Questions related to Foreign Language Learning
I want to test EFL tertiary students' learning motivation towards English after the teaching intervention, Where can I get the Foreign Language Learning Motivation Questionnaire or Noels & Pelletier’s (2000) “Language Learning Orientations Scales"?
I would like to know what are the differences between a language learning mindset and self-efficacy in language learning. What resources do you recommend that explain such notions in detail? Also, are there any other similar notions?
Most teachers agree that teaching the culture of native speaking countries is valuable, but how MUCH should this be done? Do you have a percentage in mind or other way of saying how much of the course should be about culture?
To what extent do you think the use of learners' linguistic landscape as a pedagogical resource for second and foreign language learning is useful?
I have been looking for a frequency-based vocabulary test to determine the proficiency of (young) adult learners of Swedish as a foreign language for a while now, but no luck so far. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated!
I am writing an investigation project about early foreign language learning and I am struggling trying to find the paradigm that fits the line of my investigation. The project is mostly qualitative so I was thinking that the qualitative research paradigm would be the one.
Do you have any suggestions about how I should choose it?
In the field of foreign language learning, it is challenging to support directional hypotheses. As we can do it with the second language.
I am working on a project that includes the creation of two technologies for learning languages. I decided that adapting a new instructional design model from scratch will help implement these technologies: the model will be followed to develop the instruction needed for learning languages.
How far the four basic language skills are effective in improving foreign language learning? Your invaluable comments and recommendations are invited for enhancing our mutual knowledge of the language learning process.
Me and my colleague are interested in developing experimental tasks to investigate lexical access in bilinguals speaking French and Turkish. We thus wonder if a Turkish lexical database exists in order to select materials according to lexical frequencies, phonological and orthographical neighborhood of words.
We know about "TELL project" but it does not provide the information we need.
We will be very grateful for your precious help.
Dear Research Colleagues,
Are you familiar with studies on language acquisition in early simultaneous trilingual children that show whether there are any delays in their language development? I am familiar with several studies on early simultaneous bilinguals indicating that such speakers are not significantly delayed in language acquisition. I wonder if trilinguals differ from mono- and bilinguals in how fast they acquire their languages.
I will appreciate your feedback.
Has anyone implemented UDI in HE foreign language instruction? I'm also interested in digital technologies in this area for use in foreign language classrooms!
do you know anything about individualisation, appropriation and performance as steps of foreign language acquisition? Could you please provide me some examples or research on it? Thank you in advance for your replies!
I want to analyze the changes/revision EFL students make in their revised draft. My students are sophomores. In one of their writing courses, they are required to write short essays, of about 250-ish words, including cause and effect, problem and solution, and argumentative. Thanks.
I am an Arabic lecturer from Indonesia who intend to compose a proficiency test to measure my students' Arabic competencies. In this case, I consider to copy the format of TOEFL for English proficiency test. The challenge is, I have difficulties finding any native Arabic recording for that kind of test. Is there any Arabic listening assessment format which resembles TOEFL?
Thank you very much! I really appreciate each word you give as the responses of my question.
One of my adult language learners was recently diagnosed with ADHD. I did a quick search of the literature but found very few sources. I am particularly interested in the challenges sufferers face when learning languages and in the strategies.they can use to enhance their learning.
It would be your generosity to respond to the questionnaires and also distribute it among your colleagues, students, and networks.
We would like to ask you if you would be so kind as to complete the following online questionnaires of a cross-cultural research study designed to investigate the relationship between CALL literacy and the attitudes of language teachers and students towards Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Teachers and students who have previously answered the questionnaire say that it took about 10-20 minutes to do so. Your help would be very much appreciated.
Be sure that all the personal data provided from the questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential in our reports. Your personal data will not be disclosed nor used for any other purpose than educational research.
As a cross-cultural study, I need a good number of data from different countries. Please circulate this post through your networks.
Your input is really important for our study.
If you are a teacher: https://goo.gl/forms/Z1rgHmP2plqwqHbW2
If you are a student: https://goo.gl/forms/u3hCIGcDzvuEdI263
If you are both a teacher and a student please respond to both questionnaires.
Thank you in advance for your help and cooperation.
Mª Elena Gómez Parra
Cristina A. Huertas Abril
University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain
My thesis is about Miscommunication in second/foreign language classroom.
For this research, I need to gather data from classroom interaction.
Here are three questionnaires about interaction in the classroom of English/Spanish and Italian as FL/SL. Please could you share them with language students? Your cooperation is highly appreciated. For any question, please do not hesitate to contact me: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Italian: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScRediqYPWzdV2Yj4WqUpGFUxDlZ1Yo6c_3Sq7kCVapXjsHZw/viewform?usp=sf_link Acknowledge: Mugford, G. (2019). Addressing difficult situations in foreign-language learning : confusion, impoliteness, and hostility. New York, NY: Routledge.
The emergence of innovative technological programs such as Augmented Reality (AR), Kahoot and so on, have allowed the development of new teaching techniques in foreign language learning. However, are you in favour, against or sceptical about this methodologies?
I am looking for (recent) research underpinning (or just the opposite) the assumption that mother tongue/bilingual teachers are better suited to teach a foreign language or to teach other subjects in bilingual programms. I am focussing in studies in the setting where students/pupils are bilingual themselves and are enrolled in a bilingual programm.
Since most foreign language teachers in school service aren´t bilingual or teach their own language as foreign language (FL), I would love some help to find studies about how the age of foreign language learning effects the full acquisition of the phonetic and phonological repertoire of the target language.
Moreover, some help with studies which focus on didactic of FL and language ability of the teachers will be great.
Thanks a lot and have a good weekend!
environment plays an important role in language acquisition, but I also read some literatures mentioning that the classroom environment is less helpful for language learning. Thus, how can I design a practical task to figure out the relation between them.
Is there anyone out there in the field of foreign/modern language education that is engaging in university-industry-community collaborations?
Can an individual have more ‘natural talent’ to learn only a certain second language or type of languages, yet being unable to learn others? Besides motivation, identification and/or exposure what other factors may enhance or hinder foreign language learning success?
As I would like to use the arriving responses for a study, please specify if you agree your response to be used anonymously or with your name in it. Thank you very much!
Dear RG Colleagues,
I need a reference(s) that I can cite in a research paper that will support the commonly accepted claim: it is easier to learn a foreign language that is linguistically similar to our native language (or our second/third language that we already know).
Communicative independence seems to be a psychological formation indispensable for attaing communicative competence. I´d like to know more about it: definition, explanations on it, experiences in researching about its role in foreign language learning, etc.
I (Japan) and colleagues from the Philippines and Vietnam are conducting a survey on the English language and culture.
We would like to open this to any other interested parties.
We are all teaching EFL students who are English majors.
It is a simple survey that questions how long students have been studying English and how culture effects their foreign language learning.
We would like to expand this to a wider base of countries, not necessarily Asia with instructors who are teaching EFL English majors.
Please contact email@example.com
Thank you, for any who are considering
Harry Carley, Matsuyama University, Ehime, Japan
How can I increase the difficulty of a set of sentences in a Sentence Repetition Test?
I am in a Primary Scientific Program and now I am working with the adaptation of a Sentence Repetition Test from ASL (American Sign Language) to BSL (Brasilian Sign Language). This test works with a set of 40 sentences that increase in length and complexity. The problem is: How can I make the second sentence more complex than the first one (for example)?
Using phrases with more items/words?
Using restricted word orders in the language that I am working?
What about morphology? Using words with more morphemes than others? Using classifiers?
Finally: How can I know what is complex in a Language?
What is your opinion on this topic? Are we in a post-method era where rather than methods we are just using other means for teaching a foreign language, e.g. macrostrategies understood as general plans derived from currently available theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical knowledge related to L2 learning and teaching. A macrostrategy is a broad guideline based on which teachers can generate their own location-specific, need-based microstrategies or classroom procedures. In other words, macrostrategies are made operational in the classroom through microstrategies. Macrostrategies are considered theory-neutral, because they are not confined to underlying assumptions of any one specific theory of language, learning, and teaching, discussed in Part One. They are also considered method-neutral because they are not conditioned by a single set of principles or procedures associated with language teaching methods (Kumaravadivelu, 2008:201).
I am looking for (empirical/theoretical) papers which examine the (L2, L3...) acquisition of agglutinative languages such as Japanese, Korean, Basque or Swahili by native speakers of Turkish (or inverse).
Thank you for your help in this matter!
I am making a learning game in Unity Engine, see my other questions for details
I am working on the connection between foreign language learning anxiety and L1 identity, and want to know if we can measure feeling of or attitude towards L1 identity, especially at the adolescent level.
Looking for any effective ways of vocabulary learning for foreign/second language learners...
Appreciate any advice; thank you!
I am currently teaching a course about the methodology of teaching and learning languages. In it students also learn about learning styles such as: visual learners, auditory, kinesthetic, pragmatists etc. It is important for a teacher to understand the learning styles of the students in order to plan accordingly. I also believe that teachers should take into consideration that some of the students in the class might be extroverts and others introverts (maybe even a combination of both). That is why I was wandering how extroverts and introverts approach the learning process; especially when we talk about learning a foreign language? Are there any distinguished differences as there are with the learning styles I already mentioned?
As the recent research (Larsen-Freeman and Nick Ellis) shows, language is a complex adaptive system and L2 acquisition is an even bigger challenge. So, what should be the desired methods to do research in SLA?
I am looking for any information (and/or experience reports) about sign language (SL) courses as foreign language courses for deaf people (e.g. a deaf person from Spain (using Spanish SL) wants to learn the sign language from Germany) The foreign SL should be thought without involving the respective written language (in the example given this would be German). Do you know about any curricula, teaching materials, problems etc. for this kind of language courses?
Thank you! Looking forward to your answers!
I will be grateful for any kind of help since it is needed for my bachelor's thesis. Kind regards
I am trying to assess existing literature concerning the theory and practice of authoring, use, usability and any related issues in using paper worksheets in foreign language courses to primary and/or secondary students.
I'm writing my Ed. D. dissertation on the relationship between critical thinking skills and thier language learning. What are some possible assessment tools to assess ESL students' critical thinking skills?
I want to know how does the first language influence in grammar, in the pronunciation and what strategies I can use for not to be confused between the two languages.
I am doing a research project in which I would like to find out the difficulties that are encountered when acquiring and learning the second language in the environment of the first language. What are the challenges, and can they be overcome?
I need an Oral Level Test to measure the levels of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL) of a group of participants in a research, before (initial level) and after (final level) the use of a particular tool that would improve it theoretically. I already have an official test to measure their vocabulary, writing, grammar, and even pronunciation skills; but I still need another official test to measure their oral skills. You can take for granted that the source of that test will be credited and cited in the bibliography. Thank you very much in advance! M.A. :)
Reflective teaching is taking a prestigious position in L2 teaching. However, teachers need to adopt practices that foster reflection on the part of learners.Please explain how this can be obtained?
Hi, I'm doing a multidimensional analysis following the work of Douglas Biber, on two corpora (one learner data, one professional texts). I have the following dimensions following exploratory factor analysis, but am having trouble working out how to define and characterise these dimensions according to function (e.g. involved vs. informational discourse, context (in)dependent discourse, etc.).
Here are the 5 dimensions. In EACH CASE, the z-scores are HIGHER in the learner texts than the professional texts except where a * is seen after the linguistic feature.
VBD – Past tense verbs
PRT – Present tense verbs*
NN - Other nouns not nominalisations or gerunds*
NOMZ – Nominalisation
POMD – Possibility modals
VB – Verbs in base form
TO1 – Infinitives
JJ – Adjectives*
PRMD – Predictive Modals
PIN – Total prepositional phrases
DT – Determiners
VBN – Verbs with part participle
FPP1 – First person pronouns
SPP2 – Second person pronouns
QUPR – Quantifier pronouns
TPP3 – Third person pronouns
IN – Preposition or subordinate conjunction.
I hope that anyone who has done their own MDA might want to provide some pointers here. Many thanks in advance!
I am currently reading research on how to foster listening comprehension in L2 learning. Most of the published research is about learners of English (ESL, L2), some studies were conducted with learners of other languages such as Russian, Spanish, Chinese.
Major Reviews (Berne 2004) come to the conclusion that listening might be language specific and that different languages require different approaches due to their grammatical, phonological, and I assume, their pragmatic conventions.
However: I have not yet found access to theoretical and empirical literature on this. What exactly do we know about the commonalities and differences in listening in various languages and what about the languages entails or enforces this?
Thank you for your ideas,
I am writing a research paper on "Vocabulary learning strategies of learners of Korean as a foreign language"? I mean "the strategies of learning Korean language as a foreign language". I am very appreciated if you can recommend me books, articles or papers (written in English or Korean or Vietnamese) on this subject.
Thank you very much.
Hiep, from Vietnam.
I am looking for sources about how a child (3-4) acquires a dialect of the mother tongue or acquires second or foreign language at this age?
i know all the research indicate that learning two languages simultaniously is adventagous but what about more than that? Many of my students are learning 4 or 5 languages and I find they are not preforming as well as my students who only speak 2 languages. What does the research say?
I am looking for possible ways of Inter language (learner language) research and application in my country and I have found this method useful at the first sight, however I know little about it. Any help would be appreciated. True, it is very similar and can be an alternative to Contrastive analysis, I would still wish to know more about it.
In most of the countries where English is taught as a foreign language the learning syllabus does not contribute to the development of students’ language proficiency. Dear colleagues what factors do you think syllabus designers should incorporate in the learning syllabus in order to help the students develop their language skills and abilities?
I am preparing interview questions on ESL and require theoretical framework for its construction. I would be asking non-native students studying English in UMass about their experience pertaining to curricula, teaching methodologies and interference of mother tongue during English language learning.
I have found some guides on how to create multi-level tests based on the Common European Framework for Languages. However, I need to know if it is possible to create tests intended for a specific level, let´s say A2. If it is, is there a proven methodology to do this? Thanks
Let me explain: I do not want to train translators but to use translation criticism and comparison as a tool to teach writing to ESL science doctoral students.
I want to collect and anthologize a dozen passages from well known scientists whose works have contributed to a paradigm shift in their fields.
Ideally, I need original works in a variety of languages together with their translations in English, French and/or any language.
I am teaching international students and would like for a any student to find a sample from their mother tongue in my collection. Suggestions for works in Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and any European language would be great.
Thank you for any ideas you might contribute.
Here we are trying to settle on methods for Ar-En-Fr translations of scientific texts made for popularization.
The Common European Framework plays a central role in language and education policy worldwide. Has it enhanced foreign language learning/teaching across Europe since 2001? Your opinions and findings are very welcome.
Thank you all, your responses helped. I revised my question to add a bit more about what I'm looking for. Here is a scenario that will help:
A Kindergarten- 8th grade school teaches French to all the students. There are approximately 360 students and three French teachers. The program gives students the opportunity to learn, communicate and create in a second language. The goals of the French program are:
1. To build confidence and proficiency in communication through speaking, listening, reading and writing
2. To empower children to exchange information and express ideas in languages other than English
3. To integrate French with other subjects
4. To help develop critical thinking skills unique to language learning
5. To develop insights and appreciation for all people and cultures, near and far, with whom we share the world
Here is my question:
If the second and third grade French teacher quits, is Duolingo an appropriate replacement that will allow the program's goals to continue, rather than hire a French teacher to take over?
There is effort to create an aptitude test for specific aspects of language (e.g. tone). What are the theoretic SLA framework related to such effort? Any literature discussing learning aptitude in regarding specific aspects of foreign language (e.g. pronunciation, listening, etc.)?
In SLA, L2 learning is typically broken down into six skills--speaking, listening, reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary. In my context (EFL), some would like to define success with instruments such as the paper-based TOEFL test, a norm-referenced test of receptive skills--grammar, listening and reading.
Can one become highly proficient in receptive skills without building productive skills of speaking and writing, or is there a threshold that cannot be moved beyond if there are deep weaknesses in some of these six main skills?
Does a weakness in one of these skills necessarily hinder the other skills from developing?
Is the idea that all skills must be brought up together controversial, or is this a basic principle that language teachers and learners must come to grips with?
I am interested in knowing whether there are researchers who are researching the application of bootstrapping theory of learning a foreign language in adults.
The bootstrapping theory of language in L1 language development is well known. In recent research my student and I conducted in adult learners using prosody, sentence and paragraph as inputs suggested that the bootstrapping theory of learning a foreign language might also be possible. I wonder whether there are people who are working on this question.
I'm interested in finding out connections between abilities to learn EFL and intellectual giftedness. I'd like to compare achievments in learning EFL with other school subjects of primary school children. I've met many people who did not appear to posses high intellectual abilities, but they were very quick and efficient to learn foreign languages (in native environment though). I'd like to know whether there is a connection of intelectual giftedness and foreign language acquisition, or the ability to learn a foreign language is independent of intellect. Do you know about any research connecting the general abilities of learners with foreign language learning?
Could you suggest to me practical, effective methods of improving decoding (besides repeated reading) for high school students with LD? I am interested particularly in in languages with shallow transparent orthography.
Generally we assume that the students know at least some English in international beginner groups where they want to learn a new language. It is clear that the teacher communicates in the group in the language they learn, however, sometimes it is necessary to translate a phrase into a language the students know if that phrase is difficult to understand in the target language. I studied French some time ago and the teacher insisted that we use only French, and it worked well but we all felt confident because we had two more languages in common. Also I learned German and the teacher used only German, but when a student translated a word into English (we all knew English), the teacher nodded to indicate that we have understood the word correctly.
At the moment I see that I'll have a group where I'll have to teach a group of beginners with no other language in common, not even for the feeling of confidence.
Dear colleagues, what is your experience?
I'm creating c-tests for bilingual children in two different languages. Original texts are taken from books for children. I was wondering how I can measure the complexity of different texts, since languages are also very different: e.g. Italian and Slovenian. Is Type/Token ratio a good measure for this purpose? Do you know any other measure?
My English friends insist on reading my father's name 'Sadiq' as [saˈdi:k] while Italians produce it as [ˈsadɪk]. Why? I am wondering: should transliteration/Romanization of Arabic sounds be language-specific: English transliteration, German transliteration (which does not have /θ/ as Arabic does), and so on? Or can be one transliteration that applies to language groups (e.g. Romance languages) or even all languages?
I need to support the English learners´ oral skills development through the use of the teacher´s voice (vocal instruction) as a Coach. Most of the literature refers to oral instruction .
Within a culture, there are culturally rich items or ‘key’ words that are important for –and are instantly recognized by– members of this cultural group. These ‘key’ words (and phrases) reflect values, ideals, ideas and beliefs that the people hold dear, even if not each and every individual member of this cultural group fully subscribes to these values and beliefs. For example, “saudade” could be proposed as a ‘key’ word for Portuguese-speaking cultures; for Americans, this could be “American way of life”.
Though I am particularly interested in Spanish-speaking cultures, I would be happy to receive your ideas about 'key' words in various world languages and cultures. Thank you.