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Forensic Science - Science topic

A group to discuss the various aspects of forensic science
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Publications related to Forensic Science (10,000)
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ISFRI 2023 congress which will take place in France, and more precisely in Toulouse, from 25 to 27 May 2023. Today, forensic imaging plays a major and growing role in forensic science and is a rapidly expanding field of research. The joint ISFRI and IAFR annual meeting is a unique opportunity to learn about the latest developments in this field of...
Article
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The current study aims to investigate the research publication trends in the field of forensic genetics using Bibliometric analysis. An extensive search of the Scopus database was conducted to identify scholarly articles on forensic genetics published between 1977 and 2022, and a data set comprising 2945 articles was obtained. The analysis was carr...
Conference Paper
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Forensic science is involved with the facts and arising questions to a crime scene or case irrespective of its nature whether, criminal, civil or administrative. It plays a vital role to underline the cases and facts about post-death matters and confusions. While arguing before any court, forensic scientists face various ethical dilemmas to provide...
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In present days, as education and learning paths are more evolving, it is leading to several subject specialisation. In this scenario, it is very important to discuss about the future aspects of psychology in forensic science along with criminology. Psychology in forensic can be very exciting for field works. Choosing psychology in forensic science...
Article
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Studies related to facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) have been conducted since the late 19th century. Soft tissue is any tissue in the body that is not hardened by ossification or calcification processes, such as bones and teeth; and varies according to sex, age, race, and nutritional status. Forensically, soft tissue thickness plays an important...
Article
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Abstrak Dalam artikel ini akan dibahas mengenai Kasus Korupsi Massal Anggota DPRD Kota Malang tahun 2015. Penelitian ini berfokus pada pembahasan kasus menggunakan Akuntansi Forensik dan Audit Investigatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membahas mengenai deskripsi kejadian perkara, mengidentifikasi red flags, melakukan profiling, membahas modus oper...
Article
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The tenacity of the fingerprint evidence for the identification of criminals has been well documented, but none of the research work so far focussed on unusual prints. Therefore, in the present study, we attempted to define rarely encountered fingerprints in a human population. Our purpose was to explore unusual pattern types on the finger balls an...
Article
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In this study, the writer discusses a Mass Corruption Case of Malang City DPRD Members in 2015. This corruption case does not only involve the headship of Malang City DPRD, but also almost all members of the DPRD. Furthermore, there are four major corruption cases in this Mass Corruption Case. This study focuses on analyzing those four cases using...
Article
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The biological aspects of determining the dental age of subadults represent an important interdisciplinary scientific link with applications in criminal law and in forensic anthropology and dentistry. In criminal procedural law, it is necessary to determine the exact age of an undocumented person in view of the application of the provisions on juve...
Article
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A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model represents the structural components of the body with physiologically relevant compartments connected via blood flow rates described by mathematical equations to determine drug disposition. PBPK models are used in the pharmaceutical sector for drug development, precision medicine, and the chemica...
Article
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Tropical bed bugs, Cimex hemipterus, which commonly feeds on human blood, may be useful in forensic applications. However, unlike the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, there is no information regarding tropical bed bug, C. hemipterus, being studied for its applications in forensics. Thus, in this study, lab-reared post-feeding tropical bed bugs we...
Article
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El estudio del componente osteoarticular de la mano humana, requiere de estrategias didácticas que le permitan al estudiante comprender sus relaciones y accidentes óseos. La osteotecnia, permite obtener modelos óseos y facilita el proceso de aprendizaje del estudiante al tener un acercamiento real con las piezas. El objetivo fue presentar un protoc...
Article
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Background The increase in drug abuse a major global issue. Clandestine laboratories along with illegal drug trafficking and trade increase the menace. Increased confiscation of illicit drugs not only indicates the manifold rise in drug abuse in Delhi and its neighboring region but also signifies an escalation and proliferation in other drug-relate...
Preprint
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Public health, public safety, and forensic science personnel continue to face the emergence of new compounds into the drug market. While focus is often put on the detection of new analogs of known illicit drugs, monitoring the changes in cutting agents and other compounds can be equally as important. Over the last year, near real-time monitoring of...
Article
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Voice evidence is also known as voiceprint like fingerprint, it has been proven to substantiate the findings. Voiceprint is a dissimilar character for different people. In forensic science sometimes, we come across cases where the suspect’s or victim’s ethnicity has to be identified using various number of identification factors like voice, physica...
Article
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Sosial media adalah sebuah media untuk bersosialisasi satu sama lain yang dilakukan secara online untuk memudahkan manusia saling berinteraksi tanpa batas ruang dan waktu. Salah satu aplikasi yang kini banyak disalahgunakan yaitu aplikasi MiChat dan Telegram, banyak kasus prostitusi online yang ditemukan menggunakan aplikasi ini lantaran mudah diak...
Article
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Salah satu dampak negatif dari kemajuan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi adalah munculnya fenomena Cyberbullying. Lembaga donasi anti-bullying, Ditch The Label pada surveinya “The Annual Bullying Survey 2017”, mencatat lebih banyak anak muda yang mengalami cyberbullying di Instagram dari pada platform lain sebesar 42 persen, dengan Facebook mengi...
Article
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Teknologi informasi dan komputer terus berkembang dan telah dimanfaatkan secara luas maupun mendalam. Komputer/digital forensik merupkan aplikasi dari teknologi komputer untuk pembuktian hukum terkait dengan kejahatan berteknologi tinggi hingga bisa mendapatkan bukti bukti digital untuk menjerat para pelaku kejahatan. Wilayah forensik digital cukup...
Article
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Aplikasi pesan instan mempunyai peran yang sangat penting dalam interaksi secara daring terutama saat kondisi pandemi COVID-19. Aplikasi pesan instan yang aman dan terpercaya bagi sebagian orang memberikan kenyamanan dan manfaat. Tulisan ini mengkaji tentang eksperimen forensik jaringan berupa analisis lalu lintas jaringan terenkripsi dari aplikasi...
Article
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This paper discusses the alignment work that Swedish crime scene technicians perform at the crime scene. It takes as its point of departure the understanding that the criminal justice system is a collaboration of very different epistemic cultures with at times different understandings of “the same” forensic evidence and its production. Nonetheless,...
Article
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Informed consent is based on basic ethical principles that should be considered when conducting biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects. These principles—respect, beneficence, and justice—form the foundations of informed consent which in itself is grounded on three fundamental elements: information, comprehension, and voluntary...
Article
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We analyzed a tiger shark (estimated 2.8 m total length) bite on a snorkeler. The removal of the terminal part of the leg suggests a predatory motivation for the bite. This is the first documented bite by a tiger shark in French Polynesia waters for the past 75 years. When sharks bite humans, the removal of large pieces of flesh or bones indicates...
Article
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Penetrating injuries of the heart, named penetrating cardiac injury (PCI), may cause hemorrhagic shock as well as cardiac tamponade, leading to death if not treated immediately. This systematic review aims to highlight the main aspects of penetrating cardiac injuries after firearm wounds. The cases of 39 subjects (age 37.05 + 15.4) were selected (6...
Article
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Iniciamos 2023 com o pé direito, pois a Revista Brasileira de Criminalística (RBC) acaba de ser classificada no estrato B1 pelo QUALIS (NOVO) da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) do Ministério da Educação. Essa grande conquista só foi possível pelo empenho e dedicação dos autores, revisores e editores a quem agrade...
Article
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The first neutron diffraction study of in-situ anaerobic burning of human bones is reported, aiming at an interpretation of heat-induced changes in bone, which were previously detected by vibrational spectroscopy, including inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Structural and crystallinity variations were monitored in samples of the human femur...
Article
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Metrologia forense é a utilização de conceitos e procedimentos de metrologia na solução de crimes. Seus estudos partiram da década de 1990 e demonstram importância técnica e jurídica crescente. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido para trazer à tona questionamentos a respeito da compreensão, abrangência e emprego dos termos utilizados na área de metrolog...
Article
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Nas Ciências Forenses, a tecnologia da manufatura aditiva vem sendo utilizada há alguns anos como ferramenta para auxiliar no processo de identificação humana. A possibilidade de imprimir provas importantes, como armas empregadas em crimes, objetos, ossos, dentes e restos corporais, torna-se interessante, uma vez que diminui a necessidade de movime...
Article
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In rape and murder cases, Forensic Science has a crucial role in identifying victim's body through advanced forensic techniques such as Forensic DNA Reports. It is also used for crime scene analysis and collection of evidence that provides clinching scientific evidence which corroborates or contradicts the accused's guilt. These pieces of evidence...
Article
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This paper describes the design, implementation and research of the Cyber Sleuth Science Lab (CSSL), an innovative educational program and supporting virtual learning environment, that combines pedagogical theory, gender inclusive instruction strategies, scientific principles/practices, gamification methods, computational thinking, and real-world p...
Article
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This section contains an overview of publications relevant to advances in scientific methods and general discussions concerning shoe and toolmark examiners, which were published between January 2019 and May of 2022 and is the sequel to the review for the 19th Interpol International Forensic Science Managers Symposium in 2019 by Martin Baiker-Sorens...
Article
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Roles of National police services, public health officers and Resident magistrates. In application of medico legal procedures and Health laws, to reduce the unceremonious mass grave disposal of unclaimed corpses by public mortuaries in western Kenya remains a big challenge of the 21st century in sustaining the cradle quality Primary Health preventi...
Article
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Mikro RNA (miRNA) adalah molekul RNA non-coding yang mengandung 18-24 nukleotida yang sangat terkonservasi dan terlibat dalam pengaturan banyak mekanisme biokimia dalam tubuh manusia. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa miRNA dapat bertindak sebagai penanda dalam beragam identifikasi forensik dalam mengidentifikasi penentuan waktu kematian, caira...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Systeme, die biometrische Technologien verwenden, sind in persönlichen, kommerziellen und staatlichen Identitätsmanagementanwendungen allgegenwärtig geworden. Sowohl kooperative (z.B. Zugangskontrolle) als auch nicht-kooperative (z.B. Überwachung und Forensik) Systeme haben von der Biometrie profitiert. Solche Systeme beruhen auf de...
Chapter
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Probability theory provides the general framework within which assignments of probabilities of past, present, and future events are coherently modified in the light of observed events or, more generally, new information. Forensic scientists, as an illustrative example, routinely face tasks of reasoning under uncertainty when they seek to assist mem...
Book
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This collection reviews developments in DNA profiling across jurisdictions with a focus on scientific and technological advancement as well as the political and socio-legal impact. Written by leading scholars in the fields of Social Studies of Forensic Science, Science and Technology Studies and Socio-Legal Studies the book provides state-of-the-ar...
Article
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The application of bimetallic nanoparticles-based electroanalytical techniques in forensic science for pesticide detection residues in various exhibits are the emphasis of this review paper. Although many pesticide detection methods have been developed, nanomaterial-based electroanalytical methods have several benefits, including rapid analysis, co...
Chapter
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This article presents two common accounts of the question of inference of source in forensic science. The first, the classic view, leads to direct opinions about source propositions, either categorically or in terms of graded conclusions. The second account focuses on assessing the value of the findings with respect to competing source propositions...
Article
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Forensic odontology has emerged as an important part of modern forensic science that helps in human identification. Forensic studies not only help in identifying the dead but also support criminal investigations, settlement of insurance, and military proceedings that can only be resolved by proper identification methods. The methods of collecting i...
Article
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Authentication mechanisms are at the forefront of defending the world from various types of cybercrime. Steganography can serve as an authentication solution through the use of a digital signature embedded in a carrier object to ensure the integrity of the object and simultaneously lighten the burden of metadata management. Nevertheless, despite be...
Chapter
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Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, whereby investigations are guided by legal criteria of acceptable evidence. Since DNA profiles is part of forensic identification such as genetic fingerprints, forensic scientists may use them to identify criminals or determine parentage. Apart from forensic purposes, modern...
Article
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In a forensic anthropology context, the human identification process requires two equally important aspects—biological and sociocultural. Unfortunately, the latter is often overlooked. Albeit, culture can leave important markers on the human body. Thus, it may aid forensic anthropologists to identify the demographic and cultural characteristics of...
Article
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Along with the development of Smartphone technology, especially Android-based which is a communication tool whose features develop from time to time with a total of 89.2% of users, which is also followed by an increase in users of the WhatsApp Instant Messaging Platform. WhatsApp is one of the most popular social media in the world with a total of...
Article
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Cases of immoral crimes such as sexual violence never show an end. It is not only adults who are the targets of the perpetrators, but also children who are the targets of their crimes. There is no longer a safe and comfortable zone, be it a social environment or even a school. Perpetrators of sexual violence are not only strangers, even relatives t...
Article
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Based on BPS data, the crime rate in Indonesia from 2015 – 2019 tends to decrease, But Central Kalimantan province, which is one of the provinces with the lowest population, has a high crime rate that causes death, which is 12th nationally. The aim of this research is to describe the age, gender, any type of trauma, and the location of the most com...
Article
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The estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI) is particularly important for forensic investigations. The aim of this study was to assess the succession of bacterial communities associated with the decomposition of mouse cadavers and determine the most important biomarker taxa for estimating PMIs. High-throughput sequencing was used to investigate t...
Article
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La Entomología Forense es una disciplina científica que sirve como apoyo en el desarrollo de investigaciones en criminalística y ciencias forenses; para poder estimar el posible momento en que ocurrió la muerte o si el cuerpo fue trasladado hacia otro lugar. Esto es posible, al conocer el estado de descomposición del cadáver, la identificación de e...
Article
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A química forense é uma área interdisciplinar que fornece informações valiosas para auxiliar a justiça na resolução de questões de natureza criminal. A quimiluminescência é um dos métodos mais utilizados para a detecção de manchas de sangue. Mesmo após a lavagem da cena do crime, essa técnica ainda é capaz de identificar a presença de material biol...
Article
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Postmortem metabolomics can assist death investigations by characterizing metabolic fingerprints differentiating causes of death. Hypoglycemia-related deaths, including insulin intoxica-tions, are difficult to identify and, thus, presumably underdiagnosed. This investigation aims to differentiate insulin intoxication deaths by metabolomics, and ide...
Book
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Prekäre Bildungsbiographien gehören oftmals zu den zentralen bearbeitungsbedürftigen Defiziten von psychisch kranken Straftäter·innen. Obgleich eine grundsätzliche Zustimmung und empirische Nachweise hinsichtlich der Notwendigkeit und Effektivität von intramuraler Bildungsarbeit existieren, hat sich ein einheitliches pädagogisches Hilfskonzept in d...
Article
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Dalam Penelitian ini, Peneliti mengusulkan strategi militer siber yang tangguh dan operasional untuk keunggulan dunia maya dalam perang elektronika. Kami mempertimbangkan tenaga kerja pasukan siber, kemampuan intelijen siber, dan organisasi kekuatan siber untuk meningkatkan strategi militer perang elektronika. Di bidang kekuatan- kekuatan siber, ki...
Article
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In recent years, Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been utilized in numerous fields of activities. It is particularly useful in land-use projects where time and cost are critical to its viability. In the field of forensic science, the application of photogrammetry is crucial in the 3-Dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a crime scene where the...
Article
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Posicionar a un sujeto espacialmente en una escena a partir del hallazgo de su huella digital en la misma, sumado al establecimiento certero de su ubicación temporal por medio de un análisis retrospectivo de la evolución de dicha huella, es un objetivo perseguido desde hace décadas por quienes intervenimos en la investigación criminal. Sin embargo,...
Article
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Pembunuhan merupakan suatu tindakan yang melanggar sisi kemanusiaan dan melanggar hukum diwaktu yang bersamaan. Terdapat berbagai faktor yang dapat mendorong terjadinya pembunuhan seperti permasalahan pribadi ekonomi, maupun permasalahan lainnya. Proses penyidikan dan penyelidikan kasus pembunuhan membutuhkan bantuan pemeriksaan Laboratorium Forens...
Book
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We have structured the book into two sections: Action Research and Self-Studies. Within the Action Research section there are two subsections: In person and Online teaching. In the action research section, teachers describe how they embedded NOS into their instruction and examine students’ conceptions of NOS as a result of that instruction. The Act...
Article
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Background and aims Epilepsy is a common and chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures that increase the risk of mortality. SUDEP is the most common seizure-related category of death. The study aimed to evaluate the key characteristics between SUDEP and not-SUDEP death cases. Methods A retrospective study of forensic autopsy cases fr...
Article
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The study of insect fauna and their development and succession patterns on decaying cadavers is crucial to promoting insect evidence as a useful tool in forensic science, particularly for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI). Body decomposition and arthropod succession are affected by many factors and exhibit substantial regional variations; th...
Article
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The utility of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of human tissues for geolocation is an important area of study within forensic science. This study aimed to first validate the latitudinal relationship between stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in drinking water and human keratinous tissues through the analysis of human samples with known...
Book
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Beginner’s Forensic Science, first edition reference book by Dr. Chitrakara Hegde (Department of Science, Alliance University) and Dr. Shekhar R (Department of Computer Science, Alliance University) provides knowledge on collection of critical evidence at crime scene and how conceptual applications of science and technology useful in delivering cri...
Article
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Analisis log sering kali dibutuhkan pada kegiatan forensik setelah terjadi insiden serangan pada jaringan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis log untuk mencari anomali pada web server melalui pendekatan unsupervised machine learning dengan menggunakan algoritme k-means clustering yang diintegrasikan dengan Elbow Method. Sebelum dilakukan proses...
Article
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Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water, and may also be caused by mining and other industrial processes. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe di...
Poster
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O infograma em destaque tem como principal objetivo trazer mais informações acerca da documentoscopia, sendo essa, a ciência que se dedica ao estudo de documentos para fins judiciais, o tema em questão se relaciona principalmente com as ciências forenses, análise documental e criminalística, se dividindo em diferentes especialidades como por exempl...
Poster
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O infograma em destaque tem como principal objetivo trazer mais informações acerca da documentoscopia, sendo essa, a ciência que se dedica ao estudo de documentos para fins judiciais, o tema em questão se relaciona principalmente com as ciências forenses, análise documental e criminalística, se dividindo em diferentes especialidades como por exempl...
Article
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Secara umum kecurangan mengandung tiga unsur penting yaitu perbuatan tidak jujur, niat atau kesengajaan, dan keuntungan yang merugikan orang lain. Dengan kata lain, kecurangan dapat diartikanmerupakan tindakan yang disengaja dan direncanakan dengan menggunakan kesempatan untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari posisi kepercayaan dan kewenangan yang dimil...
Article
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Rapid technological advancement can substantially impact the processes of digital forensic investigation and present a myriad of challenges to the investigator. With these challenges, it is necessary to have a standard digital forensic framework as the foundation of any digital investigation. State-of-the-art digital forensic models assume that it...
Article
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Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektivitas audit forensik guna mendeteksi suap dengan dukungan whistleblowing serta peran KPK terhadap pencegahan tindak korupsi dana anggaran bencana Covid-19. Penelitian ini memakai metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan netnografi pemanfaatan era digital. Penelitian ini membahas bahwa suap merupakah fraud yan...
Article
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Latent fingerprint is an important crime scene evidence, but it is not always recoverable or technically suitable for analysis with fingerprint patterns. Forensic science has shown that other information can be explored from traces using chemical compounds. Infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive technique that is widely applied to a variety of f...
Article
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Background Post-mortem microbial communities are increasingly investigated as proxy evidence for a variety of factors of interest in forensic science. The reported predictive power of the microbial community to determine aspects of the individual’s post-mortem history (e.g., the post-mortem interval) varies substantially among published research. T...
Article
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Forensic identification or personal identification is an attempt to identify a person one of which is sex determination. The fingerprint is one of the identification methods that have the highest level of accuracy compared to other methods. Sex determination based on using of fingerprint white line counts has not been well described in the literatu...
Article
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The analytical techniques applied to verify honey authenticity are multifaceted and often result in complex data rich certificates of analysis that are open to interpretation and may be opaque to stakeholders without specialist knowledge. In these cases, the drawing of an independent overarching opinion is challenging. Two questions arise: (Q1) Is...
Article
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Background Forensic entomology (FE) is widely considered as an important field of forensic science, particularly in the field of estimating postmortem intervals, which has advanced considerably across the world. Main body Researchers used necrophagous insects in twelve Egyptian governorates to look into the variables that impact insect succession...
Article
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Background As the rate of crime is constantly increasing, the workload on the forensic analyst also piles up. The availability of a limited number of seized samples makes it crucial to directly analyze the sample, thereby preventing wastage in the prior steps of sample preparation. Due to such needs, the forensic community is consistently working o...
Article
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Objective:In this bibliometric study, it was aimed to analyze the topics, change in number of publications, citations and journals in which they were published in legal medicine articles from Turkey over a 40-year period.Methods:Publications between 1980 and 2020 included in Web of science (WoS) databases were evaluated. In WoS database, by writing...
Article
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Healthcare serial killing involves the intentional killing of multiple patients by a healthcare professional. It is a formidable challenge to identify in the medical context, and a daunting legal task to prove beyond reasonable doubt. What can be done or remains to be done to intercept these serial killing events and help serve justice, while at th...
Article
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Efficient tools for the identification and discrimination of species are imperative in wildlife conservation since they can endow with information of species exploitation and also abet in solving problems related to forensic science. Herein, a non-destructive and rapid analytical method (ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy) coupled with PCA and PLS-DA was employ...
Book
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Kadına yönelik şiddetle mücadele uygulamalarında pratik bir ihtiyacı karşılamak amacıyla kaleme alınan bu çalışma, kuramsal yönüyle de bir yeniliğin işaretidir. Polis Akademisi Adli Bilimler Enstitüsü Kriminalistik Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi bünyesinde yapılan çalışmaların ürünü olan kitap, gelişmeye açık bir alan olarak yeni ortaya çıkan “önley...
Article
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Forensic science practitioners compare visual evidence samples (e.g. fingerprints) and decide if they originate from the same person or different people (i.e. fingerprint ‘matching’). These tasks are perceptually and cognitively complex—even practising professionals can make errors—and what limited research exists suggests that existing professiona...
Article
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Helmeted hornbills (Rhinoplax vigil, J.R. Forster, 1781) are ‘Critically Endangered’ due to illegal hunting for their casques which are carved and traded for ornamental purposes. DNA species identification techniques can aid enforcement efforts, and validated wildlife forensic techniques for the species identification of R. vigil are needed. Here w...
Article
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Establishing the identity of a person-living or dead, has always been a challenging task. Any evidence which can help establish the identity should be explored thoroughly. Knowledge of morphology and genetics of the dentition along with past treatment records give valuable information. Time and again, forensic odontology has played a vital role whe...
Article
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Kompleksitas kejahatan menjadikan aparat penegak hukum kesulitan dalam mengumpulkan alat bukti. Bukti forensik menjadi semakin penting dalam proses pembuktian suatu tindak pidana. Pemanfaatan bukti forensik oleh aparat penegak hukum dalam upaya menyatakan dan membuktikan seseorang bersalah atau telah melakukan tindak pidana dengan keyakinan penuh....
Article
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Perkembangan teknologi dari waktu ke waktu sangat pesat, salah satunya adalah perkembangan smartphone yang selalu berkembang dari segi sistem operasi, fitur, spesifikasi, dan aplikasi. Teknologi yang semakin canggih saat ini telah menjadi bagian penting dari kehidupan masyarakat, beberapa aktivitas kehidupan masyarakat dapat dilakukan dengan memanf...
Article
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ABSTRAK Fraud secara jelas dan nyata merugikan keuangan atau perekonomian negara, seperti fraud sektor pengadaan barang/jasa pemerintah. Sektor ini melibatkan banyak pihak dan mengeluarkan uang atau kekayaan negara yang tak sedikit setiap pelaksanaannya. Fraud merupakan tindak pidana luar biasa sehingga wajar apabila diancam dengan delik permufakat...
Article
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When students envision crime scenes and forensic science, they immediately want to find a body and catch a murderer. This laboratory activity goes over how to prepare and execute a mock skeletal excavation that can be applied to most forensic science courses at the university or high school level. Throughout this multi-day, multi-part project, stud...