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Foreign Language Learning - Science topic

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Questions related to Foreign Language Learning
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I want to test EFL tertiary students' learning motivation towards English after the teaching intervention, Where can I get the Foreign Language Learning Motivation Questionnaire or Noels & Pelletier’s (2000) “Language Learning Orientations Scales"?
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You can search google scholar or research gate: For the analysis follow these series of videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DvHhYhHlJw&list=PLa8aw6JqIW1YTH91MRqxGKridsYkAZkB3
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Dear colleagues,
I would like to know what are the differences between a language learning mindset and self-efficacy in language learning. What resources do you recommend that explain such notions in detail? Also, are there any other similar notions?
Thank you
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I would say that any attribute that a person has, that is part of their personality and/or cognition, could be called a "learner variable". Those may be their IQ, L2 motivation, L2 speaking competence, L2 reading competence, intercultural competence, L2 aptitude, extraversion, etc. So you might call those learner variables, competences, characteristics, attributes etc. - it would mean the same. You could assume that any learner is effectively collection of these variables with a specific momentary value to them (here, of course, learner differ greatly). I don't know about any handbooks that would list up those learner variables, since they are usually investigated seperately. So handbooks would have these variables as chapters, for instance. But a Google search for "L2 learner variables" will give you the whole spectrum. After that, you can look them as handbook chapters - that is, the ones that you want to consider in your research!
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Most teachers agree that teaching the culture of native speaking countries is valuable, but how MUCH should this be done?  Do you have a percentage in mind or other way of saying how much of the course should be about culture?
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MY dear
According to my point of view and in relation to the Iraqi situation
maybe no more than 30 percent
warm regards
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To what extent do you think the use of learners' linguistic landscape as a pedagogical resource for second and foreign language learning is useful?
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Language is culture and culture is language. However, using the interlinguistic approach to teach a foreign language (EFL/ESL) can be used to a certain extend if there are effective results (production of written/spoken discourse) especially if L1 and L2 are cognates (French/English for instance). So all is fair to learn a language.
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I have been looking for a frequency-based vocabulary test to determine the proficiency of (young) adult learners of Swedish as a foreign language for a while now, but no luck so far. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated!
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Truly speaking this kind of test does not exist in our Country, neither in our Universities. Note that we are in a Portuguese speaking Country. Apart from Portuguese which is the official language, our Country tries to promote other foreign languages such us English, French and Chinese(Mandarin). Thanks
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What do you think are the most well-known useful drama techniques for teaching reading? Any suggestions?
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Performance
Reader in role
Television and film
Teacher in role
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What is the best method in teach speaking subject for EFL Learners?
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Thanks!
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I am writing an investigation project about early foreign language learning and I am struggling trying to find the paradigm that fits the line of my investigation. The project is mostly qualitative so I was thinking that the qualitative research paradigm would be the one.
Do you have any suggestions about how I should choose it?
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It is indeed quite difficult to choose methodology, as it depends on the goal of your research. In my perspective, however, I would not object to using some quantitative measurements, as they usually form a perfect springboard for interpretations. It would be very nice to have a look at vocabulary richness of the researched students, syntactic/lexical complicatedness of textbooks, etc. These calculations are rather simple and can tell a lot about the studied object.
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In the field of foreign language learning, it is challenging to support directional hypotheses. As we can do it with the second language.
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It should be harmony between the literature review, theory, and methodology.
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I am working on a project that includes the creation of two technologies for learning languages. I decided that adapting a new instructional design model from scratch will help implement these technologies: the model will be followed to develop the instruction needed for learning languages.
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You should not select the technology first. You should use an "Educational Engineering" process to first identify your outcome goals for the class, and their measurements of success...and then the kinds of learning activities that can allow students to achieve those goals. Only after that should you select the technology by which those learning activities can be performed. See this book chapter:
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How far the four basic language skills are effective in improving foreign language learning? Your invaluable comments and recommendations are invited for enhancing our mutual knowledge of the language learning process.
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The four language skills make the core of a foreign language learning process. However, their effectiveness is conditioned by transferring passive knowledge into the functional active use of language. This would come as the result of sustained exposure to the language and practice on the part of the learner.
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Is it possible to learn to speak a new language in only 10 days?
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I 've never heard of it before.
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Hi there, 
Me and my colleague are interested in developing experimental tasks to investigate lexical access in bilinguals speaking French and Turkish. We thus wonder if a Turkish lexical database exists in order to select materials according to lexical frequencies, phonological and orthographical neighborhood of words.
We know about "TELL project" but it does not provide the information we need.
We will be very grateful for your precious help.
Best regards.
Stéphanie Bellocchi
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Following.
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Dear Research Colleagues,
Are you familiar with studies on language acquisition in early simultaneous trilingual children that show whether there are any delays in their language development? I am familiar with several studies on early simultaneous bilinguals indicating that such speakers are not significantly delayed in language acquisition. I wonder if trilinguals differ from mono- and bilinguals in how fast they acquire their languages.
I will appreciate your feedback.
Thank you.
Pleasant regards,
Monika
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Greetings colleagues,
Has anyone implemented UDI in HE foreign language instruction? I'm also interested in digital technologies in this area for use in foreign language classrooms!
Thanks!
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Nice Dear Harshvardhan Singh
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Dear all, 
do you know anything about individualisation, appropriation and performance as steps of foreign language acquisition? Could you please provide me some examples or research on it? Thank you in advance for your replies! 
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Nice Contribution Arif Jawaid
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I want to analyze the changes/revision EFL students make in their revised draft. My students are sophomores. In one of their writing courses, they are required to write short essays, of about 250-ish words, including cause and effect, problem and solution, and argumentative. Thanks.
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I agree with Moohebat Shoyukhi
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I am an Arabic lecturer from Indonesia who intend to compose a proficiency test to measure my students' Arabic competencies. In this case, I consider to copy the format of TOEFL for English proficiency test. The challenge is, I have difficulties finding any native Arabic recording for that kind of test. Is there any Arabic listening assessment format which resembles TOEFL?
Thank you very much! I really appreciate each word you give as the responses of my question.
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Good Answer Maziyyatul Muslimah
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One of my adult language learners was recently diagnosed with ADHD. I did a quick search of the literature but found very few sources. I am particularly interested in the challenges sufferers face when learning languages and in the strategies.they can use to enhance their learning.
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Following.
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Dear Colleague,
It would be your generosity to respond to the questionnaires and also distribute it among your colleagues, students, and networks.
We would like to ask you if you would be so kind as to complete the following online questionnaires of a cross-cultural research study designed to investigate the relationship between CALL literacy and the attitudes of language teachers and students towards Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Teachers and students who have previously answered the questionnaire say that it took about 10-20 minutes to do so. Your help would be very much appreciated.
Be sure that all the personal data provided from the questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential in our reports. Your personal data will not be disclosed nor used for any other purpose than educational research.
As a cross-cultural study, I need a good number of data from different countries. Please circulate this post through your networks.
Your input is really important for our study.
If you are both a teacher and a student please respond to both questionnaires.
Thank you in advance for your help and cooperation.
Regards,
Dara Tafazoli
Mª Elena Gómez Parra
Cristina A. Huertas Abril
University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain
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Gladly! And I'll convey your questionnaire to my students as well.
Interesting questionnaire although quite long, but I hope your project will benefit from that.
I wish you good luck with your research!
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My thesis is about Miscommunication in second/foreign language classroom.
For this research, I need to gather data from classroom interaction.
Here are three questionnaires about interaction in the classroom of English/Spanish and Italian as FL/SL. Please could you share them with language students? Your cooperation is highly appreciated. For any question, please do not hesitate to contact me: cristina.gadaleta@hud.ac.uk.
Italian: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScRediqYPWzdV2Yj4WqUpGFUxDlZ1Yo6c_3Sq7kCVapXjsHZw/viewform?usp=sf_link Acknowledge: Mugford, G. (2019). Addressing difficult situations in foreign-language learning : confusion, impoliteness, and hostility. New York, NY: Routledge.
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I think miscommunication originally based on the indivual differences among those learners.Some are at a high level of language development mastering all the fundamental skills fully while on the other hand some are so poor and inexperienced concerning the basics of lang.
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The emergence of innovative technological programs such as Augmented Reality (AR), Kahoot and so on, have allowed the development of new teaching techniques in foreign language learning. However, are you in favour, against or sceptical about this methodologies?
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In combination with communicative language learning, I think ICT can foster learning. Several years ago, I saw an interactive story telling program for children learning Ukrainian. The activities, geared toward reinforcing language (reading, hearing) were fun...even as an adult learning. :-)
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Hello community,
I am looking for (recent) research underpinning (or just the opposite) the assumption that mother tongue/bilingual teachers are better suited to teach a foreign language or to teach other subjects in bilingual programms. I am focussing in studies in the setting where students/pupils are bilingual themselves and are enrolled in a bilingual programm.
Since most foreign language teachers in school service aren´t bilingual or teach their own language as foreign language (FL), I would love some help to find studies about how the age of foreign language learning effects the full acquisition of the phonetic and phonological repertoire of the target language.
Moreover, some help with studies which focus on didactic of FL and language ability of the teachers will be great.
Thanks a lot and have a good weekend!
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Isabel,
I have no research for you to cite, but I think that we need to reflect on the common assumption that native speaker teachers are always better, at least with respect to English.
In the past, I think it was the assumption that people learn English in order to be able to interact with native speakers. Today, however, the reality is that whenever people who speak different languages meet, English is likely to be a common second/foreign language in which they can interact.
This means being able to understand a wide range of accents and understand variable grammar/vocabulary. So being able to speak exactly like a native speaker is maybe not the ultimate goal of learning English today. Maybe the ultimate goal is to be able to function effectively across many cultures, or what Dörnyei (2005) called the "cosmopolitan international society."
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environment plays an important role in language acquisition, but I also read some literatures mentioning that the classroom environment is less helpful for language learning. Thus, how can I design a practical task to figure out the relation between them.
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Suggestopedia is more ralated.
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Is there anyone out there in the field of foreign/modern language education that is engaging in university-industry-community collaborations?
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Yes. Very nice and effective effort
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Can an individual have more ‘natural talent’ to learn only a certain second language or type of languages, yet being unable to learn others? Besides motivation, identification and/or exposure what other factors may enhance or hinder foreign language learning success?
As I would like to use the arriving responses for a study, please specify if you agree your response to be used anonymously or with your name in it. Thank you very much!
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Language acquisition is a multi-factorial, multi-dimensional and multi-stratal phenomenon. If you focus on one aspect, the approach is at the expense of excluding other aspects. A big question as is asked entails a vast reply, the whole scholars in the universe are trying to answer just a portion of what is considered as the most complicated faculty of human species_language. Don't dismay. Btw, plasticity is sth that belongs to pre-puberty. After puberty it is claimed that the plasticity vanishes. Man is stuck in a hard shell rather than a flexible all-absorbing ability. They can master lexico-grammar and also discoursal aspects yet for people after puberty acquiring native-like pronunciation is claimed to be very hard, out of reach or impossible. Notions and factors such as the individual psychology, neurology, physiology, internal motivation; social , cultural, historical factors; power distribution; class, age, gender, ethnicity; natural vs classroom environment, authenticity real life example vs artificial classroom exposure, learning styles and learning strategies; input, intake, and output and still a longer list of factors all have an impact on SLA. We are all on the route to know just part of the system or mechanism , yet there is no conclusive answer. We can easily pose a very short question such as "What is the treatment for cancer?" but the answer is neither conclusive, nor utterable. It involves a huge pile of information concerning numerous factors inspected through various perspectives, "signifying nothing." Yet, as human beings we try to quench our curiosity. In this activity, we are fortunate enough to have a collective curiosity; that is, all the thinkers in applied linguistics collectively try to find a way to better understand SLA. From antiquity, Plato, and Aristotle , to F Saussure, Chomsky, Hymes, Halliday, Gass, Ellis, and many other important scholars they have tried to grasp some aspect of SLA and expand human knowledge on the quest for language learning /acquisition. ... you see, this is not yet finished.
Best wishes. Dr Babak Majidzadeh (PhD)
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Dear RG Colleagues,
I need a reference(s) that I can cite in a research paper that will support the commonly accepted claim: it is easier to learn a foreign language that is linguistically similar to our native language (or our second/third language that we already know).
Thank you!
Monika
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Hakan Ringbom's (2007) Cross-linguistic Similarity in Foreign Language Learning is devoted to this issue. He mentions that the degree of congruence between the systems determines how much facilitation there will be in language learning.
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Communicative independence seems to be a psychological formation indispensable for attaing communicative competence. I´d like to know more about it: definition, explanations on it, experiences in researching about its role in foreign language learning, etc.
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Knowledge and information with regard to learning foreign language learning
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Information is data. Knowledge is the understanding that results from analysis of the data and fitting the new information in with what we already know (as described in cognitive psychology).
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See above.
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Dear sir,
You may implement CLT in your classroom. CLT is one of the current most effective methods/approaches of language learning. Good luck.
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I (Japan) and colleagues from the Philippines and Vietnam are conducting a survey on the English language and culture.
We would like to open this to any other interested parties.
We are all teaching EFL students who are English majors.
It is a simple survey that questions how long students have been studying English and how culture effects their foreign language learning.
We would like to expand this to a wider base of countries, not necessarily Asia with instructors who are teaching EFL English majors.
Thank you, for any who are considering
Harry Carley, Matsuyama University, Ehime, Japan
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I'm very interested. I will support the feedback from Indonesia, if you need.
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How can I increase the difficulty of a set of sentences in a Sentence Repetition Test?
I am in a Primary Scientific Program and now I am working with the adaptation of a Sentence Repetition Test from ASL (American Sign Language) to BSL (Brasilian Sign Language). This test works with a set of 40 sentences that increase in length and complexity. The problem is: How can I make the second sentence more complex than the first one (for example)?
Using phrases with more items/words?
Using restricted word orders in the language that I am working?
What about morphology? Using words with more morphemes than others? Using classifiers?
Finally: How can I know what is complex in a Language?
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Le tecniche on line ti permettono di ripetere tantissime volte le stesse frasi .Prova con Intelligenza digitale Acro-Word
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What is your opinion on this topic? Are we in a post-method era where rather than methods we are just using other means for teaching a foreign language, e.g. macrostrategies understood as general plans derived from currently available theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical knowledge related to L2 learning and teaching. A macrostrategy is a broad guideline based on which teachers can generate their own location-specific, need-based microstrategies or classroom procedures. In other words, macrostrategies are made operational in the classroom through microstrategies. Macrostrategies are considered theory-neutral, because they are not confined to underlying assumptions of any one specific theory of language, learning, and teaching, discussed in Part One. They are also considered method-neutral because they are not conditioned by a single set of principles or procedures associated with language teaching methods (Kumaravadivelu, 2008:201).
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I follow
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I am looking for (empirical/theoretical) papers which examine the (L2, L3...) acquisition of agglutinative languages such as Japanese, Korean, Basque or Swahili by native speakers of Turkish (or inverse).
Thank you for your help in this matter!
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Dibakar Pal
I know Gürel (2016) - unfortunately the studies in this volume do not focus on language learning strategies (such as intercomprehension). However, thank you for your advice!
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I am making a learning game in Unity Engine, see my other questions for details
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To conceive my games (gameplay, characters...), I use the typology of players by Richard Bartle. In his texts, you will learn that motivation depend of each people (explorer, social...). It's an excellent design aid.
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I am working on the connection between foreign language learning anxiety and L1 identity, and want to know if we can measure feeling of or attitude towards L1 identity, especially at the adolescent level.
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Hello,
Generally speaking, measurements whereby human perception or interpretation is an important factor have long been used as a basis for decision-making in different qualitative studies. The following links can hopefully satisfy what you are looking for:
Best of luck
R. Biria
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Looking for any effective ways of vocabulary learning for foreign/second language learners...
Appreciate any advice; thank you!
Hulya
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Mrs/Miss. Avci,
Via reading texts. It is easy to learn new words in context.
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I am currently teaching a course about the methodology of teaching and learning languages. In it students also learn about learning styles such as: visual learners, auditory, kinesthetic, pragmatists etc. It is important for a teacher to understand the learning styles of the students in order to plan accordingly. I also believe that teachers should take into consideration that some of the students in the class might be extroverts and others introverts (maybe even a combination of both). That is why I was wandering how extroverts and introverts approach the learning process; especially when we talk about learning a foreign language? Are there any distinguished differences as there are with the learning styles I already mentioned?
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Extroverted learners are certainly more like to take advantage of oportunities to speak English outside the classroom and will find it easier to participate in large group activities inside the classroom. However, most introverted learners are able to function as well as extroverted ones in small group activities once they get to know their class colleagues. Because introverts tend to be more inclined  to reflection and to working on their own, they are better able to perform analytical activities and more likely to try to learn English independently. 
It is important to take into account where learners are on the introversion-extroversion continuum alongside other considerations relating to learning style and personalities. However, we should not fall into the trap of "black or white", "either/or" labelling. Most people have a mixture of introverted and extroverted traits and will therefore not benefit from activities aimed too much towards the extremes of the continuum. 
Today, as a reflection of society and the wider educational context, language classes sometimes show a bias towards extroversion. This imbalance will need to be redressed by incorporating more activities that take into account the needs of people who lean towards introversion. However, we must not lose sight of the fact that the language classroom is often the only opportunity that students have for spoken output in the target language. For this reason, most individualized tasks should be "set for homework".
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As the recent research (Larsen-Freeman and Nick Ellis) shows, language is a complex adaptive system and L2 acquisition is an even bigger challenge. So, what should be the desired methods to do research in SLA?
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Hi all 
I think we should use them both paradigms  to complement each other and to be more accurate. 
Liqaa 
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Language teacher and learner.
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Basically, learning is a conscious process, and it is used for L2 learning as instruction and conscious attention/effort are needed
Acquiring mostly refer to L1 for which no instruction is needed and the language competency is believed to be activated in the environment without any conscious effort or instruction. 
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I am looking for any information (and/or experience reports) about sign language (SL) courses as foreign language courses for deaf people (e.g. a deaf person from Spain (using Spanish SL) wants to learn the sign language from Germany) The foreign SL should be thought without involving the respective written language (in the example given this would be German). Do you know about any curricula, teaching materials, problems etc. for this kind of language courses?
Thank you! Looking forward to your answers!
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Dear Llaudia Krammer,
Notably, English as the world lingua franca plays a pivotal role in hearing societies because language learning effectively paves the way for the fulfillment of educational aims in modern communities.In Bilingualism and Bilingual Deaf Education in general and language education among deaf learners in particular, as you have rightly observed,  paying attention the learners with disabilities is crucial.  In point of fact, using  sign language and the written/spoken vernacular - and  focusing on bilingual deaf education involve issues with regard to language acquisition, language functioning, social-emotional functioning, and academic outcomes. To provide you with the literature pertinent to the issue your working on, I introduce the following links, which can hopefully satisfy what you are looking for.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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I will be grateful for any kind of help since it is needed for my bachelor's thesis. Kind regards
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Dear Kamila, 
maybe som of the ideas from the study Television programmes in the acquisition of English pronunciation. In: Communications, vol. 12, 2010, no. 3, pp. 35-39 could help you.
Best wishes, Zdena
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I am trying to assess existing literature concerning the theory and practice of authoring, use, usability and any related issues in using paper worksheets in foreign language courses to primary and/or secondary students.
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You may try "fit for purpose" method i.e. covering whole and holistic aspects. For example, integration of four skills including thinking, cross-curricular, immediate learning environment, ZPD, variety of real life tasks and activities and teacher-learner involvement, assessment and monitoring. Worksheets developed based upon the above will help you and your students move the quality wheel of improvement moving. You may like to see Benchmarks of Good TESOL Teacher on my postings. I hope it helps!     
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I'm writing my Ed. D. dissertation on the relationship between critical thinking skills and thier language learning. What are some possible assessment tools to assess ESL students' critical thinking skills?
Thanks
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Some of instruments have been recommended by our friends. However, I think you also need to ensure the specific knowledge and skills that you wish to measure when it comes to language learning and CCTS. In a study I carried out among high school teachers, for example, I focused on the content knowledge and procedural knowledge, in line with the syllabus the teachers taught. I guess it  is also important that you take into consideration of  the education policy that enclaves the incorporation of CCTS in language learning so that the measurement tools will provide a more accurate result according to your target respondents.
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I want to know how does the first language influence in grammar, in the pronunciation and what strategies I can use for not to be confused between the two languages.
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James makes a very important point about L1 abilities. From my own experience over decades of ESL teaching, I can honestly state that the research into the influence of L1 in regards to ability is significant in the ability to learn another language.  And if that target language is radically different from the L1 ( like Arabic, Chinese, Japanese are radically different from English), this factor of L1 ability is even more important. Because much of ESL teaching relies upon what a student knows of his/her own language, if that knowledge is limited, learning a new language grows much more difficult.
For the more advanced language learner, the L1 impact is still great, but at this level, I have found the difficulty lies in cultural and social differences that can make reading and writing more academic essays very difficult.  For instance, I prepare foreign university graduates for the admission exams to American graduate schools.  Most of these students are quite skilled in their first language and have a good speaking ability, but when it comes to writing essays in American rhetorical style, these students encounter dramatic difficulties. But because they are skilled in their own language, a teacher can use that knowledge and build on it to explain the American demands of argument, for instance. There are just so many factors at play in learning another language that it is difficult to determine which factors are at play in different students. 
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I am doing a research project in which I would like to find out the difficulties that are encountered when acquiring and learning the second language in the environment of the first language. What are the challenges, and can they be overcome?
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Dear Nozipho Gwebu,
From my experience, the first challenge is how to get students to put aside their urge to use L1 while practicing L2. To overcome this, to me, is quite complicated as long as students know that when going outside, the second language they're practicing will become secondary. But it doesn't mean that acquisition is impossible; many learners I've met can become bilingual as a result of their daily exposure to the L2 mass media as well as their taking L2 intensive courses in school. 
I also observed that students were less motivated to learn the culture of L2. My attempt to introduce such culture didn't seem to receive serious attention from students. So I integrated L1 culture into the lessons, and allowed interference of language styles of their native tongue in the classroom as long as that didn't impair communication.  
Sincerely,
Cameen
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I need an Oral Level Test to measure the levels of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL) of a group of participants in a research, before (initial level) and after (final level) the use of a particular tool that would improve it theoretically.  I already have an official test to measure their vocabulary, writing, grammar, and even pronunciation skills; but I still need another official test to measure their oral skills.  You can take for granted that the source of that test will be credited and cited in the bibliography.  Thank you very much in advance!  M.A. :)
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Language sampling is a good way to measure language. Using a standardized elicitation protocol, you ask the subject to tell the story of a wordless picture book such as Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). You record their story and then transcribe the language sample into the software program. The software that I used is called SALT (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts). You use the same story pre and post. This software uses a scoring method called the Narrative Scoring Scheme. Here is an article that explains it better than I am: Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts & Dunaway (2010). Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19, 154-166. File is attached.
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Reflective teaching is taking a prestigious position in L2 teaching. However, teachers need to adopt practices that foster reflection on the part of learners.Please explain how this can be obtained?
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Learning to reflect is a vital skill that needs to be exercised to improve. James is correct in saying Donald Schon came up with the concepts of reflection in action and reflection on action. I believe that if the teacher is not a reflective practitioner it is difficult to get students to engage in reflection. I keep reflective journals and I share entries from time to time. when it is relevant , Journals can be on line or in paper form. I had one student draw her reflections rather than write them. I often start by focusing entries. For instance, I might get students to reflect on questioning. What kinds of questions were asked?  Were the questions asked speculative, open ended?Who asked them? How did the responses to the question take the students further? I often got the students to stop adding to their journal and reread some of their entries and then respond to one with new understanding. 
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Hi, I'm doing a multidimensional analysis following the work of Douglas Biber, on two corpora (one learner data, one professional texts).  I have the following dimensions following exploratory factor analysis, but am having trouble working out how to define and characterise these dimensions according to function (e.g. involved vs. informational discourse, context (in)dependent discourse, etc.). 
Here are the 5 dimensions.  In EACH CASE, the z-scores are HIGHER in the learner texts than the professional texts except where a * is seen after the linguistic feature.
1) 
VBD – Past tense verbs
PRT – Present tense verbs*
2) 
NN - Other nouns not nominalisations or gerunds*
NOMZ – Nominalisation
POMD – Possibility modals
VB – Verbs in base form
TO1 – Infinitives
3) 
JJ – Adjectives*
PRMD – Predictive Modals
4) 
PIN – Total prepositional phrases
DT – Determiners
VBN – Verbs with part participle
FPP1 – First person pronouns
5) 
SPP2 – Second person pronouns
QUPR – Quantifier pronouns
TPP3 – Third person pronouns
IN – Preposition or subordinate conjunction.
I hope that anyone who has done their own MDA might want to provide some pointers here.  Many thanks in advance!
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Interesting point regarding the CFA point above, quite a few linguistics papers that have done MDA via EFA have NOT then gone on to do CFA to confirm the model, e.g. Hardy & Romer (2013), http://uteroemer.weebly.com/uploads/5/5/7/7/5577406/hardy_and_roemer_2013_cor2e20132e0040.pdf.  
That said, I did a PCFA myself on the data, and got quite poor normed-fit and comparative fit indices, although RMSEA was appropriate.  It was interesting to attempt something like this, however, so thanks for the suggestion.
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I am currently reading research on how to foster listening comprehension in L2 learning. Most of the published research is about learners of English (ESL, L2), some studies were conducted with learners of other languages such as Russian, Spanish, Chinese.
Major Reviews (Berne 2004) come to the conclusion that listening might be language specific and that different languages require different approaches due to their grammatical, phonological, and I assume, their pragmatic conventions.
However: I have not yet found access to theoretical and empirical literature on this. What exactly do we know about the commonalities and differences in listening in various languages and what about the languages entails or enforces this?
Thank you for your ideas,
Margarete Imhof
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Top-down listening skills, such as predicting, inferencing, summarizing and using background knowledge will be the same for all languages. However, the importance of specific bottom-up skills related to sound and word recognition, and to grammatical processing, will vary from language to language. For example students of English will benefit particularly from teaching techniques which raise their awareness of the various sound changes-vowel reduction, changing consonant sounds, etc- which words undergo in continuous speech. Such changes are not exclusive to English, but they are especially problematic for learners of English. Learners of German on the other hand are likely to benefit from training which focuses on "parsing" German word order. 
When discussing the role of language specific factors in listening, it is also important to bear in mind the learners' L1 and its similarity to the target language. In this regard, one interesting question is whether the linguistic ceiling-the proficiency level at which comprehension strategies can transfer from the L1 to the L2 -will depend on the learners' L1 and its relationship to the L2. When two languages are more similar and pose similar listening difficulties, students may be able to transfer listening skills at a lower proficiency level. There may be studies which attempt to provide an answer to this question. Perhaps some other RG contributors can help us here.
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How can I measure students Lateral/ creative thinking skills?
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Personal observation, interaction, behavioral pattern and communication capability of the pupil.
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Dear colleagues,
I am writing a research paper on "Vocabulary learning strategies of learners of Korean as a foreign language"? I mean "the strategies of learning Korean language as a foreign language". I am very appreciated if you can recommend me books, articles or papers (written in English or Korean or Vietnamese) on this subject.
Thank you very much.
Hiep, from Vietnam.
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I am looking for sources about how a child (3-4) acquires  a dialect of the mother tongue or acquires second or foreign language at this age?
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Maybe you'd search for "ethnography" and "language acquisition" or "second-language acquisition."
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Looking for some sources supporting the statement that Gujarati Students and People, over all, struggle more when it comes to Learning English Language.
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Dear Hardik (if I may),
The complaint is one that I have heard many times in other places. Hong Kong, Singapore, China, Japan, etc. I haven't looked at all of them, but I am at least familiar with two cases. Let me refer to Hong Kong as a case reference.
The complaint that HK students are poor in English is a sentiment that is made across the entire spectrum of the society, including the students themselves, government officials, foreign visitors, teachers, etc. At first blush this seems to be an undeniable "truth".
However, the facts are that there are now more speakers of English in HK than any other point in history. The facts are that speakers of English in HK can communicate with other speakers in general, but perhaps not effectively.
The apparent paradox is reconcilable if one recognises the following issues:
1. Effective communication with others require more than vocabulary, grammar and phonology. It requires also familiarity with culture and a common ground for idioms, metaphors and references. HK students are considered poor speakers, and sometimes even Singaporean students when they are not familiar with non-local issues or when the foreigner engaging with these students are not familiar with local issues.
2. The assessment of standards need to be qualified. Often, the standard is taken to be British or American standard varieties. Singapore students have a very rich grasp of their local English, but Singapore English is not BBC English. Claiming that Singapore English is poor because it isn't BBC English is like saying Italian is poor because it isn't French.
3. The direction we look at is important too. I am sure there are more Gujarat students who speak English and learn English to a higher level today than in the past. We must not forget that. It takes time. However, if one expects the Gujarat speaker to sound British or American, we will never win because the English in the UK and the US are changing too.
Concerns about the standard of English in any place is probably best addressed by making explicit our goals. Do we want to sound British or do we wish to communicate effectively. If we wish to communicate effectively, do we look only towards grammar and vocabulary? Do we need to? Is the standard of English to be measured against US and UK varieties (when even these places have huge variations internally), or against effectiveness in communication?
Language serves three functions: Medium of communication, Carrier of culture, and Expression of identity. It is important to recognise all three, and also to see that in none of these three is there any need to set our standard using a British or American reference.
Best,
Lian-Hee
P/S. I'm sharing links to two articles that might be relevant, albeit obliquely.
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i know all the research indicate that learning two languages simultaniously is adventagous but what about more than that? Many of my students are learning 4 or 5 languages and I find they are not preforming as well as my students who only speak 2 languages. What does the research say?
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Dear Carolyn,
    This is one of the best questions I have ever seen! You could definitely earn a PhD by doing a careful study of such students. There are intervening variables that would have to be examined, such as what the languages are, the degree of literacy in the homes (and in what languages with what orthographies), which languages are used with whom and for what purposes at home, and the extent that children are given support and direction in their homework by caregivers. A major problem in the schools is that languages other than English are often disvalued rather than used as important media for learning, so the sociolinguistic situation in the classroom can also be an affective variable. I was interested in George Payton's observation that Kenyans who are educated in their mother tongue do best. One of my students demonstrated that children who had two years of schooling in Mexico before coming to the US did better in school by the 6th grade than their younger siblings who had the advantage of more exposure to English, but had no opportunity to develop literacy skills in Spanish before starting school here. 
   For general information on research in second language acquisition (SLA), I recommend Muriel Saville-Troike, Introducing Second Language Acquisition, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press (a 3rd edition is due out this year). I hope you will continue to do what you can to carefully document the situation you describe, as we really need to understand this issue better. 
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I am looking for possible ways of Inter language (learner language) research and application in my country and I have found this method useful at the first sight, however I know little about it. Any help would be appreciated. True, it is very similar and can be an alternative to Contrastive analysis, I would still wish to know more about it.
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Try "implications of Interference theory and Error Analysis' by A. Raffick Foondun, MA thesis, University of Kentucky, USA. You will find interference problems from French.
Good Luck
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In most of the countries where English is taught as a foreign language the learning syllabus does not contribute to the development of students’ language proficiency. Dear colleagues what factors do you think syllabus designers should incorporate in the learning syllabus in order to help the students develop their language skills and abilities?
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The material should cover various intelligences as proposed in Multiple Intelligences by H. Gardner. Having identified the different intelligent modes of the cohort, the teacher would be able to group them into different intelligent clusters and work with their learning style(s) separately if you subscribe to the one size doesn't fit all principle.
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Dear Anna,
I think everything depends on a certain language. Please, google the keywords "mother tongue influence", "test results" ,and so on, and you will find many interesting works (for ex., "http://jeteraps.scholarlinkresearch.com/articles/Effect%20of%20Mother%20Tongue.pdf).    
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I am preparing interview questions on ESL and require theoretical framework for its construction. I would be asking non-native students studying English in UMass about their experience pertaining to  curricula, teaching methodologies and interference of mother tongue during English language learning. 
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Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL)
This theoretical perspective has many researches on ELS.
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I am interested in helping first-year college students and ESL students become better academic readers. 
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Harshvardhan,
Thank you. It's amazing to find someone to help from Panjab University. Thank you again. I will check the sources you suggest.
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I have found some guides on how to create multi-level tests based on the Common European Framework for Languages. However, I need to know if it is possible to create tests intended for a specific level, let´s say A2. If it is, is there a proven methodology to do this? Thanks
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I have been working on a related topic, the number of words linked to each CEFR level. This article may be of your interest: "The development of vocabulary breadth across the CEFR levels. A common basis for the elaboration of language syllabuses, curriculum guidelines, examinations, and textbooks across Europe," by James Milton from Swansea University, UK. You can find it here: http://eurosla.org/monographs/EM01/211-232Milton.pdf  
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Let me explain: I do not want to train translators but to use translation criticism and comparison as a tool to teach writing to ESL science doctoral students.
I want to collect and anthologize a dozen passages from well known scientists whose works have contributed to a paradigm shift in their fields.
Ideally, I need original works in a variety of languages together with their translations in English, French and/or any language.
I am teaching international students and would like for a any student to find a sample from their mother tongue in my collection. Suggestions for works in Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and any European language would be great.
Thank you for any ideas you might contribute.
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Thank you David, this seems very promissing indeed.
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Here we are trying to settle on methods for Ar-En-Fr translations of scientific texts made for popularization.
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Popularization and translation
Min-Hsiu Liao
Heriot-Watt University
Handbook of Translation Studies, Volume 4 (2013, pp. 130–133). DOI: 10.1075/hts.4.pop1
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The Common European Framework plays a central role in language and education policy worldwide. Has it enhanced foreign language learning/teaching across Europe since 2001? Your opinions and findings are very welcome.
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To borrow Widdowson’s (2015: 359 - JELF) words, the specifications of the CEFR never question “the old orthodoxy that the objective of learning can only be the acquisition of competence defined as conformity to native speaker norms”.  Baker (2015: 135 - Lang. Teach.), for example, quotes the following specification among many similar ones: “Can sustain relationships with native speakers without unintentionally amusing or irritating them or requiring them to behave other than they would with a native speaker” (Council of Europe 2001: 122).  It may be argued that such specifications make it difficult to prepare students for real-world international and intercultural communication in a multilingual setting.
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Thank you all, your responses helped. I revised my question to add a bit more about what I'm looking for. Here is a  scenario that will help:
A Kindergarten- 8th grade school teaches French to all the students. There are approximately 360 students and three French teachers. The program gives students the opportunity to learn, communicate and create in a second language. The goals of the French program are:
1. To build confidence and proficiency in communication through speaking, listening, reading and writing
2. To empower children to exchange information and express ideas in languages other than English
3. To integrate French with other subjects
4. To help develop critical thinking skills unique to language learning
5. To develop insights and appreciation for all people and cultures, near and far, with whom we share the world
Here is my question:
If the second and third grade French teacher quits, is Duolingo an appropriate replacement that will allow the program's goals to continue, rather than hire a French teacher to take over?
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You might need to try out the program first. There's a trial session when I signed up in the past. Apart from tryiing it, you can read the review paper on duo lingo program http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15434303.2015.1061530?journalCode=hlaq20 
Hope this can help. 
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There is effort to create an aptitude test for specific aspects of language (e.g. tone). What are the theoretic SLA framework related to such effort? Any literature discussing learning aptitude in regarding specific aspects of foreign language (e.g. pronunciation, listening, etc.)?
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This may be a little late, but Sparks, Ganschow and colleagues did a series of studies on training phonological/orthographical abilities using a multisensory structured language teaching approach to L2 phonology. They found that it even improved L1 phonological/orthographical skills! 
Also, in addition to Antonella's comments about aptitude, Carroll also puts forward a model of school learning where motivation mediates the effects of aptitude. In other words, if motivation is high, the effects of aptitude are fully apparent (for high- or low-level learners), but if motivation is low, aptitude will not make any discernible difference to L2 achievement.
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In SLA, L2 learning is typically broken down into six skills--speaking, listening, reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary. In my context (EFL), some would like to define success with instruments such as the paper-based TOEFL test, a norm-referenced test of receptive skills--grammar, listening and reading.
Can one become highly proficient in receptive skills without building productive skills of speaking and writing, or is there a threshold that cannot be moved beyond if there are deep weaknesses in some of these six main skills?
Does a weakness in one of these skills necessarily hinder the other skills from developing?
Is the idea that all skills must be brought up together controversial, or is this a basic principle that language teachers and learners must come to grips with?
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First off, it is useful to distinguish four "skills" and at least three areas of form: grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. It is certainly possible to become highly knowledgeable in any or all of the formal areas without becoming proficient in the language itself, as is common among linguists. The opposite is also possible: quite commonly very proficient speakers still retain a strong accent ( e.g. Henry Kissenger). As to the skills, those based on orthography are relatively recent inventions in human history, and it is not difficult to find examples of people whose "letters" are not up to the level of their oral abilities. Speaking and listening are oldest, of course historically, and listening is primal in terms of human development, but can the one be learned without the other?Again you can find cases, among the deaf, for example, but for those without a disability, it is exceedingly rare. The normal case is that these two skills develop together in L1 and L2 acquisition, though not at exactly the same rate. Likewise the orthographic skills develop together, but at greatly different rates. In both cases, the receptive skills ( listening and reading) develop ahead of the productive skills ( speaking and writing) in L1 acquisition. It is not clear that this sequence holds for SLA. 
So, what does this have to do with the validity of and interpretation of the TOEFL? ETS in its design of the basic TOEFL is making the claim that the receptive skills are enough to extrapolate an overall proficiency level from. Many disagree, but the question of practicality often trumps those concerns. As difficult as it is to assess listening and reading, it is more time-consuming and tedious to assess writing and - heaven forbid - speaking on a large enough scale with any reliability. So, I believe that the answer to your question is that, no, we cannot assume that a level of proficiency at one skill determines the level of proficiency at another, but you may be stuck with that shortcut for practical reasons, anyway.
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I am interested in knowing whether there are researchers who are researching the application of bootstrapping theory of learning a foreign language in adults.
The bootstrapping theory of language in L1 language development is well known. In recent research my student and I conducted in adult learners using prosody, sentence and paragraph as inputs suggested that the bootstrapping theory of learning a foreign language might also be possible. I wonder whether there are people who are working on this question.
Felicia Zhang.
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 Hi Felicia
In general, once any L2 learner gains a certain level of ability in processing the L2, which inevitably depends upon acquired L2 knowledge and skills, we could define them as having "bootstrapped" their language learning. However, I don't think this is often the perspective taken by L2 and SLA researchers and I have never seen any SLA research framed this way.
I am also very interested in this idea of "bootstrapping" in SLA, but am currently taking it from the perspective of language learning aptitude and language learning aptitude enhancement. The research is early days yet.
If you hear anything, please let me know!
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I'm interested in finding out connections between abilities to learn EFL and intellectual giftedness. I'd like to compare achievments in learning EFL with other school subjects of primary school children. I've met many people who did not appear to posses high intellectual abilities, but they were very quick and efficient to learn foreign languages (in native environment though). I'd like to know whether there is a connection of intelectual giftedness and foreign language acquisition, or the ability to learn a foreign language is independent of intellect. Do you know about any research connecting the general abilities of learners with foreign language learning?
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Dobry den!
The ability to learn a foreign language is most easily predicted by measures (tests) of language learning aptitude. The research shows that, as might be expected, language aptitude and intelligence seem to be overlapping but also independent constructs. Considering both are measured using psychometric tests, it is not that surprising that they seem to be related. However, your observations that good language learners do not have to be particularly good at other subjects, although normally they are. A key area of overlap here is verbal intelligence, which seems to measure the ability of learners to profit from instruction, ie they more readily understand the words of those instructing them, be they a teacher or textbook, etc.
I've attached some links to some seminal papers looking at the link between intelligence and language aptitude and hope they help.
Some other references worth following up are:
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sasaki, M. (1996). Second language proficiency, foreign language aptitude, and Intelligence: Quantitative and qualitative analyses. New York: Peter Lang.
Sternberg, R. J. (2002). The theory of successful intelligence and its implications for language-aptitude testing. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 13–43). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hope that helps!
PS Say hi to Profesorka Hartanska for me! 
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Could you suggest to me practical, effective methods of improving decoding (besides repeated reading) for high school students with LD? I am interested particularly in in languages with shallow transparent orthography.
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I'm not sure if this is totally relevant, but Sparks, Ganschow, and colleagues look specifically at language learners with learning difficulties. In a couple of studies they used multi-sensory structured language as the basis of explicit instruction in the L2 phonological/orthographical system and actually found that it also improved L1 phonological/orthographical skills.
I guess I would suggest having a look at their linguistic coding differences hypothesis (LCDH) for some help with your students.
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Hope you can help me
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Children may be grouped ; familiar contexts or scenarios are to be planned; guided conversation for dialogue delivery in frequently experienced situations will make it really natural and easy for communication. A graded pattern of this kind will ensure quick acquisition of communication-both verbal and nonverbal.
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Generally we assume that the students know at least some English in international beginner groups where they want to learn a new language. It is clear that the teacher communicates in the group in the language they learn, however, sometimes it is necessary to translate a phrase into a language the students know if that phrase is difficult to understand in the target language. I studied French some time ago and the teacher insisted that we use only French, and it worked well but we all felt confident because we had two more languages in common. Also I learned German and the teacher used only German, but when a student translated a word into English (we all knew English), the teacher nodded to indicate that we have understood the word correctly.
At the moment I see that I'll have a group where I'll have to teach a group of beginners with no other language in common, not even for the feeling of confidence.
Dear colleagues, what is your experience? 
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Dear Laimdota,
it’s better to use the direct method (it is a keyword, please, look https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/direct-method ) with the visual dictionaries like http://www.visualdictionaryonline.com/  (or published editions, smth like McMillan’s “Visual Dictionary”) that are very helpful. I'm not a specialist in the EFL, but I'm sure, there should be somewhere the EFL textbooks used this direct method (we have similar for the multilingual groups who study Russian).
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First Language Interference and Pragmatic Failure
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One way to avoid L1 pragmatic interference in L2 learning is a full immersion into L2 culture and rules of conversation. Of course there're  basic rules of conversation which I believe are universal. Yet, every language has its own cultural specific norms in conversation. A second way to avoid L1 pragmatic interference is to wisely raise learners' awareness of these cultural specific rules. 
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I'm creating c-tests for bilingual children in two different languages. Original texts are taken from books for children. I was wondering how I can measure the complexity of different texts, since languages are also very different: e.g. Italian and Slovenian. Is Type/Token ratio a good measure for this purpose? Do you know any other measure? 
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Hi Sara,
I'd also recommend this article:
Lu, Xiaofei (2010), Automatic Analysis of Syntactic Complexity. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15(4), 474–496.
It also evaluates English, but discusses 14 different text based metrics and addresses syntactic complexity in particular, which is ignored by vocabulary based measures. For some of the methods you'll need to parse the data, but at least for Italian that should be possible (not sure about the situation for Slovenian, I think there's a dependency parser for it though).
Hope this helps!
Amir
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My English friends insist on reading my father's name 'Sadiq' as [saˈdi:k] while Italians produce it as [ˈsadɪk]. Why? I am wondering: should transliteration/Romanization of Arabic sounds be language-specific: English transliteration, German transliteration (which does not have /θ/ as Arabic does), and so on? Or can be one transliteration that applies to language groups (e.g. Romance languages) or even all languages?
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To go back to definitions, Romanization relates to writing a word, in our case Arabic, using the Latin alphabet. In itself, the process is laden with hurdles that relate, among other things, to the linguistic system to implement as a basis for Romanization. Following UN recommendations to adopt a unified, scientifically-based, Romanization system (Resolution No 9, UNGEGN, 1967), Arab countries are still facing implementation issues despite agreement on the now called Beirut System.
Reaching a consensus concerning Romanization would in itself represent a sizeable achievement. However, Romanization is confined to producing script. It has no control over how Romanized words are pronounced. Extending Romanization to actual pronunciation, if at all desirable, would imply the inclusion of diacritics that would have a negative impact on readability, and would depend on how important pronunciation accuracy is. Adding diacritics may sound reasonable for cartography, but not necessarily so for road signage.
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I need to support the English learners´ oral skills development through the use of the teacher´s voice (vocal instruction) as  a Coach. Most of the literature refers to oral instruction .
thanks.
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I'm not completely clear about these terms, but it's possible that vocal instruction is focused on teaching a language learner to produce sounds close to those of a native speaker whereas oral instruction is more general, meaning using oral (as opposed to written) production to teach.  Might this help to clarify the distinction?
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Within a culture, there are culturally rich items or ‘key’ words that are important for –and are instantly recognized by– members of this cultural group. These ‘key’ words (and phrases) reflect values, ideals, ideas and beliefs that the people hold dear, even if not each and every individual member of this cultural group fully subscribes to these values and beliefs. For example, “saudade” could be proposed as a ‘key’ word for Portuguese-speaking cultures; for Americans, this could be “American way of life”. 
Though I am particularly interested in Spanish-speaking cultures, I would be happy to receive your ideas about 'key' words in various world languages and cultures. Thank you.
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One key word, I guess, would be "madre". Another one would be "bola", "bolas". If you have questions, feel free to ask.