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Forest Conservation - Science topic

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Forests are the biodiversity wealth of natural ecosystems and a key factor in the wealth of the planet's biosphere. However, this natural wealth is rapidly being eroded by human civilisational activities. The scale of forest fires has been increasing in recent years. The increasing scale of forest fires is a result of the ongoing process of global warming. In some regions of the world, forests are also being burned in order to acquire more land for the cultivation of agricultural crops, which is usually carried out under predatory and unsustainable farming practices. It is well known that forests are one of the key factors in reducing the rate of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, an important factor in slowing down the greenhouse effect and consequently also in slowing down global warming. It is therefore essential to increase the scale of forest fire protection.
The following questions are therefore becoming increasingly topical:
How to protect forests from fires?
What is your opinion on this subject?
What do you think about this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz
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Remove all forest litter (dead branches from lower parts of trees). It provides the "fuel" for the next "wild" fire.
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In the advent of climate change, conditions suitable for local species could be significantly altered. Hence, planting characteristic tree species of the planting sites may not be feasible. There are several pieces of literature recommending the use of composite provenance in order to restore climate-resilient characteristic tree species/forests. However, the issue of outbreeding depression is a concern. So, my question is: in the advent of climate change, would it be wise to use planting material from composite provenance for forest restoration?
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As much as possible, determining the provenance of seed sources to be used in reforestation should be supported by seed source movement trials. The evolution of different genetic variants of the same species from different regions occurs in response to a variety of factors, not just mean annual temperature differences. Depending on the driving climate factors in your region, genetic variants of the same species may develop different phenotypic traits based on a wide-range of climate variables that you may not be able to predict a priori: eg., growing season precipitation, mean hottest/coldest month temperatures, average number of growing season days with precipitation, etc. Your management goals should also inform your planting decisions. Are you managing for wood quality/timber production? Rapid growth? Drought resistance? By mixing provenances from different areas without prior testing you may guess correctly which variants may do well in an altered future climate or you may not. Variants you have planted may grow more quickly in a drier, warmer climate, for example, but may experience reductions in wood strength and stiffness that could impact their stability and or commercial value. Any large-scale forest restoration should be back by systematically designed and installed seed source movement trials that seek to identify genetic variants that display specific phenotypic responses to the specific climate scenarios you anticipate will unfold in your geographic region. If such trials are not in place for your species of interest and if it would take too long or be too expensive to implement them, it would make sense to look for seed source movement trials conducted for related species from areas with similar present and anticipated future climate. I also recommend reading the works of Harrington et al. from the northwestern United States for more information on this subject: (https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2017_harrington001.pdf).
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Am Doing My Research Work in "Growth Potential Of A Forest Cover"
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Dear Sangram Sahoo . The best famous one is SPSS.
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Hello everyone!
I am participating in a conservation project related to the illegal harvesting of species of high commercial value (Granadillo, Tzalam, Hormigo, Mahogany, etc.) in the Mayan Forest on the mexican side.
Illegal logging of high-value species is one of the main threats to forest conservation in southeastern Mexico. It is an ultra-complex subject that surely requires several branches of science to understand. Do any of you know if anyone is actually studying the illegal logging occurring in Mexico's tropical forests?
Thank you all in advance for your answers!
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item 7: the present situation of mexican forestry - Fao.org
Deforestation in Mexico has been a collective misfortune caused by poverty, misconceived government policies, greed of some loggers, tree poaching,
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In many countries, in individual regions and urban agglomerations, tree planting projects are currently underway as part of afforestation programs for civilization-modified areas. In some countries afforestation of civilizational modified areas is considered one of the most important instruments to neutralize the negative effects of greenhouse gas emissions. The main premise of this thesis is the fact that certain species of trees and shrubs absorb significant amounts of CO2 and improve microclimate and water management in surface layers of soil. However, according to the results of scientific research in a situation of high greenhouse gas emissions, afforestation will not solve the problem of global warming. If in a given country, in a given agglomeration the majority of households, motor vehicles and enterprises from the energy sector relies on burning of minerals, the emission of greenhouse gases is so high that afforestation may reduce this emission to a very small extent. In this situation, apart from afforestation, other projects should be developed that will enable the implementation of the principles of sustainable, pro-ecological development based on the concept of a new, green economy. These other pro-ecological undertakings include, first of all, the development of renewable energy sources, increasing the efficiency of waste segregation, recovering secondary materials, development of electromobility in the automotive industry, development of programs for implementation, implementation and financing of eco-innovations, such as the construction of small household ecological power plants based eg on installing house roofs photovoltaic panels replacing stoves, in which often poor quality minerals are burned, etc. Therefore, afforestation does not solve the serious problem of global warming but should be developed as one of many instruments to reduce the negative greenhouse gas emission effects.
In addition, it is particularly important to protect existing forest resources, including natural forest ecosystems characterized by high biodiversity, and therefore a high biological value, such as rainforest, tropic rainforest of the Amazon. However, this is only an example of the largest, existing natural forest ecosystem on Earth. All other such ecosystems should be under strict protection and should be excluded from the predatory, devastating forest exploitation economy, i.e. harvesting timber from these natural forest ecosystems, because in the context of the problem of global warming they are one of the most important, most valuable resources of the planet Earth.
In view of the above, the current question is: Can the afforestation of civilization-modified areas significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Currently, it is estimated that the entire flora of the planet absorbs about 1/3 of the CO2 in the atmosphere. Therefore, the progressive deforestation of the remaining forest areas contributes to the increasingly faster greenhouse effect and thus to the acceleration of the global warming process. Therefore, since we already know this, the question arises why deforestation processes still prevail over aforestation and forest areas are rapidly decreasing year by year? It's good that some decisions were finally made on this matter. Well, during the COP26 Climate Summit, i.e. the UN-Ethical Climate Conference, which took place in the first half of November 2021 in Glasgow, Scotland, the participating countries of the world took part in this Conference that the deforestation processes would be completed by 2030. If we know how important it is for the future of the planet's climate, why does humanity and the planet's biosphere have to wait so long for it? Of course, it can be said that it is better late than never. But it is late, taking into account the constantly accelerating process of global warming, the constantly increasing scale of negative effects of climate change and the growing risk of a global climate catastrophe in a few decades, it is very late.
Best wishes,
Dariusz
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The use of natural products is an alternative for the control of pathogens associated with seeds, with the advantage of cost reduction and absence of environmental impact caused by pesticides.
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Please see the attachment, where the researchers are going in deep forest to aware the people about the medicinal plants
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Yes ! awareness on forest conservation can bring down GHG level. Deforestation means that we now have less trees and forests and therefore less carbon dioxide is being removed from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, and having more of it means that heat is more easily trapped by these greenhouse gases. This heat is radiated back to the Earth, causing it to heat up Abhijit Mitra
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Can "forest cover" be used as an indicator of "drought vulnerability"? If so, what qualitative relationship can there be between the two?
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Drought may be termed as a hydro-climatic disaster and forest cover can be used as an indicator of drought vulnerability both from environment and socio-economic perspective. Drought vulnerability depends on various socio-economic and environmental indicators in concerned area.
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Values obtained for Evenness of the species distribution, relative abundance of species diversity, and the species richness of a number of identified timber tree species of a forgotten forest for biodiversity estimation applying Shannon-Wiener Index and computing by Excel's data analysis tool show almost the same, only the species richness index is different, then it's my query, parameters like Evenness of the species distribution, relative abundance of species diversity, and the species richness, are these same in the context of forest ecology?
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No. They are different from each other.
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Bioenergetic use of Araucaria angustifolia branches
Araucaria angustifolia was widely exploited in the past for wood purpose
and currently it is on the red list of endangered species in Brazil
As far as we know, there are no data on the extent of this uncontrolled exploitation (Records suggest that its original extension has been reduced to just 12%).
Currently it cannot be cut or managed,
even the branches - which fall naturally at a certain time are not used.
So, we have the following questions:
Is it possible to see the Araucaria tree in a profitable and ecological way at the same time?
How can the use of branches contribute to the conservation of species?
Can the use of co-products (branches) save Araucaria from extinction?
These and other questions are addressed in this study carried out at the State University of Centro Oeste, PR - Brazil and can be accessed FREE of charge for 50 days
by the link
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Rachan
Thank you for the clarification
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Due to the current civilization progress in recent decades, acceleration of the development of industry, automotive, urban agglomerations, intensification of agricultural production, etc. and related greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, ozone layer depletion in the atecologicalecologicalmosphere, increase of environmental pollution, growing problem of smog in urban agglomerations, the increase in pollution of the seas and oceans to which unsorted waste is thrown away is cut out as part of the predatory economy of tropical forests in the Amazon and other largest natural forest ecosystems.
In addition, the secondary effect of global warming of the Earth's climate is the increasing, more frequent weather anomalies, including drought, leading to steppe and desertification of areas that were previously natural forest ecosystems or areas exploited by agriculture.
As a result of the above-mentioned processes, every year many species of flora and fauna disappear forever.
As a result, natural biodiversity diminishes, which for millions of years evolved evolutionally on Earth.
In this way the natural resources of the planet Earth are irretrievably in decline.
In view of the above, the issue of environmental protection and biodiversity is one of the most important challenges of humanity in the 21st century.
Classical economics must change towards a green economy based on the strategy of sustainable pro-ecological development.
Therefore, I am asking you for the following query:
How can environmental protection and biodiversity be improved by using current ecological technologies?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Make laws and adhere to them.
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Net zero refers to a state in which the greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere are balanced by removal out of the atmosphere. A growing number of countries, cities and companies are aiming for 'net zero' emissions to meet climate goals, and the International Energy Agency has unveiled a plan to get there.
For tree based removal of CO2 would demand between 0.4 and 1.2 billion hectares of land. That’s 25% to 80% of all the land currently under cultivation. How will that be achieved at the same time as feeding 8-10 billion people around the middle of the century or without destroying native vegetation and biodiversity?
If we add technological removal, it may be termed as investment with no return.
If we are purly dependent on plantation, growing billions of trees would consume vast amounts of water – in some places where people are already thirsty. Increasing forest cover in higher latitudes can have an overall warming effect because replacing grassland or fields with forests means the land surface becomes darker. This darker land absorbs more energy from the Sun and so temperatures rise. Focusing on developing vast plantations in poorer tropical nations comes with real risks of people being driven off their lands.
And it is often forgotten that trees and the land in general already soak up and store away vast amounts of carbon through what is called the natural terrestrial carbon sink. Interfering with it could both disrupt the sink and lead to double accounting.
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The ideas of environmentalists and the public to create a clean planet are clear in ideological terms, and of course we all strive for them.
However, the technical specifics of the plans and actions of "Net zero emission" raises many doubts.
Thus, the plans of companies to restore ecosystems and forests can lead to the purchase of land for free from poor farmers in developing countries.
Compensatory measures of enterprises (restoration of forests, land, carbon capture, etc.) may be minimal in comparison with the reduction of emissions at their own production facilities along all supply chains and in the process of consumption of released goods.
On the part of enterprises, various manipulations are possible with the withdrawal of operations with the highest level of emissions to companies and countries where there is no carbon regulation.
In this sense, "Net zero emission" is a slogan.
In order to turn the slogans of environmentalists into specifics, it is necessary to switch to clean production based on promising energy carriers. The transition to a new technological structure will completely prevent industrial emissions and there are plenty of specific technical opportunities.
One of the possibilities is to switch to electron-beam energy carriers:
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I am trying to build a network to fight against deforestation via Campaigning. Please feel free to contact me, if you're interested
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Please include me. I am from India.
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The Amazon rainforest is the largest complex of the natural forest ecosystem of the planet Earth. The Amazon rainforest it is a natural complex of forest ecosystem with rich biodiversity. In these Amazonian ecosystems there are still many, millions of species of flora and fauna that have not yet been fully discovered or described.
The scale of felling and thinning stands in the Amazon's forest is so large that every day the scale of this unique biodiversity decreases and many species of living organisms cease to exist.
Human civilization in this way destroys one of the greatest achievements in the development of life, the evolution of ecosystems on Earth.
This is a very serious problem to solve in the 21st century.
Therefore, I am addressing you with an important question: What should you do to limit the devastation of Amazon rainforests?
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It is so sad to seem the word's richest biodiversity being sacrificed irreversibly, for monocrops with limited economic value.
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Burlap traps are a way to mitigate the invasive Lymantria dispar dispar (tussock/gypsy moth) caterpillars, which defoliate mainly hardwood deciduous trees. Burlap is wrapped around trees and tied with twine, then folded to create a flap and ideal conditions where the caterpillars migrate into. The caterpillars are then disposed of in soapy water when the traps are checked.
If I want to study spatial ecology of these caterpillars, using quantitative analysis from each trap at a small lake surrounded by forest, how should I prioritize trap set-up (location, amount)?
Should the traps be completely randomized?
My study area is at maximum 2 square kilometres with a small Lake taking up about 0.25 of those square km.
Ideally I want to minimize confounding variables such as tree species the traps are placed on.
The goal of this project is to determine spatial distribution of the caterpillars and to mitigate them with weekly checks.
Any help would be greatly appreciated!
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As far as the traps concern I recommend using completely randomized block design in setting your traps.
As for surveying the Lymantria dispar, my suggestion is to go for line transects.
As for burlap issue, I would suggest to go for some baits in parallel.
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Soil chemical analysis for various studies shows the impact of Sulphur in crop production particularly in the field of agriculture, and a better result even obtained for the combined effect of Sulphur, Boron and Copper, though Sulphur is a macronutrient whereas Boron and Copper. In my present study, Sulphur concentration of the sampled forest soils varies from 0.28 to 16.53 kg/ha, whereas, Boron content 0.90 to 1.39 kg/ha and Copper from 0.31 to 8.98 kg/ha, are they standard values for the forest soils? Are they working well in combined form for the growth and vegetation of the forest soils?
Moreover, substrate soils are lacking Sulphur almost all over world including Indian subcontinent due to emission of Sulphur compounds to the atmosphere that reduces its concentration in the soils of the forest floors. On contrast, Copper present in the substrate soils as a component becomes retarded very quickly in the soil and that are not available as nutrients for the plants easily, then what contents of Sulphur, Copper and Boron availability are to be considered as the standard values for the forest soils in the forest patches in the south west forest patches of West Bengal?
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@ Gautam, as your soil pH value is low, at that pH soil bacteria may change the sulphur to sulphuric acid, resulted further lowering of soil pH.
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Today the main source of financing being discussed for forest protection in developing countries is under the umbrella of Nature-based Solutions for climate, and specifically carbon offsets. Offsets have, however, encountered a number of challenges from both the demand and supply-side. And arguably, the original premise behind offsets is no longer valid. We no longer have a choice to delay reductions. It's too late for this Kyoto-approach. Everyone must now reduce their own GHGs consistent with a 1.5D trajectory. If not offsets, what other scalable financing mechanisms can be used to incentivize governments and land owners to protect primary forests and natural ecosystems over the long-term?
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Public private partnership (PPP) financing approach can be used for the protection of forests/natural ecosystems in developing countries.
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Hi, I want to realize a project of monitoring of Forest Health status on a large scale in Europe. But I don't are sure of the index that can be better to use for this task. maybe the NDVI is one of the most popular, but I have read something about the NDWI and EVI. What do you think about the better index to assess the health status or the decline of the vegetation canopy of the European forest?
Help me, thank you very much
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if your question is still relevant, see our article, where various vegetation indices were compared (NDVI, NDMI, FMI, SR, TVI, wNDII) for long-term forest change detection in Slovakia and Czechia using Landsat data: (NDMI appeared to the best for evaluating the individual stages of disturbance - especially the bark beetle calamity)
and the paper dealing with comparison of vegetation indexes (NDVI and NDMI) and orthogonal indexes (TCG, TCW) to distinguish between healhty forests, forests after disturbane and in recovery phase using Sentinel-2 data: (using the NDMI we achieved the best results again)
All the best,
Daniel
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Many studies show that the most effective organic farming consists in cultivating forest stands in a formula referring to natural, complex, biologically multispecies ecosystems.
The ecological forestry formula based on the cultivation of many different species of trees and shrubs adjacent to each other, referring to the formation of a natural ecosystem, allows to eliminate chemical measures to protect forest spruce and shrubs and reduce biological fertilization.
Only the application of biologically neutral machines and technical devices to crops to correct the functioning of organic forest crops would allow the improvement of this formula and striving to achieve sustainable forestry.
Only the question of the legitimacy of using or possibly resigning from the creation of new, more resistant to various diseases and pests, new varieties of cultivated trees and shrubs through the use of genetics engineering would remain to be considered.
It is not about creation of new species of plants or animals through genetic manipulation techniques, but about breeding newer varieties of forest trees and shrubs that are more resistant to diseases and pests as a perfecting formula of cultivation referring to the natural ecosystem.
Cultivation of forest stands referring to the formula of the natural biological ecosystem should be improved by creating and introducing to these complex crops these new varieties of trees and shrubs in order to restore biological balance, which was previously significantly reduced through the widespread use of forest and forestry monoculture carried out under classic forestry.
In this way, it is possible to recreate sustainable forestry in the future in areas where classical monocultural forest crops were previously grown or in reclaimed areas.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: should sustainable chemistry and monoculture be reduced in sustainable forestry, and forestry techniques referring to natural ecosystems should be developed?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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As part of forest management, including the so-called In forest management, the principles of sustainable development should also be applied, which consist in increasing the scale of taking into account the issue of biodiversity of natural forest ecosystems referring to natural forests instead of forest monocultures, which were previously created as part of productive forest management. In the situation of forest management in accordance with the principles of sustainable forest management based on the concept of a biodiverse forest ecosystem, the risk of pest infestation and diseases of many trees caused by microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) is much lower compared to monocultures of the stand. Therefore, the use of chemical tree protection products is also smaller, which translates into a lower level of environmental pollution.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I am going to buy an unmanned aerial vehicle for my university for forestry applications. Since there are alot of options,  I realy get confused to choose a proper model and a valid brand. Also, l want to use a 3d laser scanner and a multispectral camera. I would rather that the vehicle have gps and imu and the flight could be programmed.  Please if you have personal experience, share them.
Best regards, 
Hormoz
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We want to plant at least 20 Miyawaki forests in rural Maharashtra in 2020. We will tend to them for 2 years, as recommended in the method. Post this, once the external water supply and mulching is stopped, will the soil continue getting enough natural mulch to support the forest and ensure survival 10-20 years down the line? What is the most accurate research available on survival rates of Miyawaki forests and ensuring the same?
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We planted 3 sites in Jalgaon District(MS- India) by miyawaki method. Though its capital intensive with density of 3 plants in one sq.m., the results are promising. After 1 year we are getting more than 12 ft top canopy height. Exact statistics is being worked out.
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In all six Zelkova tree species mature fruits fall with the entire twig, and the dried leaves that are still attached function as a parachute, carrying the fruits a few metres away from the parent tree (see attached pictures, first photo: twig of Zelkova serrata from Taiwan, second: dispersed twigs of Z. abelicea from Crete). 
Does anybody know other similar examples of such dispersal mechanisms in other trees/woody species?
For more images of fruits, and more details on the relict tree genus Zelkova see www.zelkova.ch and the publications available on this webpage.
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We have published new research paper on this topic (see the attachment).
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Biomass of the two trees namely Azadirachta indica (Neem) and (Jalpai) Alaerocarpus serratus is measured which were uprooted in the last November by the ravaged cyclone Bulbul, the ratio between Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Below Ground Biomass (BGB) of both the trees of the Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests type is about 20:1, root systems of both the trees are not at all sufficient to erect or support this relatively higher mass of stem, branch, and leaves particularly during the cyclonic storms, do the rest of the trees have the same root systems, is this low quantitative root systems responsible for the low content of Below Ground Biomass of the Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests type whereas the BGB is relatively more in the other forest floors like temperate or conifers
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Just yesterday I have checked, observed and studied the uprooted trees for the super cyclone Amphan in 9 forest patches of Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests types in 3 districts of West Bengal that revealed the area, volume, and the mass of the root systems is more than 20 times less than that of the above ground portion of the trees of the heights ranging between 30 - 45 ft height, and DBH 1 ft to 12 feet, if it's possible to attached the photographs of those uprooted trees with the entire stem including branches and the complete exposed root systems attached to the stem, then it will be possible to check visually for all.
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Forest resources are of immense economical benefits, taping into these however may result in environmental concerns. Placing these side by side, what then should take precedence while juxtaposing the choices of economical or environmental interests?
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Thanks Dariusz Prokopowicz
for useful response. Yes forest ecosystems are important for the survival of living organisms.
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Parameter focusing on vegetation (classification).
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My name is Benhalima Yacin am a 3rd year PhD student in Abou bekr belkaid university of Tlemcen, Algeria majoring in forest science with focus on forest protection
My research articulates on the forest fire risk assessment using flammability parameters (on-field and laboratory data) with focus on spatial assessment of fire risk in the cork oak forests, during my PhD I have worked along with my supervisor on the use of epiradiator and I have some information’s about MLC (mass loss calorimeter) to assess flammabity parameters of live fuels. I have contributed to several conferences and published research papers on the subject
My institution is on a collaborative Erasmus exchange program and I had the opportunity to be selected to pursue a further research on the “Universitat politectica de Valencia”, I find this an opportunity to strengthen my skills and advance my phd research.
this request is to look for a supervisor who have same research focus and interested in working with a phd scholar under a fully funded grant
I have attached my CV /other required documents and I would be glad to hearing from you soon.
I am very thankful and looking forward to your positive response.
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Good luck!
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I am currently analyzing the impact of a policy instrument on deforestation rates. The unit of analysis is a landscape (geographically selected based on biophysical conditions). I have eight landscapes (8 cases/observations), four of them have the policy instrument (participants inside the landscape have voluntarily decided to join the forest conservation program) and four don´t. Each landscape has diverse information (continuous, Likert scale, percentages, etc.); for example, there is income information from 800 (100 in each landscape) households but also governance indicators (Likert scale) from 8 (one in each landscape) communities. Due to the variety of information at different levels across the landscapes I decided to use average values for the each variable in all landscapes. I face now the following problem: I have 8 observations but more than 50 independent variables.
Questions:
Is there a statistical technique that accounts for too few cases and too many variables?
Except for backward elimination, how could I select the appropriate variables for analysis? LASSO?
Also, considering the number of observations, is there a threshold for statistical values (R2, P-value, t-statistics, etc.) that I must meet to have significant (publishable!) results from the regression?
Thanks a lot!
Fernando
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With so many variables, it will overfit. According to my limited knowledge, you can perform Principal Component Analysis and decrease the number of variables.
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I am working on stand structure of a Forest Reserve. How do I show novelty on the research; though the vertical and horizontal stand structure of the stand in the study area have not been reported?
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Onyekachi, An answer to your question is certainly dependent how you are using measures of forest stand structure. Are you using measures of forest stand structure to understand some other system attribute? Perhaps how forest stand structure affects animal diversity, plant diversity, water yields, or some other ecosystem attribute. To a certain extent the novelty of your approach will be conditioned on what it is your are using forest stand structure for. I have been involved in work looking at how horizontal and vertical forest stand structure affects bird communities across broad geographic areas. I have attached a paper that attempts to evaluate the relative importance of horizontal and vertical forest stand structure attributes in explaining spatial variation in bird communities. I suspect that part of your question regarding novelty will be tied to the fact that the forest systems where you are working have not received as much empirical work as others. I have attached a couple of relevant papers that have focused on how bird communities are responding to spatial variation in forest stand structure. I hope these help provide some ideas that are useful to your particular situation.
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Dear RG Colleagues,
Can someone help me to identify this plant species?
Thank you
Abdenour
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Thank you Rajeev for your confirmation
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I am searching for good quality pictures of the following "primeval forest relict beetles" of Europe (in German: Urwaldrelikte):
Ampedus auripes (Elateridae)
Ceruchus chrysomelinus (Lucanidae)
Prostomis mandibularis (Prostomatidae)
Quedius truncicola (Staphylinidae)
We are carrying out an investigation of old trees & forests in Western Switzerland and would like to illustrate some large public documents.
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Hello, You can use my photos. They are free of right. The only condition of use is to quote photo credits: B. Calmont.
Best Regards,
Benjamin
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We have two types of forest, natural and man-grown forest. Forest is one of the most economical resource that has a big role in maintaining ecological systems. But each trees has got its own productive age after that there is decrease in its productivity. Such trees should be cut for some other uses. The old tree must be compensated with new plantation. In this way it will not only play it's ecological role but will help and support economic activities.
In contrast we have banned tree cutting under the concepts of conservation and preservation. In this way, most of the counties are dependent on man-grown forest and usually growing fast growing trees. That has got negative impacts on Environment. Is there any such study on tree's age and its ecological productivity?
If someone has information, please share.
Regards
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One of the main focuses of the forestry discipline is optimizing the felling age (rotation period).
There are similar age one species, mixed age one species and multiple species forest in both categories (it is a better description than natural or man made from productivity perspective.
The mixed age multiple species ('natural') forest productivity is the same for centuries. Even if you extract timber (up to a level) it remain the same. There is no more net carbon sequestration, the sequestered carbon and the released from decomposition are in balance.
In the case of single age forests, the growth curve is species specific, but usually start slow (from biomass perspective) accelerates and reach the full potential when all area is covered by the trees' crowns. From that point, until the trees health affected, the yearly growth is approximately the same. The highest economic value growth is somewhat later than the peak of the mass growth since higher diameter timber is more valuable. The thinning (earlier wood extraction from the forest) influences the growth curve (drop in mass the accelerating growth).
After the harvest, you leave around the 50% of the extracted biomass in the soil. The decomposition cab be slower than the rotation period, so you accumulate soil carbon up to 3 rotation periods. If you use the extracted wood in durable products, you optimize the net sequestered carbon.
The decomposing trees are lost opportunities, you could use them for replacing fossil energy.
I do not want to refer an article, because it is an entire discipline.
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The mountain of TaraGat was famous for dens forest cover. With the passage of time tree cutting was accelerated. Before merger of Swat, Dir and Chitral states, Malakand was part of Federally Administered
Tribal Area (FATA). During that time all mountainous areas were communal land and forest resources were under the control of local land owners. After merger of the three states in to Pakistan (1969-70), the status of Malakand changed from FATA to PATA (provincial administered tribal area). The ownership of forest resource changed and came under the control of Government. In this way large scale deforestation
started. Till 1980 the mountain of TaraGat was completely cleared. During 2000-02, forest department was with a sincere attempt to decorate the mountain with trees and was successful. For this purpose
the mountain was banned for five year. When the banned was lifted, one person claimed ownership and cleared a small part of the newly planted forest. With this a conflict aroused and the whole community started trees cutting. The forest was cleared within few days time
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Without doubt , communities must be made responsible for managing common lands converted into forests or grasslands or silvi - pastures . However continous motivation and capacity building of communities are requred before excuting any such programme. I have seen that in Bikaner district of Rajasthan , India where a huge moving sand dune was on the verge of engulfing whole village . Local folk were sensitized effectively to go for vegetative sand dunecstabilization programme and villagers did all the required activities for sand sune stabilizaton themselves . Today that dune is well stabilized , trees and grasses are flurishing like any thing , villagers have set definite rules to protect the vegetation of the said dune. Only grasses are taken by villagers though cut & carry System under a controlled regime .Now said village is completely safe since last 20 years .
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JFM has almost everywhere been painted as a very good policy for forest conservation and NTFPs but what about the people who are a part of it?Are the benefits from JFM equally distributed to all?
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There has been best practices in India where local communities have been benefited by Joint Forest Management. The success of JFM practices depends on the degree of community mobilisation at the level of local communities.
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With climate change, there is a shift in time and season of food production in Tropical Forests. For example, a tree that produces in December may now produce in February. A particular example in Nigeria is the fact that maize and African pear ( Dacryodes edulis) mature around the same period because they are consumed together but this has been altered due to climate change. I am in need of literature to backup this phenomena.
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In the Bolivian Amazon the 2017 brazil nut harvest (from natural forests) showed really low volumes. This phenomenon has been linked to changes in precipitation linked to changing hydrology cycles due to climate change and regional deforestation and degradation. The following text (in Spanish I’m sorry) gives more information on this subject.
Vos. V.A. 2017. Propuesta para el componente productivo de los planes de mitigación de la crisis de la castaña de la Amazonía boliviana, Aporte técnico como insumo para los planes de emergencia. Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado Regional Norte Amazónico. Riberalta, Bolivia. Pp. 79. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316120830_Propuesta_para_el_componente_productivo_de_los_planes_de_mitigacion_de_la_crisis_de_la_castana_de_la_Amazonia_boliviana_-_aporte_tecnico_como_insumo_para_los_planes_de_emergencia
We’ve seen similar effects in many other products, including cacao. We’ve noticed the delay and unpredictable start of the rainy season causes the cacao trees to abort flowers and young fruits, while the relatively few fruits that do manage to grow tend to be small and still immature at the end of the rainy season. Many fruits thus mature incompletely affecting cacao quality. I’m afraid this information has not been documented well yet: so far it’s only been written down tentatively in project reports. But I’m currently trying to write down more details in a more scientific description of adaptations and practices to improve climate change resilience in regional cacao production. Please feel free to write me at vincentvosbolivia@gmail.com.
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I have selected a first generation of individuals from a few parental specimens of Quercus pubescens; they show red crowns in autumn as the parents do. This color seems to be unknown in Q. pubescens. I am looking for any information from anywhere about other individuals and/or groups of Q. pubescens with the same trait. Thank you.
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Thank you for sharing your photos!! It is very nice color. I hope you will be able to propagate this plant in one way or another. I am convinced it would be a success for home gardens and municipal green areas.
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Is any co-existing fact about the altitude gradient and plant biodiversity. Is it having any role in climate change preparedness. Please also suggest some research articles in this topic.
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This is the reason , maximum plant diversity is observed unuunduunder mid-altitudes representing humid tropical/ subtropical climate..
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will it be a good process to record sound in any forest area to understand its bird biodiversity?
suggestions are also requested
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The short answer is yes. There is a burgeoning literature on this. The big question is how does one do so most efficiently. Some papers in a Special Feature of Avian Conservation and Ecology cover this, and I know of several in review and in preparation that also address efficiency. The Special Feature of Avian Conservation and Ecology is freely accessible here: 
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the villages located in the core zone of the forest government is rehabilitating due to forest protection concern but these people are not ready so they can be use for tourism purpose which can create economical development of these people and they will protect and conserve forest area
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Dear Meena
Prior to this program of forest protection and dwellers rehabilitation I think It would be good to better sensitized local population on the importance to conserve this forest. Dwellers should be sensitized on services provided by the forest; in other words a participatory management approach is needed. Community-based ecotourism will just serve as an example among the max of activities able to generate high income to the forest dwellers. 
My recent article published on Environmental education and ecotourism using research outcomes on Termitaria (Available on my RG profile, also attached) can be useful to you. Moreover, many other articles quoted in this article can help.
Best wishes
Hubert
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My field sample plots are 30x30m square and I have to measure canopy coverage along with other field data. Ho can I use GRS densiometer or Spherical densiometer to measure the canopy coverage of my sample plot with less error of estimation. 
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Spherical densiometer (SD) may be the helpful equipment for canopy coverage. 
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I am studying on the effect of fragmentation on tree species composition in subtropical forest.
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On the edge of the Chinese tropics, Liu Jia-Jia found that fragmentation effects were small in recent (< 50 years old) fragments, presumably because trees mostly live longer than this (Liu, J. -J. & Slik, J. W. F. Forest fragment spatial distribution matters for tropical tree conservation. Biol. Conserv. 171, 99–106 (2014)). These fragments were not managed but I think you might get the same result, with management effects larger in younger fragments which have not yet had time for edge-related mortality and regeneration failures to have an impact.
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I am helping the American Forest Foundation look for successful behavior change programs with measured impacts that have involved one or more of these characteristics, preferably with audiences that were  rural and mostly over 65 years old.  
We’re looking for programs in the following subject areas, but would consider other areas as well.
·        Climate change mitigation
·        Coastal and marine conservation
·        Landscaping and pesticide use
.        Substance abuse and addictions
·        Sustainable agriculture
·        Wildlife conservation and species at risk
Thanks for your consideration
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Hi Jay  
There are many theoretical and practical applications for the behaviour change programs for wildlife conservation and species protection, yet we have to examined practical validity of those application specially in the developing context.   Barrett, C. B., & Arcese, P (1995) have done research about “sustainability of integrated conservation-development projects (ICDPs). On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa”. As they explained “Initiatives to link rural development and species conservation, known as integrated conservation-development projects (ICDPs), have been launched with considerable fanfare and funding around the world. Although ICDPs hold appeal as broader ecological efforts than the conservation and development strategies that preceded them, they also suffer conceptual flaws that may limit their appropriateness and potential sustainability, at least when applied to the protection of large African mammals”. I am sending that research paper for your need, herewith as an attachments
Regards
Dr. Kumara 
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Is it vital to conservation efforts ?
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Good question. This is closely related to the concept of population genetics known as Hardy-Weinberg Law. The population size should of concern in that small size can give rise to genetic drift. Genetic drift is a change in gene frequency due to chance deviation from expected genotypic frequencies.
The loss of alleles via genetic drift has two effects: (1) it increases homozygosity i.e., an effect similar to that seen for inbreeding. The combined effect of increased inbreeding and loss of alleles via genetic drift as a result of a decrease in Ne (effective breeding number) can cause severe genetic problems. (2) The loss of alleles reduces genetic variance which is the raw material with which selection works. Lack of genetic variance makes selection difficult or impractical since there will be no heritable differences and hence, selection cannot improve a phenotype.
As you know, natural populations need broad gene pools (i.e., genetic variance as high as possible), because it is impossible to predict what genotypes and what alleles will be needed to ensure survival, particularly as we have to face changing climates, environments. Populations with narrow genetic bases are less likely to survive in the long term. We have observed this first hand in rural areas where, with increased human population densities and subsequent reduction in farm sizes, Ne for some crop species decreased drastically with as consequent reduced yield in some crop species, and complete failure in others.
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I am seeking info about invasiveness of Tetraclinis articulata (syn. Callitris quadrivalvis).
I am aware of Rourke (1991) and Richardson & Rejmánek (2004) references.
Has anyone reliable info (local reports, notes) suggesting this tree established and became naturalized beyond its natural range?
Thanks
Thank you,
Jean-Marc
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hi
I could find out some information about Tetraclinis articulata invasiveness. Just follow papers and link that I am sending herewith as an attachments 
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What is the role of green land in cities and rural areas? the role of botanical gardens and sanctuaries?
What is the role of forest extension officers and land restorators?
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Botanical gardens act as a way of conserving some of the useful and endangered plant species. In so doing the land cover controls soil erosion in addition to conserving some of the highly valued but threatened species
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I want to get involved in agroforestry research, and the best way I can think of is to volunteer at a working agroforestry farm. Can anyone share any contacts of farms or research sites that would accept volunteers?
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Another organization to try is the Utopia project, based in Colombia.
It is an innovative educational program that trains young people in sustainable development.
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I am going to study the forest resources survey which covers the quantitative and qualitative analysis of vegetation. In this connection, I would like to know what the sampling methods should be and how to know the number of sample for the entire study i.e. how to select the sampling location to have optimum area coverage. The study area falls under the arid tract with tropical thorn forest. So, please help me to finalize the methodology and minimum number of samples. Which methods would be suitable?
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Eucalyptus plantations are lucrative.  Perhaps no country is more aware of this than Portugal, a greater proportion of whose surface is covered by these trees than any other country.
The plantations, mainly of E. globulus and sometimes its clones, are also controversial.  They are accused of a gamut of sins: depleting groundwater, fostering fires, encouraging erosion, vitiating watersheds, deterring native flora with voracious roots and allelopathy, etc.
Nevertheless Portugal, and presumably Brussels, permit planting techniques such as shown in the attached file even in supposedly protected Natura Network sites and Important Bird Areas.  The Forest Stewardship Council actually certifies this practice.
Please, RG, where or from whom can we get the facts?
Thank you.
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Very difficult to draw conclusion whether good or bad! But, it depends on the choice of species, species-site match, biological interference,and end uses. I ask a number of eucalyptus growers why they chose the species? Advantages- short rotation, fast growth,free from grazing animals and required less space. But long run this species needs vary careful and judicious plantation programs because exotics may not be the substitute for native species for long run. I have book "Eucalyptus Dilemma in Bangladesh" where I want to draw all the positive and negative effects. Thanks.
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Teak is one of the most "mobile" species, moved rampantly by humans in the last 300 years. Natural populations have been "corrupted" due to such unscrupulous movement of propagules. Hence what criteria could be considered to identify the "relic" natural populations of teak in India?
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I have no literature to support my statement. I hope I had seen the Monograph by D N Tiwari. I add the following for information:
Tectona L.f., Suppl. Pl. 151.1782 (LAMIACEAE  earlier in Verbenaceae) has only 3 species known so far.
1.Tectona grandis L.f., Suppl. Pl. 151.1782 (India, Indonesia, Malaysia,  Myanmar also cultivated and naturalised  in China, countries of Africa, Madgascar, Pakistan, Taiwan)
2.Tectona hamiltoniana Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3: 68.1832 (Myanmar (Irrawady and Prome), introduced in India mostly in Botanical gardens)
3.Tectona philippinensis Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2: 1152.1876(The Philippines (Islands of Luzon and Iling)
D.Brandis, Indian Trees 1906 (India=British India) gives the following:
 
The Teak tree is indigenous in both Peninsulas of India, in the north-eastern drier part of Java and in other islands of the Indian Archipelago. In Western India it attains its northern limit in the Western Aravallis at 24° 42' N. Lat. (-A. E. Lowrie). In Central India its northernmost point is the Jhansi district at 25° 33' and from that xooint the line of northern limit continues in a south-easterly direction to the Mahanadi river in the Central Provinces. In Upper Burma it extends to lat. 25° 30', and ascends to 3,000 ft. Teak, however, is not uniformly distributed over this large area, for there are many districts where it is entirely absent. It is cultivated in Bengal and Assam, and in Northern India as far as Dehra Dun.
Teak grows on a great variety of soils, but requires perfect drainage. It thrives equally well on the sandstone of the Pegu Yoma, on the granite of the eastern Sitang and the North Kanara Forests, on limestone in the Thaungyeen forests of Tenasserim, and on basaltic rocks in the Khandeish Dangs, and the Satpura range. On alluvial soil the stems generally are fluted and irregularly shaped.
It is not gregarious, though on deep alluvial soil small patches of nearly pure Teak forest are occasionally found (Beeling, Domdamee in Martaban. Banks of the Godavari [Gamble]). A large area of pure Teak is in the Katu forest (Katha district) of Upper Burma. Woods in which Teak, mostly stunted, preponderates, also occur here and there on dry rocky ground. Its associates are, besides Bamboos, the trees of the deciduous forest.
In dry and hot situations Teak loses its leaves in November, December or early in January. Where the ground is moist, the tree often remains green until March. The new foliage comes out in May. It flowers during the rains in July and August, and ripens its seed between November and January. In summer it is readily recognized at a considerable distance by 'the flower panicles, which overtop the green foliage, and in winter the feathery erect fruit panicles distinguish it from all other trees.
On good soil and in a suitable climate Teak has an exceedingly rapid growth while young. It coppices well. It demands much light and in this respect its requirements are- similar to those of Quercus sessiliflora and Pinus sylvestris in Europe. Its strong point is the vigorous terminal shoot, which enables it, like Fraxinus excelsior, to pierce through dense brushwood, provided there is sufficient light overhead, to stimulate its growth. The white mineral deposit found in cavities in the wood, as far as known,  mainly consists of Calcium Phosphates.
2. Tectona Hamiltoniana Wall. Pl. As. Rar. t. 294 ; Kurz P. Fl. ii. 259.
Vern. Dahat, Burm.
A middle-sized tree, branchlets 6-8-angular. Leaves mostly in whorls of 3, sometimes opposite or in whorls of 4, ovate, blade 4-8, petiole § in. long. Fl. greenish-white, corolla very hairy in the throat. Pr. tightly enclosed in the flask shaped calyx. Dry country of the Irawadi valley, from Prome upwards. Fl. March-May, with the young foliage.
Although all publications consider Teak is native in India (See Flora of British India, Indian Trees, etc). I am doubtful about its nativity in India because nowhere (I know of) populations of teak known in virgin or undisturbed forests. I will be happy to learn about this from others
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In the aim of a research project we need average quantities/ range of values of biomass (ton/ha/year) per forest type (e.g.: Eucalyptus stands, Maritime Pine stands, scrubland, ...) for the SW of Portugal and Spain.
Of course the variation range of the biomass quantities for the same forest stand could be high, and it depends from different attributes besides the tree species (e.g.: tree density, tree height, ...). Later in the project those values will be calculated considering different local management models.
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Luis,
You can find very useful information in the book (available in the WEB) "El papel de los bosques españoles en la mitigación del cambio climático" Bravo, F. (ed). It is a scientific book for general people with very valuable information for you.
Sincerely,
Stella.
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aside from being important to promote healthy root for the tree, what are the important of pitting? what is the recommended size of pitting and tools used for pitting?
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Pitting is not the only thing in planting. You have to determine the distance of planting for each kind of species you are choosing. There are small excavators which can be employed without high cost when compared to manual pitting. Planting trees is a much elaborate process, don't think pitting is the most important part.
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 is it possible to generate the signature of any tree species without spectometer
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In any case contiguous signatures, only can be derived from spectroradiometer handheld/satellite based. If you have handheld spectroradiometer data it is nice, but if you don't have, you can generate signature for a pure patch of single species of size about/more than 30*30 meters using Hyperion based hyperspectral data freely available on earth explorer. The patch size may vary depending upon spatial resolution of the hyperspectral data (space borne/ air borne). 
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There is evidence to suggest that exclusive community management of natural resources may have some challenges whilst exclusive state management is problematic. The optimum is a collaboration between communities and state in managing natural resources. In most cases, communities appear to be skeptical of state agencies. How best could this whole collaboration process get kick-started? Can there be a framework to help a practitioners or state agencies who want to engage resource communities for such a collaboration?
in the paper below,
"Rising to the challenge: A framework for optimising value in collaborative natural resource governance." Forest Policy and Economics 67 (2016): 20-29
authors attempt to discuss a framework that wil facilitate the collaboration process through an ABC framework. Is the framework elaborate? are there other alternative approaches to maximise gains in CNRM?
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Ah, Emmanuel, one of the challenges of our age. If we want to conserve natural resources, or manage them in such a way that most if not all are conserved, the simplest solution is to find a Doug Tompkins who acquired enough Chilean rainforest between the Pacific and Argentine border to divide the country (in more ways than one) and buy the lot. Have you called on Mo Ibrahim?
More seriously and as you have concluded, in most cases one needs to reconcile both community and state interests, striving to involve each side as partner in a team effort. Such collaboration can be essential both to garner enough political will and public funding at first to get an idea off the ground and, afterwards, to ensure its sustainability.
A few of us face a similar challenge in Portugal where we hope to create a major reserve. While individual donors and companies are certainly in our sights, most support is likely to come from Brussels which will require not just some endorsement from national and local authorities but also community and other stakeholder participation.
Our task, probably unlike yours, is simplified by the decline of small-scale agriculture and migration from the land, an increasingly common phenomenon here and elsewhere. Nevertheless, we aim to win over a government indifferent to conservation and opposed to incurring any such costs, a largely apathetic community and, perhaps, even persuade some hostile eucalyptus plantations by proposing various strategies. Among them:
- employ the unemployed, much as a visionary Theodore Roosevelt did during the Great Depression, in restoration work;
- promote the area's considerable ecotourism potential;
- make a compelling case for the region as a climate change refuge;
- document and stress its outstanding surviving biodiversity;
- encourage extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as cork;
- offer an opportunity to cellulose companies to improve their reputations.
You might also want to consider the strategy used in Guatemala's Petén, a situation which may be closer to yours: http://www.cifor.org/acm/download/pub/grassroot/Peten%20guatemala_eng%20All.pdf
Finally, several NGOs - CI for example (http://www.conservation.org/where/pages/sub-saharan-africa.aspx) - have undertaken similar initiatives in various parts of the world.  And UNEP in Nairobi (http://web.unep.org/regions/roa/) should also provide ideas and case studies.
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What is the focus in relation to oak (Quercus branti) decline in the world?
Oak decline is the most important discussion In Iran, but have not found solution to confronting with it .
what is your suggestion?
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Shirin,
As others have indicated, sadly it is not only Q. brantii that is vulnerable. You might want to put your question also to the International Oak Society, www.internationaloaksociety.org/ .
Good luck.
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Both did research in the Gir Forest (India) years ago.
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Hi Dr. Rice,
I studied in lions in Gir and also wondered about Dr. Joslin's current location. I got this lead and hope this helps
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Recently forest fires are in Himalayan temparte and subtropical area of India mainly in Uttrakhnad state and again there will voice for eradication on chir pine from the area?? The whole issue will be viewed as chir pine main culprit but its not so and local community response, migration,  lack of monitoring etc are also reasons. How these recurrent fires can be minimise or check.
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There needs to be an assessment of why the human caused fires.  Are they accidents or purposeful?  The US has a long history of fires and the costs of fighting fires.  I was loaned the book The Big Burn by Timothy Egan.  It discusses the early stages of development and organization of fire fighters in the early US Forest Service.  I think it has some stories to tell, and the commitment that fire fighters have when they face wildfires.  Your mention of pine is something we deal with, and most pine needles and stems have more resin making them more flammable than hardwoods.  The US Forest Service has much experience in the various aspects of pine and fire management and has dealt with both natural and human caused fires, and there are certainly some mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce their frequency and severity that might be considered.  I would suggest you get on the US Forest Service website and look over what might be available.  In addition, the USFS has various research stations and one or more of them might be in a habitat with some similarities to your situation that you might review. Forest fire research and management are still ongoing subjects of interest.  Over the years, the USFS has developed various things to help reduce accidental fires such as fire rings at campsites, signs along highways to be careful with fire, training sessions for children, increased detection and response, attention to vegetation management, incident emergency response, and use of properly designed prescribed burning as examples.  I no longer officially represent the USFS and my firefighting days were decades ago, but throughout my career, the USFS has always been willing to transfer information and help when asked. 
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In many of forestrs in undevelopped countries have socio-economic problems that caused managers make an appropriate decisions in forest management. Local people have many dependence on forest resoureces but they have traditional knowledge that is possible use of this knowledge. therefore forest management in this conditions have complexity. Please guide me how can we avoid the deforestation in this conditions?
Regards
Mehdi Zandebasiri
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Dear Mehdi, N.B. my interest is to a large extent as a conservation campaigner. A key to avoiding serious deforestation, assuming that it is otherwise unavoidable, is to be clear about what forest exists and what its benefits currently are in environmental, conservation and local/domestic socio-economic terms. Planning cannot be carried out without thorough assessment, and if a baseline is not established then it is hard to call a halt to logging if it is going too far because good evidence of what has already been lost does not exist. Bearing in mind that deforestation is often driven by a nation's need for foreign exchange, strong evidence of the potential for economic, environmental and social harm is needed to bring about a reasonable compromise between domestic and internationally driven interests.
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I am doing a study on the impact of charcoal making by a community to its mangrove forest. I am not a forester, I need assistance in the right terminologies and technical terms for the part of the forest directly affected by charcoal making. Any help will be greatly appreciated.
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Many mangroves in the world are rich in biodiversity. The dense mangrove forest can protect the human habitation and lives from extreme weather events resulted from climate change. So, deforestation of mangrove trees for making charcoal  is not desirable which will bring negetive impact on tree density in the forest. We should keep intact mangrove forests for a good habitation of wild animals, birds and fishes.
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Currently, Nepal is in transition and developing several types of strategies such as Forestry Strategy for coming 10 years, Terai Arc Landscape Strategy covering from Bagmati River to east to Makakali in the west. Further, REDD Cell has proposed to develop REDD strategy for Nepal. In this context, one of the major issues is deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal. So, how can we go ahead to tackle this issues seriously, so that we can devise the further strategies to tackle the issues? 
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Deforestation and degradation are caused by various factors. Its well known that the climate change curtail the DD effect. Invasion of exotic plant species is also worth considering for studying DD effect. The most important about DD study is topography, physiography of a particular area. Based on the landscape, combating DD may differ. Mahabharat/Siwalik is fragile, vulnerable and young, so massive plantation and cover of dense vegetation may outweigh the capacity of hills to afford. Second, the most areas of Nepal have long been inhabitated by people for their livelihood and forestry/livelihood are inseparble at the outset of civilization. Participatory conservation considering soil factors and biological invasion and use of secondary resources with caution may complement the management initiatives of DD. Since we are at the era transformation (climate, socio-cultural, land-use), the use of secondary resources is gaining ground as old-growth forests become overexploited, indigenous species declined and traditional knowledge effaced. In this context, it is worthwhile to state Burnett (1911): “At first people refuse to believe that a strange new thing can be done. Then they begin to hope it can be done. They see it can be done. Then it is done and all the world wonders why it was not done centuries ago (Burnett 1911, The Secret Garden)”. 
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Not aware of anything from the Ghats (not my region) but these may help:
Balch, J.K., D.C. Nepstad, L.M. Curran, P.M. Brando, O. Portelab, P. Guilhermeg, J.D. Reuning-Scherera, and O. de Carvalho Jr. 2011. Size, species, and fire behaviour predict tree and liana mortality from experimental burns in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 261: 68–77.
Cochrane, M.A. 2003. Fire science for rainforests. Nature 421: 913-919.
Cochrane, M.A., and M.D. Schulze. 1999. Fire as a recurrent event in tropical forests of the eastern Amazon: effects on forest structure, biomass, and species composition. Biotropica 31: 2–16.
Kinnaird, M.F., and T.G. O’Brien. 1998. Ecological effects of wildfire on lowland rainforest in Sumatra. Conservation Biology 12: 954-956.
Uhl, C., and J.B. Kauffman. 1990. Deforestation, fire susceptibility, and potential tree responses to fire in the eastern Amazon. Ecology 71: 437–449.
I would be keen to hear if you find anything more relevant.
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old-growth forests can be located in conservation stage of CAS (complex adaptive system-cycle). However, the connectedness, potential are high, and system's resilience is low. So, to push the system out of this stage need a disturbance to push out of the system and fall into reorganization phase in the CA cycle. So given the stability of old-growth forests, could this be considered in a rigidity trap if we take into account the system feature?
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gracias por el articulo Cristian!! cuidate y buena suerte en tu proyecto! 
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How Sampling can be done for endangered and endemic plant Sps in a forest for population genetics study?
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I do not think there is seperate sampling method for endangered species. And even if there is,  geographical variations interms of species distribution matters alot. You must understand the area you studying first, it's ecology before you begin to think of how you can sampling what. Find Kent and Coker ( 1992) for further information.  Good luck
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Different plants have different colonization history based on its economics.How rattan (family-Palmacea or Aracacea)  colonization connected with the historical era?
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Rattans are monocotyledons close to bamboo and other grasses has role as pioneer species in serial ecological succession. they are colonizers in early serial stage in humid / sub-humid climate.
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It's need for a reasoning of environmental activities.
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In virgin forest ecosystem all the life forms are intersts. in soil and on soil
it must be very interest to focus the reasearch about the small organisms especially insects and microorganisms.
These last determine the imprtance and the really role of this kind of complex  ecosystem especiallyin there is no far a destroyed areas by fire which are very interest to comare the biological activity of micro species and the speed of the nutrints recycle ...
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Hello Foresters and Botanists working in the Sal (Shorea robusta) forest: I am wondering about natural tree fall in sal forests. I observed very large gaps in sal forest caused by fall of mature Sal trees. In a  quiet day, I observed fall of a standing tree, which looked healthy. Other people reported several cases of such kind. I doubt the if the tree fall is associated with the occasional swampyness of the forest floor.   Larger gaps in the protected forest may be associated with abrupt fall of trees.  Any idea about the phenomenon?
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Yes such situation is very much common in Sal (Shorea robusta) forest, but such falling is common manly in mature tree stand, not in young tree or pole. Also, if you look to the stem it looks like a humepipe. Though no specific cause is reported yet, I think, it might be due to heartwood borer (as said by Sreejith Ashtomoorthy) or maybe some age-related phenomenon or root affecting organism or maybe all. So, more research is needed in this field. 
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I am aware of the crown index and parameters for whole forest areas, but what can be used for single saplings?
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Good question: you are correct that there are clearer are more widely applied guidelines on tree health metrics for larger trees (for example in an urban forestry context).
The most common health metrics used for saplings are essentially based on growth as an integrated measure of tree health, with non-destructive measures commonly based on root collar diameter and height (and sometimes leaf area).  Annual extension growth quantified by terminal leader length is also useful, particularly in temperate or boreal trees with annual internode production.  One can also utilize either sequential harvests or allometric estimates to derive "growth analysis" metrics (i.e., relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, unit leaf rate (= net assimilation rate), leaf mass fraction, etc.) that have been commonly used in the agronomic literature (Hunt et al. 2002 give a helpful overview).
Depending on the context (and available instrumentation) additional useful metrics would include leaf survivorship, leader loss, leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (especially Fv/Fm), and photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters.  There is of course a large plant stress physiology literature and many other techniques that could in theory be used (membrane leakage, antioxidant content, analysis of xanthophylll cycle pigments come to mind), but most likely these measurements are mainly useful if you are seeking to understand physiological mechanisms involved.
I've attached a study from my lab as an example that includes parallel work on canopy trees and saplings.
Reference:
Hunt, R., Causton, D. R., Shipley, B., & Askew, A. P. (2002). A modern tool for classical plant growth analysis. Annals of Botany, 90(4), 485-488.
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I am analyzing ecosystem services in riparian forests and need fast and economic methodologies to identify biodiversity and ecosystem services Soil and water conservation
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What if the first question we collectively ask is, Who is the master?
If domination and the illusion is the master, we create many unintended consequences along the way.
If Nature is the master and we treat her with reverence and respect in all ways, then her 4.5 billion years of evolutionary ways will continue undaunted.
Which side are you on????
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ecological  modelling for the carbon  status and growing stock estimation of forests of  western himalayas.
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There is no model better than others. Which model to use depends on the spatial and temporal scales in which you are interested, in the type of ecosystem, the information that you have available and your specific question. If you don´t know these before starting your work, you may end up using models that are not adequeate to your needs. I suggest starting by reading the different reviws on forest models that have been published in the last years, where comparisons and descriptions of diferent models are provided.
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I'm currently based on a plantation in Piggs Peak, Swaziland. One of the main challenges to overcome is the effect of erosion on special management zones such as the conservation areas of the Lebombo-grass mountains. Surrounded by many rural communities, the cattle tend to make trails on the steep mountain contours. This contributes a big factor towards minimizing vegetation to bare soil. We have a summer-rainfall around here, and these trails quickly become deep dongas. Another similar challenge, is the burning of external fire breaks. When making the tracer-lines, the herbicide currently used, is Glyphosate based (Round-up). Glyphosate promotes soil erosion, and we are in the process of finding alternative herbicides to use on these steep slopes. We tend to mostly use post-rehabilitation methods to clear the problem of erosion. Such as the use of log terraces, gabions and debris. I was wondering if there is any plant/schrub that could be planted that has a rigid root-system, and importantly should not promote fire?
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Hello Franco,
I think you have received some fine answers already.  Still, you may also want to consult the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (2007) 'Where the Land is Greener: Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide'. Editors: Liniger H & Critchley W, co-published by CTA, FAO, UNEP and CDE.
Some comments on a few of the plants mentioned. As Bernhard notes, invasive exotics can at least mitigate a bad situation and in a few cases, a colonising pioneer sp can be introduced, allowed to do its job of slope stabilisation, shade provision for more delicate natives, etc., but ultimately dispensed with by introducing another alien, a species-specific parasite which first eliminates the plant and then itself. One example: Acacia longifolia - http://invasoras.pt/en/gallery/acacia-longifolia-en/
- Vetiver (or Chrysopogon) zizanioides can indeed be a Mercedes (or BMW?) solution in steep tropical milieux. But apart from possible cost - some governments furnish it free - the sterile plant is a slow grower in subtropical dryer conditions.
- Pennisetum spp will be much more drought and cold resistant but taller ones such as P. setaceum (which may be native to parts of Swaziland) will spread rapidly if allowed to seed and, if not grazed by cattle, will become inflammable.  As Alan warns, Kikuyu (P. clandestinum) can run amok in moist conditions and is difficult to erradicate physically.
- Euphorbia tirucalli is certainly tough and fire-resistant but its latex, as I know from personal experience, is extremely irritating to eyes.
- Aptenia cordifolia from South Africa may also be worth considering.  Being a succulent, it won't pose a fire hazard.
Much success with whatever strategies you select.
Antonio
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The work involves large scale forest cover changes and fragmentation analysis, where area calculations need to be more accurate. Its is more of a tradition, atleast here in India to work with LCC. Any suggestions and advice on this could be much of help.
Thank You
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Dear Arun,
Here the pro's and con's of both projections.
The LCC Projection
A Lambert conformal conic projection (LCC) is a conic map projection used for aeronautical charts, portions of the State Plane Coordinate System, and many national and regional mapping systems. It is one of seven projections introduced by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1772 publication Anmerkungen und Zusätze zur Entwerfung der Land- und Himmelscharten (German: Notes and additions for creating ground and aerial charts).
Conceptually, the projection seats a cone over the sphere of the Earth and projects the surface conform onto the cone. The cone is unrolled, and the parallel that was touching the sphere is assigned unit scale. That parallel is called the reference parallel or standard parallel.
By scaling the resulting map, two parallels can be assigned unit scale, with scale decreasing between the two parallels and increasing outside them. This gives the map two standard parallels. In this way, deviation from unit scale can be minimized within a region of interest that lies largely between the two standard parallels. Unlike other conic projections, no true secant form of the projection exists because using a secant cone does not yield the same scale along both standard parallels.
Lambert conformal conic projection with standard parallels at 20°N and 50°N. Projection extends toward infinity southward and so has been cut off at 30°S.
 Pilots use aeronautical charts based on LCC because a straight line drawn on a Lambert conformal conic projection approximates a great-circle route between endpoints for typical flight distances. The US systems of VFR (visual flight rules) sectional charts and terminal area charts are drafted on the LCC with standard parallels at 33°N and 45°N.
The European Environment Agency and the INSPIRE specification for coordinate systems recommends using this projection (also named ETRS89-LCC) for conformal pan-European mapping at scales smaller or equal to 1:500,000. In Metropolitan France, the official projection is Lambert-93, a Lambert conic projection using RGF93 geodetic system and defined by references parallels that are 44°N and 49°N.
The National Spatial Framework for India uses Datum WGS84 with a LCC projection and is a recommended NNRMS standard. Each state has its own set of reference parameters given in the standard.
The U.S. National Geodetic Survey's "State Plane Coordinate System of 1983" uses the Lambert conformal conic projection to define the grid-coordinate systems used in several states, primarily those that are elongated west to east such as Tennessee. The Lambert projection is relatively easy to use: conversions from geodetic (latitude/longitude) to State Plane Grid coordinates involve trigonometric equations that are fairly straightforward and which can be solved on most scientific calculators, especially programmable models. The projection as used in CCS83 yields maps in which scale errors are limited to 1 part in 10,000. The Lambert conformal conic is one of several map projection systems developed by Johann Heinrich Lambert, an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, philosopher, and astronomer.
The Albers projection
The Albers equal-area conic projection, or Albers projection (named after Heinrich C. Albers), is a conic, equal area map projection that uses two standard parallels. Although scale and shape are not preserved, distortion is minimal between the standard parallels.
The Albers projection is one of the standard projections for British Columbia, and is the sole standard projection used by the government of Yukon. It is also used by the United States Geological Survey and the United States Census Bureau.
Snyder describes generating formulae for the projection, as well as the projection's characteristics. Coordinates from a spherical datum can be transformed into Albers equal-area conic projection coordinates with the following formulas, where λ is the longitude, λ0 the reference longitude, φ the latitude, φ0 the reference latitude and φ1 and φ2 the standard parallels:
An Albers projection shows areas accurately, but distorts shapes.
Conclusion
The Albers projection distorts shapes and hence shape and surface area are not conserved. This is not the case for the LCC projection. Hence use the LCC projection especially i GIS applications.
See the pdf attachment for illustrations and formulae.
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We are working on a project to assess land use intensification and its impacts on a tropical rainforest over a 40 year period.We are particular interested in knowing if the forests have changed,what has changed and what is pushing this change?We are as well interested in knowing the livelihood adaptive capacities of the indigenous communities as per these changes if any.
Thank you.
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