies and industry have built up large libraries of yield tables to describe the accumulation of volume in the merchantable portion of tree stems as a function of stand age. To enable the use of these data sources, CBM-CFS2 was modified from using biomass over age to CBM-CFS3, that uses merchantable volume over age data to simulate growth."
Where can I find these tables with volume-age tables?
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Here it the large file document
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I want to estimate the rate of soil respiration in the Hyrcanian forest by following the protocol of placing series of 20 gr soil (stored in the fridge) into series of jars. Then I put 20 ml (0.2 Molar) of NaOH in each vial and all of them were placed individually in separate jars, also, all of them were sealed completely. After 7 days I opened the jars and added 2 ml (0.2 Molar) BaCl2 into the vials and then added 3 drops of phenolphthalein until it became purple and then I added HCl (0.1 Molar) until it became white!
The point is my result does not seem correct and the amount of acid that I used for my titration in the control sample is fewer than some of my other samples and this feels absolutely wrong. Does anyone have a suggestion and advises for me to estimate soil respiration in my research?  
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Your method is fine , though many pottential human errors may accure in this method. At first I woud suggest to change your method if it is possible.
I have faced the same issue in my master project. My problem was that I used diffetent NaOH (same brand)  in the jars as the first one was insuficient for all the sampel. An the second NaOH was not as pure as it was labled. 
My suggestion is to make sure you use same (same bottle) NaOH and HCl or alternatively check the pureity of both by acid and base tiration.
Good Luck.
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Forestry Researcher, Forest Management, Perhutani Staff
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Thank you for your answer Sir.
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Hi everyone!
I would like to have access to the shapefile related to the spatial distribution of olives crops around the Mediterranean developed by Gaussen and De Philippis – FAO. This is the map -> (take a look to the link)
Any idea? I have already contacted one researchers from this publication but they hadn't, because unfortunately it seems that Gaussend and the rest of the authors for the original one are already disappeared.
Thanks for your time!
Ana
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Hi Ana,
The first author of the following paper Camille Roumieux had worked on the updating of the old maps of the Mediterranean bioclimatic region. He may be able to provide you with some maps and/or files you are looking for. His updated maps are nice and helpful to understand the modern biogeography and chorology of Mediterranean elements:
Morteza
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How effective are bioclimatic models in projecting vegetative species diversity changes? What algorithms are used to reduce effect of other environmental factors?
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Hi Lazarus,
Please see: Austral Ecology (2010) 35, 374–391 and An Overview of Vegetation Models for Climate Change Impacts, US Forest Service, both online.
I hope this helps!
Andrew :-)
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I am curious as to whether there is any literature on how in-stream coarse woody debris levels may change in relation changes in species composition.  In particular I am working in a system where trees are frequently "caught" in an invasive woody shrub.  
It is easy to measure dead wood on the ground, or standing (snag), but what about actually caught in other live material?
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Are you intend to measure each individual CWD? How about measuring the size (diameter at both ends and length) and estimate the density (using penetrometer or decay class)
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Hello, researchgater.
Recently, I've collected some published biomass equations for a species, and then attempt to develop generic equations for estimating forest inventory-based regional forest biomass. So, how to develop generic equations based on published ones? Could you recommend some literature or share some suggestions? Thanks a lot.
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May be possible to use web-site: http://www.globallometree.org/
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In traditional agroforestry system for soil carbon does 4 sample plot is appropriate or not is it statistically correct?
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Dear Deepa,
Collecting soil samples for carbon study is a tedious work. It requires time, cost and more importantly the access to the every angles of the study area. Of course there are many publications out there to answer your question, but based on my experience, I would suggest that you can use the following two options. This works well, statistically sufficient and most important is practical:
1. Approach 1: Stratification of the study area. You can stratify your study areas into a number of strata (or classes) that can be done based on soil type (if you have the soil type information), or based on vegetation type in your study area. Or you can use land elevation classes that you can define yourself to stratify the area. The most important thing to consider in the stratification is you need to make sure that all classes you produce must be representative and able to delineate the carbon variations in your study area. Once you are happy with the stratification result, 4 sample per stratum/class is sufficient. So, if you have, say 5 strata in you study area, the you need 5 x 4 = 20 samples. If you choose this approach, the startification process need to be accurate as possible. 
2. Approach 2: Systematic grid approach. You can divide your study area into a number of square grid. The grid can be at any size, 100mx100m, 500m x 500m, 1km x 1km or any size depending on the size of your entire study area. So each grid represent the size of the defined grid. Say if you you use 100m x 100m grid, then it represents 1 ha. The number of sample that you need is at least 10% of the entire study area. Say, if you have 10,000 ha of study area, then you can create grids at a size of 1km x 1km. The grids will be about 100 grids, then you can choose 10 grids to be sampled. You can use central coordinate or cross-line of individual grid as your sampling point/location.
That's basically the rule of thumbs that always use in my study.
Hope this help.
Thank you. 
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farmers decides to remove trees on farms at their own will, so what is motivate them to retain or the trees.
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Have a look at this
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I am also aware of what the SFI and FSC programs formally suggested in their standards.
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In NB, clearcut blocks can be quite large.  100 hectares, and 5 years greenup delay. there are some details: small patches are required to be left in clearcuts.  In areas where the disturbance regime is stand-replacing, clearcuts are to be 80 -  125 ha in order to promote large patches.  At one time there was a minimum buffer width between clearcuts, but I'm not sure if that requirement remains.
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A video shared on Facebook wherein airplanes were dropping seedlings onto a deforested area in Thailand in hopes that the forest would be restored. However, wouldn't this be a great enough disturbance to trigger an adaptation, especially in the soil? Would there be no need for earlier successional species to be planted first in order to facilitate succession instead of suddenly bombarding the area with late-succession species?
Link is attached.
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A brief  re-positioning intervention, because the Facebook link was not accessible at the time I have posted the answer. In the video it is presented a method of aerial seeding not aerial planting. The method seems more suitable and the results are far better than aerial planting or even normal aerial seeding. All the other observations are still standing, except the effectiveness of this particular method.
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I'm not sure about how consider a conifer plantation. Is it right to consider it a forest management practice?
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Practices: site preparation, planting, weed control, prescribed fire, thinning, harvests (and others). No matter what the tree species, if it involves these, it seems like it would be a "forest management practice."
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I have faced with insufficient information, written in English, for my current research. Anyone in our network aware of recent publication either book or journal article about natural resource management particularly protected area management (social aspect ), and forest management in Thailand is asked to share his/her information with me. Your cooperation is appreciated in advance. 
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Hi Ghulam,
I am attaching three papers here by Peluso and Vandergeest that present analyses of the Thai forest estate from a political ecology perspective (follow others who have cited them to find more recent work). I have also published a couple of papers on social aspects of Lao protected areas, which you may find relevant (though not Thai), these are also attached. I have worked for several years with WWF-Greater Mekong and would be happy to connect you to WWF-Thailand protected area managers, who may be able to help.
Best regards,
Micah
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Coppicing is an English term for a traditional method of forest management which takes advantage of the fact that many trees make new growth from the stump or roots if cut down. In a coppiced forest, young tree stems are repeatedly cut down to near ground level. In this situation, among Crown Cover (C.C), Diameter at Breast Height (DBH), Heigh (H), Crown Area (CA), Number of Sprouts (NS), Qualityof Sprouts (Qs), Spatial Disriburion of Sprouts (SDS) and othe parameters,What are the main biometric indicators?
Regards
Mehdi Zandebasiri
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Francisco 
Thanks for your answer
Regards
Mehdi
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Due to the social, economic and environmental functions in forest management, which of Multi Criteria Decision Making methods is better for forest management?
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Mehdi Zandebasiri 
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Dear Morteza
Thanks for your answer
ANP?
ANP have very complicated in decision making. There are a lot of Pair-wise comparisons in ANP. Super Matrix have very complicated in decision making. Do you trust in the answer?
Regards
Mehdi Zandebasiri
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Recently forest fires are in Himalayan temparte and subtropical area of India mainly in Uttrakhnad state and again there will voice for eradication on chir pine from the area?? The whole issue will be viewed as chir pine main culprit but its not so and local community response, migration,  lack of monitoring etc are also reasons. How these recurrent fires can be minimise or check.
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There needs to be an assessment of why the human caused fires.  Are they accidents or purposeful?  The US has a long history of fires and the costs of fighting fires.  I was loaned the book The Big Burn by Timothy Egan.  It discusses the early stages of development and organization of fire fighters in the early US Forest Service.  I think it has some stories to tell, and the commitment that fire fighters have when they face wildfires.  Your mention of pine is something we deal with, and most pine needles and stems have more resin making them more flammable than hardwoods.  The US Forest Service has much experience in the various aspects of pine and fire management and has dealt with both natural and human caused fires, and there are certainly some mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce their frequency and severity that might be considered.  I would suggest you get on the US Forest Service website and look over what might be available.  In addition, the USFS has various research stations and one or more of them might be in a habitat with some similarities to your situation that you might review. Forest fire research and management are still ongoing subjects of interest.  Over the years, the USFS has developed various things to help reduce accidental fires such as fire rings at campsites, signs along highways to be careful with fire, training sessions for children, increased detection and response, attention to vegetation management, incident emergency response, and use of properly designed prescribed burning as examples.  I no longer officially represent the USFS and my firefighting days were decades ago, but throughout my career, the USFS has always been willing to transfer information and help when asked. 
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In many of forestrs in undevelopped countries have socio-economic problems that caused managers make an appropriate decisions in forest management. Local people have many dependence on forest resoureces but they have traditional knowledge that is possible use of this knowledge. therefore forest management in this conditions have complexity. Please guide me how can we avoid the deforestation in this conditions?
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Mehdi Zandebasiri
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Dear Mehdi, N.B. my interest is to a large extent as a conservation campaigner. A key to avoiding serious deforestation, assuming that it is otherwise unavoidable, is to be clear about what forest exists and what its benefits currently are in environmental, conservation and local/domestic socio-economic terms. Planning cannot be carried out without thorough assessment, and if a baseline is not established then it is hard to call a halt to logging if it is going too far because good evidence of what has already been lost does not exist. Bearing in mind that deforestation is often driven by a nation's need for foreign exchange, strong evidence of the potential for economic, environmental and social harm is needed to bring about a reasonable compromise between domestic and internationally driven interests.
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Why is better or easy to clear a heavy forest than to eliminate exotic alien invasive species? As per many research results, recommendations, there are of course, chemical, physical (manual), and biological methods to remove or at least to reduce their rate of invasion. But still none of these methods is effective to do so. Why?
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Wanted to add the economic picture to this exotic plant discussion.  I live in California the wealthiest State in the USA and the seventh biggest economy ion the planet, and nobody here want to pay for wildlands exotic plant management.  They will only pay for exotic management on their own property, never on public lands. 
Then exotic management on private lands is still very rare, maybe one in a million and they are multi-millionaires to begin with.  California residents are all too busy building their own personal nests made  of silicon chips.  
So the question is, who is going to pay for the costs of ANY exotic plant management, iif one of the top-ten wealthiest parts of the world does not want to fund that activity?
Sure there are annual conference here, where where is a lot of talk, talk, and  more talk each year for decades without end, and lots of volunteer weed-whackers doing small projects around the State, but no annual budgets established  to actually do something on any large scale to any kind of quality.
My quality goal in grasslands for example, is 99% weed-free in 16 months or less. Unlike UC Davis, I am not willing to wait a decade for good results. If you look at http://www.ecoseeds.com/WMA.html you can see two local private land projects, where Mark Vande Pol's 14 acre project is 99.5% weed-free.  
He calls to tease me every once in a while, and says "Craig I went out to weed my whole 14 acres, and all of the weeds I pulled fit into a paper lunch sack."
I am VERY concerned with this question, that there is a possibility that CUTTING DOWN and selling the wood from the forest un question, may be the method used to fund the exotic plant control ay ther end of the day?   
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I want to estimate forest biomass of a dry temperate region without using any secondary data... I'm on the lookout for a methodology that would help me estimate forest biomass using only the satellite imagery...
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Dear Awais,
The Landsat program is the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth. On July 23, 1972 the Earth Resources Technology Satellite was launched. This was eventually renamed to Landsat. The most recent, Landsat 8, was launched on February 11, 2013. The instruments on the Landsat satellites have acquired millions of images. The images, archived in the United States and at Landsat receiving stations around the world, are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, cartography, geology, forestry, regional planning, surveillance and education, and can be viewed through the USGS 'EarthExplorer' website. Landsat 7 data has eight spectral bands with spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 60 meters; the temporal resolution is 16 days.
The Multispectral Scanner had a 230 mm (9 in) fused silica dinner-plate mirror epoxy bonded to three invar tangent bars mounted to base of a Ni/Au brazed Invar frame in a Serrurier truss that was arranged with four "Hobbs-Links" (conceived by Dr. Gregg Hobbs), crossing at mid-truss. This construct ensured the secondary mirror would simply oscillate about the primary optic axis to maintain focus despite vibration inherent from the 360 mm (14 in) beryllium scan mirror. This engineering solution allowed the United States to develop LANDSAT at least five years ahead of the French SPOT, which first used CCD arrays to stare without need for a scanner. However, LANDSAT data prices climbed from $250 per computer compatible data tape and $10 for black-and-white print to $4,400 for data tape and $2,700 for black-and-white print by 1984, making SPOT data a much more affordable option for satellite imaging data. This was a direct result of the commercialization efforts of the Reagan administration.
 The MSS FPA, or Focal Plane Array consisted of 24 square optical fibers extruded down to 0.005 mm (0.0002 in) square fiber tips in a 4x6 array to be scanned across the Nimbus spacecraft path in a ±6 degree scan as the satellite was in a 1.5 hour polar orbit, hence it was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The fiber optic bundle was embedded in a fiber optic plate to be terminated at a relay optic device that transmitted fiber end signal on into six photodiodes and 18 photomultiplier tubes that were arrayed across a 7.6 mm (0.30 in) thick aluminum tool plate, with sensor weight balanced vs the 230 mm telescope on opposite side. This main plate was assembled on a frame, and then attached to the silver-loaded magnesium housing with helicoil fasteners.
Key to the success of the multi spectral scanner was the scan monitor mounted on the underbelly of the magnesium housing. It consisted of a diode light source and a sensor mounted at the ends of four flat mirrors that were tilted so that it took 14 bounces for a beam to reflect the length of the three mirrors from source to sender. The beam struck the beryllium scan mirror seven times as it reflected seven times off the flat mirrors. The beam only sensed three positions, being both ends of scan and the mid scan, but by interpolating between these positions that was all that was required to determine where the multi spectral scanner was pointed. Using the scan monitor information the scanning data could be calibrated to display correctly on a map.
Landsat 8, launched 11 February 2013, is the most recent satellite in the Landsat series. It was launched on an Atlas V 401 from Vandenberg Air Force Base by the Launch Services Program. It will continue to obtain valuable data and imagery to be used in agriculture, education, business, science, and government. The new satellite was assembled in Arizona by Orbital Sciences Corporation.
Preliminary planning has begun for Landsat 9, though its future remains uncertain. Over the course of FY2014 financial planning "appropriators chided NASA for unrealistic expectations that a Landsat 9 would cost $1 billion, and capped spending at $650 million" according to a report by the Congressional Research Service. Senate appropriators have advised NASA to plan for a launch no later than 2020. In April 2015, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) announced that work on Landsat 9 had commenced, with funding allocated for the satellite in the president's FY2016 budget, for a planned launch in 2023. Funding for the development of a low-cost thermal infrared (TIR) free-flying satellite for launch in 2019 was also proposed, to ensure data continuity by flying in formation with Landsat 8.
Please find attached some papers about your insightful question.
Truly yours
Romeo
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I want to analyse the factors according to different physical and socio-economic conditions, like Forest - Society interface in Mangrove Forest, Hill Forest etc.
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Dr Mandal , there could be very diversified factors , starting from demography-induced pressure on cultivable  land to negative consequences of climate change , especially when you add socioeconomic factors , it becomes really voluminous. whatever vagaries , we are now witnessing , either in terms of lack of resilience in soil health to support fodder , fuel , food or offer ecological services in term of trapping the carbon dioxide   to lessen the negative consequences of climate change . Why , of late , so legitimate and so well knit society -forest nexus has disturbed to the extent , that its effect has  such a cascading effect on agriculture , monsoon-driven rains , livestocks...so on ..
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As I'll only need this a couple of times, and don't have a fish eye lens, I'm looking for other solutions.
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I'm sorry I was a bit to fast. I mean 57.5° from zenithal angle.
You should ask for the following article from my colleagues :
Cheers
Alain
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Since I don't have a densiometer or Cajanus tube I would like to know the best method for me to estimate canopy cover. I have heard about setting up a mirror with grids but it is not clear to me. Can someone help?
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The statistical of the differences between the techniques was tested with the non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and multiple comparisons.
The results indicate that different techniques yield considerably different canopy
cover estimates. In general, labour intensive techniques provide unbased and more precise estimates, whereas the estimates provided by fast techniques (digital photographs, ocular estimation) have larger variances and may also be seriously biased. Plz check i have attached one publications also diffrent types.....useful to u..
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I have to revue briefly systems to evaluate forest damages caused by ungulates and to estimate the financial costs of that damages.
My context is Walloon Region (temperate deciduous forest). Damages concern especially natural regenerations of broadleafs and bark peeling of coniferous stands 
I'm interested in methods with a sclale going from  forest stand to  managment zones for wild ungulates.
Any information about existing systems is welcome.
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 The problem with the method of estimation of Tarmo., 2009 (said by the author) is the focus on damages and not on heathy trees. The sylvicultural objectives can be reached but the damages estimations high.  
The prices of the compensations are also quite simplists. It is interesting if they are accepted in a contract of hunting territory leasing whith low revenues from hunting but high damage compensation (Schaller, M.J., 2000. Evaluation of wildlife damage to forests in Germany. Human Conflicts with Wildlife: Economic Considerations 14).
It is a pitty they don't describe more pecisely the inventory methodology and the time it takes, It is however important if we want to applie that on the field. Nothing is said about the accuracy of the estimations. 
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Forest, Plant breeders, Forest management
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Dear,
Thinning in forestry is the selective removal of trees, primarily undertaken to improve the growth rate or health of the remaining trees. This may be done to make the stand more profitable in an upcoming final felling or to achieve ecological goals such as increasing biodiversity or accelerating the development of desired structural attributes such as large diameter trees with long tree crowns.
Thinning has most been developed as a science in Central Europe. There are significant developments in this by Carlowitz 1713, Dhamel du Monceau 1750, Robert Hartig 1791, Cotta 1817, Seebach 1845, Heyer 1854, Kraft 1884, Borggreve 1891, Biolley 1901 and Schädelin 1934. These methods have been applied outside of Europe to many forests around the world, based on this basis. YRF Overcrowded trees are under competitive stress from their neighbors. Thinning may be done to increase the resistance of the stand to environmental stress such as drought, insect infestation or extreme temperature.
A thinning in which the trees removed have little or no economic value is called a pre-commercial thinning. Ecological Thinning is a variant of this being trialed for use in forest conservation in Australia. Chemical thinning is a form of non-commercial thinning in which the trees are killed while they stand by injecting a chemical such as glyphosate (Round Up) into a cut made in the stem. This reduces the number of live stems remaining, providing a benefit to those that remain and may be undertaken where the cost of a traditional thin is high. It can also be done on very exposed sites where breaking the canopy through a traditional thinning operation would expose the stand to a high risk of windthrow.
Traditionally thinning has been done to create a desired balance between individual tree attributes (such as tree diameter) and per area attributes such as volume. It has been, and often still is, applied with the desire to create uniform stands. Thinning treatments are often described in terms of number of trees per area to remain or average spacing between trees. The intent is to create and manage uniform stands.
Another type of thinning is called variable density thinning. In this type of thinning, the intent is to manage various portions of the stand in different ways to create structural and spatial heterogeneity. The intent is often to increase biodiversity or wildlife habitat. In variable density thinning, some portions of the stand may not be entered. These unentered areas, sometimes called reserves, leave islands, or skips (as they are skipped over) help retain a large range of tree diameters, serve as a future source of competition-related mortality, and may preserve snags, down wood, and understory plants. Other portions of a stand could be heavily thinned or gaps or openings could be created. These areas accelerate the growth rates of trees in the open areas or on their perimeter and help retain or develop long crowns with live branches. Another portion of the stand, sometimes referred to as the matrix, is thinned to result in residual trees densities which area in between the other extremes. Over the whole area, a wide variety of trees with different diameters and species are retained.
Please see the attached link.
Yours sincerely
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During the debate on forest management it was stated that decomposing spruce wood left on fertile soils decreases their pH and influences pH of the soil water. Intuitively I would expect no effect or the opposite effect (increase of the pH) but I can't find any literature on the subject. Does decomposing wood influence soil pH? What is the process behind? Do tree/wood species differ in their effect (some increase and some decrease soil pH)? Are there any published papers on that subject?
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Yes , I feel decomposing trees  would influence soil pH in ultimate terms , depending upon the age of the trees influencing the degree of lignification . It is the age of trees that will let us know the ratio celluloses/hemicelluloses -to- lignin ratio . Decomposition of wood will bring both types of effect , direct effect of decomposition  through release of organic acids and indirect effect through profound effect on soil microbial population . but , eventually the proportion of lignin content will decide the buffering of pH value?
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old-growth forests can be located in conservation stage of CAS (complex adaptive system-cycle). However, the connectedness, potential are high, and system's resilience is low. So, to push the system out of this stage need a disturbance to push out of the system and fall into reorganization phase in the CA cycle. So given the stability of old-growth forests, could this be considered in a rigidity trap if we take into account the system feature?
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gracias por el articulo Cristian!! cuidate y buena suerte en tu proyecto! 
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I want to model the forest loss in the future, what free software can do this
and how difficult can be.
Thanks!
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I have found a research article focused on a similar topic. I hope to help you.
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It's need for a reasoning of environmental activities.
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In virgin forest ecosystem all the life forms are intersts. in soil and on soil
it must be very interest to focus the reasearch about the small organisms especially insects and microorganisms.
These last determine the imprtance and the really role of this kind of complex  ecosystem especiallyin there is no far a destroyed areas by fire which are very interest to comare the biological activity of micro species and the speed of the nutrints recycle ...
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As is well known, there are many places in Sudan that are covered with mesquite trees and they have undesirable effects such as depleting the groundwater storage. On the other hand they have some positive effects such as providing charcoal for cooking, but their negative impact is very big.  Now the direct question is: What is the best method to fight this tree?
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Dear Gamal Seedahmed
For these species, we must know the biology  and these trees are the same like the Eucalyptus introduced in North Africa 
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We want to explore the reasons behind the floristic patterns of epiphytes in the two different forest types (intensively managed and rarely managed), which will help to understand and forecast changes in canopy diversity following human activities, and to manage and restore the canopy communities in a time of rapidly changing climate.
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The natural plant are life in harmony with their area and in this global change of climate Ithink that they will be more adapted in moiture areas but really it will be more catastrophic for the new "Dry land" but we can be sûr that many species will go and the resistant ones will prosper .....
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I'm studying on a paper which is about Polish and Turkish forestry and forest industry these days. I need to get some information about Poland forestry.
If you know, could you please share with me?
Many thanks
Tuğba
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Polish forests cover about 30% of Poland's territory, and are mostly owned by the state. Western and northern parts of Poland as well as the Carpathian Mountains in the extreme south, are much more forested than eastern and central provinces. The most forested administrative districts of the country are: Lubusz Voivodeship (48,9%), Subcarpathian Voivodeship (37,2%), and Pomeranian Voivodeship (36,1%). The least forested are: Łódź Voivodeship (21%), Masovian Voivodeship (22,6%), and Lublin Voivodeship (22,8%).
For more information you can see to the following resources .
(Polish) Report o stanie lasów w Polsce 2009 (Report on the state of forests in Poland 2009), Centrum Informacyjne Lasów Państwowych, 2010
The State Forests in Figures 2009. Official website of the Polish State Forests with PDF document, 3.606 MB.
State Forests of Poland. Report of Polish Forests, Warsaw, September 2007
(Polish) Puszcza Bydgoska, największy kompleks leśny w okolicach miasta at Wyszogród homepage, 2010
Good luck
M.Salehi
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I'm interesting the design process of some goods or services produced by foresters. Could you share your experiences  on it? If somebody in educational institutions share their lecturing background, I'll be grateful for their contribution.
All the best
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Dear Friends,
Many thanks for your contributions.
Kenan
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In regards to the methodology to quantify the services especially in forest and agroforest systems.
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It all depends on some specifications of the case study you're concerned with.... this is quite a range from place to place.
I'll just help you with some relevant references:
see attached
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I am analyzing ecosystem services in riparian forests and need fast and economic methodologies to identify biodiversity and ecosystem services Soil and water conservation
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What if the first question we collectively ask is, Who is the master?
If domination and the illusion is the master, we create many unintended consequences along the way.
If Nature is the master and we treat her with reverence and respect in all ways, then her 4.5 billion years of evolutionary ways will continue undaunted.
Which side are you on????
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In savannas of the humid Chaco in Paraguay, we have observed (in the course of three years) that wild fires occurring in native grasslands are stopped when reaching forests islets. The natural landscape of this area is dominated by grasslands, and forests are usually present in naturally occurring islets. However these forests are usually deforested to open to new grazing areas. Can this be yet another 'environmental service' of forests at the local level, to function as fire breaks? We have not found mention of this in literature and would like to know of similar experiences. 
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This is interesting. In many grasslands forest islands are actually the result of fires. I have worked long in Kenya, where roundish forest islands mark often the previous extension of forests that were affected by savanna fires, or where small forest islands are a result of germination of tree species in termite mounds that subsequently protect them from fires. How much anthropogenic influence did the Chaco grasslands receive previously? In Peru we see that even dense "pristine" cloudforest areas or subalpine grasslands almost always show clear signs pf pre-columbian management (e.g. terrasses). Was there anthropogenic fire influence in the Chaco in pre-columbian times (I would assume so). From this perspective, could the forest islands not mark outposts of previos forest extension? Or could the forest islands actually be remnants of human management activities (which should reflect in the species composition)?
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The work involves large scale forest cover changes and fragmentation analysis, where area calculations need to be more accurate. Its is more of a tradition, atleast here in India to work with LCC. Any suggestions and advice on this could be much of help.
Thank You
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Dear Arun,
Here the pro's and con's of both projections.
The LCC Projection
A Lambert conformal conic projection (LCC) is a conic map projection used for aeronautical charts, portions of the State Plane Coordinate System, and many national and regional mapping systems. It is one of seven projections introduced by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1772 publication Anmerkungen und Zusätze zur Entwerfung der Land- und Himmelscharten (German: Notes and additions for creating ground and aerial charts).
Conceptually, the projection seats a cone over the sphere of the Earth and projects the surface conform onto the cone. The cone is unrolled, and the parallel that was touching the sphere is assigned unit scale. That parallel is called the reference parallel or standard parallel.
By scaling the resulting map, two parallels can be assigned unit scale, with scale decreasing between the two parallels and increasing outside them. This gives the map two standard parallels. In this way, deviation from unit scale can be minimized within a region of interest that lies largely between the two standard parallels. Unlike other conic projections, no true secant form of the projection exists because using a secant cone does not yield the same scale along both standard parallels.
Lambert conformal conic projection with standard parallels at 20°N and 50°N. Projection extends toward infinity southward and so has been cut off at 30°S.
 Pilots use aeronautical charts based on LCC because a straight line drawn on a Lambert conformal conic projection approximates a great-circle route between endpoints for typical flight distances. The US systems of VFR (visual flight rules) sectional charts and terminal area charts are drafted on the LCC with standard parallels at 33°N and 45°N.
The European Environment Agency and the INSPIRE specification for coordinate systems recommends using this projection (also named ETRS89-LCC) for conformal pan-European mapping at scales smaller or equal to 1:500,000. In Metropolitan France, the official projection is Lambert-93, a Lambert conic projection using RGF93 geodetic system and defined by references parallels that are 44°N and 49°N.
The National Spatial Framework for India uses Datum WGS84 with a LCC projection and is a recommended NNRMS standard. Each state has its own set of reference parameters given in the standard.
The U.S. National Geodetic Survey's "State Plane Coordinate System of 1983" uses the Lambert conformal conic projection to define the grid-coordinate systems used in several states, primarily those that are elongated west to east such as Tennessee. The Lambert projection is relatively easy to use: conversions from geodetic (latitude/longitude) to State Plane Grid coordinates involve trigonometric equations that are fairly straightforward and which can be solved on most scientific calculators, especially programmable models. The projection as used in CCS83 yields maps in which scale errors are limited to 1 part in 10,000. The Lambert conformal conic is one of several map projection systems developed by Johann Heinrich Lambert, an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, philosopher, and astronomer.
The Albers projection
The Albers equal-area conic projection, or Albers projection (named after Heinrich C. Albers), is a conic, equal area map projection that uses two standard parallels. Although scale and shape are not preserved, distortion is minimal between the standard parallels.
The Albers projection is one of the standard projections for British Columbia, and is the sole standard projection used by the government of Yukon. It is also used by the United States Geological Survey and the United States Census Bureau.
Snyder describes generating formulae for the projection, as well as the projection's characteristics. Coordinates from a spherical datum can be transformed into Albers equal-area conic projection coordinates with the following formulas, where λ is the longitude, λ0 the reference longitude, φ the latitude, φ0 the reference latitude and φ1 and φ2 the standard parallels:
An Albers projection shows areas accurately, but distorts shapes.
Conclusion
The Albers projection distorts shapes and hence shape and surface area are not conserved. This is not the case for the LCC projection. Hence use the LCC projection especially i GIS applications.
See the pdf attachment for illustrations and formulae.
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In the Czech Republic Forest Management Forensic Experts commonly use orthophotomaps, aerial photography products, accessible online. Satellite images usage is rare in their practice. I have not found any mention of Forensic Experts using the nowadays tools to gain mensurational variables from remote sensing data. In that case we are able to obtain data which are describing the stand that was already cut down.
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Just in case you are interested, in Greece forester studiers and the Forest Service also use orthofotomaps and aerial photo products in our studies for the development of the forest maps and for the identification of the canopy cover and the land type and land use of an area,  according to the instructions of the forest law. Satellite images usage is rare in Greece too and utilized by distinguished researchers for example to measure the effects of a forest fire. Satellite images are very expensive unlike other sources of images that are more easily accessible from the National Cadaster and the Military Services.
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We are investigating the destruction of the forest
and factors contributing to the degradation of Hyrcanian forests in Iran.
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Farming is considered to be the first cause of deforestation in the tropics. Our research team is currently looking for farming solutions that may replace conventional small- and large-scale farming in Brazilian rainforests. Our current assumption is that vertical farming, mainly conceived for urban areas, may be an alternative that has a much smaller impact on the forest because of their small footprint and diffuse spatial distribution (vertical farms scattered around the forest, instead of being clustered), thus drastically reducing deforestation. We are confronted with the following questions:
- Is there any knowledge on how productive vertical farms are in tropical forests?
- What kind of new problems would vertical farms bring for farmers?
- Can current farming products be stacked vertically?
- Can vertical farming be realised with low-tech solutions?
We would highly appreciate any feedback on these questions.
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Nature has created vertical as well as horizontal layers of farming.
In a complex forest Leaf Area Index (LAI) is about 12-14. This means that in one meter square land area you have 14 meter square leaf area. In this forest you have halophytes and sciophytes along with facultative halophytes and facultative sciophytes. These plants have favourable on unfavourable associations. This canopy makes use of solar radiation which has 680 nm wave length and 700 nm wave length.
The multi tiered canopy has capacity to produce biomass 2.5 times more than the mono cultured crop. If the biomass is to be used as raw material for fulfilling human requirements in that case plant species useful to human beings should be selected.
We have got wonderful results on this experiments. If the demand is of food we have hundreds of forest trees having capacity to feed human race. Examples are Madhuka longifolis (Mahua) it gives carbohydrates, Fatty acids and protein to lesser extent; Phoenix sylvestris (Wild date palm) can be perennial source of sucrose fibres and fruits. There are hundreds of tuberous crops (as and under story of forest canopy) which can feed millions of people. It includes different kinds of yams and kudzu. The list is endless and every ecosystem will have its own flora and fauna.
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What forest manager can do to mitigate effects of climate change in semiarid region?
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extreme climate effect and change in semi arid zone has to do with aridity and accentuated drought and desertification. 
So for forest management in arid and semi arid zone has to do with the measures of mitigation to aridity in these areas with respect to forestry and management,
prediction and early warning forecast, irrigation practice, use of improved and resistant species of crop etc, avoidance of intensified overgrazing, burning of bush and illegal deforestation etc. Check files on mitigation of aridity, drought and desertification vis a vis forest management
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As we know, coppice species like Quercus sp create several stems per tree making them somewhat hard to estimate their hydrological processes accurately. Does anybody have any ideas as to how to do it?
Take a look at attached file to see a coppice tree.
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Hi, dear Omid Fathizadeh.
What about the leaf xylem water potential?
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It would be interesting to know if the cost of fertilizer is reset at the end of turn for the additional increase wood generated fertilizer. Always assuming that the fertilizer is applied after the last thinning and trees that will be part of clearcutting.
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Hi again,
Surely someone is looking at  economy-production-environmental issues.   I have not bumped into it myself, perhaps cuz in the Northeast US where I work fertilizing is uncommon.
Find Tappeiner, et al, Silviculture and ecology in western US forests.  Oregon State Univ Press, 2007.  There is a section on fertilization.  Will give yo a place to start.
Get in touch w. them for more advice, and contact Dan Richter at Duke University-- I bet he will be well informed on these issues.
Years ago a scientist named George Bengston did a short paper where he estimated the nutrient losses in removing tops,  in southern pine, and then figured out what it would cost to replace them by fertilizing. Ingenious, and convincing.  It was not trivial.  As a first step you need not go farther than this.  Plainly results will be site-specific.  This probably connects to low-impact harvesting as leaving more biomass behind moderates nutrient losses.  
IN some temperate soils, with long enough rotations, nutrient losses are replaced by weathering.  Not likely in many tropical soils. 
Here is where the area being studied matters.  The need for fertilizer for production,  and dynamics of its flow to the environment, will differ between temperate,  high altitude, and lowland tropical situations.  
Would seem that just assessing the production/financial benefit of fertilizing is one place to begin -- if it's not worth doing,  then need not pursue environmental issues further.
Nest  LCI
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I have mensurational data (dbh, crown height, tree height) of stands with up to 14 temperate broadleaves: (the most important being Quercus cerris, Quercus robur, Fraxinus ornus, Acer campestris, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Prunus avium) and I am interesting in species-specific modelling leaf area of trees.
I have no allometric equations for the stands, but when searching about it in literature, the majority of equations available focused on (total) above-ground mass. I am at least interested in leaf biomass. Can you help me?
Thank you.
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Did you try this paper: http://www.metla.fi/silvafennica/full/smf/smf004.pdf?,  it is an old one but has a extensive compilation of allometric equations for tree species.
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For short rotation forestry, which density per hectare provides the greatest amount of biomass in 5 years for poplar sp.?
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Hi Lulian, it also would be great that you develop a stand density management diamgram (SDMD) for your own target, in which include stand density, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter and biomass, etc. It is difficult to say that which density provide greatest biomass, because it is site specific. However, you can use SDMD to optimize your biomass target. one example as follows:
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Many forest conservation goals (not to mention cultural, landscape, hydrological & urban shade goals) rely on a continual presence of big, old trees. Part of our sustainable stewardship responsibilities must surely be to begin growing the big, old trees of the future. Most exercises in predicting impacts of climate change don't go past 2100 - because that's the limit of the climate forecast data. But our objective requires trees to live and grow for several centuries - well into the 'dark zone' beyond 2100. What should be our logical response to having to make decisions now in the context of such uncertainty? Carry on as usual with the historically native tree species? Adjust genetic origins or management practices? Try lots of different combinations to avoid 'putting all our eggs in one basket'?
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What type of climate change are you considering with regard to long lived tree species.
 
You are probably concerned with the catastrophic human produced climate warming projected by the IPCC and Global Climate Models that have not been validated, and that have failed to match observations (no climate warming during the last 2 decades in spite of rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon containing greenhouse gases.)
 
One of many papers showing that CLIMATE WARMING CAUSES INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS suggests  that the IPCC thesis and the assumptions of Global Climate Models ----------- that that assume CLIMATE WARMING IS CAUSEDBY ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS ----------------- are in serious error.... see: 
 
 
 
The IPCC thesis and the assumptions of Global Climate Models that that assume that
CLIMATE WARMING IS CAUSED BY  INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS ..........has been the basis for taxpayer funded and enormously misguided government policies and regulations designed to curb human emissions of CO2.
 
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
QUOTING from the FULL TEXT of the paper (with somewhat 'iffy' English) concerning the dominance of the Sun's influence on the Earth's CYCLICAL warming and cooling ................. available at: